Lincoln's Biography

Women's Experience and Gender Roles

By Drew E. VandeCreek, Ph.D.

Women came to Illinois during a time of profound changes in American gender roles. Women and men had often labored together on the farms of colonial America, producing food, clothing and other goods for their own use in a system of "household economy." But the rise of industrialism and large cities in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century led to the division of labor along gender lines.

More and more men worked outside the home in workshops, factories or offices. Many women stayed at home and performed domestic labor. The emerging values of nineteenth-century America increasingly placed great emphasis upon a man's ability to earn enough wages or salary to make his wife's labor unnecessary, but this devaluation of women's labor left women searching for a new understanding of themselves.

In the early nineteenth century women editors, authors and lecturers redefined women's roles. Led by the New Englander Catharine Beecher, they emphasized the dangerous and unhealthy aspects of the competitive public world of men, and portrayed the home as a safe haven that women could provide for their husbands. This new domestic ideal went on to articulate women's responsibility for inculcating religion and moral values in their families. While economic development built a new America, women retained responsibility for turning that growth into civilization. Ultimately, the architects of the new "cult of domesticity" argued that women's acceptance of their diminished economic role demonstrated their moral superiority and leadership.

By the time Illinois became a state in 1818, most middle-class American women understood themselves in these terms. Middle-class women made up the great majority of emigrants to the West, for poor and working-class families could not afford the journey's significant expenses. These middle-class women, most of them married, carried the ideal of domesticity with them to the new West.

The move to the Illinois frontier provided a challenge to women's understanding of themselves. Frontier life demanded a return to a household economy in which women produced basic materials necessary for their family's survival. Women also performed significant amounts of farm labor on the frontier.

Rude frontier conditions defied many women's increasingly refined conceptions of what a home should be. Many settlers also picked up and moved frequently, in search of a better plot of land. This pattern thwarted women's attempts to establish a respectable household characterized by order, cleanliness and a modicum of respectable luxuries.

Many frontier homes were mere shacks. Others lived in the proverbial log cabin. A significant number of early frontier families lived in sod houses constructed by laying long strips of thick prairie sod upon one another to fashion walls.

Many women found these conditions profoundly disheartening, particularly if they arrived in a region at the beginning of its settlement. But as more settlers established themselves, many women formed lasting friendships and joined together in voluntary associations devoted to civilizing the frontier. Some of these associations emphasized religion, or sought to bring high culture to the frontier in the form of lyceum speakers. Others took on more avowedly political goals, while maintaining their separate sphere, by campaigning for temperance reform, strict observation of the Sabbath, or even the abolition of slavery.

Women also poured their energies into encouraging education on the frontier. Teaching provided an opportunity for unmarried women to come West. While teaching paid a wage that many men would not tolerate, the advocates of women's domestic ideal proclaimed that it made a perfect career for women. Teaching's important role in molding young characters demanded women in the schools, Catharine Beecher argued.

Most of white Americans' cultural assumptions stood in sharp contrast to Native American ways of life. But Indian women's roles differed little from those of white women operating in a system of household economy. If anything, Americans provided more opportunity and leeway for women. In Native American society men occupied themselves with hunting and war, and enjoyed large periods of leisure time, which they often turned to gambling and sport. Women worked at a variety of tasks. They tended fields and gathered berries, roots and other foodstuffs in season, in addition to supervising children.

Despite their isolation from white society and many of its legal and economic benefits, Illinois' free blacks largely embraced white Americans' domestic ideal. Thus free black women became pillars of the black community. Some organized anti-slavery societies and other benevolent associations. Yet the twin burdens of racial prejudice and closely circumscribed gender roles left many black women with severely limited prospects outside the home.

Not all white frontier women embraced the domestic ideal of separate spheres. Historians have noted that a significant number of those settling southern Illinois paid no heed to the concerns of "civilizing the wilderness." Many of these settlers emigrated from the rural South, where they had not found themselves involved in the broader economic changes that contributed to the division of labor and the rise of separate spheres.

Southern settlers' avowed anti-authoritarianism and more casual family and social structures repeatedly clashed with Yankee settlers' preoccupation with order and morality. Yankee women often tended to characterize southern settlers as lazy and ill-kempt, while many southerners perceived their northern cousins as meddling busybodies.

