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Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe.. History of the Indian Tribes of the United States: Their Present Condition and Prospects, and a Sketch of Their Ancient Status. Volume 6. . Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo and Co, 1857. [format: book; image], [genre: government document; report]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
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[header]

Pictures and Illustrations.

Inscription.

Letter to James Buchanan.

Report.

Preface.

Division First. — A Condensed View of the Post-Columbian; or, Modern Indian History. Section First. — Introductory Considerations. Chapter I. — The Indian Viewed as a Man Out of Society. CHAPTER II. — Geographical Area Occupied — Ethnographical Position of the Principal Stocks. Section Second. — First European Acquaintance With the Indian Tribes. Chapter I. — Original Continental Point of Observation. Chapter II. — The Landing of Ponce de Leon in Florida, and of Lucas Vasquez in the Ancient Chicora. Chapter III. — France Enters the Field of Discovery. Verrazani, an Italian in Her Service, Discovers the Coast from the Latitude of Tropical Plants to New York and New England. He Lands in the Great Bay of Manhattan. Chapter IV. — Spain Explores Florida. Narvaez Invades the Indian Territory, and Brings the Appalachian, or Floridian, Group of Tribes to Our Notice. Chapter V.— France Resumes Her Discoveries. The Algonquins are Found to Inhabit the Atlantic Coast, North, Up to the River St. Lawrence. They are Succeeded in Position, in Ascending That Valley, by the Iroquois. Chapter VI. — Further Explorations in the St. Lawrence Valley, by the French. Chapter VII. — Expedition of De Soto to Florida. Appalachian Group of Tribes. Chapter VIII. — De Soto Crosses the Mississippi River, and Traverses the Present Area of Missouri and Arkansas. Family of Dakotahs, or Prairie Tribes. Chapter IX. — Coronado's Expedition into the Territory which has Acquired the Name of New Mexico. The Zuni, Moqui, Navajo, and Cognate Tribes. Section Third. — Contention of France and Spain for the Occupation of Florida. Chapter I. — Voyages of Ribault and Laudonniere. Chapter II. — Second Visit of Ribault to Florida. Treacherous Massacre of Himself and His Men. Chapter III. — The Chevalier Gourgues Retaliates Upon the Spanish Settlement in Florida. Section Fourth. — The English Element of Civilization in America. Chapter I. — Discovery of Virginia, and its Aborigines. Chapter II.— The Powhatanic Tribes of Virginia, as they are Reported on the Second Voyage. Chapter III. — Perturbed State of the Virginia Indians During the Voyages Subsequently Made to that Coast, in the Sixteenth Century. Chapter IV. — Hostilities with the Dessamopeak, Sicopan, and Aquoscojos Tribes. Successive Abandonment of the Roanoke and Hatteras Colonies. Section Fifth. — The Littoral Tribes of the North Atlantic, Within Whose Territories the Colonies were Planted. Chapter I. — Virginia is Successfully Colonized. Jamestown is Founded in the Central Part of the Powhatanic Confederacy. Chapter II. — Discovery of the Hudson River. Manhattans, Mohicans, and Mohawks. Chapter III. — Settlement of Massachusetts, and the New England Colonies. Chapter IV. — The Northern Indians are Offended at the Introduction of Civilization and the Gospel, because of Their Tendency to Subvert Indian Society. Chapter V. — Manners and Customs of the Mohicanic Group of the New England Algonquins. Section Sixth. — Synopsis of the History of the New England Indians. Chapter I. — History of the Pokanoket Tribe and Bashabary. Chapter II. — History of the Pequot Tribe, and of the Pequot War. Chapter III. — Death of Sassacus, and Extinction of the Pequots. Chapter IV. — The Narragansetts. War Between Uncas and Miontonimo. Section Seventh. — Indian Tribes of Maryland. Chapter I. — Aboriginal Population on the Shores of the Chesapeake. Chapter II. — Susquehannocks, Nanticokes, and Conoys. Chapter III. — Sequel of the History of the Susquehannocks. Chapter IV. — The Andastes. Chapter V. — Summary of the Cotemporary Evidencecs of the Susquehannock History. Section Eighth. — Occupancy of New York by the English, and Sequel to the Indian Wars of New England. Chapter I. — New Netherlands Surrendered to the English, and Named New York. Chapter II. — The War with Philip, of Pokanoket. Chapter III. — Philip Developed his Plot: His Attacks on the Weak Frontier Line of the New England Colonies. Chapter IV. — Philip Carries the War into the Plymouth Colony. It Assumes a Wider and More Sanguinary Aspect. The Narragansetts are Involved in the Conspiracy. Chapter V. — The Ccolonists March to the Relief of the Frontiers. They Wage War Against the Narragansetts, Who are Defeated in a Stongly Fortified Position. Chapter VI. — Capture and Death of Canonchet. Overthrow of the Narragansetts. Chapter VII. — Philip Renews the War with Success, but is Finally Forced to Take Shelter with His Chief Captain, Annawon, in an Oasis of a Morass, in Pocasset. Final Overthrow of the Bashabary of Pokanoket Chapter VIII. — The Merrimac Valley, and Abinaki Tribes. Section Ninth. — Lenno Lenapi of Pennsylvania, and Chicora Tribes of the