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Atwater, Caleb. Remarks Made on a Tour to Prairie Du Chien; Thence to Washington City, in 1829 . Columbus, OH: Isaac N. Whiting, 1831. [format: book], [genre: history; narrative; travelogue]. Permission: Illinois State University
Next morning I busied myself in making preparations for my departure by land, to Dodgeville, Gratiot's Grove and Galena. Many little obstacles were thrown in my way, as always is the case, when endeavoring to do any business with this motley group of creatures; but towards night, in company with Mr. Henry Gratiot, in a dandy wagon, in which were placed our mats, blankets, cooking vessels, provisions and arms, I bid adieu to Prairie Du Chien. Making our way over the Prairie, in a southeast direction, over a surface, in some parts very rough and uneven, we struck the Wisconsin, about three miles I should suppose, above its mouths; and having crossed the river in a ferry boat, we encamped just before sunset, on the south bank of the stream, near the water's edge.Wisconsin River.
The Wisconsin, where we crossed it, was very shallow, full of sand bars and small islands, and at that low stage of the water, not more than forty rods in width. Its average depth was not more than three feet, perhaps even less. The numerous little islands and sand bars, in height only a foot or two above the surface of the water, far as I could see the stream, above and below where we crossed it, presented to view wild rice in bloom. That plant, grows on the islands and sand bars, and in the water near them, to the height of three or four feet; and when in full bloom reminds one of our cultivated fields at home. The grain itself looks more like oats, than rice, and has a sweet taste like our oats. In this region it affords food for large flocks of wild fowls, as well as for man. Lake Puckaway and the Ponds and small lakes about Fox river, produce a great deal of this grain.
The Wisconsin has worn itself, a deep basin, from one to three miles in width, though in some places, it is twelve miles wide, probably; but the river itself, from appearances, rarely occupies more than half a mile in width, even in high water. It rises in, an unknown region, not
far to the south of lake Superior, about half way between the extreme ends of that inland sea. I saw one man, who supposed he had ascended this river about three hundred miles above fort Winnebago, and from his statement, my account of that part of the river is derived. It rises among mountains of considerable elevation, and runs in deep basins, in several branches, until finally it becomes a considerable river, with considerable descent in its current. Thence onward, it runs almost south, until it reaches fort Winnebago, where a portage of only a mile or two over, intervenes between it and the Fox river of Green Bay These rivers rise near each other, run side by side, and not far apart, until they reach fort Winnebago, where each breaks off from the other: the Fox descending nearly North East, into Green Bay and the Wisconsin almost due West, until it falls through several mouths, into the Mississippi, live miles below fort Crawford, at Prairie Du Chien.
Like all the rivers of this region, there had been no freshet in it during the year I saw it, and it was unusually low, but keel boats, carrying fifteen tons freight ascended it from its mouth to fort Winnebago, and the whole fleet of Indian canoes, after the treaties were made, went up it, without impediment.
As to size, it compares with Connecticut river, nearer than any one I am acquainted with in the East, and with the Tennessee in the west, though not so long as the latter; the Wisconsin being only about six hundred miles in length. It rises in perhaps about latitude 46 degrees 30 minutes, and enters the Mississippi, in latitude 43 degrees 15 minutes.
Along its banks, many impressive views, present themselves; sometimes, and indeed often, lofty and huge piles of rocks, standing erect, in a perpendicular position, are seen from the river, on one side, and a thick forest of timber trees, growing on the bottom lands, on the other side. The trees I saw, were sugar maple, beech, white ash, linn or bass wood, and oaks of different species. On the tall cliffs, I saw the red cedar and the arbor vitas. Some of the bottom lands were natural meadows, in which the grass grew to the height of seven feet. Vast forests of pine trees grow on all the head waters of this river.
After kindling our fire, cooking our breakfast and eating it, we started in the morning just after sunrise, and making our way as well as we could, sometimes through thick set and tall grass sometimes through as impervious a growth of bushes, as I ever saw.
By the aid of our knives, having no axe with us, we travelled up the river, diverging gradually from it, towards the southern point of the compass, until about mid day, and with the greatest difficulty, we succeeded, in ascending the high hills, and lofty precipices which bounded the Wisconsin basin, on its south side. We supposed, that we had travelled 12 miles that forenoon, and that we were four or five miles south from the river, when we entered the high plain where we stood. I should think we had ascended 1200 feet from the place where we tarried during the night.
In traveling this distance, where it was prairie, one of us went before, and led the horse, while the other followed the wagon, to lend a hand, when we met with any obstacle in our way, as we often did.
Where we had to pass a thicket, and we had many of them in our way, we were compelled to cut a road with our knives, and bend down, and one of us keep down, the largest bushes, while the other led the horse and wagon over them.
At last however, as I said, with difficulty, we ascended the high hills, and escaped from the prairies and the thickets, and clambered up among the piles of rocks, skirting the southern side of the Wisconsin, and stood six feet within the open wide spread prairie, whose surface was more than one thousand feet above the bed of the river, and nearly two thousand feet above the ocean. Not an animated being beside ourselves was to be seen, nor a sound heard. An awful silence reigned, as to us, throughout creation. Before us lay, spread out in all directions, except towards the deep and gloomy basin of the Wisconsin behind us, a boundless prairie, or bounded only by the horizon. Above us was a naming sun at noon day, and the pale blue heavens; the sky looked as pure as the Spirit who made it, and not even one breath of air was in motion, not a spear of grass, nor a dry leaf rustled in the plain or among the trees, nor did even one grasshopper, by his heart cheering song.
brake the awful silence which reigned over this vast plain. Before us we saw sun flowers, standing here and there of the same species and appearance, and of as large a size, as those in our gardens. We saw too the Mineral Plant with its blue leaves and most beautiful flowers, growing in clusters, in bunches and rows, indicating where beds of veins of lead ore existed, beneath the surface. Here too, for the first time, I saw that species of helianthus, (sunflower) called the rozin plant, whose leaves, springing from the root, are so disposed as to indicate with mathematical certainty the northern and southern points of the compass.
We stood in breathless silence several minutes, looking on this diluvial plain, absorbed in deep contemplation, until instinctively turning right about and facing the Wisconsin basin, North of us, we could distinctly see that wizzard stream glistening like the brightest silver, here and there, where the absence of the trees permitted us to behold it, in width to the eye, only a few inches. Ruggedness, was a striking feature of this aspect from the vast piles of rock which had fallen down from their original position into the basin, in every age, since the sun shone, or had stood unmoved, during unknown ages, defying all the fury of the elements, and all the ravages of time. Some of them threatened to tumble down on the very first man, who dared to approach their bases, while others, in appearance, seemed resolved to remain unmoved, where they were forever. The contrast between the views, which the plain and the basin presented to us, was perfect; the former was as peaceful as the latter was warlike, and both of them appealed in a powerful manner to the feelings of the inward man. A flood of absorbing sensations rushed into the soul Adoration of the great Author of Nature, deeply impressed on the heart, spontaneously ascended to heaven.
Having recovered ourselves from the reverie of deep and impressive contemplation, which such contrasted views naturally produced, we once more, and for the first time to day, ascended our little wagon, out of which had been thrown out and lost, several articles of prime necessity, it our toilsome march. Directing our course, over the prairie in an eastern direction, along a dividing ridge between the waters falling into the Mississippi, and those descending
into the Wisconsin, we moved forward at a brisk rate, until we came into the trace which Dr. Wolcott and his Pottawatimies had made, on their journey home, after the treaties were concluded The horse travelled along in the trace or trail; as it is called in this country, and the wheels of our wagon easily moved forward in the grass, which grew only a few inches in height, on this high and dry ground. After travelling an hour or two, we turned off to the right, to look for water, and soon found a beautiful rivulet and several pure springs. They were in a ravine, where we easily found them, by that never failing sign of water, trees and bushes. Here we tarried an hour or more, fed and rested our horse and ourselves, until we moved forward again, at the rate of four or five miles an hour; and so continued to press forward until thick darkness covered the heavens. We had not until then been able to find a place to encamp upon, under trees and near water Kindling a fire, we fastened our horse to a tree, with a rope, long enough to allow him to eat what grass he wanted, in addition to the corn we gave him, from the store in our wagon. Spreading our blankets upon the earth, under an oak tree, having lost our mats, which Nawkaw and his ladies gave me: we had but gotten into a good slumber, when a cold rain descended, in considerable quantities, and wet me through and through. I awoke in the utmost agony of pain, and so severely affected by a paralysis in my right side and limbs, as to render me unable to move myself and but just able to speak. From sunrise until noon, I had been wetted to the skin, by the plentiful dews on the grass and the shrubbery, through which I had forced my way; from noon until sunset, we had travelled over an open prairie, upon which the sun sinned intensely, in the hottest day of August, and now a rain from the Northwest, cold as a November shower in Ohio, drenched me to the very skin. These sudden and great changes of temperature, were too much for my system to bear with impunity, and a palsy was the result.
As soon as the dawn of day appeared, Mr. GRATIOT placed me in the wagon and drove with all the speed he could, to Dodgeville, where we arrived nearly about the middle of the day. The distance between Prairie Du Chien and this
place is variously estimated, from sixty five to ninety miles There is no settlement between them.
Had we started early in the morning, on the first day, and had we been successful, in crossing the Wisconsin, and in getting out of its basin, we might have reached Dodgeville, without lying out, more than one night. As it was, we had lain out two nights, on the route. The country we had passed over, after we readied the prairie, south of tile Wisconsin, is easily described, its physical features being few. Being at that time new, to me, their impression on my memory was the deeper at the time, and they remain vivid on it now.
Travelling up the Wisconsin, and near enough to it, so as, just to avoid, the deep ravines, made by every little stream, that runs into it; from the south towards the north; and we avoided also the ravines along the streams descending into the Mississippi, in a southern direction. When we wanted water, we had only to turn either to the right or left hand, until we came to a ravine, or a point of woods, which at unequal distances from each other, stand out into the Prairie.
These points of woods, and these ravines were our guide boards; and told more truth than some of their namesakes do on our roads. Keeping clear of these, or turning up to them, as we wished either to move forward or to stop, we found our way along, as well almost, as if on a good road. Besides, we generally followed a trail where the Indians had recently passed along this route.
The surface of the Prairie, consisted of hill and dale, short grass covering the hills, and tall grasses and flowers the vales. The Wisconsin all the way, hid itself from our view, in its gloomy and secluded basin, on our left, and the Prairie always showed us its vastness on our right hand. At a great distance, in the Prairie, we saw several mounds, dome nearer, others further off, rearing their tall summits, in appearance, to the sky, near the horizon. Occasionally, we saw the dense smoke of some lead furnace, near these mounds, slowly ascending upwards, of a leaden colour, or moving as slowly, horizontally, at a low elevation, along in the air.
The Wisconsin snow-birds, in great numbers, rose up before us, as we moved along over the Prairie; and not
unfrequently, the Prairie hen slowly ascended from the ground just high enough to be above the grass, and sailed along, a short distance in the air, and alighted on the earth.
In order to relieve the reader from these small matters, though so interesting to my eye at the time I saw them, yet, possibly from my imperfect painting, not so to the minds of my readers, I briefly notice Dodgeville, where I now am in my narrative.Dodgeville.
Is located, as nearly every other town is, in the mineral country, near a grove, a dense forest, of no great extent. Its latitude is 42 degrees 55 minutes North; twelve miles south of Helena, on the Wisconsin, and six or more miles, north-eastwardly of Mineral Point, where the copper mine is. It is about forty-five miles north-eastwardly from Galena, and thirty miles, perhaps, northwardly from Gratiot's Grove. The number of families in Dodgeville, I did not inquire there may be twenty, or more, but the village is small. The principal citizens of this place, Gen. Henry Dodge, and George Madeira, Esq. late of Chilicothe, O. are best known to me, and in their amiable and kind families, I was nursed while sick. For all their kindness and attention to me, they neither did, nor would, receive any remuneration. It is true, money could not have paid for it, so it stands credited on a leaf of a book, called the HEART, and there it will remain forever.
As soon as I was able to walk, I went out to examine the lead mines here, situated in the very town. There are two veins of lead ore, a sulphuret, one running north and south, the other east and west.
The surface of the earth is prairie, and fertile, but after passing through it a few feet, a rock is found, lying in horizontal strata, and in this rock the mineral exists in veins. This rock is composed of lime, in which are embedded pebbles of cornelian, topaz, the common flint, and sand of quartz. Wherever this rock is exposed to the action of the atmosphere for a long time, as along the Wisconsin, and in ravines, and on hills, there is so little lime in it, acting as a cement, that the pebbles and sand in it, such as I have described, fall out of the rock, and the remaining ruin
is as full of holes as a honey comb, and as rough as a chestnut bur. This rock, unequally varied in the proportion which the components bear to each other, is the prevailing rock of a region of country; equal to one hundred miles square. From Rock River to the Wisconsin, and from the Four lakes, to a considerable distance west of the Mississippi, this is the prevailing rock; sometimes it approaches to a good limestone; sometimes, nearer to a sandstone, and I saw, at Galena, water limestone, beautifully variegated with reddish streaks. The abundance of pebbles and sand in it, with little cement of lime, causes holes in the rock, and these cavities are filled, where the rock remains under the earth, with a sulphuret of lead. What occasioned rents in the rock, running either north or south, or east and west. I pretend not to say, but cracks do exist, and these cavities are filled with ore. These rents, under ground, might have been produced by earthquakes, or, if we suppose this rock formation to have been deposited from a superincumbent ocean, when the lime, pebbles, and sand were moist and, in process of time, when the ocean subsided, the rents and cracks in them would be produced by heat and drying. How deep these rents descend into the rock, I do not know, as the miners leave a mine, when they have descended ten feet or more. One vein of lead is said to be fifty feet in width, twenty rods long, and has been dug out forty or fifty feet in depth. It is not at Dodgeville, though. All the veins I saw, any where in the country, were left by the miner as soon as the water was found in them. The water mineral, as they term it here, is much the richest, and looks as if it was still growing rapidly.
The two veins at Dodgeville, are twenty rods long, each, and although millions of pounds of ore have been taken from them, yet, they are unexhausted.
Two ideas force themselves upon the mind in an instant, on viewing the habitations outside and within; at this place, Gen. Dodge has surrounded his houses by a picket twenty feet high, perhaps, and this has been done by planting firmly, in the earth, close together, long logs, with portholes, for muskets, a large number of which are in the dwelling house, loaded with balls, and ready for use, at any moment, when necessary. This picket serves also to protect the family from the piercing cold of winter.
Mr. Madeira, in addition to chinking and daubing with mortar, his log dwelling house, has raised a wall of turfs, and sods from the prairie, a foot or two in thickness around his dwelling house and wall, with room enough between the house and wall to lay his firewood there. The very roofs of houses and stables are covered with turfs and sods.
The vicinity of large numbers of the wildest and most barbarous savages renders the arms and pickets necessary; and the severity of the winter, renders it necessary to protect men, and even domestic animals, by every precaution in the power of the people here to use.
The same ideas force themselves, upon us every where in this country.
Leaving Dodgeville, in company with Mr. Gratiot, we travelled over the undulating surface of the prairie country between this place and Gratiot's Grove. After travelling about three miles, we ascended the highest ground between the two places. From this eminence we could distinctly seethe village of Gratiot's Grove, and the smoke of a lead furnace there. The distance must be more than thirty miles, as the road runs. As we moved along rapidly in our little wagon, we could see over a country thirty miles in extent. Here and there we saw lofty mounds, surrounded by thick woods, from their bases to their very summits. In these woods, the lead furnaces are located, which sent forth, each, slowly rising of a leaden hue, a stream of dense smoke. The country consisted of hill and dale, covered with grasses and flowers. Passing through this region, at unequal distances, we beheld different branches of the Pickatolica, a large tributary of Rock river, glittering like the brightest silver, running in deep basins, and stored with the finest fishes. We passed the main river, not many miles fromGratiot's Grove.
We arrived at the Grove towards night, and I was set down at Mr. Gratiot's door. Here I was received into this interesting family as a welcome guest.
Affected still, to a great degree, by a paralysis, the attentions, kindness and nursing I received here, changed my disease into an intermittent fever.
About twenty families reside in this secluded Grove. Among the interesting, innocent and virtuous people here the lady of Mr. Henry Gratiot, was born and educated in New London, Connecticut; Mr. Gratiot's brothers lady, was born and educated in Paris; and a daughter of John Bradbury, the botanist, was born and educated in London; and they ail lived within a few rods of each other. They are fair and proud samples of the best educated portion of the virtuous females in the cities where they were born. Unable to move my right arm, and scarcely able to walk, a stranger, far, far from home, and the objects most dear to my heart, I felt as if nature must sink, and soul and body dissolve like water, when I was assisted to enter Mr. Gratiot's house. I was instantly surrounded, welcomed and received by the persons I have named, and their innocent, beautiful and interesting children. No words can do justice to them for their kindness to me, on this occasion.
Whatever may be my lot, and wherever it may be cast, during the residue of my life, may it be where l can always see around me virtuous females and their children; and at last, when I am prostrated on a bed of sickness, may they be my attendants, and when my soul ascends to its Author, may they stand near my dying bed, close my eyes in death, and raise a prayer to Heaven in my behalf. In return for their kindness to me, all my days, from my earliest infancy to this moment, I can say that I have never caused one of them, no, not even one of them, to shed even one tear, and, I feel assured, I never shall do so while I live.
Should the Almighty in his wrath, destroy in a moment, all the women and children in the world, I pray to be taken away in the same moment of time.
Wherever I see woman, I see more or less happiness diffused by her, whether she lives in a city or a town, in a palace or a cottage; whether she is educated in Philadelphia, or belongs to some roving band of savages near the Rocky Mountains. She is every where kind to her offspring, attentive to her husband, kind to the sick of both sexes, and soothes those in distress. There is music in her voice; sympathy in her looks; and goodness in her heart. Properly educated, and kindly treated, her friendship is everlasting. Man may desert man, but woman never will. The mother of Jesus could not save him from
death, but she stood near his cross, casting steadily on him a sympathising eye, until he expired. Did she and other virtuous female friends desert him even after death? No. They watched his dead body until it arose in triumph after death. Woman is every where, all over the world, the same kind angel; and he is a villain who treats her ill. Is she wicked and corrupt? some faithless man some villain decoyed her originally from the narrow path of virtue Man was the tempter she the victim of his depravity.
During several years past, a set of depraved monsters in human shape, in this nation, have slandered virtuous women, but, thanks to the Being who created the human heart, and stamped it with impressions, never to be effaced, even by the wickedness of man, such an outrage on humanity met with universal condemnation, and covered with shame, disgrace and ignominy, the slanderers. While the human heart retains the impressions, which, in love to mankind, the Almighty has written upon it in CAPITALS, all slanderers of the female sex, will be held in abhorrence by all virtuous men. Whenever, (it never can be so) this ceases to be the case, we may all mourn over our miserable lot, and hang our heads, in shame, because we are men. But I gladly quit this unpleasant topic forever.
Very soon after my arrival at Mr. Gratiot's, I was visited by Col. Menard, Major Kennerly, his son-in-law. Charles Hempstead, Esq. our Secretary whose sister, Mrs. Gratiot was, and several other friends. When I left Prairie du Chien, every thing was accomplished there, except settling our tavern bill, and I had signed every paper and document except that one. The commissioners had, (Gen. McNiel and Colonel Menard) descended the Mississippi in a boat to Galena, fourteen miles from Gratiot's Grove, and the friends I have named, hearing of my illness, had come out of their way so far to see me, and to tender to me, all the aid in their power. I signed the only paper not signed by me, already, embracing every thing relating to our treaties. How these papers were destroyed, or by whom, who were their aiders and abettors, why they were thrown away and others substituted for them, without my name to them, I never knew never shall know.
After tarrying with us a few hours, these kind friends returned to Galena. As this was the last time I saw Col.
Menard, Major Kennerly and others, who accompanied them, to my sick bed, I beg leave to say, that, during all the time I was with them, for months surrounded as we were, constantly, by dangers, difficulties, perils and sufferings of all efforts, I received from them, at all times, kind treatment, which never will be forgotten by me. May God bless them. My good friends, adieu.
My health improving every day, I examined the county and every thing about this Grove, as I was able to do, a part of each day.
There is a post office here, and a weekly mail passes through the place, to and from Galena.
Mr Gratiot has a large lead furnace here; and there is a store of dry goods, but no doggery in the village.Mineral Region.
As soon as my strength enabled me to ride, I went to Galena, where I tarried a few days, visiting my friends there. Gaining health and strength, I fell into the company of a Mr. Gill, a merchant of St. Louis, and with him arranged every thing, to travel with him in a two horse wagon, across the country to his place of residence. This gentleman, was the brother of Mrs. Campbell, the lady of Major Wm. Campbell, whom I have already mentioned. Mr. Gill and his sister, were born and educated in Philadelphia, where heir respected relatives reside.
Considering the newness of the country, at Galena, and about it, I found the state of society excellent. I attended the Presbyterian church here on Sunday, and was highly gratified with the preacher, Mr. Kent, and his people of all ages and both sexes.
The professional men, the merchants, and indeed, the people generally, appeared to be moral in their habits, kind to each other and to strangers particularly so.
Major Campbell and his accomplished lady, accompanied Mr. Gill and myself, about fifteen miles on our way, when we left them, on our journey.
