On September 21, 1832, the Black
Hawk War officially came to a close with a treaty approved at Fort Armstrong,
on the site of present day Rock Island, Illinois. In this treaty the
remaining Sac and Fox Indians agreed to cede the lands they occupied
west of the Mississippi River to the United States. Black Hawk, two
of his sons, and other Sac and Fox fighters had already been taken to
the fort as prisoners after their captures in the wake of the Massacre
at Bad Axe. After spending the winter imprisoned at Jefferson Barracks
in St. Louis, the men were taken east. There they met with President
Andrew Jackson and became subjects of great curiosity in the white population.
After a brief period of imprisonment at Fortress Monroe at Hampton Roads,
Virginia, the Sac and Fox fighters were returned to the Iowa territory
to occupy the small reservation allotted their people by the Treaty
of Fort Armstrong. Black Hawk died there in 1838.