Carolinas. Chapter I. — The Colony of Pennsylvania is Located in the Territory of the Lenno Lenapi. Their History. Chapter II. — The Tribal Relations of the Carolina Indians to the Leading Ethnographic Families of the Country. Section Tenth. — Progressive Intercourse with the Tribes, During the Epoch, from 1700 to 1750. Chapter I. — Impressions of the Race, After the Lapse of a Century from the First Landing in Virginia. Chapter II. — The Aquinoshioni, or Iroquois. Chapter III. — The Indian Tribes, North and South, Slowly Arrive at an Apparently General Conclusion, that they Possess the Power to Crush the Colonies. Chapter IV. — In the Contest for the Indian Power, between France and England, the Possession of the Mississippi Valley and of the Great Lake Basins became, in the End, the Prize Contended for. Section Eleventh. — Momentous Period of Indian History, Preceding the Conquest of Canada. Chapter I. — The French Policy Regarding the Tribal, or International, Movements of the Indians. Chapter II. — Inter-epochal History of the Lake Tribes, and of the Expulsion of Indians who Preceded the Algonquins. Chapter III. — The Algonquins side with the French in the Great Struggle for Supremacy. Chapter IV. — The Iroguois Adhere to the English. Chapter V. — The Western Indians Unite to Sustain France in the Possession of the Ohio Valley. Chapter VI. — Nationality of the Indians in Braddock's Defeat. Chapter VII. — The Iroquois Policy Favors the English. Chapter VIII. — Taking of Forth William Henry, on Lake George, and the Plunder and Murder of Prisoners by the French Indians, Contrary to the Terms of Capitulation. Chapter IX. — State of Indian Affairs in the Interior, during the Period Between the Defeat of Deiskau, and the Capture of Fort du Quesne. Chapter X. — The Iroquois Abandon their Neutral Position in the War Between the English and French. Chapter XI. — Close of the War by the Conquest of Canada. Section Twelfth. — Period Intervening from the Conquest of Canada to the Commencement of the American Revoloution. Chapter I. — Changes in the Relations of the Indian Tribes. Chapter II. — War with the Cherokees. Chapter III. — The Confederate Algonquins and Hurons of the Upper Lakes, Under the Direction of Pontiac, Dispute the Occupation of that Region by the English. Chapter IV. — Pontiac Holds Detroit in a State of Siege During the Summer of 1763. Chapter V. — The Western Indians Continue Their Opposition to the English Supremacy. Colonel Bouchet Marches to the Relief of Fort Pitt. The Battle of Brushy Run. Chapter VI. — General Pacifcation Between the English, and the Indian Tribes, East and West. Treaty of Peace with the Senecas, Wyandots, Ottowas and Chippewas, Mississagies, Pottawattamies, and Miamies. Chapter VII. — Re-occupation of the Lake Posts. The Indian Trade Extended Westward and Northward Under Bristish Auspices. Chapter VIII. — Peace Cconcluded with the Delawares, Shawnees, Miamies, Weas, Piankshaws, and Mingoes, or Trans-Ohio Members of the Six Nations in the West. Chapter IX. — Lord Dunmore's Expedition to the Scioto Against the Shawnees, Delawares, Wyandots, and Mingoes. Incident of Logan. Chapter X. — The Indian Trade Under British Rule. Chapter XI. — Census of the Numbers, Names, and Position of the Indian Tribes, Taken After the Conquest of Canada. Section Thirteenth. — History of the Indian Tribes During the American Revoloution. Chapter I. — The Indian Force to be Encountered. Chapter II. — Unfriendly State of Feeling, and Erroneous Opinions of the Tribes, During the Contest. Chapter III. — Contests in Which the Indian Force was Engaged. Invasion of St. Leger, with the Combined Iroquois. Chapter IV. — Ambuscade and Battle of Oriskany. Chapter V. — Termination of the Siege of Fort Stanwix. Chapter VI. — Policy of Employing the Indians in War. Chapter VII. — Progress of the Revoloution, as Affected by the Aboriginal Tribes. Massacres of Wyonming, Cherry Valley, and Ulster. Chapter VIII. — Congress Authorizes Movements to Check the Hostility of the Western Indians. Chapter IX. — Virginia Sends an Expedition Against the Western Indians, and Conquers Southern Illinois. Chapter X. — Subtlety of the Indians Investigating Port Laurens. Chapter XI. — Battle of Minnisink. Chapter XII. — Formal Expedition Against the Iroquois Cantons. Chapter XIII. — The Indians Continue Their Inroads on the Western and Northern Frontiers. Chapter XIV. — Fate of the Delawares who Adopted the Moravian Faith, and Emigrated West. Chapter XV. — The Creeks Make a Midnight Attack on the American Camp, Near Savannah, Under Command of General Wayne. Section Fourteenth. — Events From the Definitive Treaty of Peace, In 1783, to the Surrender of the Lake Posts by the British, in 1796, and the Close of Washington's Administration. Chapter I. — The Indian Policy. Chapter II. — Change of Position of the Iroquois. Cessions of Territory by them to the State of New York. Treaty of Canandaigua. Chapter III. — Treaties with the Wyandots, Delawares, Chippewas, and Ottowas. Chapter IV. — Hostilities in the West. War with the Miamies and their Confederates. Chapter V. — The Muscogees, or Creeks, Negotiate a Treaty of Peace. Chapter VI. — Expeditions of General Charles Scott, of Kentucky, and of General