Travelling about, fifty miles a day, after crossing Rock river, we reached Edwardsville, twenty miles north of St. Louis, where we parted.
Before I proceed further in my personal narrative, I take the liberty, to remark briefly upon every thing I can, worthy of the readers notice, especially in the mineral country.
The climate of this region, is equal to that of any part of Italy, such is the purity of the air. When traveling along from Dodgeville to Gratiot's Grove, I saw with the naked eye, a wagon and team five miles from me. This purity of the atmosphere may be attributed to the total absence of marshy ground, and to the elevation of the country, which is in many parts of it, two thousand feet above the sea. We may fairly take into consideration, also, the absence of dense forests, all the way, from the western shore of Lake Michigan, to the Rocky Mountains in the west, and to the Frozen Ocean in the north. The prevalence too, of westwardly winds, or northern ones, passing over no large bodies of water, during all the year, except, a short time in the summer, and even then, the distance between this region, and the Gulph of Mexico, from whence the winds ascend the Mississippi, is so great, that even southerly winds, are not loaded with moisture, may fairly come into our estimate, of the causes of this singular purity of the air, in the mineral country.
It's latitude too, is favorable to purity of air, as well as of healthful climate. In all the country, every person I saw, was a picture of health, except one person, who had emigrated from Missouri, and had brought the ague along with her she was an amiable daughter of Gen. Dodge. And I saw one or two persons, whose health, had been injured by working at a lead furnace, the smoke of which, is highly injurious to the lungs.
THE STREAMS of this region, run over pebbles of quartz, topaz, caruelian, agate and opal, they are copious, glide along briskly, and are cool enough for drinking in August. They all originate, either in pure springs, or cool, pellucid lakes. The fishes in them, are the finest fresh water ones, in the world.
ROCK RIVER, and its numerous tributaries, irrigate and I fertilize, I should suppose, about six millions of acres of territory. It's main branch, rises in four lakes, with only short out lets between them. The Pickatolica branch, rises entirely in springs, the head one, being only a few miles
south of the Wisconsin river. The four lakes, are nearly east of Dodgeville, and parallel with the heads of the Pickatolica branch. These streams descend, in a southern direction until they are sixty miles or more in length, when they turn around, towards Rock Island, just below which, they enter the Mississippi. There are other branches of this river, (Rock river) which originate in lakes, a degree and a half of latitude perhaps, south of the four lakes The heads of several of these branches, being in lakes, that are surrounded by high hills, they never rise very high nor sink very low, during the year. Like reservoirs on our Canal summits, these lakes keep the water, in them, until it is needed in a dry time.
Rock river, when I crossed it, on the first day of September, 1829, at Ogee's ferry, 90 miles, by water, from its mouth, was twenty rods wide, four feet deep, and run at the rate of five or six miles an hour. The Mississippi and Wisconsin, I have noticed already, and the other streams are all short ones, originating in springs, and running in deep ravines, with falls in them, in places, and they all run with great velocity, until they descend to the level of the Mississippi, which receives them, into its bosom.
Within the United States, I suspect, that for pure wholesome water; for the number and durability of the springs, no part of the Union is superior to the mineral country.
The fall in all the smaller streams, is so great, that sites for mills, and manufactories, exist every where, almost, throughout the whole region of the mines. Nearly every stream originates in a large spring of pure water, copious enough, and with fall enough within a few feet of the spot where it first appears, to carry a mill of any sort. The water, so near its source, does not freeze so as to prevent its being used for mills and manufactories, all the winter months.
The soil, except on the highest hills, at their very summits, and on the sharp edges of them, near some deep ravine, where some stream dashes rapidly along among the rocks in its bed, is a deep black loam, like the intervals along our large rivers. No lands can be more fertile, than those in the mineral country, producing potatoes, oats, Indian corn, and all the vegetables common in gardens, in the same latitude, in vast abundance.
That wheat will succeed here, equal in quality and quantity, to that of any other part of the United States, I cannot doubt.
There is grass enough now growing in the country, to supply all the domestic animals, the people may wish to raise. Finer meadows, of good grass, I never saw any where, than I saw along all the larger water courses.
Of fishes, of the finest flavor, the rivers, ponds, lakes and rivulets are literally full. The Pickatolica river, takes its name, from a fish, about the size of, and equal in its flavor, to the rock fish, caught in the Delaware, at Philadelphia.
The only difference between the Philadelphia rock fish, and the pickatolica of the Upper Mississippi, that I could perceive, was in the former having scales, while the latter has none.
The different species of cat fish, of pike, and of perch, are excellent. They are abundant in quantity too, and easily taken, in all the different modes of taking them.
The salmon trout of lake Michigan, has acquired a wide spread celebrity.
The surface of the country, is undulating sometimes gently, sometimes greatly, and in most places, is covered with a succession of flowers, from early spring, to late Autumn. One week, nay even one day, you see, far as your delighted eye can reach, flowers of a reddish hue the blue the white the yellow, and of every intervening shade, indeed, follow in succession, day after day, and week after week, ever varying, ever new, and always delightful. Ascending any little eminence, my eye was always riveted for many minutes, on the vast, the charming, and the beautiful prospect before me spread out immence, intersected by glittering streams, with here and there a grove of woods, and at all times, several mounds, some nearer, others further off some of them, from their nearness, showed their dark green forests, while others, from their distance, showed their pale blue summits, in the very edge of the horison, resting on the earth, and touching the heavens above them. Generally too, I saw a cloudless sky, a naming sun by day, and brilliant heavens at night.
Sometimes I traveled, during four or five hours, either by day or by night, across some prairie, without seeing
even a bush, or a tree above me, were the wide spread, and lofty heavens, while the prairie, with its grasses and flowers, extended in all directions around me, far beyond the reach of my vision.
In such a situation, man feels his own littleness, in the immensity of space, he feels alone too, in this loneliness, universal silence and repose.
I was delighted at the sight, even of a prairie wolf, and the chirping of a grass hopper, was music to my ear.
The trees of this region, are confined, mostly, to the streams, and to rough places; and oaks, black, white and red are the forest trees, in high grounds, at least, they are the principal ones, while, in wet places and low grounds the botany is richer. Along Sugar creek, a large brand of the Pickatolica river, extensive groves of the sugar maple, exist near its mouth, and for many miles upwards
On naked cliffs, I sometimes saw the red cedar tree.
Of flowering plants, among the millions of them, the helianthus offers the greatest variety, in all seasons of the year.
As I traveled south, after crossing Rock river, I fell in with new plants daily some disappearing, and others appearing, as we moved rapidly onward.
The Rozin plant, has a tall, slender stalk, and grows in vast abundance, in the prairie, south of, and adjoining Springfield, in the Sangamon country. Its juice resembles, in appearance and smell, tar water, from which circumstance, it derives its name. I have already described it.
The mocasin flower, is a most beautiful plant, and I recommend it to the Philadelphia Horticulturists, as worthy of their attention. Judge Sawyer of Edwardville, Illinois, or Col. O'Fallon, of St. Louis, would, I doubt not, with pleasure transmit some of its seeds to them.
I recommend to my friend, Mr. Prince, of Long Island, a beautiful red flower, growing on a creeping vine, six feet in length, on the eastern bank of the Mississippi, just above Rock island. Mr. Davenport, the Post Master, would cheerfully forward some of its seeds.
From a careful examination, of all the works on botany for this flower, I found it correctly described, in a volume formerly belonging to Mr. Jefferson, now in Congress library.
The one described, in that volume, was found growing, just on the brink of the Nile, at its falls.
The artichoke, a helianthus, grows in almost every prairie in the West, but in Illinois, I have seen, ten thousand acres, thickly set with this plant, at one view. Four acres of them, will feed and fatten one hundred hogs, every year.
Of wild plums, there is a vast variety, though, the large striped ones, are the best. This tree grows in moist places, in bunches and groves.
There is a wild apple, of the size of a hen's egg, not very sour, which on being buried in the earth, turns a pale yellow, and is, by no means a bad substitute for the common apple. The tree, has no thorns on it, and it never grows more than six or seven feet in height.
Patches of hazle bushes, grow near the plum bushes.
The Pacawn-bearing walnut, though growing as high north, as latitude, 41° 30", I did not recognize above that latitude. I saw groves of it, on the waters of the Illinois river, and in the vicinity of Rock Island. In appearance, at a distance, of forty rods from you, it would be taken for the common black walnut, but on approaching it, its willow-shaped leaves, undeceive you. The tree grows to a great height, and its size is large. Its habitat, as a botanist would say, is near a stream of water, and in the very richest soil. It might be raised, in the vicinity of Philadelphia, and I beg leave to introduce it, to the attention of the Horticulturists, of that city.
The mounds, in the mineral country, are lofty piles of rocks, lying in horizontal strata, except such of them as have fallen down, from their original position, and lie in ruins, from the surface of earth, extending upwards to near the summits. Some of these mounds are three miles in circumference, at their bases, and three hundred feet in height. They serve as land marks, and may be seen thirty miles off.
These lofty elevations, serve as land marks, which being perfectly well known, to the people of this region, not only by name, but in appearance, on a first view; and one or more of them, always being in sight, no one ever loses his way, while traveling in the country of the lead mines.
These mounds are surrounded, except such parts of them as stand in perpendicular masses of rocks, by thick groves of timber trees; here in these groves, the lead is smelted, and the prairie country near them, supplies the ore for the furnaces.
The beasts of this region, are few in number, having been destroyed by the Indians, except the black wolf, the prairie wolf, and the muskrat. The black wolf, is confined to the groves, and the ravines along the streams the musk rat lives about the rivers, but more still about the Four lakes and the ponds, south east of Rock river.
The prairie wolf, in size, color and disposition, is half way between the black wolf, and the grey fox. His food consists of almost every thing within his reach grasses and birds, their eggs pigs and poultry. He is the greatest thief on a small scale, in the world. He can live on grasshoppers, crickets and bugs he can steal from a hen coop, or a barn yard, and when pinched with hunger, he will even venture into a kitchen, and steal a crust of bread. He is the Indian dog of the North west, and the Jackal of Asia. He often approached, within a few feet of me, at night, when I lay out in the prairie, and barked at me, with great earnestness. He is, for his size, the most mischievous animal in the world.
He is easily domesticated, and mixes with the common dog family, and the mixed breed propagates this new species of dog, which is easily recognized by its white eyes, and pointed, and erect ears. Besides this mixed breed, the Winebagoes, have a species of lap dog, which they fatten and feed upon, at their dog feasts. These dogs must have been derived from Canada, I should suppose, with which, all the Indians of the Upper Mississippi, keep up an intercourse still; and from whence, they receive large presents annually.
Having briefly described, what appears on the surface of the earth, in the mineral country; it remains, for me, as briefly to describe what is found beneath the surface.
This region, contains the richest lead mines, in the known world. When I was there, these mines had been worked but about three years, by comparatively, but a few persons, who were ignorant of the business they followed; and they labored under every disadvantage
almost; yet, they had manufactured, in that time, more than thirty millions of pounds of lead. This had been carried to the Atlantic Cities, and had reduced the price of lead, in all its forms, one half! In the mineral country, it was selling at the mines, for one cent, a pound at Philadelphia, for three and a half cents, a pound.
Though I brought away from the mines, specimens of every sort of lead ore, accompanied by statements, showing where, and how procured the quantity made at each smelting establishment, and other information relating to it, and all thrown too, into a tabular form; yet, in a popular little book, like this, it might not be interesting to the general reader, such as read what I am now writing, and I pass it by.
The lead region, in the United States, lies nearly parallel with the Atlantic Ocean, from north east, towards the south west. Or in other words, this region occupies the same space, that the Alleghanies do. It begins in the same latitude, these mountains do in the north, and ends in the came latitude. From the Wisconsin in the north, to Red river, of Arkansas in the south, and in breadth, from east to west, the lead region, occupies, about one hundred and fifty miles, of longitude. In some places, it lies very deep in the earth, and it lies the deepest, about half way between its extreme ends. At its northern and southern terminations, it ascends, to the very surface of the earth, and is there found, even on the surface, either, on the highest grounds, (except the mounds) or in ravines. On the little eminences, I could have filled our little wagon, often, as we passed over them, with beautiful specimens of the phosphate of lead.
The Mississippi passes through this region, from latitude 43 degrees 30 minutes north, to latitude 38 degrees, north.
On the western shore, of the Mississippi, opposite Rock Island, and extending north, one hundred miles, from indubitable appearances, every where, as I passed along, all that country must contain exhaustless lead mines.
From the vast region, where this mineral exists, extending through ten degrees of latitude; in width too, in places, three degrees of longitude from its richness, (it being in many places, nearly pure lead) considering also, the ease
with which it is obtained, and its vast abundance, we may safely conclude, that we have lead ore enough, for all mankind, forever, within our own territory.Copper Ore.
Is found in the mineral region, and one hundred and seventy tons of it, (a sulphuret) had been dug, at Mineral Point, before I left the country. Its richness, had not been sufficiently tested, at that time.
Fossil coal, exists, near the head of Rock Island, on the western side of the hill, where I saw it, in place, and my information enables me to say, without doubt, that great bodies of this coal, exist on a branch of Rock river, rising south west of the main river, more than one hundred miles from its mouth. This coal may be reached by boats, and easily floated down the river, to Rock Island.
The water lime stone, near Galena, indicates saltwater, in the earth, where it comes in contact with this rock.
This lime stone, if thrown into water, becomes incrusted with common salt, and I know of no salt water, in the interior of our country, which does not lie below this rock. It depends entirely on the quantity of this rock, near Galena, whether salt water, in considerable quantities exists there. By perforating the earth, a few hundred feet, with an augur, the citizens can ascertain, whether common salt, can be made in this neighborhood.
A few general remarks, on the country, west of Lake Michigan, and north of Missouri and Illinois, seem necessary, here.
Were all the country, south of Fox and Wisconsin rivers, having for its eastern boundary, Lake Michigan, and the Illinois river, to its mouth, and the Mississippi, for its western boundary, thrown into a Territorial Government, it would, in a few years, become a respectable State. Nature seems to have intended this country, should form a State by itself; but man has determined otherwise.
North of the Wisconsin and Fox rivers, another State might be formed, on the east side of the Mississippi, which would be about as large as Virginia.
On the west side of the Mississippi, above the State of Missouri, there is territory, sufficient for two States,
each larger than Virginia. If the upper country should be formed into four States, they would eventually, be the most populous, and powerful States, in the whole confederacy. Nature has intended that vast region, for thirty millions of human beings, at some, not very remote period of time. For purity of air, and of water for mineral wealth, fertility of soil, healthiness of climate, and almost every other thing valuable to man; the whole country, is equal to any portion of the earth's surface.
The future population of this vast region, dwelling as they will, on the highest table land in the United States, can easily descend the water courses, either northwardly down Red river, to Hudson's Bay; or southwardly down the Mississippi to New Orleans eastwardly down our northern lakes, to New York, or down the St. Lawrence, to Quebec. Nature has opened these roads, to and from this region, and man is now using them. During the next hundred years, Ohio, as a State, will take the lead, in wealth and business, and in the number of her people, compared with any State, west of the Alleghanies; but eventually, Missouri and any one of the States, yet to be formed, on the Upper Mississippi, may surpass, us in numbers, wealth and political power. Should not one of the States, I have referred to, eventually become the most powerful, then Ohio must be, at the very head of our confederacy, forever.
Should our people, never settle the country, west of the Rocky Mountains, (though I feel assured, of a row of States, on the Pacific, equalling our Atlantic ones, within a century to come) yet there will be at no distant day, a tier of States, north north west and west, of Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas, which will eventually become populous, wealthy and powerful States.
To all human appearance the census of 1840 will place the national government in the hands of the people, in the valley of the Mississippi. To resist this event, would involve the necessity of preventing the revolution of the earth around the sun and upon its axis, and the whole course of nature. To mourn over it, involves the extreme folly of repining at the happy lot, of a majority of the nation and of our posterity forever. From the growth of this nation, the lover of liberty has nothing to fear, because
our people from their cradles are taught to be republicans. They are such, as if by instinct and all those principles which tend to make them MEN, are taught them from the first moment they see the light, breathe American air and taste their mothers' milk.
The efforts now making through schools, in order to train up the next generation, so as to be fit subjects of a government, solely in the hands of priests, who are to govern us through the church, will utterly fail of its objects, My own opinion is, that those objects when they come to be fairly spread before the people, will overthrow their infatuated authors. Our people are not they never can be any thing but republicans. Sweep away at one swoop, could it be done, every constitution of government and every republican institution among us, and we should instantly rear upon their ruins, other constitutions exactly like our present ones every republican institution would immediately follow, because they are founded on republican hearts. Originating in such fountains, these republican streams will flow until the end of time.
The only dangerous weapon to our liberties, is religious phrenzy, and the only sect now engaged in its operations, with a view to the final prostration of our liberties, will shortly unmask its battery and by that means save us from shedding rivers of blood at some future period. The sooner that gloomy sect display their true colors, so much the better for our beloved country.
In resuming my personal narrative, I have little to say about Edwardsville, where the reader left me. Its location is nine miles east of Alton, on the Mississippi, and twenty miles north of St. Louis.
The people of the town were healthful when I was there and they appeared to be an agreeable, well informed and moral community. It is a seat of justice, has a number of stores and taverns, and a suitable number of mechanics Lands are cheap in the vicinity, and fortunes might be made by farmers here.
Leaving this town after tarrying here two or three days. I passed rapidly across the state to Vincennes, in Indiana, where I arrived the third day from Edwardsville. The country between Edwardsville and Vincennes is mostly prairie, and thinly settled, I passed through several seats
of justice, and the capital of the state, but saw nothing worthy of remark on ray rout. The whole state, except in places where the water courses are, or the surface is very rough, abrupt, broken or greatly undulating, is one vast prairie. Its soil, on the surface, is nearly the same as the richest alluvial lands along the larger rivers, anywhere in the Union east of the Wabash river.
The same remarks might be made of all the country west of the Wabash, extending from the Mexican Gulph to the Frozen ocean. Parts of Louisiana, where the pine woods are, and also where some persons wish to locate all the Indians excepted. With the exceptions already made from the Wabash directly westward and from the Mississippi below latitude 37 degrees north, that whole region is one vast natural meadow. Its soil is as fertile as any lands can be, and when planted with trees, and cultivated by good husbandmen, it will furnish food enough for three hundred millions of people. Grass enough now grows there for all the tame animals, whose food is grass, now in the world.
This vast region, in its present state, is of little value, but the time will certainly arrive, when it will be covered by farms and animated by countless millions of domestic animals. There golden harvests will wave before every breath of air that moves over its surface there great and splendid cities will rear their tall and glittering spires, and there countless millions of happy human beings will live, and move, and display talents that will enoble man, and virtues that will adorn and render him happy.
The longest, the most durable and best rivers in the world, intersect and pass through this country, standing on whose banks, there will yet be some of the largest cities in the world. Comparatively speaking, but few persons in the world have ever beheld this country. No tongue, and no author have described it; but it is there it will be seen it will be described, and it will be settled, improved and occupied by countless millions of the human race. Its rivers will be cleared of the impediments to navigation, all the way to the Rocky mountains, the roaring of the guns of the steamers, the stage driver's horn, and the loud huzzas of happy throngs will soon be heard along all these rivers, and at the very foot of these mountains.
Infinite wisdom and infinite goodness never created on this earth, so fine a country as this, and to suppose for a moment that it will not be thickly settled, used and improved by unnumbered millions of men, involves so poor so contemptible an opinion of man, that I instantly and indignantly discard it from my mind.
Such an opinion sinks man even below the horse, the deer, the bison, the bear and the wolf, now roaming in unnumbered droves over this vast meadow. Hero every farmer in the world may become a freeholder, and live in rural bliss. No poor man in the eastern states, who has feet and legs, and can use them, has any excuse for remaining pour where he is a day, or even an hour. He who made him and gave him locomotive powers, created this country for his use and his benefit it has been given to him by God, who has commanded him to cultivate and enjoy it; and if he will continue to disobey this reasonable command, he deserves to suffer all he does through his own obstinate indolence, laziness and stupidity. Such a creature would starve in Paradise. He deserves no more pity than he would who complained for the want of light in the brilliancy of noon day, while he closed his eyes. The country is there, and he who has legs to walk with, can reach it, and when there, with his hands, he can cultivate enough of it with ease, to enrich himself and all his children after him. And there are thousands of spots, where the groves are where there are valuable mill sites where there are mines of lead of fossil coal of iron ore, and where there will be ferries, the possession and ownership of which, for a mere trifle too, would be an independent fortune for several generations. Will the poor man in the Atlantic states tarry where he is, until some wealthy eastern nabob discovers and purchases these now unoccupied mill sites, groves, mines and ferries? If so, let him suffer and linger and groan, whine and complain in vain where he is. If he will not come to this country, he can hardly expect the country will come to him. If he deserve the name of MAN and be poor, here is the country, intended by his, Creator, for his HOME.
Stands on the east bank of the Wabash, surrounded by fertile lands. It is an old town, for the western country, having been settled about the same time with St. Louis, Rock island, Prairie Du Chien, and Kaskaskia, as I have already stated in a former page. Vincennes contains more than fifteen hundred people, who certainly appear very well to a stranger. The houses were mostly new ones, and every thing I saw here made a very favorable impression I tarried at CLARK'S MOTEL, and take a pleasure in recommending the house to other travellers,
Leaving this beautiful town in the stage for Louisville, I reached that town in two days. The first twenty miles from Vincennes, was over a good road and through a delightful country the remainder of the rout was over as undulating a surface as I ever saw.
