This image depicts the Illinois River community of Peoria in 1832.
In this year the Illinois State Militia and United States Army troops
combined to drive Sac and Fox Indians under the leadership of Chief
Black Hawk from northern Illinois and to their bloody defeat on the
banks of the Mississippi River in western Wisconsin. This conflict opened
up western and northern Illinois, which remained largely unsettled due
to fear of Indians, to white settlement. Note the artist's acknowledgement
of Native Americans' continuing presence in the region. Several are
prominently featured in the foreground, observing the growth of white
settlement across the Illinois River in Peoria.