St. Clair, Against the Western Indians. Chapter VII. — Campaigns of General Wayne Against the Western Indians. Chapter VIII. — The Post-Revolutionary War with the Western Indians is Terminated by the Victory of Maumee. Section Fifteenth. — Perturbed State of the Tribes, and their Political Relations, During the Growth and Expansion of the Union Westward, From 1800 to 1825. Chapter I. — Government and Law Essential to Indian Civilization. Chapter II. — Geographical Explorations of Upper Louisiana, and the Country Destined to be the Future Refuge of the Indian Race. Chapter III. — Ire of the Indian Priesthood as a Disturbing Political Element. Battle of Tippecanoe. Chapter IV. — The Indians Recklessly Engage in the War of 1812. Chapter V. — Events of the Indian War of 1813. Chapter VI. — Hostilities with the Creeks. Massacre at Fort Mimms. Battles of Tullushatches, Talladega, Hillabee, and Attasee. Chapter VII. — Battles of Emucfau, Enotochopco, and Tohopeka. The Horse-shoe Creeks Subdued. Chapter VIII. — Foreshadowings of Peace. Section Sixteenth. — Effects of the Expansion of the Population Westward, and of the Creation of New States on the Exhausted Indian Hunting-grounds of the Mississippi Valley. Chapter I. — A New Phasis in Indian History. Chapter II. — Condition of the Tribes at the Conclusion of the War. Chapter III. — Indian Tribes of Michigan, Exploration of its Boundaries, Reaching to the Upper Mississippi. Chapter IV. — War Between the Chippewas and Sioux. A Peculiar Mode of Negotiation Between Them by Means of Pictography, or Devices Inscribed on Bark. Chapter V. — The Chippewas, Pottawattamies, and Ottawas Cede Their Territory in Illinois and Southern Michigan. Section Seventeenth. — The Politcal Culmination of the Indian History. Chapter I. — The Indians Reach Their Lowest Point of Depression at the Close of the War, in 1816. Chapter II. — Official Intercourse is Extended, by Establishing an Agency Among the Chippewas, in the Basin of Lake Superior. Chapter III. — Political and Social Movements Among the Cherokees, and Other Southern Tribes. Chapter IV. — Organization of an Indian Bureau. Chapter V. — Plan of Colonization West of the Mississippi. Chapter VI. — Removal Policy. Creek Difficulties. Death of the Chief, General M'Intosh. Treaty for Their Final Settlement. Chapter VII. — Assumption of the Right of Sovereignty by the Creeks, in Opposition to Georgia. Chapter VIII. — Gradual Transference of the Indian Population to the West. Chapter IX. — Geographical Phenomena. Soil, Climate, and Territorial Advantages of the Proposed Indian Colonies. Section Eighteenth. — The First Decade of the Colonization Plan. — 1831 to 1841. Chapter I. — Congress Authorizes the Colonizing of the Indians in the West. Chapter II. — Policy of the Removal of the Tribes to the West. Chapter III. — Effects of the Growth and Expansion of the States, on the Indian Tribes Who had Long Lived in Juxtaposition with Them. The Policy to be Pursued. Chapter IV. — The Black Hawk War. Chapter V. — Leading Events of the Campaign Against Black Hawk. Chapter VI. — Subdivision of the Indian Territory into Tribal Proprietorships. Congressional Sanction of the Plan. Chapter VII. — Prominent Treaty Stipulations With the Emigrant and Indigenous Tribes, to Promote Their Concentration West of the Mississippi. Section Nineteenth. — Hostile Attitude of the Southern Tribes, Previous to Their Final Removal. Chapter I. — Movements of Algonquin Tribes in the Region of the Upper Lakes. Chapter II. — Indian Hostilities in the South. Chapter III. — Outbreak of the Florida War. Chapter IV. — Origin of the Seminole Hostilities. Chapter V. — Controversy With the Cherokees. Chapter VI. — Organization and Political Condition of the Colonized Tribes. Section Twentieth. — Consummation of the Government Policy of Removal. Chapter I. — The Chippewas of the Upper Mississippi Cede Their Territory to the Mouth of the Crow Wing River. Chapter II. — Prevalence of the Small-pox Amongst the Western Indians. Chapter III. — Emigration of the Treaty Party of the Cherokees, the Creeks of Georgia, and the Chickasaws. Chapter IV. — Crisis of the Cherokee Difficulties. The Army is Marched into that Quarter. Chapter V. — Pawnee Cruelty. The Sacrifice of Haxta. Chapter VI. — Transactions During the Year, with the Minor Tribes. Chapter VII. — Discords Between the Eastern and Western Cherokees. Boudinot and the Ridges are Assassinated. Chapter VIII. — Close of the First Decade of the Colonization Plan. Section Twenty-first. — Principles Contended for by the Indians During Three Centuries. Chapter I. — Antagonism of Barbarianism and Civilization. Chapter II. — Philosophical Examination of the Argument on the Differing Manners and Customs of the Races of Men. Chapter III. — Subsidence of the Indian Feuds. Section Twenty-second. — Present Condition and Prospects of the Tribes. Chapter I. — Generally Improved State of Society and Manners Among the Colonized Tribes. Chapter II. — Geographical Area, Relative Location, and Advantages of the Tribes. Chapter III. — Moral, Politcal, and Industrial Condition of the Creeks, Chickasaws, Choctaws, and Cherokees. Chapter IV. — State of the Minor Transferred Group of Tribes in Kanzas. Chapter V. — The Hunter Tribes.