Indiana is rapidly setting with an excellent population. The face of the country is undergoing a change in its external appearance the forest is disappearing before the industrious husbandman the state of society, considering the newness of the country, is good, and in numbers, wealth and improvements of all kinds, Indiana is only ten, or at most, only about twelve years behind Ohio. Next to the latter, Indiana is most rapidly improving of any western state, at this moment. To any one emigrating from the Atlantic states westwardly though Ohio would best suit him, in all respects, yet Indiana is decidedly next in advantages of all sorts. The soil and climate are about the same in both states the people nearly the same, and their interests, feelings and views, precisely the same. These states may be considered as Pennsylvania and Maryland, extended from the Atlantic ocean to the Wabash river. They are one and the same people, and so may they ever act and feel towards each other, in Congress at home and abroad.
Unless I am grossly deceived in my views of the people of these four states, I can safely predict, that they will never cross the Delaware, nor the Potomac for a chief magistrate certainly not the former, at all events.
Kentucky kind, friendly, hospitable Kentucky, will always travel the same road with us.
South of the Potomac, a dangerous sect of nullifiers has arisen, whose real object is an union with England, and a separation from the union of the states. This strange infatuation is not as dangerous to us in the west, as it is to themselves. That the leaders of this sect have a perfect understanding with the monarchists of Europe, I have reason to believe, but like all former attempts, from the same quarter, it will fail to accomplish its nefarious purposes. The evils of which they complain, are ideal in part, and all that is not so, originates either in their own bad management of their own private affairs, or in the poorness of the soil they cultivate compared with ours in the fruitful and widespread valley of the Mississippi, to which their ambitious young men should emigrate, as the enterprising young men of the north are doing daily in great numbers.
Leaving Louisville, the next day after my arrival, in a steam boat I arrived at Cincinnati the same day, and gladly set my feet on the soil of Ohio once more. This was on the 24th day of September, 1829.
Between Louisville and Cincinnati, 50 miles above the former and 100 below the latter stands the beautiful town of Madison, on the north side of the river. It contains more than 100 beautiful brick houses a suitable number of stores and taverns, and is a very thriving town.
Vevay, with its beautiful vineyards, is higher up the river, on the same side with Madison. The Indiana side of the river is fast improving.
Forty miles below Cincinnati on the Kentucky shore, resides Col. ROBERT PIATT, His farm is one of the best on the whole river his orchard is stored with the best fruit, and he and his family are the best people in the country. His house is within a few rods of the river, and only about six miles from "big bone lick," in Kentucky. At that lick large quantities of bones have been dug up at different times, belonging to the great mastodon of Cuvier the Asiatic elephant the megalonix, and latterly of the common horse. No naturalist should ever pass by without calling to see this celebrated place. Col. Piatts' is the proper place of debarkation, for such as wish to visit it.
As I passed down the Ohio, from Maysville, on my tour. I omitted to notice AUGUSTA, a beautiful town of Kentucky. By inserting here an answer to my inquiries, addressed to Gen. PAYNE, of that place, I feel sure of pleasing all my readers. Gen. Payne, is a lawyer of high standing in his profession, and as a man.
"Augusta, is the seat of Justice, of Bracken county, stands on an elevated bottom of the Ohio river, forty five miles above Cincinnati, eighteen below Maysville, fifty six feet above low water mark the town covers six hundred acres, containing about eight hundred inhabitants, nine retail stores, one tavern, one Methodist, and one Presbyterian Meeting house one steam manufactory of flour, three hat manufactories, two cabinet shops, one tan yard, one black smith, one silver smith, three physicians, four lawyers.
Augusta College is here, averaging each session, from 130 to 160 students, authorized to confer degrees usual in Colleges. Rev. Martin Ruter, D. D., President, and Professor of Oriental languages. Belles letters, &c. Rev. Joseph S. Tomlinson, M. A. Professor of Mathematics. Rev. John P. Derbin, M. A., Professor of Languages and Geology. Rev. Henry B. Bascom, M. A, Professor of Moral Science, Frederick A. W. M. Davis, M. D., Professor of Chymistry, besides Preceptors, Tutors, &c., The library contains about 1500 volumes, and a good Philosophical and Chymical, Apparatus.
The bottom when first settled, was covered with the largest trees of the forest. Human bones were found in all parts of it, apparently, regularly buried. In one cellar, sixty by seventy feet, in extent, upwards of 100 skeletons were taken out, not promiscuously thrown in, but evidently regularly buried, lying north and south. Frequently stones were set up on each side, the full length of the skeleton the bones in a tolerable state of preservation, many would crumble considerably, when exposed to the air, but many remained entire, of the ordinary size; the skeletons had high cheek bones, the teeth were generally well preserved. This cellar was my own, and dug under my own inspection. The situation of the town, is proverbially healthy. It is 100 miles from Columbus, as
the road runs 75 from Frankfort, and there are six steam grist mills, within eight miles of it.
For the above facts, I will vouch,
On my arrival from the steamer, at Cincinnati, I met numerous friends, on the landing, and in Main street, who informed me, of passing events, of which I had remained as ignorant, as if I had been in China, ever since I left the State. Anxious to see my family, I took a passage in a private carriage next morning, and went as far as Lebanon, the seat of Justice for Warren county, Ohio, thirty miles from Cincinnati.
LEBANON, is situated four miles west of the little Miami, and a few miles east of the Miami canal. It contains, perhaps 1000 inhabitants, who are a moral, industrious, well informed people. Its latitude is 39 degrees, 25 minutes, and is about 7 degrees, west from Washington.
The country about it, is as fertile as need be, and well cultivated, and well settled by a good people, who are as happy as any farmers can be any where. The country is well watered too, consisting of land, rather undulating. The people are wealthy, and at their ease upon their own lands.
Like all the Miami country, fruit trees flourish here, and great attention is bestowed on their culture.
The people bestow great attention on the education of their children.
What is generally termed the Miami country, having the great Miami river, for its centre, is one hundred miles in length, from north to south, and about eighty miles in breadth, from east to west. It comprehends within it, a strip, of Indiana, and the whole of it, for so large a tract of land, lying in one body, is the most fertile region for its size, to be found any where in the Union. Within it, are located the towns of Bellefontaine, Urbana, Springfield, Xenia, Dayton, Hamilton and Cincinnati, east of the great Miami river. On the west side of this river, lie Troy, Greenville and Eaton, in the State of Ohio, and
several towns, in Indiana, and all of them are flourishing and beautiful towns. Dayton contains more than 3000 inhabitants, located at the head of the Miami canal. It is rapidly rising up into importance, and will soon contain 10,000 inhabitants.
Springfield is situated on a side hill, and is one of the most romantic and beautiful towns in the State. The National road passes through it, from east to west.
Hamilton and Rossville, lying on opposite sides of the great Miami, are connected by an excellent bridge.
These are beautiful and thriving places. They are about 25 miles north west of Cincinnati. Hamilton is the seat of Justice, for Butler county. The town is connected with the Canal, by the largest and the best Canal basin, in the Union.
The Yellow Springs, situated nine miles north of Xenia, and the same distance south of Springfield, on the great mail route, from Columbus to Cincinnati, are quite celebrated as a watering place in summer, Mr. MILLS, the proprietor of these springs, has been at a great expense to furnish accommodations for his guests. It is a delightful place, at all seasons of the year.
The character of the people, is exactly the same, every where, in the whole Miami country they are an intelligent, industrious, enterprising, moral and friendly people, none more so, any where. Go where you will among them, and you will find no vicious people, or if any chance to go there, they will soon leave it, because they will not be encouraged to tarry there.
Strangers are always pleased with this people, and there is more hospitality in this section of the State, than in any part of it, where I travel.
Oxford University, is situated in this Section of country, a few miles from Hamilton. It is raging in reputation and usefulness, though, like all other similar Institutions, in the State, it needs funds.
There is an unreasonable prejudice against our Colleges. They are considered by ignorant people, as nurseries of aristocracy, whereas they are exactly the reverse. Our laws, regulating descents, will forever keep down aristocracy and our higher institutions of learning, are open to the poor, as well as the rich man's son.
These Colleges furnish competent teachers to our common schools, located near every poor man's door, in which his children can be well educated. From these fountains streams are running constantly, irrigating and fertilizing the whole field of life. The College is the poor man's best friend, and I regret, that they are not looked upon as such, by every man in Ohio.
I say this from no selfish motive, because no citizen of this State, has had fewer favors of any kind from them, than he who writes these lines. I never asked, nor received any favor from them in my life and I feel assured I never shall. Degrees conferred by them, confer no honor, because bestowed generally on men, entirely undeserving of them. I regret it, because it operates powerfully against these institutions, among the people. I am speaking of Colleges in Ohio, and of no others. Colleges in the States, east of the mountains, are older than ours, better endowed, better regulated, controlled by able directors, and furnished with able teachers, in every branch of literature and science. Let us hope ours will be like them, at some future day.
Leaving Lebanon, early in the morning, we passed through Clinton and Fayette counties, and the western part of Pickaway county, and arrived at Circleville, the third day from Cincinnati, about mid-day the distance is one hundred miles, over a beautiful country.
Wilmington is the seat of justice for Clinton county, and contains more than 600 inhabitants. It was laid out in 1810. It is a thriving town, and settled by excellent people.
Washington is the seat of Justice for Fayette county, and is nearly of the size of Wilmington.
Circleville, is the seat of Justice, for Pickaway county, and contains, at this time, about 1400 inhabitants. The Ohio grand Canal, passes through the western edge of the town, to its lower end, when turning west, it crosses the Scioto river, on an aqueduct, about thirty rods in length. This Canal is navigated by boats, constantly, from Lake Erie, to Chillicothe, a distance of about 260 miles.
The town is rapidly growing up, and will soon contain 5000 inhabitants.
Circleville, will soon be, to our Canal, what Rochester is to the New York, Canal.
The Scioto country, from Chillicothe to Delaware inclusive, a distance of seventy miles from south to north, is equal in fertility, to any portion of the earth's surface. In summer, when covered with grass and grain, of all sorts, which this delightful climate produces, the Scioto country, is, in appearance, a perfect paradise. Thirty years ago, natural meadows existed, in this region, of considerable extent. Having long been acquainted with these prairies, and having too, carefully examined them, both above and below their surface, I will, without other introduction, lay a few remarks upon them before the reader.Prairies in Ohio.
There are two species of natural meadow in Ohio, in popular language, called Prairies. The name is derived from the early French travelers; who, in their own language, called them Prairies, or meadows. They are clothed with tall grass and flowering plants in the spring, summer and autumnal months, and on the whole, produce an aspect, in those months, on a first view, very agreeable. It must be confessed though, from their uniformity and sameness, having few or no hills in them, that their beauties soon become tiresome to the weary traveler, when traverses these plains; for such is their uniformity in appearance, that after riding all day across them, on looking around us at night, we fancy ourselves exactly where we started in the morning.
WET PRAIRIES, generally, have a rivulet winding its devious way through them. Its waters are of a reddish hue, of a disagreeable flavor to the taste, and unfit for the use of man. They are sometimes very wet and miry, and it is not uncommon for many of them, during the winter and spring, to be covered with water to a considerable depth. Lying, as they do, either on almost a dead level, or surrounded by higher grounds, the water which accumulates on their surface, runs off slowly, while the main body of it is left, either to stagnate, or to evaporate, under the influence of a summer's sun.
On the north side of Circleville, commences a wet prairie, extending northwardly, several miles. In width from east to west, it averages from half a mile, to one mile. Its descent, towards the south, is about one foot in a mile, as ascertained by a competent engineer, employed for that purpose, by our Canal Commissioners. The Ohio and Lake Erie Grand Canal, passes through it from north to south. A small rivulet winds its way, from near its centre, towards its south western corner, where it finds itself in the bottom lands near Hargur creek; and a similar rivulet discharges its turbid waters into the Scioto river, near the north western corner of this natural meadow. Near its centre, is its highest elevation, owing to the mouth of "dry run," being discharged there, from the east. A ridge of land of considerable elevation, in some places, separates this prairie from the Scioto on the West, the river being from one fourth to a half mile distant from its western edge. These particulars must supply the absence of an accompanying map.
Several years since, for the double purposes of making a fence, and of draining a portion of these wet lands, a ditch was dug in them of considerable length, and from appearance, I should say, it was four feet wide, and as many in depth. By examining this ditch, while the digging was going on, as well as the materials excavated from it, I ascertained that this prairie contained a great abundance of peat. I have specimens of it in my possession, which burn briskly, and produce a good degree of heat. Its quality is of the very best species; it exists in quantities entirely sufficient, amply to supply with fuel the surrounding country, for ages yet to come. It is composed of fibres, and is of that species called "compact." Similar peat exists in a prairie through which the main road from this town to Columbus passes, six miles south of the State Capitol. It exists in all the wet prairies, which I examined for it in this county, and in those of Madison, Champaign, Clark and Montgomery. In December, 1814, I found it in the wet prairie, adjoining to, and east of the town of Urbana. While on the same tour, I saw similar peat in the prairie skirting the Mad river, from near to Springfield, Clark county, almost all the way to Dayton, situate at the confluence of Mad river, with the Great
Miami. The prairie north of Circleville, appears to have once been the bed of some considerable stream, the Scioto river, perhaps. In some places, it is four feet from the present surface, to the ancient one. On the latter, once stood a thick forest of white cedar trees; these trees now lie on the ancient surface, in different stages of decay. Some of them appear to have been broken down by violence, others were turned up with their roots entire, while others seem to have mouldered away, and died of old age. l have a fragment of one of these trees  , which has on it, evident marks of an axe, or of some other sharp edged tool. From its appearance, since the axe was applied to it, this fragment must have lain many, very many, centuries in the earth, where it was disinterred four feet below the present surface. There can be but little doubt, but that the axe used, was owned by one of the people, who erected the ancient works here. The whole prairie was once a cedar swamp; and from undoubted sources of information, lam satisfied that many of our wet prairies were once cedar swamps also. Near Royalton, in Fairfield county, and in several places in the western part of this county; and, also, in Warren county, similar proofs of the former existence of cedar groves in wet prairies, have been discovered. Time, and the accumulation of a deep soil, on the former surface, have made these prairies what they are.
I have seen the bones of deer and other animals reposing on the ancient surface of these natural meadows; and I confidently expect to be able to find here, in great numbers the bones of the great mastodon of CUVIER. The bones of that animal, found near Jackson Court house, in this State, were discovered on the ancient surface of a wet, prairie. A tooth in my possession, disinterred in the bank of "Plumb run," three miles west of me, was discovered in a situation exactly similar. Many persons seem to have adopted the idea, that the mammoths found in such places, were mired there and thus lost their lives. That individuals of that family, might have thus died, no one will pretend to doubt; but all the remains of that animal, discovered in Ohio, so far as I know, seem to have belonged to
such as died a natural death; their bones having been scattered about in confusion, in a manner entirely similar to those of our domestic animals which die of old age or disease. I know of no one whole skeleton of that animal's being found in this state, though parts of them, especially the teeth, are very often discovered. They are washed out of the banks of small streams, passing through wet prairies. The teeth of the animal being less destructible than other parts of the skeleton, may be the reason why these are so often found; yet, I suspect that by examining the earth around where the teeth are procured, whole skeletons might be discovered or nearly whole ones. It is true that teeth of the mastodon are frequently found in and about Pickaway Plains, lying on the present surface of the earth; but these were doubtless brought and left where they are by the Indians . These teeth thus found, were near the dwelling houses of the aborigines, and no search has been made for the remaining parts of the skeletons.
Where teeth are found in situ, further search ought always to be made, which would doubtless lead to the discovery of other relics, highly valuable. At the time when our wet prairies were cedar swamps, and presented almost impenetrable thickets, it is evident enough that they were frequented by the great mastodon and other wild animals; and that man was here also, then, or very soon afterwards, appears equally evident from the marks he has left, of his labor and his art, on the fragment of a tree, above mentioned.
The fear of rendering myself tedious to the reader, admonishes me to quit the ancient abode of the mammoth, and describe
THE DRY PRAIRIES. They are not, as in Kentucky, underlaid with lime stone; nor have we, in this part of Ohio, any barrens thus underlaid. Ours are, so far as I know and believe, in appearance like the bottom lands along our streams. The surface is a rich, black, deep loam, underlaid with pebbles, which are water worn, rounded
and smoothed. Many of these natural meadows, lie high above any stream of water now, or probably ever in existence. If we have any tracts in Ohio, very properly denominated DILUVIUM, Pickaway Plains, three miles below Circleville, belong to that class of formations. This is a dry prairie, or rather was one not many years since. This prairie is about seven miles long, and nearly three miles broad. It was in this plain that a human skeleton was dug up, which circumstance was mentioned by me in a former volume of Silliman's Journal, to which I refer the reader. The works of man too are often found in such prairies, at a great depth in the earth. Such natural meadows, being for the most part, destitute of trees, has induced superficial persons, (who never reflect, and who are too indolent to examine into the real facts in the case,) to conclude that fires had been employed by the aboriginals to produce that effect! The formation of these diluvian plains is entirely different from that of the country around them; as much so beneath the surface as above it. In tracts of country, denuded of trees by fire, briars and bushes, forthwith, appear in their stead. In fact, the growth of grass and flowering plants, which cover these delightful plains, is abundantly able to prevent the taking root, of almost any forest tree. The falling of a walnut, an acron, or the seed of any other tree, is hardly sufficient to disturb the possession of the present occupants of these ancient domains. The plumb sometimes gets a foot hold in them: and the delicious sweet prairie grape is sure to take advantage of the circumstance, and climb up to, and cover the tops of the plumb bushes with its vines, its leaves and its clusters of purple fruit in due season.
Besides, had fires destroyed the trees on Pickaway Plains charcoal would have been discovered there, which is not the case, although the land, has been cultivated with the plow, during from fifteen to twenty years past.
Charcoal is as indestructible, almost, as the diamond itself, where it is not exposed to the action of the atmosphere. On a surface so large, as that occupied by these Plains, it is hardly possible, if they had been denuded of their woods by fire, that no charcoal should have been found. With me, this argument is entirely a conclusive one.
The botany of these natural meadows is rich, and would afford matter enough for a volume. A Torrey, a Nuttall, a Mitchill, a Muhlenburgh, a Barton, an Elliott, or even a Linnaeus, might here usefully employ himself for years, without exhausting his subject, or gathering all the harvest which these vast fields present. It appears to me, that our botanists have neglected our prairies; but let us hope, that the day is not far distant, when some future Linnaeus will appear in them. If the field is vast, and the laborers are few, the harvest of fame will be the richer.
Among the flowering plants, growing in them, the helianthus offers, perhaps, the greatest number of varieties.
From a careful examination of our prairies, wet and dry, I am satisfied that the dry ones are the most ancient, of the two that fires produced neither of them that in their natural state, a luxuriant vegetation is raising their present surface, every year; that the dry ones are extremely valuable for cultivation, and that the wet ones will, at no very distant day, furnish us with an abundance of fuel, in a country but thinly timbered, indeed almost destitute of wood, and without fossil coal, so common in our hilly region. If, as it is known to be the fact, our hilly region be well supplied with iron, atone, and other useful minerals, together with salt water, nature has supplied the same region with inexhaustible stores of coal, for their manufacture. If the level parts of this State, where the dry prairies abound, contain large tracts of rich land, the time is at hand, when they will be covered with well cultivated farms, where the rich harvests will wave, and where naturalized grasses will afford food for large flocks of domestic animals. This state consists either of Plains, extremely fertile, or of hills, rich in minerals; the husbandman will dwell in the former, whilst the manufacturer will take up his abode in the latter.
After tarrying at home, a few days, I left it, in the stage and arrived at Zanesville, the same evening, the distance is fifty eight miles. To arrive here, I passed through Lancaster and Somerset, seats of Justice for Fairfield and Perry counties, which I will describe on my return from Washington, to which I must hasten my journey. But before I leave this town, which I will hereafter describe, it seems entirely proper to make a few remarks on the climate, atmospheric
phenomena, and geology of Ohio. Such readers as feel no interest in such subjects, will pass on to the Alleghany fountains, where they may be better entertained, by a description, drawn up in popular language, for the express purpose of pleasing the common reader, who hates scientific terms, but loves a verbose style of writing.Climate.
It is known that Ohio is wholly a secondary, diluvial or alluvial country. From the very nature of all secondary countries, there must be large tracts of alluvion. The streams have few rapids in them, are not very straight in their courses, are apt to overflow their banks, run slowly, and are apt to fail in the summer and autumnal months. The Botany of such countries is rich, like the soil which produces it the water not very pure, and the air at particular seasons bad. To a Geologist, the reasons why these things are so, are plain.
Liver complaints are so common here, that almost every individual is more or less affected in that way during some part of the year.