As the nineteenth century passed those women not previously exposed to domestic ideals found it more difficult to resist this pervasive world view. A market economy's emphasis upon the division of labor reached more deeply into social life with the development of new technology like the railroad, the mechanical reaper, and the telegraph. Increasingly women who questioned or rejected the cult of domesticity found themselves severely questioned or rejected by their sisters. Women hoping to live and thrive in an increasingly integrated society faced few alternatives.

As the son of a hardscrabble Kentucky family Abraham Lincoln emerged from a background that emphasized domestic economy. But his choice of Mary Todd for a bride showed how men invested themselves in the nineteenth century's domestic ideology. Mary Todd was also a Kentuckian, but she hailed from a prominent Lexington family and was related to the Governor of Illinois.

As a young lady Mary Todd became accustomed to the order, culture and refinements characteristic of nineteenth century Americans' ideal of civilization. Despite her husband's somewhat straitened circumstances as a young attorney, Mary Todd never left the house to work. For his part, Lincoln unwittingly illustrated another characteristic of American gender roles.

As a Whig political operative, Lincoln published letters in 1842, under a pseudonym, that mocked the Democratic State Auditor James Shields. The proud Shields demanded a full retraction and, when Lincoln refused, challenged him to a duel. Lincoln, goaded by his friends, accepted. Because Illinois law prohibited duelling, the parties and their entourages traveled to Missouri, just across the Mississippi River from Alton, Illinois. The duel was averted after many last-minute negotiations, which obliged Lincoln to publicly state that he had meant no harm to his opponent's "personal or private character or standing...as a man or a gentleman." Instead, he had published the pieces "solely for political effect."

Duelling had once been an important part of American life. In 1804 the sitting Vice-President Aaron Burr killed former Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in a New Jersey duel. Southerners especially embraced the duel as an expression of men's reflexive defense of their honor, or public reputation. In the north a man's honor became synonymous with principled behavior and the absence of tangible vices. Southerners continued to interpret honor in terms of physical courage. The maintenance and defense of honor against attacks and rumor often could lead to violence like duels.

Lincoln's memories of the duel reflected northerners' changing gender roles. He judged it to be among his greatest follies and embarassments.The new variety of American gender roles encouraged women to embrace roles as pious moral arbiters. It also slowly pushed men away from practices such as duelling, and its emphasis upon the violent defense of personal honor, toward a new ideal of self-control and responsibility. As a duellist, Lincoln had allowed his emotions to govern his actions, a failure of self-control.

Several months after the abortive duel, Lincoln resolved the great dilemma in his life by marrying Mary Todd. He had previously proposed to her, then gotten cold feet and broken off the engagement. His actions had precipitated a crisis of confidence in the young Lincoln. Before renewing the engagement, Lincoln wrote that he considered himself "honor bound" to marry Mary Todd. He mused about losing "the only, or at least the chief, gem of my character," his "ability to keep my resolves when they are made." Lincoln's crisis revolved around a variety of courage unlike the physical bravado required by the duel. He had controlled his profound reservations about married life and kept his word.

Thus the great upheaval in American gender relations decisively influenced women and men. But these cultural changes, and the deep economic changes so closely linked to them, proceeded at an uneven pace in the United States. Despite the pervasive influence of Yankee values in antebellum Illinois, the violent defense of personal honor remained important in the antebellum South. Lincoln would be reintroduced to this phenomenon in the political realm, in the great struggle over the future of slavery in the United States.


Bibliography

Hine, Darlene Clark. Black Women in American History, From Colonial Times through the Nineteenth Century. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Carlson Pub., 1990.

Hine, Darlene Clark, Elsa Barkley Brown and Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, eds. Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Carlson Pub., 1993.

Hine, Darlene Clark and Kathleen Thompson. A Shining Thread of Hope: The History of Black Women in America. New York: Broadway Books, 1998.

Hoffert, Sylvia D. When Hens Crow: The Woman's Rights Movement in Antebellum America. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1995.

Isenberg, Nancy. Sex and Citizenship in Antebellum America. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Jeffrey, Julie Roy. Frontier Women. New York: Hill and Wang, 1979.

Riley, Glenda. The Female Frontier. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1988.

Sklar, Kathryn Kish. Catharine Beecher: A Study in American Domesticity. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1973.

Wilson, Douglas. Honor's Voice: The Transformation of Abraham Lincoln. New York: Knopf, 1998.

Wyatt-Brown, Bertram. Southern Honor: Ethics and Behavior in the Old South. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.


©Copyright 2000 Abraham Lincoln Historical Digitization Project