Division Second — Economy and Statistics, Capacity of Industrial and Social Development, and Present National Position; Illustrated by Some Notices of the Mental Character of the Hunter Race, and Their Ancient Status and Archaeology. Section Twenty-third. — Causes of Decline of the Indian Tribes. Chapter I. — Conditions of Life Which Oppose the Increase of the Aboriginal Population. Chapter II. — Effects of Civilized Habits on Reproduction. Chapter III. — Who is the Indian? His Capacities for Nationality to be Deduced From His Character. Chapter IV. — Some Traditionary Gleams of Ancient History. Section Twenty-fourth. — Indicia From Their Ancient Status and Archaeology. Chapter I. — Outlines of Mexican Antiquities. Chapter II. — Notices of the Aboriginal Remains of Art and Labor in the United States. Chapter III. — Antiquities West of the Alleghanies. Chapter IV. — A Glance at the Pictography of the North American Indians. Chapter V. — Intrusive Elements of Art From Europe and Asia. Chapter VI. — Antiquities on the Pacific Coasts of Oregon. Section Twenty-fifth. — Indicia From Manners and Customs. Chapter I. — Value of this Species of Testimony. Chapter II. — Fluctuations of Customs Among the Mississippi Valley, and Pacific Coast Tribes. Chapter III. — Indian Theory of the Deification of the Sun. Chapter IV. — Existing Characteristic Customs. Section Twenty-sixth. — Indicia from Mythology and Religion. Chapter I. — Toltec and Aztec Mythology. Chapter II. — Religious and Mythological Opinions of the Mississippi Valley Tribes. Chapter III. — Algonquin Mythology and Superstitions. Chapter IV. — Indian Theory of the Action of the Mind During Sleep. Chapter V. — Iroquois Cosmogony. Section Twenty-seventh. — Indicia From Language Chapter I. — Principles of the Structure of the Indian Language. Section Twenty-eighth. — Statistics, Tribal and General. Chapter I. — Census of the Indian Tribes of the United States. Chapter II. — Fiscal Statistics. Chapter IV. — Statistics of Education and Christianity. Chapter V. — Statistics of History.

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