As I have traveled over a considerable territory, I have noticed a fact, which I do not recollect to have seen mentioned by any author. Every summer and autumn, particular tracts of country, sometimes large and sometimes small, begin, just before sunset, to emit, from the surface of the earth, a mist, which continues to rise until it becomes quite dense, and is nut dispelled until the heat of the sun chases it away on the ensuing morning. Its smell is extremely nauseous and it produces, alter a few days, agues and fevers. This mist rises from alluvial soil, along our streams, and in our prairies, and the warmer the day, and the shorter the grass, and the less the vegetation, so much the worse. So sure an index of ill health, is this mist, that I am able, from its presence or absence, during the months of August, September and October, in any region which I visit in the southern part of the State, to ascertain the health of the inhabitants, whether good or bad. The fog arising from running waters compared with this deleterious mist, is harmless, because, when a person is exposed to it, and puts
on woolen garments as a protection against the dampness of the atmosphere, no injury is sustained.
This mist usually ascends from alluvion, but in some years it is termed almost wholly in the hilly region. Thus it happens, that in some seasons, the sickness is confined to towns situated on the banks of rivers, and in our prairies; whereas, in other years, these places are very healthy, and the sickness is confined to hilly regions. There has been a remarkable uniformity in these instances, and natural causes frequently operate on a large scale, much larger, many times, than we seem willing to admit.Atmospheric Phenomenon.
Before a storm here, I have often noticed, in an evening of the latter part of autumn, and sometimes in the winter, a phenomenon not recollected by me to have been seen on the east side of the Alleghanies: Some one spot or spots near the horizon, in a cloudy night, appeared so lighted up, that the common people believed there was some great fire in the direction from which the light came, I have seen at once, two or three luminous spots, not far from each other; generally there is but one, and a storm invariably proceeding from the same point near the horizon, succeeds in a few hours.Reliquiae Diluvianae.
These are so numerous in this state, that it will not be expected that I should do more, than mention a few of them, and the places where they are found. If one tree furnisher Mr Schoolcraft matter for an interesting and valuable memoir, how shall I condense my remarks, so as even to refer to the great number of similar facts existing in Ohio? In the vicinity at the Ohio river, in the counties of Washington, Meigs, Gallia and Lawrence, and on the waters of the Muskingum and Perry counties, I have carefully examined not a few of the fossil trees, there existing. Among them I noticed the following, (viz:) Black oak, Mack walnut, sycamore or button wood, white birch, sugar maple (acer saccharinum) the dale tree or bread fruit tree, cocoanut bearing palm, the bamboo, the dogwood, and I have in my possession, the perfect impression of the cassia and the
tea leaf! Of ferns I have beautiful impressions of the leaves, and of the bread fruit tree, flowers fully expanded, fresh and entire! I have specimens so perfect, and so faithful to nature, as to dispel all doubts as to what they once were. The larger trees are found mostly in sandstone, although the bark of the date tree, much flattened, I ought to say perfectly so, is found in shale, covering coal. I am aware that a mere catalogue of fossil trees, shrubs and plants, is not very interesting that the Geologist wishes to know among many particulars "in what formation they exist, and the exact spot where they are found." I am in possession of all these particulars. Every stratum from the surface downwards, has been carefully measured, in some places, to the depth of four hundred feet, and I have correct diagrams. The dare is a large tree, not very tall, and having numerous and wide spreading branches. Nine miles west of Zanesville, lying on the brink of Jonathan's creek, and near the road leading to Somerset, Lancaster and Circleville, the body of a bread fruit tree, now turned to sandstone, may be seen. It is exactly such sandstone as M. Brogniart found the tropical plants imbedded in, in France. It contains a considerable quantity of mica in its composition. The cassia was found in such sandstone, in the Zanesville canal The bamboo is mostly impressed upon iron-stone, at Zanesville; the roots, the trunk and the leaves, are found in micaceous sandstone. The iron stone is sometimes, apparently made of bamboo leaves, the leaves of fern and bamboo roots. It happens frequently, that the trunks of small trees and plants are flattened by pressure, and the bark of them partially turned into fossil coal. Thus the shale often contains a bark, now become fossil coal, and a stratum of shale in succession, alternately, for several inches in thickness.
Before I leave Zanesville, I wish to make a passing remark or two, on the subject of finding the fossil remains of tropical plants here. The date, the bamboo, the cocoanut-bearing palm, the cassia, the tea plant, &c. are found at this day only in tropical regions, or in a climate where there is very little frost. At Zanesville, so severe is the winter at present, that the mercury sinks several degrees below zero.
Two questions naturally present themselves to the mind -has our climate become colder than formerly? or have
the tropical plants changed their nature? It is known that several tropical plants have by degrees been removed, farther to the north, and at length became naturalized to a northern climate. I refer particularly to the palma christi. But where is the plant which has been driven from our latitude to Cuba? I know of none. Has the climate of the world generally become colder, then? I say generally, for some countries probably have. Some writers suppose that the climate of England has changed in this manner. We have good evidence that during eighteen hundred years past, the climate of Rome and Palestine has undergone a great change, as the writings of Horace, Virgil and others of the Augustan age, clearly evince.
"Soracte; nec jam sustineant onus
"Silvae laborantes; geluque,
"Flumina, constiterint acuto?
"Dissolve frigus, ligna super foco
What a picture of the winter which prevailed at Rome in the Augustan age? Such a picture would now best suit the meridian of Quebec. In another passage of the same author, we learn that the snow was so deep near Rome, that the deer pushed it aside with their breasts, as they were pursued by the dogs. Who now sees the roofs of houses at Rome, or even in Paris, ready to break down with snow? In David's time there was snow in Palestine, and allusions to frost, snow and hail are frequently found in the Psalms and in the writings of the prophets. The inhabitants of Palestine are no longer in the habit of attacking lions in their dens "on a snowy day," for no such days now exist in that country. But Italy and Gaul and Germany, and indeed all Europe are no more what they were in the days of David, of Horace and Virgil. Those vast forests which formerly generated so much moisture, cold weather, snow, hail and rain, are swept away by the hand of man, and the climate is meliorated. But no such cause has operated here, and the fact being ascertained, that tropical plants and animals once existed all over the world, clearly proves that a tropical climate was equally extensive.
The supposition that these tropical plants were transported northward by the ocean, unfortunately for such an opinion,
is disproved by the fact that some of these trees, or rather roots and a part of their trunks, stand upright evidently on the spot where they grew, and others, with every root entire, lie to appearance exactly where they fell when turned up by the roots. Again, if floated from tropical regions, how happens it that their flowers were uninjured? These show all their original beauty of form; they are fully expanded, and could not have been transported from any considerable distance. Scarcely a day could have intervened between the period in which they were in full bloom, and that in which, by that catastrophe which long since overwhelmed our globe, they were "embalmed" in the places where they are now found.
If we suppose quite the largest portion of our globe to be water, and we have no reasons to come to any other conclusion (if we except to opinions, without proof, and even contrary to all evidence) and that the eastern and western continents and their islandic appendages, lie in the waters of the ocean, like two icebergs in the sea, it is easy enough to understand, that whenever, and by whatever means, the centre of gravity is lost. which now keeps these continents exactly where they are, a revolution of these continents will take place almost instantly. By this catastrophe, the earth would be swept of all its land animals, who would all perish, except such as happened to be on the earth where the two new poles would be formed, at the moment when the event happened.
If all the rivers run in the same direction, and all the currents in the ocean also, not only every sea, and every ocean, but every river, every brook and every rill, and even every shower of either rain, snow or hail nay, every dew would hasten on another grand catastrophe of this globe. But the rivers do not all run in the same, but opposite directions. The Red River of Hudson's Bay runs northwardly, the Mississippi and its branches southwardly. The waters of the northern lakes northeastwardly the current in the ocean along our Atlantic coast in the same direction. The streams issuing from the bases of the Alleghanies and the Rocky Mountains, run in opposite directions. Wherever mountain streams are shorter in their courses on one side of a mountain, than on the other side, their descent is greater than the rivers on the
opposite side of their common sources; and the shorter rivets bear along in their currents an equal weight of matter with the longer and larger rivers. This is true, probably, of all the rivers in the world, and where not so, a current in an adjacent ocean makes up the deficiency, I have been long since surprised that no author had noticed this exhibition of wisdom, in the formation of mountains and rivers.
I will not say, that formerly, catastrophes of the globe have been effected, by the running of rivers, which carried along in their currents such a weight of matter, as, by that means to change the centre of gravity in the earth, and to produce any one of the awful catastrophes, which have several times overwhelmed our world, with temporary ruin and desolation. All I say, is, that by exactly such means, it might have been effected, almost in a moment, and all the effects of such a revolution, are visible, all over the world. Every portion of the earth, by such means, might have been, at some day, a tropical region, and productive of tropical plants. These ideas are not new ones with me, who have long since suggested them in print, and in private conversation. I throw out these remarks for the reflection of wiser heads than mine and who hold abler pens too, in their hands.
But if such persons, will not take them into their consideration, then these remarks may amuse some leisure moments, of some reader, worn down by the severe labors of the day, when he is seated by a good fire, in a warm room, of a winter's long night, surrounded by his innocent children, and his cheerful wife. To such men, on such occasions, and so surrounded, I commend the foregoing remarks, and indeed, my whole volume.Primitive Rocks in Ohio.
Bordering on the Ohio river, in the State of Ohio, is a hilly region, which covers, perhaps, one third part of the surface of the state. Above these hills, towards Lake Erie, primitive rocks are found, such as granite, gneiss, mica slate, with imbedded garnets, &c. It is often asked, how these rocks came here? and from whence were they conveyed!
That they are out of place, in a region decidedly secondary and diluvial, no one can doubt. They are waterworn, rounded and smoothed exactly like the pebbles in our alluvial soils, and like them they have been abraded by the stones with which they have come in contact, aided by the waters in which they have been immersed. That they have been brought hither from the north, north-west and north-east, appears from the following considerations; 1. They exactly resemble the primitive rocks found, in several instances, on the shores of Lake Superior, and on the north side of Lake Ontario. 2. As we procced northwardly from the hilly region above mentioned, they increase both in number and size. I have seen several of them on the northern side of the hilly region about Hills borough, in Highland county, but I never saw any on the southern side of this region, except in the form of pebbles, in beds of rivers passing through the country where the larger masses exist. These rocks abound most in vallies, which now are, or appear to have been beds of streams. Thus in the bed of the Whetstone, below the town of Delaware, large rocks of this class are seen reposing on lime stone. The latter rock is in situ, and abounds in shells, The stream (the Whetstone) has worn itself a channel, in some places very deep, through clay slate, until it has been checked in its progress downwards by a very hard, compact limestone. In the barrens (improperly so called) in Madison county, none but primitive rocks are found, and they are used for chimneys, and for the underpinnings of buildings. They are sometimes used for mill stones, and one fragment was so large as to make three mill stones. But by what means were they conveyed to the places where they now are? Water was undoubtedly the agent. Some persons have supposed that volcanoes have thrown them upon large bodies of floating ice! and the theorist has, in order to support this view, only to cover the valley of the Mississippi, and, indeed, the American continent with water, and then to form a current in the ocean from north to south, or from the north-east to south-west. But it is unphilosophical to look for more causes than are necessary. Readers acquainted with the voyages of polar navigators, need not be told that the icebergs sometimes adhere to the rocks at the bottom of the sea, and that great winds and
powerful waves break up the icebergs, to the lower surfaces of which, rocks adhere and that they are thus transported, until, by the dissolution of the icebergs, they are precipitated to the bottom of the sea wherever they may happen at the moment to be. Indeed, we see the same thing annually happen on a small scale, on the breaking up of the ice where it adheres to the beds of the streams. That the valley of the Mississippi was deposited by water, and that it is one vast cemetry of the beings of ages past, is proved by almost every rock found in this region. Primitive rocks are found in Indiana and Illinois, north of their hilly region, as in Ohio. They are also found in the state of New York, south of Lake Ontario in a country geologically similar in all important respects to Ohio, Indiana and Illinois.Cumberland Road and Alleghany Mountains.
Leaving Zanesville, in the stage, at two o'clock in the morning, I was rapidly carried forward to Wheeling, on the Virginia side of the Ohio river distance seventy odd miles.
The road had been recently completed by the United States, and was, and still is, one of the finest roads in the Union.
Landing at Wheeling, and stopping at the Stage House. I fell into the company of several excellent persons, Dr. Caldwell and others, whom I was happy to meet here. Wheeling contains eight thousand inhabitants, who are exactly like the people of Ohio.
There is a narrow strip of land, belonging to Virginia, between Pennsylvania and the Ohio river, and Wheeling is the principal town on this narrow strip of territory. This country was settled before the revolutionary war, and occupied by a sparse population, during that war. It was then a frontier, exposed to all the ravages of Indian warfare, and defended only, by the hardy backwoodsmen, whose offspring, are among the first men in the State of Ohio. The Wells', the Doddridges, the Holmes', the Hammonds, the Barrs, the Beatties, the Williamsons, the Boggs' and a long list of names, are deeply impressed on my memory and on my heart. Scattered all over Ohio, they are every where, men of business, industrious, active, vigorous in body and mind; in easy circumstances to live, and always have occupied a high standing in society. All they inherited from their parents, were strong
powers of body and of mind, virtuous principles, and industrious habits. To polished manners, acquired by an intercourse with good society, (reader, such manners can be acquired in no place else,) goodness of heart is added. I know them all, and they are all of them, my friends, I perfectly agree with them, in every republican principle, they all honestly adhere to, but they love Henry Clay, while I love Andrew Jackson, who, when a private citizen, loved me. "Pardon thy servant for this thing."
Leaving this town in the night in the stage, I arrived at Washington, Pa. in the morning, where we took breakfast.
Here the Eastern prices, at taverns, begin to be charged. Those who travel Eastward, from the State of Ohio go away from the stage house here, in a pet, not so, with those who come on from Washington city.
From an acquaintance of twenty years, with this house, and the benevolent, family, who occupy it, I can safely recommend it, to all well disposed persons of both sexes. Their uniform kindness, not only to myself, but to a deceased and amiable brother, has produced in my bosom, a warm and tasting friendship, for every member of the family of BRICELAND.
Leaving Washington, we rapidly passed onward, to Cumberland, in Maryland. Here I tarried a few hours, at the stage house owned by Mr. SHRIVER, who was THE SUPERINTENDANT OF THE CUMBERLAND ROAD. He does not keep the house, but he lives in a part of it, with his aged lady and interesting son, a fine, agreeable and good hearted young man. While at their house, I am always happy. I was introduced to many worthy citizens of this delightful town, and parted with them, as I always do, with regret, because I can tarry no longer, with them.
Moving onward, we stopped a few hours at Hagerstown, at the stage house, where we were treated as kindly as heart could even desire.
Moving forward again, we stopped at Talbot's, in Fredericktown, forty odd miles, West of Baltimore.
This place is equi-distant from Washington city and Baltimore. The stage to Washington, will not leave this place, for many hours, yet to come, I take a room, in this well conducted inn, which is furnished, in the best
manner. With an excellent pen, made ready for me, by the bar-keeper, and on fine paper, without, even a tinge, of any colour but a pure white, I will endeavour to lay before my readers, my views of the Alleghany mountains; aye, and while I think of it, the Rocky mountains too
During twenty years of my life, I have been acquainted with the Alleghenies, and have crossed them have travelled among them and upon them, from their Northern end, in Western New York, to North Carolina, inclusive. I have seen them, mostly in summer, but have crossed them in all seasons of the year, in all the modes of travelling, used by any one who has ever crossed them.
The view that I present of them, will be from choice, one that is merely popular, not scientific so I proceed to my task.
THE ALLEGHANY MOUNTAINS, lie from the Northeast, to the Southwest, parallel with the shore of the Atlantic ocean, like almost, every other geological boundary, on this part of North America. They rise in the Southern part of Western New York , and extend quite across, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee and into South Carolina, Georgia and Alabama. They present some of the grandest and most sublime features, of this globe. This chain of mountains, has been raised to its present elevated position, by a force of vast, and almost inconceivable power, operating upon, and beneath them; which force, has ceased to exert itself, in this part of our earth. These mountains consist of thousands of hills, (if the reader will pardon, that poor term, thus applied to lofty eminences, some of them, four thousand feet high, and whose diameter, at their base, is frequently, twenty miles or more.) They are composed of rocks, which when created, lay in horizontal strata, but, by the operation of a force, beneath them, have been elevated and thrown about in the same, utter confusion, where they now lie. Some of these elevations, present us with rocks, lying in one position, and some in another;
and I never saw but one hill, now lying in the exact position, where it was originally formed That unmoved hill, lies near the turnpike, on the way from Baltimore to Cumberland about one hundred miles West of the former place.
Had Milton resided near these mountains, or even seen them, some shrewd, wise and learned critic, would, long since, have accused that great poet, of borrowing his description in part, of the battle between the angels, from the aspect, which, the whole chain of the Alleghanies, offers to the spectator. The world would have agreed in opinion with the critic, and would have torn a sprig of laurel from the poets' brow.
These mountains, consisting of the fragments, of a former world, answer a thousand useful purposes to man. This lofty ridge, or rather, succession of ridges, about one hundred and fifty miles in width, from east to west in some places wider, and in others narrower, is elevated so high, and their base is so broad, that they arrest the further progress, westward, of those chilling, blighting, furious, and sometimes tremendous eastwardly storms; which, after having crossed the wide Atlantic, spread destruction among our shipping, on the sea coast, and produce disasters on the land. These mountains receive upon their brow, without injury to themselves, "the pitiless fury, of these pelting storms." It often happens, that while the Atlantic border, is assailed by all the horrors, which an Eastwardly storm can produce, the whole valley of the Mississippi, smiles in peace, without feeling even one gentle puff of air, from the East. There then, let the Alleghanies stand, to defend us from the rude Eastern blast.
In the same manner, the Alleghanies, put their veto, upon the further progress, in that direction of our South western storms, coming from the Mexican Gulf.
The great cavities in the earth, necessarily existing, among such vast fragments, thrown out of their original position; are so many reservoirs, into which, the waters, in every form of rain, snow, sleet and hail, descend. There they are preserved for future use, and poured out, Eastwardly and Westwardly, as they should be, to water the Atlantic States, and to irrigate and
fertilize the Western ones. The mean height of these mountains as a whole, I should suppose to be about 3000 feet above the surface of the ocean. I am satisfied, that I have been, on one elevation, in a beautiful moon light night, which was 4000 feet in height. Every object in the whole heavens, assumed an aspect of brilliancy and splendor, that I shall not attempt to describe. The purity of the air, its rarity and the clearness, with which, every object in view, is painted on the retina, of the eye, cannot be so described to any one, who never was placed so high above the common surface of the earth, that he would perfectly comprehend or believe me. The moon and every star, appeared to throw out flames of yellow fire, in waves, that exceeded any thing of the kind, I ever saw before or since. To behold such a sight, it is well worth, all the labor, of attaining to such an elevated height.
These mountains collect the water, that descends from the clouds, furnish reservoirs, in which it is kept, and from which, it is poured out, East and West as it is needed, to irrigate, fertilize and adorn the earth, with trees and plants, and to give drink and to afford food for man, bird, beast, fish and every animated being, whose home is, either in the water, on the land, or in the air, near the streams as they descend towards the sea.
These mountains are sufficiently elevated, to contain fountains and heads of rivers, with descent enough, in them, not only to carry off the waters to the sea, but to afford, thousands of sites for mills and every sort of machinery, used in manufactures. And these streams are as durable as the world itself.
These eminences, called the Alleghanies, thrown about in such utter confusion, with every possible inclination, towards the horizon, some descending towards the East, others towards the West, are so disposed of, as a whole, that the streams flowing from them, interlock each other. The head waters of the Alleghany river, for instance, rise in Pennsylvania, not a very great distance from the centre, of that State, and running into New York, quite around the North end of the Alleghany mountains, turn in a South Western direction, disliking New York, they pass through Pennsylvania,
and visiting Pittsburgh, descend into the Mexican Gulf, at the mouth of the Mississippi.
The great Western branch of the Susquehanna rises, fifty miles, perhaps, West of the head waters of the Alleghany, and running nearly parallel with the latter, finally enters the Chesapeake, near Baltimore. Another branch of the Alleghany interlocks, and runs parallel with the Juniata branch of the Susquehanna. The head waters of the Monongahela, interlock in the same manner, with the waters of the Potomac, and so of all other rivers, arising in these mountains, and descending from them, either East or West, into the sea. Their heads are near each other; they run side by side, for a considerable distance, offering to man, scites, where their constant force, can be used by him, and applied to a thousand useful purposes, until the end of time.
These mountains are shaded by groves of timber tree, equal in size, grandeur and usefulness, to any in the world. The pine, the oak, and indeed, almost every species of ship timber, except the live oak, here grow for the use of posterity, long after all our forest trees, in our whole country are swept away and destroyed.
These forests now shade, nourish, sustain but not always conceal from our view, great numbers of deer, bears, wolves, and other wild animals. As I walked over the very summit of Laurel hill, in October 1829, in a bright moon light night, to enjoy the resplendant scene, which the heavens, then showed me, a large deer, with lofty and wide branching horns, stood in the road before me, until I came close upon him; when, stamping with his foot, he showed me as little ceremony and no more respect, than an independent, Western farmer, would the courtiers and courtezans, who assemble in Washington every winter! Snorting and stamping at me, he took his latitude and departure, and in a few moments more, was off, out of my sight and hearing!
The Alleghanies contain inexhaustible stores of iron ore, of the best quality, and wood and coal enough, to manufacture this ore. On the eastern side of these mountains, we sometimes find the anthracite interspersed indeed, with the bituminous coal, while on the western side, the latter predominates. Of both species, there is enough and more
than enough, to supply this nation, with fuel, as long as the sun shines upon the globe. Here then in those mountains, are sources of natural wealth, of national prosperity, private and individual happiness, that will endure forever. The Alleghanies contain, not only reservoirs of water, for the use of a great number of people, but they are a vast store house, containing within it, all the elements, for the game people, of industry, in every modification of it, of wealth in all its shapes, of health, happiness and prosperity in all their forms and modes of existence, either corporeal, mental or mixed. Who then, can sufficiently admire and adore the Great Author of them, who has time created them, stored them with wealth, and castour happy lots near them?
Should the despots of Europe combined in arms transport all their armies across the Atlantic, to put down free government in this country, these mountains are the CITADEL, where liberty would take refuge, and rushing thence drive the invaders into the sea.
The Alleghanies stand as proud and lofty MONUMENTS of creative wisdom, goodness and power; they are stamped too, with characters so legible, that no human being, can fail to read and understand them and there they will stand forever. They offer the grandest, the most simple and sublime objects in the world, for the investigation of the geologist, mineralogist, botanist, and natural historian. Inhaling the purest mountain air, drinking the coolest, purest water, viewing too, the greatest variety of scenery from the mildest, the most peaceful and still, to the wildest, most rugged, abrupt, lofty or depressed, awful and sublime, among these mountains, the lover of nature, would here, during the summer months, acquire health, knowledge and happiness. To the scholar, the man of business of any sort, whether an industrious one, or an idler, these mountains hold out inducements to visit them, in summer, and ramble about among them, and use the gun, the fish-hook, the telescope, the thermometer, the compass and the barometer. Here, the corporeal powers and mental faculties, worn down by severe toil, might be improved and renovated. If the Tourist be an in valid, or feels anxious to enjoy the pleasures of good living, of polished society, consisting of both sexes, of all ages, the old and the young, the grave
and the gay, intelligent, polite, civil, friendly, kind, learned, manly, pious, active, vigorous, liberal, free from prejudices except such, as a republican cherishes in his heart and exhibits in all his intercourse with the world, CUMBERLAND, on the National Turnpike, or rather where it begins, HAGERSTOWN, and FREDERICKTOWN, in Maryland, all of them, or any one of them, may be his home, during the Summer months. He will here find all he wants, and from these, places, he may see nature, either in her wildest, or most cultivated forms. Beauty and sublimity, in nature full that art can do, in agriculture, to improve the soil, the breed of domestic animals, and the growth of plants; all she can do, to prepare the mind of men and women, for the business of human life, as correct, appropriate, and necessary, for moral agents to pursue, the Tourist will find in near and about these towns. The morals and habits of the people, are as pure as their own mountain air and streams of cool water, and while the former will refresh his soul, the latter will renovate his body. To these places, and the country around them, to these people, and their habits, morals, customs, modes of thinking and acting, I commend all my readers.
On the western side of this continent, and from three, to six hundred miles from the eastern shore of the Pacific, and parallel with the Alleghanies, rise into view, THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS Though, as yet, but imperfectly known to us, but we do know, that they extend from latitude 50° degrees north, to latitude 30° north that in width, from East to West, they occupy about one hundred and fifty miles of longitude contain many valleys, one of which, passes quite through them send out many streams of pure water, which on the west side of the mountains, and at unequal distances from their sources, like our Atlantic rivers, have many falls and rapids in them that the streams running westwardly, are shorter, more durable, and better adapted to manufacturing purposes, than those are, that issue from the eastern base of these mountain. And we know also, that these mountains are shaded with forests, in many parts of their lofty summits and low valleys, and we doubt not, though we do not positively know the fact to be such, that these mountains contain ores and minerals which are valuable, and the necessary fuel, to aid in the manufacture of them
These mountains too, present a barrier, which protects and defends our Mississippi Valley, from the storms and winds, which sometimes, sweep, with destructive fury across the wide, the vast, but not always Pacific Ocean. They collect the water that descends from the heavens, in all its forms and modifications, keep it in reservoirs and pour it out, as it is needed, on both sides of them, to water the earth, fertilize and adorn its surface, and to afford drink and food, for man and all the inferior animals, that swim in the water, walk upon the earth, or fly in the air.
We also know, that somewhere on the head waters of the Missouri, there has been, and now is a volcano, in active and actual operation, because, every considerable rise of that river, brings down, floating on its surface, pumice stone, newly produced, in one of Nature's laboratories.
Such mountains, located as the Alleghanies and the Rocky Mountains are, in the interior of a continent, produce a coolness in the atmosphere, and send off currents of cool air, into the adjacent regions.
As the Rocky mountains are longer, so they are higher, by a great deal, than the Alleghanies, presenting their snowy white summits, to the spectator's view, at a great distance from their bases, near to which, on each side, the wide spread prairies, are covered with grasses, and flowering plants. Here the bisons and wild horses, in herds, and flocks, and droves, roam, and feed, grow, and fatten, all the year round.
But few men are seen here, because, who can dwell in a prairie, without a single shade tree, to protect him from the intense heat of the burning sun, in summer, or, from the intense cold, and piercing winds, in the winter? Why are there no trees here, in a soil, so rich, so fertile, consisting of black vegetable earth, to a great depth? If we suppose, that the prairie country is diluvial that grasses took possession of it, and completely covered it, before the seeds which produce trees, fell on its surface, it is easy to conceive, that if any seeds of large forest trees should afterwards be scattered about upon the earth, the grasses and plants already in full and complete possession of the surface, would effectually prevent the taking root of any tree, except, in rough places, where the earth was accessible to the seeds or along water courses, large enough to over-
how their banks and cover with earth, any seeds there scattered, either by the fowls of the air, beasts of the forest and the field, or floated along, either by the winds, or on the surface, or in the current of the river, the brook or the rivulet.
From the Wabash river, to the Pacific ocean, in the West, and to the Frozen ocean in the North West, that vast region, presents an argument in favor of such an opinion, as to the original formation of these natural meadows, and their continuance, to be prairies, an argument so conclusive with roe, that I cannot, get over it. East of the Wabash, the country, between that river and the Alleghanies, is generally rolling, intersected every where almost, with runs, rivulets and rivers, and in any and every considerable spot of earth, as to size, where these waters do not often occur, and the surface is a dead level, there is a prairie, in nearly every instance. West of the Wabash, where the surface, under this idea, of the origin of a prairie country, would indicate a timbered country, fires, annually, in some dry season, during cold weather, burn the dry grasses, plants and shrubs.
The Rocky mountains, not only defend us from the storms which cross the Pacific, but they occupy a military position and are a CITADEL in which, liberty may one day, take up her residence, for a season, should all Asia assail our favored country, dressed in the habiliments of warfare.
These mountains are precisely, so far as we can judge, from our present limited knowledge of them, to the future Pacific states, what the Alleghanies now are, and forever will be, to our Atlantic states. We doubt not, that the, greater comparative length, and height of the Rocky mountains, over the Alleghanies, answer the wisest and most benevolent purposes towards his creatures, which the great Author of them, had in his mind, when He created them. Many of these lofty piles rise above the ocean, ten thousand feet, and present to view, imposing, grand and sublime objects for the contemplation of man, and exhibit a proof of the tremendous and awful power, employed by their Author to raise them, to the elevated position, where they stand. The more we become acquainted with them, and the better, the more, we shall doubtless, find in and
about them, to make the wisdom and benevolence of the Creator more and more apparent to us.
Placed as the Alleghanies and the Rocky mountains are, on each side of this continent, leaving such a wide valley, the widest one, in the world, between them, they govern the winds, and affect in a great degree, the climate of the whole vast space between these mountains. North of this valley, lie the Frozen Ocean, Baffin's Bay, Hudson's Bay, and those large bodies of fresh water, called the Northern lakes. South of this valley, lie the Mexican Gulf and the West Indian seas. Descending from the north, currents of cold air, sweep over this valley, in Autumn, Winter and Spring, while the trade winds, of the West Indies ascend the Mississippi and all its branches in Summer. Hence, the extreme cold of Winter, and the warm weather of Summer in the valley of the Mississippi. The same spot experiences the cold of Nova Zembla is Winter, and the heat of Algiers in Summer.
The stage, which is to carry me to Washington, is at the door, so I throw down my pen, call for my bill, pay it, and am off, to the place where I am bound.
After crossing the Monocasy, we travelled over, a poor, miserable country, until we came to Rockville, twelve miles from Washington, where we took supper. Taking my seat again in the stage, I reached the city, two o'clock in the morning. Stopping at Brown's, the hear quarters of the General Post Office, in Washington, I left the tavern, as soon as the day dawned, for the White House. Gen. Jackson, was in his room, at that early hour; doing business, and he received me, as he always would have done, at the Hermitage, with smiles and with kindness. Tarrying with him and his amiable family to breakfast, I spent my time very laboriously, during two weeks in explaining every thing connected with the treaties, we had negociated. These explanations, made to the President and Secretary of War, being ended, I felt myself at liberty, to devote a few weeks, to the improvement of my health, now still, greatly impaired, by the fatigues, exposure and sufferings of all sorts, which had fallen to my lot, during the four preceding months. Not knowing whether I should ever have such an opportunity again, to see our Eastern
cities, I concluded, to travel Eastward as far as Boston, making a stop in Philadelphia of a few days as I passed onward.Visit to Philadelphia.
Leaving Washington, in the stage for Baltimore, I passed over the delightful road between these cities and tarried a few hours at Barnum's, when I took a steam boat, for Philadelphia, by way of tire Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. Passing through the canal, and then going on board of another steamer, I was landed at Philidelphia, at sunset, about the middle of October, in 1829
Getting into a carriage, I was soon at the door of a friend, in Chesnut street, nearly opposite the United States hotel. Here I tarried two weeks or more, after which period, I boarded at Mrs. Swain's, in Eighth, just below Walnut street.
During my whole life, I had always, every where fallen into the society of persons, who had been born and educated in Philadelphia: and it is but justice to even we of them, to say, that if a man, whether he was a professional one a merchant a mechanic a farmer air even a hostler, he was a gentleman, in his manners, kind, friendly, polite, amiable and agreeable, in all his intercourse with the world. He was useful to himself, his friends and the public. He thought, for himself, and had not a particle of the sycophant, in his composition He might dispute with me, all day, or on every day in the year, about some matter, about which we could not think alike, without being angry himself, or making me so.
If a female, whether she lived in a palace or a cottage in splendor or affluence, or sunk low, in the vale of poverty, through some great and undeserved misfortune if the mistress of a family, she maintained her station in society, with ease, dignity and propriety, and so far as she could, diffused happiness all around her. She might be a cook, or even a chamber maid, but she was a lady, acting with propriety in her station. Knowing and duly appreciating, the value of these pure streams, which had been constantly flowing across my path, during half a century, I came here to examine with great
care, the fountain heads of them, located on this lofty eminence, rising so high, in the common vale of human society. I was determined that while I stood on this dizzy height, I would not err in my judgement indeed I came here, with a determination, to be pleased, as little as possible.
Amidst this wilderness of sweets, five weeks passed away, before I was aware of their flight. I had originally intended to have tarried here but ten days, and then, to have proceeded on to New York, and ended my tour at Boston; but ten days, amidst the institutions, of Philadelphia, surrounded as I was, every hour, by persons of taste, science, learning and genius, whose bewitching conversation, innocence and virtue captivated my whole soul; I entirely forgot all the rest of the world, not only during ten days, but all the remainder of my visit, to this fair city.
Where to begin, what to say, and where conclude in; remarks, upon this city, so truly named Philadelphia, I hardly know. A full account of all I saw every day and every hour almost, world swell into a large volume, which I could write, fast as the periods could flow from my pen. Even now, at the distance of two years, when many things have faded from my memory, enough still remains fresh and vivid upon it, indelibly fixed there, to form such a picture of this people, that, a stranger to them, would accuse me of writing a novel, whose object was, to delineate a people, living in the world, before the tall of man.
This city was founded by a Philanthropist, in the broadest and best sense of that term, and the traveller naturally looks around him, for the posterity of the first settlers, the descendants of Penn, Logan, Rittenhouse, Godfrey, of Franklin, and Rush, and he will find them, in spirit, in doctrine, and in practise, every where, all over the city. At every step, he takes, he feels himself surrounded by the happy spirits, of departed philosophers, scholars, statesmen, jurists, artists, philanthropists and pure christians. He sees every where, neatness and order. Here stands the Hall, in which our National Independence was declared; in which, our constitution was formed and adopted. Here are the fountains from which,
we in the West, have drawn no small portion, of our science, and from the plan of this city, we have planned all our towns, and we would gladly copy from this people, all that is good, fair, wise, just, liberal and pure, among them. It is unnecessary to visit the tombs of the virtuous dead, here standing, and ponder near their ashes, on their goodness and greatness; at least, I prefer to mingle with their living monuments, their posterity, and see around me, in full operation, and daily increasing in usefulness, all the institutions, moral, literary, scientific, religious, philanthropic and patriotic, which the original founders, and the posterity of such men, have very naturally erected in this fair city. Filled with such emotions, I entered Philadelphia, early is the evening, and was carried to the house of a friend, who and his amiable and good lady had invited me to tarry awhile at their house and make it my home, while I remained in the city. The family was a pious one, in the true sense of that term, and without one particle of gloominess, uncharitableness, or malignity towards those who did not belong to their sect of Christians! They were Episcopalians, had prayers in the family, morning and evening, said grace at their meals, but were as cheerful, as pious and as happy; and were as attentive to their business through the day, as any true Christian could desire. Such was the happy family, in which, I was first located, in this truly named city, of "BROTHERLY LOVE." They and their pious, amiable aid virtuous relatives, JONATHAN SMITH and others, have left an image of their goodness on my heart, never to be effaced from it. A feeling of delicacy, towards them, suppresses their names from paper, not from my heart.
Dr. Littell, early the next morning after my arrival, went with me, to the Hall of Independence, which we ascended, to the highest part of it, where I had a good view of the whole city and its environs. From this place, I visited the Atheneum, the Philosophical society's rooms and library, and then I visited the Franklin Library. To the Atheneum, and Libraries I was made welcome, and invited to call daily, free of any expense so long as I tarried in the city.
Calling on Mr. Walsh in the evening, in company with
the same young gentlemen, who had been my guide through the day, I had an opportunity, to shake hands, cordially, with a man, whose literary acquirements, whose talents and mural views, I had so long, and so much admired. I found him, amidst his books and his studies, and did not tarry long then though I was there often afterwards.
The next day, I called on my old friend and true one, Manuel Eyre, Esq. in Chesnut street, who took me with him, in his carriage, to see the Philadelphia Water Works, where we spent the day; there, and in their vicinity. He showed me every thing, in that part of the city.
Saturday night arrived, and Mr. John Vaughan, and Mr. Walsh, waited on me to Robert's Vaux's, to attend a Wistar party there, that evening.
Dr. WISTAR in his life time, had a party of his literary and scientific friends, at his house, one evening in every week and to this party, strangers visiting the city, were also invited. When he died, the same party, was continued, and the members of the Wistar party, in their tour, each hale a meeting of the club, at his house, on some Saturday light, in the year. This club consists of the men, most distinguished for learning, science, art, literature and wealth, in the city. It at early candle light, in the evening, where, not only the members themselves appear, bat they bring with them, all the strangers of distinction then in the city. Here may be seen, gentlemen, not only from every state in the Union, and every territory of it, but from London, Liverpool, Paris and almost every city and country in Europe.
On entering the splendid suit of rooms, thrown open to the company, at Mr. Vaux's, I was introduced by Messrs. Walsh and Vaughan, to every gentlemen present, whom I did not previously know. Here I met with EDWARD LIVINGTON, now Secretary of State, and all the men, of science, and learning, in this city, of whom, I had beard so long, and whose labors in the exact science, in the arts and all the walks of life, which tend to strengthen the mind polish the manners and meliorate the heat, I was introduced at the same time, to the persons who have the charge of every public institution in the city, who tendered to me tickets of admission into those institutions, free of all charge of visiting them, while I remained in the city. A
mere catalogue of these institutions would occupy a page of my book, and I saw them all, several of them daily almost, while I continued here.The Philadelphia Water Works.
Are one of the proud specimens of art, employing a water power, to effect a grand object of usefulness. A dam is thrown across the Schuylkill, and by means of machinery and pumps operated upon by water power, water enough to water the whole city, is thrown upon the summit of Fairmount, whence it is conducted, in pipes, to every house in the city, or if not yet accomplished, to the fullest extent needed, there is at least, water enough under human control, to do it, and there is room enough on this "Fairmount" to contain all that will forever be wanted by the city, for that purpose.
A small village is growing up around these works, and refreshments, at a low price, are always in readiness, on the spot, and tendered to visitors, who are always numerous here, all day, by persons of politeness and food breeding. Mr. Eyre and myself availed ourselves of these refreshments, for a mere trifle, which I would have cheerfully paid, even for the pleasure of seeing and of conversing with such agreeable people, as those who afforded them to us.Academy of Fine Arts.
I went to the Academy of fine arts, with Dr. Griffith, son-in-law to my good friend Mr. Eyre. Here I studied several hours, surrounded by several persons who were copying the paintings, &c. in this collection. This Academy is kept by an old gentleman and lady from England, The lady showed us every thing but the casts, when the old gentleman accompanied us into the room where the matter are kept. These casts are representations of human beings quite naked, and I regret to state, that some young men, (I really suppose they were young men) have mutilated the males, by subtracting parts of the bodies. I say young men, because, to a mind perfectly pure from all improper, and immodest thoughts, nothing could have been more remote, than a wish to disfigure any part of the human
body. The whole body as it is by nature, created in infinite wisdom, guided by infinite goodness, as well as power, has nothing amiss belonging to it, and nothing whereof to be ashamed, by a pure intelligence. I say this, to prevent further mutilation by the young gentlemen, who visit this room. Some of those casts had been injured, perhaps, in transporting them from Paris, and the parts did not exactly fit.
Franklin's head, in the finest Italian marble, was here, over the door, as we went into the room, where the statues at full length were.
This collection of statues and busts, paintings, &c. &c. is of vast utility to the student, and numbers were availing themselves of the privilege of studying here. It was very apparent, that here was the place, where nearly all the knowledge of the fine arts, now in the possession of our American artists, had been attained.
The casts of the ancients, were better delineations of the limbs, which in the early ages were naked and exposed to view; and the moderns excelled in expressing the passions and emotions of the mind, in the human countenance. The ideas of a savage, or of any people but just removed from that state of society, are few, compared with the civilized man, and not seeing their operations on the human face, the artist could not delineate what he never saw. The sternness of the Roman, seen in Cato, diners not one whit, from the same quality, exemplified in the faces of the finest forms, among the warriors and principal chiefs that I had then, so recently seen daily, for weeks together, as Praire du Chien.
The Greeks, had evidently more ideas, softer ones toe, than the hard faced Romans. But whoever carefully examines, these casts of the ancients, will naturally conclude, on looking around him, upon the people of this day, that he sees Greeks and Romans every where.
An ancient statue, of Ceres, perhaps, without a head though, stands in the yard, in front of the Academy. It is of beautiful white limestone, was brought here from Greece, by one of our public ships, if my memory be correct, and must weigh several tons. I was surprised, that a head had not been added to it, by our artists, since it was placed there, A cavity, where the head should stand, if filled with
water, in very cold weather, might be the means of bursting the upper part of the bust. However, this is a matter, in the hands of persons, qualified to judge of it, and to act better, than I pretend to be able to do. So let it rest, with them, to attend or not to their own proper business.
I went alone to see West's painting of "Christ healing the sick." It belongs to the Hospital, and a small building is erected, for it, though the building, especially the upper rooms of it, contain other pictures.
I paid a small sum for seeing it, very cheerfully, to a plain, but decent looking and sensible female, of middle age, who had the charge of the building. After seeing every thing below stairs, and studying in profound silence, and deep thought, this great work of a great master, I wished to see the paintings in the upper story, to which the lady, by no means objected, but appeared to feel, a delicacy about accompanying me there alone. Though I assured her, most seriously and in the utmost sincerity and truth, that no female on earth, need feel any delicacy, in accompanying an old man like me, any where, yet, with her leave, I would ascend the stairs, and see the pictures, by myself alone, to which she finally assented. Passing up the stairs, my attention was so forcibly arrested by a likeness of William Penn, I think it was, that I stopped, where I was, and for some minutes gazed intensely on this picture, until at length, I extended my hand towards some picture near me; my fair keeper, who unknown to myself, had accompanied me, or followed after me, for I do not know which, instantly informed me, that I must "touch nothing I saw." A flood of emotions morally sublime had rushed into my soul and absorbed it. How she came there, without my knowing it, I could hardly conceive; but there she was, within one foot of me! Apologising as became me, who had intended no harm, and indeed had done none yet, as I had not yet reached the object, towards which, I was extending my hand, I moved up the remaining stairs, and entered the room above. My attendant had vanished from my sight, instantly after speaking to me, and I here studied, in profound thoughtfulness, every thing in this room, for a considerable time, when extending my band again, to touch
some object, of curiosity, the same gentle spirit was at my very ear, and admonished me, in an instant, to desist, and I desisted, accordingly. How she had placed herself, within one inch, and three eighths, of, an inch, precisely, (reader, I did not measure the distance very exactly,) of my person, without my knowing any thing about it, I neither know, nor ever expect to know, but so it was; and suspecting her to be some spirit of health, kept there, by the managers of the Hospital, for the best of purposes, I went down stairs, with all the celerity I could muster, I assure you, and never ascended those stairs again, while I remained in the city.
Going out into the garden, belonging to the Hospital, I was interested much, in seeing several tropical plants growing, blooming with flowers, and loaded with fruit. In addition to the orange and the lemon, so common every where I have traveled of late years, I saw the pine apple, and the bread fruit tree, looking as if they were actually within the tropics, cultivated in the best manner, and nourished by the most fertile soil.
I also visited Peale's Museum and saw every thing there, and though it appeared to me, not kept as well as I expected, it would be, in a city, where every thing almost, is so neat, so nice and looking so fair, yet I was interested in many things, I saw there.
The gallery of paintings, contains a very valuable collection of the portraits, of distinguished men, mostly Americans, who have done honor to themselves, to their country and to mankind. I set the higher value on the whole collection, in consequence of the likenesses being such correct ones, in every instance, where I happened to have known the individual, personally well.
The skeleton of the great Mastodon of Cuvier, intrested me greatly. It reminded me, of my home, which was once the abode of this extinct family of animals. The dust on some of the articles here, enabled me to remember the western country, for a moment.
This skeleton had belonged to an individual, of the common size of that animal, and was by no means as large as many which once lived on the banks of the Ohio, and fed in our wet prairies, and there finally expired, where
their skeletons now repose, on what was once, the surface of the earth, though now far below the present one.
An elephant preserved in a new way, was in the museum. No arsenic had been used to preserve it.
I attended one very full meeting of the American Philosophical Society, and spent, perhaps five days, in all, in their library, either in reading there, or examining their great and interesting collection of objects. I examined more especially, the antiquities of Mexico and Peru. I regret it, but, I must carefully examine all these objects again, in order to compare them, with our western antiquities, and those of Egypt, and of ancient Europe generally. It is quite possible, that these fragments of Mexican and Peruvian history, may throw great light, on the history of the man of the eastern continent, and I must see them all again, and scrutinize them more severely than I did, while surrounded by them, in Nov. 1829. So the reader will see, my excuse, for visiting this city once more, and for spending several days, in this library.
The American Philosophical Society, is, I believe, the oldest learned society, on this continent, but if not, it has achieved more real good, and stands higher, in the world, than any other, in America. Godfrey, Logan, Franklin, Rush, Jefferson and others, who were members of this society, have done honour to science, and to human nature; and the present members are not a hair's breadth, behind their illustrious predecessors, now numbered with the virtuous and learned dead, in learning, science, art and usefulness. I saw enough to fully satisfy me, of this fact.
Of the members of this society, who are numbered with the dead, I may say, that, some of them, FRANKLIN and others, during a period of fifty years, shone as suns, in the intellectual heavens, and by means of their steady and enduring light, warmed, nourished and invigorated every intellectual plant, shrub and tree, then growing in the world. They will shine forever.
Some of these men, like comets, shot across the heavens, and by their momentary glare, as they moved, either slowly or swiftly in their eccentric orbits, attracted all eyes towards them, for a season. Their appearances, glare and momentary glory are now barely remembered,
because they have ceased to shine in any part of our intellectual firmament.
Others, like fixed stars, of different magnitudes, continue to give light, and will shine forever on mankind.
A few, like meteors, flashed vividly, for a moment, upon the eye, and then, in an instant, in a faint streak expired.
The present members of this society, like their predecessors, love learning for its own sake; they do nothing for show; but, Pennsylvania-like, go forward doing good, without appearing even to know it, themselves. Comparisons are said to be odious, and I will draw none, on paper, between these men, and others, in other cities of our Union, but, in my mind, I cannot avoid making this very comparison, to the unspeakable praise of this society. I suspect that it deserves more credit, than all other societies in America. It has been a pioneer in every thing, it has done, and others have reapt harvests, which this society sowed. Satisfied with doing good, it does not complain, of the success of others, nor does one particle of envy rankle in its bosom.
But enough of the disinterested, intense and generous devotion of this society, to the best interests of mankind all the world knows it, and all good men duly appreciate it, without my proclaiming it in a little corner, in a voice so feeble, in accents so poor, and coming too, from an individual so obscure, in a work so small, which will be read by so few persona, and then be forgotten so soon; that I desist, make my respectful bow to the members, but, beg leave to see them all again, in their hall.
S.G. Morton M.D. took me in his carriage, to the Academy of Natural Sciences, of which, he is the Secretary, and one of its leading and roost useful members.
On entering their Hall, I found there assembled, several members of the society, with whom I had already become acquainted, indeed, some one or more of them, had accompanied me daily, in my visits, to every place, person, or object I wished to see, in the city, ever since my arrival here.
In company with these persons, I called repeatedly afterwards, to examine every thing in this new, well arranged, perfectly neat, and most useful and splendid collection of objects in Natural History.
Of this society, that great Natural Historian and Geologist, William M'Clure, is the President and he has been to it, a most munificent patron. A beautiful portrait of him, occupies very properly, a prominent place in the Hall. In this place, I spent several days, carefully studying all I saw here deposited, upon which, I make a few remarks.
The collection of minerals, plants and animals, for the age of this society, is truly a wonderful one. Every species, of every family is numbered, and is in its place, showing at a glance of the eye, all that is now known in Natural History.
Any object, brought to the institution, can be compared, with the whole family to which it belongs, and if it be a new species, that fact is instantly ascertained, it is numbered and placed in the family to which it belongs.
The arrangement of every thing is perfect, and neatness itself, reigns throughout the hall.
The rocks of Europe, beginning at Gibraltar and ending with the eastern side of Europe, in Russia, are all laid, from west to east, exactly as they exist, in Europe. This splendid and valuable collection, was presented to the society, by Mr. M'Clure, their president.
This society, consists, of the young men of science, in the city; and their industry, enterprise and energy are not exceeded by any young men, or old ones either, in the world. Their fathers, of the Philosophical Society, may well be proud of such sons.
I took a supper with them, at Dr. Morton's, and for once, and the only time, while in the city, I was so fascinated, with them, and so delighted, to find myself surrounded, by young men, who had visited every country, almost in the world who had read every took studied every science and every art, that I never thought of the hour, until it was midnight.
They want the minerals, the plants and animals of the Mississippi Valley.
The Philadelphians have wisely left open several places of considerable extent, about the centre of the city Independence square, adjoining the old Hall of Independence, Washington square, (the old Potter's field) the garden, in which the building stands containing the picture
of Christ healing the sick, &c. These squares not only admit a freer current of air about the centre of the city, but they offer delightful promenades, in which are seen parties composed of both sexes, walking in the cool of the morning and evening. These squares are beautifully ornamented with trees, and laid off into proper compartments, by gravelled walks. In these walks, and in Chesnut street, you see, every fair day, the youth, beauty and fashion of the city. As to gaiety of dress, I was disappointed in Philadelphia. From the plain, though neat attire of the earliest inhabitants of this place, I did not anticipate to see here, all the gaiety of dress, found in London and Paris at this day; but, the young people of Philadelphia, are little, I suspect, none behind the fashionable people any where, in dress. The fashions of Paris and London are regularly received, and as regularly followed by not a few.
The streets all running parallel, or at right angles with each other, enables the builder to erect his house, in a manner to be the most useful to him. There is not a misshapen house or even room in the city.
The style of building is perfectly Grecian, and the buildings are as durable as brick and marble can make them.
Neatness and cleanliness are sometimes found in other cities, but their constant and permanent home is in Philadelphia. I suspect there is at any one time of the year, more filth in almost any little village, in any state of this Whole Union, than can be found in Philadelphia in a whole year.
The trade and commerce of the city, must be great, but I have no means of ascertaining their amount. The custom house books will not aid us much, as the commerce of Philadelphia passes in no small degree through New York, owing to the nearness of the latter to the main ocean, and the ease with which vessels always enter that port, or depart from it.
The Delaware river is a shallow one, and the distance from the city to the main ocean, is considerable. However, one reason why the shipping of Baltimore is generally supposed to be greater than that of Philadelphia, is because, in the former, the vessels are all crowded into a small spacey whereas in the latter, the shipping lies in front of the city; along the Delaware, for the distance of five miles.
The wines, the silks, and every thing else, coming from France, are cheap and excellent here. If our merchants in the West, wish to buy goods, they may as well purchase them here. Broadcloths, which cost eight dollars a yard in Ohio, cost only about four dollars a yard here and so I found it in almost every thing else.
If any one wishes to purchase books, E. Littell, of Chesnut street, can furnish them if plate or jewelry is wanted, Thibault, in the same street, has them for sale, cheap and good.
Their periodical publications are unrivalled such as Walsh's Review the Journals of Health and of Law the medical journals, &,c. &c.
Domestic goods such as flannels and carpetting are the best in the world, and they are manufactured in the city and its environs. Unless a western merchant wants to purchase over five thousand dollars worth of dry goods at any one time, he never need go further east for them, than to Philadelphia.
If he trades here, he may be sure of dealing with honest men, and if he wants a credit, he can have it. All who deal here, from Ohio, as I have always understood from themselves, are treated fairly, honestly and honorably by the Philadelphia merchants.
If the western merchant wants money, to any amount, and can secure the payment of it, he can borrow it in Philadelphia. And should any one from the west, wish to begin the business of a merchant, without being very well acquainted, either with the prices or quality of goods, Philadelphia is the place for him to go to, in preference to any other in the world.
I can say further, that all among my acquaintances in Ohio, who have purchased their goods of the Philadelphia merchants and have been in business ten years, are now wealthy and prosperous. Indeed, I never knew any debtor of the Philadelphia merchants, injured by them, in any wise whatever. They make hundreds rich none poor.
This unbought, well merited testimony in favor of the mercantile men of this city, I pray them to accept, as a feeble tribute of respect, from one who knows them well, and duly appreciates their worthiness, as merchants and as men.
The artists of this city, in every branch of their pursuits, are known to excel all others on this continent. Several of the painters and engravers, I called to see, in their shops daily, all the time, I was in the city.
TANNER engraves the best maps in America, and Col. CHILDS, engraves every thing. CHILDS' views of different churches, public buildings, public places, and of the scenery along the Schuylkill, are done in a masterly manner, and these "views" will live, as long as Philadelphia exists, or the Schuylkill continues to flow. NEWSAM, who was picked up, in the streets, deaf and dumb, in company with an arch impostor, who was exhibiting him, for money stands at the head of the lithographical artists in the United States. Him the Philadelphians found in the streets, wandering off from Ohio, without father or mother, or a cent of property, and they have educated him in the Deaf and Dumb asylum. He is a monument, A LIVING MONUMENT of the benevolence of Philadelphia. This artist I called in to see at his labors, every day. He always was so polite, as to submit something to my judgement, and ask my opinion of it.
All the mechanics are the best in the world.
Manufactures are making rapid strides towards perfection. The porcelain manufactory and the manufactures of lead by the Wetherells, do honour to American genius, skill, talent and industry, and have already made those who carry them on, among the wealthiest men in the city.
The Wetherells, are as well learned, as well read, and as scientific too, as any men of their age in the world. They have travelled extensively, and have studied in Europe. The names of Wetherell, Morton and Griffith, Jaudon, Littell and forty others, of educated young men, no length of time, will obliterate from my memory and my heart.
The professors of the exact sciences, in this city, do honour to their professions. In the medical branches of science I need not say, the Philadelphians, are far ahead of any thing of the kind, on the American continent.
The Philadelphia lawyers, are proud samples of men in their highly honourable profession. While I was there, the courts were constantly in session, and although I asked no one
as to the comparative amount of each lawyer's business, yet from what I saw, and overheard among the crowd, about the Court house doors, I should say that of common, cases, Chauncey and Horace Binney, had quite the most business, it was not difficult for me to learn, that they were beloved by every body, and confided in by all. These men, were dressed very plainly, and their whole exterior denoted men of great industry, profound thoughtfulness, and that they were hard students. They are said to be wealthy. I once thought of drawing their characters as lawyers, compared with the Ingersolls &c. but finally concluded to defer that task to a future day when lean hear them all at their bar, while I am sitting among the spectators and unknown to be there. As lawyers addressing a jury, I prefer Chauncey and Binney, to any I heard at Washington city. The energy, the warmth of heart, the zeal, the candour, the clearness of method and of style, so conspicuous in the oratory of a Philadelphia lawyer, I was not fortunate enough to witness, in the United States Supreme Court, at Washington City.
What shall I say of the Gardens about this city? They are the first in the world.
Of their schools? none can be better conducted, none more fully attended. Knowing the time they would be dismissed, I often occupied some station where I could see the children, when they left their schools, without my being noticed by them. Sometimes I purposely threw myself in their way. They were the neatest, most cleanly, most affectionate towards each other, especially towards the younger ones, the most healthful and happy children, I ever saw any where. To any question asked them, they always answered me, promptly, correctly, and in a respectful manner.
I did not see the infant school, having but a poor opinion of all the good, children can attain, by singing over the A. B. C. and about some monkey or baboon. It may be a very good place, to send nurses with the little children of a family, to get rid of their noise awhile, but all they learn there, I suspect is worse than to learn nothing.
The most frequented inns, in the city, are the Mansion House and the United States' Hotel; but, after calling in to see, nearly every inn, within the limits of the city, I
can recommend them all, and say, that in whatever part of the town, any western man's business happens to be, there he can put up, at a tavern, be kindly treated, and find his bill, a reasonable one, when he leaves it.
For myself, I prefer the quiet, of a private boarding house, and besides the one where I was made so happy, all the time, I resided at it, there are forty others, as good, as heart can even desire. The price of board varies, from eight, to fifteen dollars a week. To a western man, this charge may seem high, but when he considers what he receives for it, and what it costs the persons who furnish it, he will call it cheap, indeed. The difference between a Philadelphia and a Washington boarding house, consists in Philadelphia's always being at home, whereas, Washington is only at home, during a session of Congress. The foreign ministers and their suits, all go to Philadelphia in the summer, after the session is over.
Not a few other persons, who shine in every fashionable circle in Washington every winter, spend their summer in Philadelphia, and Chesnut street is thronged with them daily.
As to the persons who keep the fashionable boarding houses in both cities, I know no difference between them. They are persons of intelligence, possessing every sort of knowledge, enough to render them very agreeable and entertaining company, with whom, the best informed persons of both sexes, from any part of the world, can sit and converse, at any time, and be highly instructed and edified. None but well bred, civil and polite people, ever become inmates of these boarding houses, and those who keep them, and all of their families have caught their manners I have been often entertained by them, and the accounts they gave me, of distinguished persons, who had lodged at their establishments, at different periods of time. As to myself, I was perfectly satisfied with every person, and thing about these houses, because I was always made as happy as I could be, from home.
Treated as I always was, at these establishments, I became quite attached to the persons who kept them.
General Character of the People of Philadelphia.
Were I to say, what I sincerely believe, beyond, even a shadow of a doubt, concerning this people, that they are the most moral the most learned, the most scientific, the best read, the kindest, the most polite, the most hospitable, the most liberal in their opinions, the most benevolent and at the same time, the best fed, cloathed the best, and the happiest community of sixty five thousand persons living within so small a space, as Philadelphia proper, covers, I should say, the literal truth and nothing more; but, that I may be the means of transferring of transplanting some of these trees of Paradise, so to speak, to the West, and especially to the soil of Ohio but if the reader will not permit me, even to endeavor to do so much, then, I will endeavor, in as few words, as possible, to tell my children, so dear to my heart, some particulars, relating to the people of Philadelphia, and I seriously recommend it to them to gravely consider, what I am about to say, for their benefit, in after life, and I pray them to study the character of a people, whose example, I wish them to follow.
In the first place, the Philadelphians, are the most moral people in the world. Moral principle, is the great fountain, from which, so many streams of felicity descend, branching out, as they run, into countless rills, fertilizing and adorning the whole field of human life.
No matter what honest calling, any man may follow for a living, so long as he conducts himself honestly, and honorably in it, is industrious and economical (if he be poor,) is attentive to his business, unless it be overdone, as professional business truly is, upright in all his dealings, moral in his habits, performing all his duties to himself, his family, his friends and the world; he will be sustained in his business, assisted in adversity, (if necessary,) and all his interests will be advanced; But, if on a careful, patient, and righteous scrutiny into his conduct, it is clearly ascertained, beyond a doubt, that he is, either dishonest, lazy, indolent, inattentive
to his business, immoral in his life, vicious in his habits, or is wicked of heart THAT MAN is RUINED, forever, in Philadelphia, unless he repent and reform himself.
He may have an independent fortune, and live here, in defiance of the public scorn, if vicious, so as he voilates no law of the land, but he cannot, and he will not, be encouraged, in his vicious career, by the citizens of Philadelphia. Such a man, may live here, and amass a fortune, as a certain quack doctor has done, but the citizens of this place, will not lend their aid, to the accomplishment of his dishonest purposes.
Strangers who come here, may do it, though, but the people here, will do all they legally can, to counteract an evil, beyond their entire control.
No mechanic, were he dishonest enough at heart, to wish to do so, dare cheat his customer, either in his work, or in the materials upon which, that labor is bestowed. He dare not promise to do work, by a particular time, merely to obtain the customer's patronage, and then, not perform his promise but tell a hundred lies, to excuse and cover his guilt. Once guilty of such a trick, and from the time it is fairly proved against him, he may shut up his shop, and remove from Philadelphia, because, to the longest day he lives, unless he remunerates the injured party, and reforms himself, his business is ruined here, forever.
There is, there certainly must be, I think, (because no one told me there was one,) a secret police, that watches every person, and every action, in the place. When I landed in the city, I rode in a hack, from the wharf, to the United States' Hotel, and on inquiring of the driver, on the steps of the inn, what he charged me, for riding in his carriage, he said "one dollar," which I paid, and made no complaint, either then or afterwards, of the charge, though I thought it a high one. Next forenoon, that man, came to me, out of breath, and at his wit's end, almost, informing me, "that he was the person, who had conveyed me to the inn, and begged of me, to take back, one half of what he had taken, for my riding in his carriage, otherwise, he said, he was ruined, because his license would be taken from him, instantly!" A person may give away, as much money as he pleases, because that is his own matter, but if there be
any fraud or imposition used to defraud, any one, the impostor and swindler is instantly ruined with the whole people.
From the operation of moral causes, I have no doubt, that if any stranger should go into Philadelphia; for instance, to purchase a store of goods, who knew no one in the city, and if he were entirely ignorant of the quality and value of the goods; yet by making his case folly known, to any man, almost, in the city, of respectable standing in society, he would soon find around him, men, who would see that he was not wronged in any way, either in the quality, quantity or price of the goods purchased.
And let any man, be his business what it may, provided it be honest, laudable and correct, come to this city, and need aid in it, to get it accomplished, he would have that aid spontaneously, and without fee or reward, tendered to him. I mean not, legal and medical aid, where the applicant was able to pay for it, but if not able, even that, would be given to him gratis.
I have said, this people are moral and religious, and a remark or two, on their morality is all I can find space in my book for but I can say, as to their temperance, in not drinking to excess, that during five weeks, I traversed this city, through every street and alley in it, during the whole day; and as I passed alone, stopping in very often, every where almost, in the city, I never saw during that time, but three intoxicated persons. One was a lunatic, in the street, who was instantly taken up and placed in the asylum for such persons. Of the other two, one was a male, and the other a female, who did not belong to the city. The man, after I saw him in the street, was not permitted to go four rods, before he was arrested and carried off by the police, out of my sight, and I never saw him again. The woman, on account of the delicacy felt for her sex, got nearly twenty rods, along the street, when she was arrested, and carried off, and never appeared in the street again. I took special notice of these instances, because I had heard so much, of the vigilance of the police, in such cases.
There may be vice, in the city, there must be indeed, among sixty-five thousand people, but it is not seen in public, otherwise, I certainly should have seen it, somewhere.
The criminal court was in session while I was there and there were several criminal cases, on the docket. I was particularly careful to examine into the nature of the offences charged, and the parts of the city, where laid to have been committed. They were committed in the outskirts of the city, and the principal affair, was a riot. It appeared that a captain of militia had been training his company in the street, annoying the people in the vicinity, with his drumming and noise; and they had chased him out of their way, very righteously, I thought, and little or no harm was done on the occasion, to any body. Those found guilty were fined, a trifle, each.
Though the Friends or Quakers, now compose about one twelfth portion of the whole population, yet their spirit, still animates this community to a considerable degree, and they think not very highly of militia officers.
They are not a quarrelsome people, certainly, because, during all my stay there, I never heard even one angry word, from any human being, except from the drunkards before alluded to.
They are not a litigious people, because, in almost any small county, in one of our new states, west of Ohio, there are probably, more law-suits of a litigious character, in any three months, than there are in Philadelphia, in a whole year.
The crimes committed there, are committed by villains, who prowl about, for plunder, visiting, in turn, almost every Atlantic city, whenever they wander off from their real home, the city of New-York. Indeed, I heard it every where asserted, that under the name of private military schools, located in New Hampshire, New York, &c. the arts of robbing, house-breaking, &c. were taught. From several facts, I suspect it is so.
The state of the intercourse between the sexes, is as pure, as holy wedlock can make it, and I never saw an indecent act, or gesture, nor heard an immodest expression, while I was in the city.
I never heard, during the whole time, either, a profane oath; uttered, by any person.
All I have to say, of the female character, in this city, is, that to me, It appeared to, be perfect, in all the relations
of life. I know of no imperfections in them, as mothers, as sisters, wives, or friends. Their forms are perfect, and their minds are more highly cultivated, than any I ever became acquainted with, any where else. Without one particle of squeamishness about them, there is something about them, so sober, so modest, so unaffected, moral, and good, like an etherial spirit, hovering around them, that no pen, and no tongue can describe them. I had heard of them all my life time, as being superior to all others, of their sex, but on seeing them, and conversing with them, I discovered, at once, that I had never formed as exalted an opinion of them, as they truly merited.
More pains are taken to educate them, here, than in any other place, ever visited by me. In every conversation I ever had with any of them, whether old or young, I was constantly surprised, at their acquirements, their sagacity, good sense, good breeding, and the entire, and perfect propriety of all they said, and of all their actions; of every look, of every gesture they made, and of every thought, that entered into their minds. That heart must be one of pure adamant, which they could not melt into a liquid mass.
Nearly, I believe, quite every family, which I visited, employed private instructors for their children, and every house, was indeed, a school house, several hours, every day. So much care, labor and attention, bestowed constantly, with the view to prepare the mind and body, for future usefulness, are rarely seen, among any other people, in the world.
The Philadelphians, have studied Natural History, more than any other people. This knowledge exhibits to us, the operations of infinite wisdom, goodness and power soothes the mind, into tranquility and peace checks the aspirations of unholy ambition promotes cheerfulness drives away the mists of error, ignorance and superstition, and tends strongly to place man, where he was designed to be, at the head of the creation.
This fair city contains the ashes of many, who, from the humblest origin, and with the humblest means, by their own industry, zeal, perseverance, enterprize and energy, encouraged as they were, by this people, raised themselves
to the very summits of science, learning, wealth and power To a mind determined to succeed, in Philadelphia, there is no Alps, which cannot here be climbed, to its very highest peak.
The younger professional men, all complained to me-that, they found it very difficult to get into business enough, more, than to support them. To them, I would say, cross the Alleghanies, and locate yourselves in the valley of the Mississippi. There is room enough, for you all here. You will be missionaries, among us, of science, of learning, of good breeding, spreading all around you, correct moral and political principles, and diffusing happiness in fine, you will plant trees of Paradise, that will grow, flourish, bloom and bear fruit, in this vale, forever. Come along hasten your footsteps into the West. Welcome thrice welcome into the delightful regions of the West.
The kindness, politeness and hospitality of the Philadelphians, are extended to all, who visit their city, and I was treated by them, precisely as they treated every other decent stranger, then in the city. I went there, exactly as I always do, to Baltimore, or to any other city, without one particle of lofty pretension or parade was still, unostentatious and in as plain a dress, as I wear at home. I advanced no claims to any great attention, respect or confidence. I carried no recommendation, of any sort, but my own, plain, unostentatious self. I stopped near the centre of the city though, as I always do, when I travel, and sought only to become acquainted with the innocent and virtuous persons of both sexes, who treated me, exactly as they do all others, who visit the city, as I did. The same persons who treated me so kindly, treat all others, similarly situated, in the same way.
Though I became intimately acquainted with a great many families, besides the Biddles, Dr. Chapman's &c. (at whose houses, I attended Wistar parties,) yet I had never seen them, until I went to the city; and in five minutes, after I was introduced to them, I felt as if I had been acquainted with them, all my life time.
I take the liberty of presenting to the reader, a few remarks upon ROBERT WALSH, Esq. Being a professed author, and in that way, a public man, he must not
complain, if I say something of one, who is a kind of public property.
Mr. Walsh, is well known, as an author, to all my readers. He is a man of the common size, and he must be somewhat more than forty years of age, and is, I believe, a widower. Though educated and brought up in the Catholic religion, yet he is liberal in his opinions and feelings towards all other Christian sects, as any one need be.
Living in affluence, his life is one of regularity, itself. After breakfast, he studies until three in the afternoon, when he dines, with his large and most interesting family, and such friends as happen to be at his house. Soon after I visited him, on my very first day's visit to the city, he kindly invited me, to dine with him every day, while I remained in the city, of which invitation, I often availed myself. His children, are several of them, most accomplished young ladies and gentlemen, and every way prepared to shine, not only, in the social circle, and continue to be a source of happiness to their father and friends; but, to become ornaments of human nature, in the several walks of life.
The life of a scholar, generally affords less happiness, than any other. To any one devoted wholly to the cultivation of letters; who labors, many times, until soul and body are worn out, exhausted and ready to sink under their load; relaxation, amusement, gentle exercise, and agreeable society are absolutely necessary. Mr. Walsh finds all these things, under his own roof, in the society too, of his own innocent, well informed, well bred and accomplished sons and daughters.
After amusing himself, in this little, innocent and happy circle, during two or three hours, he and they go to their studies again or, sometimes he goes to the Wistar party to the Philosophical society, or to some other place, where the literati of the city are assembled. Thus his days pass off, as regularly, as any one's can do.
I particularly looked into his mode of living, with a view, to follow, so far as I could, a path, which has led to such acquirements, as his.
The waywardness and eccentricity of genius, are
proverbial, and the reason is found, I suspect, in the want of proper and agreeable company, in hours devoted to relaxation. Not wanting this company, makes Mr. Walsh, what he is, happy, though a hard student whose life is regularity itself, though he is a man, of great genius. As I watched him narrowly for my own benefit, so I tell others, how he lives, that they may profit by it.
During his studying hours, no female's cap, is every few minutes, thrust into his room, and no broom or brush raises a dust under his nose, either to drive him away from his labours, or to suffocate him.
Mr. Walsh's happiness, is truly his own he has so educated his sons and his daughters, as to make them a constant source of happiness to him. Long may he and they live, to enjoy the society, the friendship, and affection, they now do, of each other be happy themselves and make all happy about them.
"The Indian man" (as the youngest, the darling little son, always called me, when he ran from room to room, to assemble them all, in the parlor, to receive me,) will call to see them all again, in the same parlour. The picture of a horse, which my young friend gave me, on parting, was stolen from me, on board of the Charles Carroll of Carrollton.
I have said, the waywardness of genius is proverbial, but I suspect, the cause may be found, in most of the men, who possess that high gift of Heaven, having been, either unmarried, or they have been married to women, who, did not possess the faculty of soothing a mind, worn down, by the severest of alt labour, which is mental Sleepless nights, want of bodily exercise, inattention to diet, taken at the proper times too, a total abstraction from every thing else in the universe, except the subject, on which the mind is deeply, constantly and for a long time employed, prostrate the bodily powers, and melt down the mind into a liquid mass. Then it is, in the power of the grasshopper, almost, by its weight, to crush the sufferer to the earth.
So circumstanced, there is nothing so soothing to the mind, so renovating to the soul, as the sight of innocent children, at their innocent sports. I have sat for hours,
after such toll exhilerated into mental life again; always, when at home, and at Mr. Walsh's, when in that city. The author, who has children, should train them, as Mr. Walsh has his, and thus render happy himself and them. These innocent amusements, prepare the parent and the child, for further labours, both of body and mind.
Next to the sight of innocent children at their innocent plays, is the sight of the landscape, diversified by the works of nature and of art.
Surrounded as he is, every moment in Philadelphia, no author has any excuse for not writing any thing he pleases, so as to immortalize his name.
It was in that city, without putting pen upon paper, this little volume was planned and without consulting any one about it, or informing even one human being what I was studying.
If there be in it, any vivacity, it was caught from the young men there and if there be any thing wise, I caught it, in the society of the Wistar party, at the mansions of Vaux, Biddle, Chapman, Walsh, and Mease, and in the company of Vaughan, Duponceau, Rawie, and a long list of names, which their modesty, only, prevents my presenting to my friends. Could I have written my book, in their city, it would have lived, a long time as it is, unless revised there, it must sink, I fear, into forgetfulness.
Growing among these trees of Paradise, metaphorically speaking, I found two individuals, in this garden, of the genuine bohon upas species a clergyman and a quack doctor; their fame had reached me in Ohio, and I here carefully informed myself, as to their true histories, as I had determined to do, before I left home.
While sitting at my boarding house, in conversation with several truly pious people, a newspaper carrier, threw into our room, a religious paper, edited by the very parson, whose true character, I so earnestly desired to learn. It was left, for a lady then in the room. Instantly I seized this sheet, and on turning to the editorial head, I read a libel on the Catholics, in the United States, expressed in language so beastly immodest, and so scandalously false, that I instantly tossed it from me, as I would
a rattle-snake, or a scorpion, had it fallen into my hands. My very blood ran cold through my whole system, and I shuddered with horror, at the ideas produced in my mind. The language used, was too scandalous to be placed in my book, and I feel a chilliness in my veins, on remembering it, even now.
As soon as the laugh had passed off, which my treatment of this scandalous paper, created; I carefully questioned the supporter of it, about the miserable wretch, who was its editor. From this lady and others, then and there assembled, I was informed, that this Doctor of Divinity, though, meagre and gaunt, as any wolf ever was, had married an orphan girl, who, and a younger sister, [whose guardian he was,] possessed an immense fortune, of nearly a million dollars; that, on taking possession of this property, he became, as independent in his feelings, as he was in fortune and, that he cared not whose feelings he wounded, or whom he pleased. It appeared too, that when the freak came over him, he could be charitable, educating several poor young men, for the ministry, one of whom, he had recently, I well knew, led into such erroneous and improper conduct, towards several of his church members, that he had been dismissed from his church. It appeared too, that he had contrived, by wringing out confidential secrets of some church members, and then instantly revealing these secrets, to create enmities that would endure as long as the injured parties lived.
His common, every-day conversation, was as imprudent, false, libellous and malignant, as his editorial matter. Austere, sour, vain, hollow hearted, deceitful, ambitious and designing, he had openly broached the idea, that the millenium was about to commence, when all earthly government, would be in the hands of the church! As a beginning of this ghastly, ghostly, priestly millenium, he advocated an union of all the churches, of all the sects; and in that way, through the elections, engross all the offices, civil, naval and military in the nation.
Having so far succeeded, and should there be any opposition to this state of things, an army would be raised, and the "GREAT BATTLE OF THE LORD" would be fought, and one third of the whole human race be slain, in mortal
combat! As preparatory steps, the Sunday mails, were to be stopped by Congress, and the people urged, under various pretexts, to elect, no man, who would not blindly, earnestly and devoutly enter into these views. If the present generation would not fully accomplish all these things, the Sunday schools were to train up the next one, for that purpose, by suffering them to learn nothing useful to them in this life, and in the meantime, undervalue this world, and instil into them a religions frenzy. His intended operations were to be carried into the valley of the Mississippi, and there consummated. His plan too, I learned, embraced the idea, that he was to be at the head of the government, within a few years! Such is a brief outline of this learned doctor's views and intentions.
I learned also, that when he travelled about the country, as he often did, he took care, to enter, on tavern registers, in addition to his proper name, and place of abode, "D.D.," and under the head of destination the kingdom of heaven." No, reverend and learned doctor, you are not travelling there. Jesus, himself has told us, that his kingdom is not of this world." By their fruits we are to know his followers they are meek and lowly of heart they slander no one they break up no churches they spread no mischiefs through their neighborhoods tell no tales tell no lies call no hard names stir up no strifes create no heart burnings divulge no confidential secrets burst no bands of friendship, and convulse no community, by intermeddling with what is not their business. They pull down no earthly government. As a man, Jesus loved his nation, then enslaved by the Roman Empire, but neither he, nor his disciples opposed it, but honoured Caesar, obeyed all the laws of the land, and taught others to do so. The history of those times, when the church assumed the reins of civil government, is written in letters of human blood. While man remains what he is, and what God intended him to be, and so formed him, that he never can be any thing but what he is, priests of any sort, are the last men of the world to be civil rulers, and religion, is the very last thing, to be in any wise connected with civil government. It may be religion, but it is not, it never can be, the Christian Religion, but exactly the reverse.
The great Author of Christianity, went about doing good to mankind.
He never delivered, in his lifetime, but one sermon, and the only time he spent in any prayer, that was overheard, even by his disciples, was just before his death, and in the near view of his approaching dissolution. He condemned, in severe terms long prayers, as heathenish. In his own expressive language, "His yoke is easy, and his burden light."
His own bright example too, throws a strong and enduring light, on the Christian's path. Wherever he went, he healed the sick, fed the hungry, restored the lame to the full use of their limbs, and the lunatic to the right use of his reason; cleansed the leper, gave the dumb his speech, made the deaf hear, and opened the blind man's eyes.
He did all these things, without ostentation, and without reward. He courted no popular favor, and exacted no tythes
He was always kind to the female sex, and caressed and loved, their innocent children, "for of such," he has told us, "is the kingdom of heaven." Though he neither hated, nor shunned the rich, yet he best loved the poor, the unfortunate and the afflicted, either in body or mind.
In relieving human misery, many times brought on, by vicious habits, no doubt, he never inquired how induced, but promptly and cheerfully relieved it, whenever and wherever he found it.
Such as had, through human frailty, erred from the path of rectitude, he cheerfully forgave, when penitent, telling them, "to go, and sin no more."
I am aware, how imperfect, is this outline, and I aim at neither eloquence, nor fine writing; but so far as it goes, I feel assured of its entire correctness and it is quite sufficient for my purpose, which is to prove that the reverend divine, in Philadelphia, is as far from pure and undented Christianity, as hell is from heaven. He may be fiendlike, but not godlike, he may have piety, but not Christian piety he may have malevolence, but not charity; he may be a mischief maker; but not a peace-maker he may be a pest, but not a blessing to mankind. I repeat it, reverend doctor, your destination, is not heaven, and even if now there, the same
fiendlike passions, whose dominion you are under, would create a hell all around you.
The blasphemous language you now use, and the scandalous epithets you unsparingly apply, to whole sects of Christians, show the blackness of your own heart. While such men as Robert Walsh, Duponceau, and hundreds, nay thousands whom I well know, belong to the Catholic church, your abuse of them, goes for nothing with me.
Their lives are as pure, as moral, as pious and as good, as any man's in the nation. Kind, friendly, generous, liberal and charitable, they are ornaments, not only to christianity, but to human nature itself. Their prayers are as pure, their purposes as good, their hearts as sincere, their lives as blameless, and their devotion as acceptable to God; as any men can offer, in this nation.
The name of this wretched divine, I consign to the same OBLIVION, where those of the Bucktail Bachelor, and the Old Maid of the Wisconsin, are gone before him. For the honour of human nature, there may all their names, remain forever.
There is a quack doctor too, in this city, without one particle of real medical skill, science or learning, but who has made, and is making, an independent fortune by his quackery.
The truth is, Philadelphia being so good, so honest and so moral a city the regular doctors of medicine, being so excellent, and who have established so good a reputation, for the city doctors, all over the world, that ignorant quacks, because living in this city, by their lofty pretensions, impose on people at a distance, and so make fortunes.
I am fearful, that the same remarks, might be applied to a few, lofty pretenders to religion and piety. At all events, I was told, and I believe it, that one man, has made forty thousand dollars, who was not, when he began his pious career, worth a cent, by the Sunday School Union business!!! There is another evil, in this city. While the honest, industrious portion of this community, are attending to their own honest callings for a living, there is a set of intriguing politicians, always plotting, and managing, how they may get into office.
The honest portion of the community, are taken by surprise,
out-witted and put in the minority, by the constant drilling of worthless partisans. In time, such men, as Dr. Hare, and thousands like him, get discouraged consider their votes worth nothing stay at home, from the elections, and persons, not the fittest for office, get into them and govern the community.
There is one consolation, at least, in such a case the office confers no honor, and, the holder of it, is treated with the contempt, he deserves to be.
Imperfect, as this view, of the people of this city certainly is, yet, so far as it goes, I feel assured of its correctness.
And that I may conclude, my remarks, or as a lawyer would say, sum up the evidence: The people of the city, need not fear the loss of their trade, with the West, so long as their merchants, conduct themselves, as they now do, with honour, fairness and liberality. Their trade with us in the West, will grow up with us.
While the American Philosophical Society, the Academy of Natural Sciences, the Atheneum, the Franklin Library, the Academy of Fine Arts, the University of Pennsylvania, the Medical College, the Asylum of the Deaf and Dumb, and the Hospital, are conducted as they now are: while the youth of both sexes are trained up as they now are, in the ways of industry, knowledge and virtue while all their schools of every kind, send forth streams of useful knowledge; while this community continues to be, as it certainly is at this moment, more liberal in sentiment, more literary, more moral, more intellectual, than any other people dwelling on so small a spot of earth, in the world; no fears need be entertained for the perpetuity of their prosperity and their happiness. Their own Delaware and Schuylkill may cease to flow and dry up, but so long as this people cultivate every thing calculated to dignify, adorn, enoble and sanctify human nature, the sources of their prosperity, happiness and true glory will never fail.
That the people of this city, may continue their present career, and their city continue to be the head quarters, of science, art, morals, virtue and patriotism to the end of time, is the sincere and fervent prayer of him, whose pen writes these lines,
Senate of the United States.
Having tarried in this city, five weeks, I returned to Washington city, where I arrived, on the twentieth day of November, 1829. I traveled this distance, in twenty-four hours, leaving Philadelphia at noon, one day, and arriving at Washington, at the same hour, next day.
I traveled in company with many members of Congress, and others, who were going to spend their time and money, in the coming, gay and giddy season, in this District.
On the Saturday before the session of Congress commenced, it was ascertained, that a quorum of both houses, was in attendance, and I saw, all the preparatory steps taken, to organize both of them.
The evening before the session commenced, the doorkeeper of the Senate, waited on me, and delivered to me, the, cards of thirteen Senators, accompanied by the request, that I would attend on that Body, at 9 o'clock A.M., at their chamber, to be introduced to every Senator not already known to me. This, I was assured, was the wish of, every Senator, whose card was not sent. It was their wish, to hear any explanations I might feel a wish to make, in relation to the treaties. At the appointed hour, I attended at the Senate chamber, and was introduced by Messrs. Ruggles and Burnet, Senators from Ohio, to such members as I was a stranger to. I was present at the opening of the session, and saw the Senate organized, by electing their officers, and by swearing in the newly elected members, Messrs. Troup of Georgia, and Grundy of Tennessee.
I had heard of this Body, all my life time, as being the wisest legislative assemble in the world, and I found it, all that I expected, and even much more. Circumstanced as I was, alone, before the Senate, to explain to them, everything relating to our treaties, I felt a kind of awe, an uneasiness, and a dread, when I thought of approaching such a venerable and august Body, bat their cards of invitation cheered me, and on being presented to them, the manner in which they received me, their kindness, politeness and attention, swept away, instantly, from my mind, every disagreeable emotion, and they seemed more like old friends than strangers.
They treat all in the same manner, who come before them. No person ever appears before the Senate, without going away from them, a warm friend to them.
The committee being elected, to whom our treaties were to be referred, I was invited by their chairman, and indeed, by every member of the committee, to attend their meetings, twice a week, at their room at their lodgings, and every day, at 9 o'clock A.M. in the Senate chamber.
All these facilities were afforded me, in order to expedite my business, as much as possible, and dismiss me, as soon, as they could.
I availed myself, daily of these opportunities, and on the day of December, 1829, both these treaties were ratified by the unanimous vote of the Senate. The President approved of them, instantly.
Considering the vast addition, the possession and ownership of such a large and valuable tract of land would be to the Western States, I had some fears of Eastern opposition to these treaties but none appeared. I was a little fearful of opposition, from the slave-holding states, but Gov. Troup, one of the committee, said, "The South asks nothing but what belongs to her let the Union, be filled up, with people, and then we will see what this nation will be.
"We wish not to procrastinate that period, a day, nor even an hour."
Gov. Troup is one of the most interesting men, I ever saw, and for great and varied learning, of all sorts, he has few equals any where. His manners are as polished, as they can be, and he excels any man, almost, I ever saw, in conversational powers. Every word, as it falls from him, might go to the press, and it would appear extremely well.
Our treaties having passed the ordeal of the Senate, the President sent them to the House of Representatives, for an appropriation, to cover their expense.
I explained, in a few words, to Mr. M'Duffie, every thing, and he brought in a bill for that purpose.
Mr. M'DUFFIE, is not generally considered to be, exactly as he is, one of the coolest, clearest headed men, in the nation. His report on the United States' Bank, is in exactly such language, as he uses at the fire side He
writes as easily as he converses, and no more clearness and coolness are found in any man's style of writing, speaking, and acting. Indeed, his manner is rather cold and reserved. On the very first day of his appearance at Gadsby's, where we both resided, nearly two months, I presented myself to him, and was received by him, as he receives every one. I thought, from his manner, that he was unfriendly to me, which his lady discovering, from my looks, put me right, by telling me, in her most agreeable way, that, "however cold he might appear, he had as warm and as kind a heart, as ever beat in any bosom," and so I always found him. For his age, about forty years old, I presume, I doubt, whether he has many equals, as to real talent, in the nation a superior, I feel assured he has not. His amiable, and most accomplished lady is no more. She was the pride of her native state, South Carolina, and after her arrival, in the city, every citizen of that state, whom I knew, and they were many, inquired my opinion of her. She was beloved by all, as a good woman, and a pure intelligence. Two purer minds, better hearts, or clearer heads, never were joined in matrimony but she is gone, to receive her reward, for a well spent life. She joined with no party, to persecute any innocent female.
My official life having closed, on the ratification of the treaties, I naturally enough concluded to spend a few weeks, where I was, surrounded by a great number of persons, citizens and others, from whom, I had received so many marks of attention and kindness. Indeed, during all the time I was in the city, I was treated with uniform kindness and hospitality by the citizens of the District of Columbia. All the men in office, (with the exceptions hereafter to be made) behaved, at all times and in all places, with the utmost propriety. The professional men, the lawyers, the doctors and the clergymen, and every one of their families are as good, as virtuous, and as moral as any people in the world can be. The same remarks may be applied too, to the merchants, principal mechanics and all the men of business in the city. At first, a stranger, many times gets a prejudice against the whole city, without becoming acquainted with the fifteen thousand virtuous and good people always in this city!
The seat of government, has thrown upon the good people here, a worthless class of people, who live by their vices in the winter, and, then have to be supported by the virtuous people here, during the summer, and autumnal months, or they would perish. The latter, beset the stranger, whom they know, in a moment, by his very in dependent air, if he be a Western man they beg or they steal from him, and he goes home, execrating the city of Washington. A perfect knowledge of all the facts in the case, corrects the first, often erroneous impression, and the Western man learns whom to pity, to forgive and avoid, but to hate no one here.
For hospitality, all things considered, the good people here, excel all others, among whom, I have so long resided as a stranger.
When I left the city, I had lying on my table, invitations to visit families, enough to have occupied me until the succeeding June. These invitations were not merely ceremonious ones, but real ones, from persons, whom I really esteemed. It was unnecessary for the President, to solemnly caution me, against carrying away a single unkind feeling towards the city, because I felt, as he wished me to, all the kindness and attention, of which I had always been the object, during every hour, I was there. Though in thus cautioning me, he very naturally supposed, that, I had not become, acquainted, as I had, with all the good people here. I felt then, and do still, the full force of all the kindness, I had received from the people of Washington. During all the time I was in the city, I had been pleased with every person, with whom I had to transact any business, either public or private.
There were but three, most memorable men, and their adherents, who formed a most prominent exception to the general rule. They assailed me, in every form, to prejudice my mind against the President, Secretary of War! and some others not succeeding in their onset, they cast their darts at me, which, as they fell harmless at my feet, I returned with a force, they felt, and still feel. But, I war, no longer, with men, whom Cowpers hare TINEY, by stamping with his fore paws, and looking surly at them, would have driven into spasms and fits of desperation.
Spending my time, in attending the parties, which occupy this season, I can spare room, for an account of only one the first levee, under Gen. Jackson's administration and a most splendid one it was. It occurred on Thursday, January 10, 1830, and opened at five o'clock P.M. in the round room. The President, the Secretary of State Secretary of the Navy of War of the Treasury Post Master General the Chief Clerks heads of Bureaus the officers of the Navy and Army of the United States, were in attendance at an early hour.
Commodore Rogers was there, dressed as plainly as any simple citizen, easy in his manners and unassuming. The lieutenants and midshipmen, made all the display they could. In the same way, the officers of the army appeared. The Secretary of War, and all his family were dressed in the neatest but plainest manner. The Secretary's lady, whose person is symmetry itself, neither needed nor wore any thing, but plain American calico for a dress, without a ruffle or a single ornament, on her person. Her appearance, bespoke a reliance on her own native beauty, and her accomplishments, nor, was her reliance misplaced; for no sooner had she taken her place, near the President's family, than all the beauty and fashion in the room, gathered around her, to do her honour. The President received the attentions of his friends and foes, with the same ease and condescention so did his family. During five long hours, they stood, almost without moving from their places on the floor, shaking hands with those who had just entered the room, or were about to retire from it.
Whether dressed in rags, or covered with diamonds whether blooming with youth and beauty or decayed with age and withered with wrinkles, all who approached the President and his interesting family, were received with the same kindness and attention. They were warmly welcomed when they arrived, and thanked for their visit when they retired. Mrs. Donelson and Miss Easton, of the President's family, like Mrs. Eaton, were dressed in American calico, and wore no ruffles, and no ornaments of any sort. They did not need any, as nature and a refined education had lavished on them, all the ornaments, beautiful and accomplished women need.
Their whole conduct deserved great praise, and they received it, from all present. They affected no superiority showed no pride, and from their behaviour, no one would have supposed that they belonged to the family of a chief magistrate of a great nation. Their honours sat so easy on them, that they seemed not to know it. Not a word, not a look, not a gesture revealed to any one, the superiority of station occupied by them in society. This perfect good breeding, had been taught them from their earliest infancy, both by precept and example, by their aunt, the good, the amiable and the ever to be lamented, Mrs. Jackson. Those precepts, and that bright example, were not and never will be lost, on her nieces, who do honour to their stations and their sex. The ladies of Tennessee have always been praised for their beauty, which is fully sustained by their perfect good breeding, and polite accomplishments. As a Western man, I confess, I could not help feeling proud, that they were born, and wholly educated in the West.
The gentlemen, were all dressed alike, but our Western ladies, unanimously, dressed in plain American calico, without an ornament, upon their persons. The simplicity of their dress, their unaffected manners, their neatness, their ease, grace and dignity, carried all before them, like an electric shock. The diamonds sparkled in vain, at that levee, and Western unadorned neatness, modesty and beauty bore off the palm, with ease.
Our Western ladies had felt some uneasiness before the levee, about the result, but their friends of the other sex, assured them, correctly enough, that republican simplicity would triumph over all the crosses and diamonds that the East would bring into the field.
No time and no circumstances can ever efface that night from my memory. It was a splendid triumph, for the valley of the Mississippi and it was then and there at that levee, that Livingston, Woodbury, M'Lane and Cass, were, in reality, appointed to office. One yet lingers, but the same man is President, who then, bowed before the public voice in part as yet, but the same voice, louder than thunder calls on him still, to obey, and, be will obey yes, he will obey the solemn demand of his friends, and
give the nation a new cabinet, entire, and cleanse out the Augean stable, at his very door. Gen. Jackson owes it to himself to his friends and to the nation. Every step he takes, in this momentous business, will be hailed will be applauded, and he will be cheered by millions now millions hereafter, if he proceed on, in the path marked out for him, by his beloved country. We want an entire cabinet of competent men, who will move forward in an elevated course, disregarding all party names, in favour of talents and patriotism.
The splendors of a government, in the hands of the people of the West, begin to dawn on the nation, when such men as WEBSTER will be placed in power when talent will pass for its real value, any where, and Gen. Jackson, is the very man, who can, and who dare, set an example, which the petty politicians the mere meteors, without light, except for a moment, cannot disturb, more than the flash of the ignus fatuus can stop, or change the course of the sun, in the heavens. The time is at hand, and now is, when the musty bar-room noisy nasty politician, will be unheeded out of his sty, and all the prominent appointments will be given to talent, worth and patriotism. No matter, with what opprobrious epitnets, the frequenters of doggeries may have branded him: Even, if the waywardness of genius in his younger days, may have led him into some errors of opinion for a moment. Age cures those errors and Webster is now a wise man and New England loves her darling son. Beware Mr. Webster!
Gen. Jackson, who rose by the force of his own genius, is not insensible to the rays of light, steadily shed, for half a century, by a fixed star, of the first magnitude, in the constellation, called New England.
But, I am wandering among the stars in order to give the reader a correct idea of the various topics of conversation in Washington, about the end of December, 1829, the following dialogue, is introduced. The persons not only bring forward ideas peculiar to the people of the section of country to which they belong, but the very words, are used, which several persons did use, in their daily conversations.
Dialogue in Gadsby's Common Room.
A NEW YORKER, addressing himself to a Tennessean, and a warm friend of the President, said, "Well, Sir, what think you now sir, of your old Hickory, our grape vine, has wound itself, around, and around your tree, until its bark is covered by the stock of the vine, so that it is kept in its place, and prevented from falling off the vine has ascended, until its leaves overspread the utmost boughs of the hickory, and no leaves but vine leaves, are seen.
TENNESSEAN. It is true, your vine, as you call it, has taken root, and grown up, under our hickory tree, and has crept up, to the top of our tree; but, we do not agree as to the species of your vine we call it a poison vine, not a grape vine.
NEW YORKER. Well sir, call our vine what you please, it has so entwined itself around your tree, from the ground to the highest bough, that, with every breath of air, that stirs a limb, the hickory nuts are rubbed off, and we stand ready to catch every one of them, as soon as they touch the ground.
TENNESSEAN. Some animals thrive upon mast, but corn fed pork is generally esteemed the best, among us.
NEW YORKER. Why sir, Yours truly, are rather rough upon us, but let me tell you, Matty'l fix'em, Matty'l fix'em.
TENNESSEAN. I do not know who you mean by "Matty," though I suppose you mean "Matty Clark."
NEW YORKER. No sir, I mean Martin Van Buren, the leader of the republican party.
TENNESSEAN. The republican party! why sir, have you any party in New York, except the republican party?
NEW YORKER. Oh yes sir, we have the republican party, or the Buck-tails, the Antimasonic party the piety line of stages party the working men's party the Clay party the old federal party the Clinton party, and at least ten other parties.
TENNESSEAN. Why sir, your state must be a very factious one, and exactly such an one, that you can never expect to have a President from it.
NEW YORKER. Matty'l fix'em, Matty'l fix'em; our state is the most populous of any in the Union it is the wealthiest in the Union it has the most commerce, and we can do as we please, as to President
PENNSYLVANIAN, TENNESSEAN, KENTUCKIAN, OHIOAN, VIRGINIAN, CAROLINIAN, all at once Not exactly.
CITIZEN OF OHIO. At the last Presidential election, New York gave a majority of four votes in her electoral college, for Gen. Jackson, and little Rhode Island gave her four votes for Mr. Adams, and exactly balanced New York. Do you suppose, that the people of the United States will look for a President in a state, where factions exist such as you name?
The sober matron of fifty years, called the United States, when she wishes to marry a man, will hardly consent to marry into a family, that is continually quarelling among themselves, and with all the neighbors.
CAROLINIAN. Why sir, you do not mean South Carolina, I hope. We are opposed to paying duties, on goods imported into our state. Many families have gone to decay, of late years, in consequence of your Tariff. Once they were hospitality itself they entertained every stranger, who came along, they sold their cotton crop to some New Yorker, for enough money, in hand, to take them up to New York, where they went; and there, they received another part payment, which carried them to Ballston springs; where they soon needed another payment, and that one carried them to Niagara, where they got out of funds, but borrowed enough to take them to New York again, there they received the last cent due them, and they got home at last, with only one five dollar bill left, for their whole crop of last year. Oh, this abominable Tariff.
VERMONTER. I do not wonder, that you, in Carolina, are going to decay, if you spend all you earn abroad. As well might a farm be expected to increase in fertility, on which tobacco is raised, and have no manure spread over the soil, every year. Absentee landlords will ruin any country.
SOUTH CAROLINIAN. Why sir, such is the destructive nature of this miserable Tariff, that, many, who once were overseers, now own the farms and employ the sons of their former landlords as overseers.
VERMONTER. Why sir, I can readily believe you, because if any man leaves his affairs to the management of others, without watching them every moment, the subaltern will soon become the principal, in any country, Tariff or no Tariff. The evils under which you lie, are too deep for legislation. Congress has no power to regulate any man's private affairs. Indeed, if your account be correct, and no one doubts it, should Congress collect no duties in your nullifying state, your situation would not be amended, because, your absentees, would in that case, have the more money to go upon, and it is as easy to spend tea thousand dollars in a year, as one thousand,
SOUTH CAROLINA. We do not permit any man to interfere in our own private affairs.
VERMONTER. We in the North, do not wish to interfere, in your private affairs, and it is certainly for our interest, to have you, do as you now do sell your produce to us in the North get some of your pay in advance, of our agents, who are on the spot, to see how your crops are coming forward, minister to your immediate wants, take your crop, when it is ready for delivery, and pay you for it, as you need it, in the traveling -season, and the New Yorkers, know how to fleece you of your money.
SOUTH CAROLINIAN. Yes, in the Western part of that State, when we arrive, at, his house, the tavern-keeper Stands in his bar, places the champaign, the Madeira, the rum, the gin, &c. on each aide of him, he begins by turning his head first on one side, then on the other, with as hateful a look, as any black snake ever darted at his intended prey, commences/ with his sirs, and silly affected airs, "Gentlemen you must be very much fatigued sirs." "Sirs, your journey has fatigued you sirs." Here is champaign, very good sirs here is gin sirs, of the best quality sirs. "Sirs," by this time, we call for a glass, perhaps a bottle of something, to get rid of such hateful importunity. All the while, we are in his house, the sample I have given you, is a good one, of the treatment we get.
KENTUCKIAN. Why not come out into our country, and spend your time?
SOUTH CAROLINIAN. Why sir, we sell our crop to the Northern merchant, or Northern manufacturer and having
not received our full pay, we are a little fearful that unless well watched, the man who owes us, may fail, and we lose all that is due to us. We go up to New York, and we are told of the fascinations at the springs, and how cheap traveling is, in New York, and how cheap every thing is in that state, and we go forward to the springs, where we are imposed upon in every form, we get rid of our money in short order, and then get more. We are then told how cheap it is traveling Westward. We travel West, and if we travel, either by land or water, it costs us more than double, we expected, because we are cheated by every person, with whom we deal. If we travel in the stage, some excuse is made for charging double the rate of stage fare, their printed offers tell us. At some stage office, a slick creature gets into the stage, in the employ of the tavern-keepers, who calls liberally at every bar, for liquors, he never pays for, in order to get us to drink, and fleece us of our money. From the moment, we leave the city, until we return to it, tricks innumerable are practised upon us, of the same kind, though infinitely varied; and when we leave the state, we curse it, and never cease to curse it, as long as we live.
OHIOAN. Why not come out into Ohio? no landlord over asks you to drink, unless he means to make no charge for what you drink.
KENTUCKIAN. So it is with us; and besides, our farmers and our planters entertain strangers, as you do in the South, and so far from charging you, any thing for what you receive from them, they would feel themselves quite hurt, should you offer any pay. Before our elections, in the summer, we are in the habit, of having barbacues, as we call them, where you would be invited to attend, and be made as happy as heart could desire. The dance, the song, the sprightly conversation sometimes the public speeches, would entertain and delight you. Your money would be saved to you, your health preserved, and you would go home, with none but emotions the most agreeable, and you would never curse Kentucky.
TENNESSEEAN. It is exactly so, in Tennessee, as it is in Kentucky.
MISSOURIAN. So it is in Missouri, and I wonder you do not visit us, instead of the Yankees of Western New York,
VERMONTER. Interrupting him. Don't call them, Yankees, they are only Antimasons, and a motley group of rough Christians.
DIFFENDERFER, (A Buck's county man.) Ingham's wife, says she would not care so much about it, but Mrs. Eaton, was nothing at all, at all, when a young woman, but an Irishman's daughter, who kept a tavern, when her name was Margaret O'Neil. She need not raise her head so high, Mrs. Ingham says, because her husband is Secretary of de War, and such crowds, in coaches, call to see her every day. Why, says Mrs. Ingham, when we all rode, along, toder tay, to Kadsby's, Mrs. Eaton in her carriage, behind us all; out comes four hundred officers, gentleman's and laties to welcome Mrs. Eaton, Mrs. Parry and Mrs. Tonelson, and not a soul, so much as said Pooh, to any of us! Oh! how mat, Mrs. Ingham was. Ingham's wife says, she will yet see the tay, when Mrs. Eaton will not stand close to de bresident at a levee, without a ruffle on her tress, or any ting on her head, but her peutiful hair, and have tousands bowing to her, and den passing right by Mrs. Ingham, without so much as seeing her black silk night cap, and her coarse home-made blue, woolen stockens, all de way, nearly up to her knees, so she won't.
Two pottles of vine, and de new suit spoiled! At dat rate, my husband taught, de six tousand tawlers, would soon begone, slick enough.
O'HARRA. And is that the way, things are going on here? And how does Ingham think to turn about Pennsylvania, against Gen. Jackson?
DIFFENDERFER. Vy Ingham says, dare are dree local parties in Bennsylvania one about Pittsburgh in de West a second about the centre of the State, in Buck's county and about it, and a third, about Philadelphia. Dat dare are, de feteral barty, de anti-masons, and the Calhounites, besides the old democ ratic barty dat, among all dese barties, he can get de vote of old Bennsylvania, for Calhoun.
O'HARRA. He may get the federal party in Buck's county, who are quakers, but no Irishman nor the son of an Irishman, will ever desert a true blooded Irishman, like Jackson
Pittsburg is true to the core so is all the West the center is true, and so is Philadelphia, and the East end of the State.
TENNESSEEAN. Pennsylvania will never desert General Jackson. Ingham may conspire, Calhoun may praise up his "charming party," the two bottles of wine may be burst, in the lottery office, near the stove-pipe, under Ingham's cloak, or his new mole-skin suit, the cards may be shuffled and cut and dealt out and played in a corner Calhoun may declare himself an anti-mason, to Phineas L. Tracy, Matty Clark may keep about him, his coffin handbill relations, but old Hickory, is safe yet, and of that, I'll bet a ROCK AS BIG AS MY FIST.
MASSACHUSETTS MAN. But, by gawly, pray tell us, how Gen. Jackson got himself into such difficulties, by surrounding himself by such miserable creatures for Secretaries? Why there appears to be neither talent, learning, good breeding, nor good sense among them. And they are all, except one, it seems; conspiring to overthrow him. I guess, he hadn't ought, to have selected such men for his cabinet.
TENNESSEEAN. Why I will candidly tell you, sir, all about it. You know Mrs. Jackson died soon after the result of the election was known, and the General himself, was very unwell at the time. And you know too, that the General and his lady had lived about forty years together very happily, none more so, and they had no children. In such cases, the attachment between husband and wife is more ardent than where they have children left, for the bereaved heart to rest on. Gen. Jackson came down to the city, full of grief and out of health, and he felt very naturally, as if all the world was nothing to him. The eleventh hour men flocked around him by thousands, like vultures for their prey, and they forced upon the President, men like themselves, by every artifice, [such as Ingham used,] and having imposed upon the General, such unworthy creatures, all the rest, naturally followed after such a miserable cabinet, so formed.
Scarcely a real friend of the President came near him, out of real respect and kindness to him. When the General, began to do his business, in his office, he soon learned
how he had surrounded himself, and he must clear them out.
NEW YORKER. Matty'll fix em, Matty'll fix em.
TENNESSEEAN. Nearly all the General's real friends, every where, wanted Livingston, for Secretary of State, because we knew him to be a real statesman, a true friend of the General's from the first, and every way worthy of the office. It is said, by some author, that there are but two ways of reaching the summits of power, either to crawl up like a serpent, or fly up like an eagle. Livingston is an eagle, and my New York friend here, seems to know something of one, who resembles the serpent.
We wanted M'Lane of Delaware, in the Treasury department, who is the most able financier, in the Union, Gallatin not excepted.
We wanted Woodbury for Secretary of the Navy. That office was due to the North and East, and no one could be better fitted for it, than the man who Woodbury all the past blunders, in the Naval Department, in the ocean of forgetfulness. This weak BRANCH of North Carolina pine, was unfit for a business, he knew nothing about, and no one scarcely wanted him, at all, but he fished about Nashville, during two years before the election, under the pretense of visiting his sister who lives about thirty miles from Gen. Jackson's farm, he published a speech as his, in the Senate, against confirming Clay's nomination, as Secretary of State, which we all know, was never delivered any where. By his arts and his intrigues, he united himself with a set of eleventh hour men, and finally, got into a place, the duties of which, he knows nothing about, and he must be put out of it, as soon as we can effect it.
We wanted Gov. Cass for Secretary of War, if Eaton did not wish to have it, and as soon as, that can be decently done, it will be done. Gov. Cass is a man of handsome talents, extremely well educated, knows all about Indian affairs, and was almost raised in a camp. At some future day, he yet may be President of the United States, when Ohio gets strong enough, to bring him forward, with a prospect of success.
We must have a new Postmaster General, the present one, not being popular with original Jacksonians, who have not, and never will, forget 1824, and the Kentucky-Clay-committee.
The old court party there, dislike him, and the opposition are opposed to him. He and all his relations, will go out of office, and then, we will have peaceful times.
NEW YORKER. Matty'l fix 'em. (He goes out of the room.)
TENNESSEEAN. The Bucktail is off, and I am glad of it. We have been excessively pestered with that set of politicians. White Gov. Clinton lived, we thought of no one, but of him, for Secretary of State when he died. Van Buren, who turned around at the eleventh hour, for office, though he did almost nothing for the General, yet, by combining with Ingham, and the Crawfordites he somehow, I hardly know how, got to be Secretary of State. So far as gentlemanly behaviour, mildness, caution and considerable industry go, he does pretty well in his office, but, he is so unpopular every where, except among the Bucktails, that we must ship him off, either to England, if Talleyrand should be there, too, or, if not, we will send him, a minister to the Grand Turk, where he can intrigue and manage as much as he pleases. He is a mere politician, not a statesman, at all, and when any one asks him about bringing forward any public measure of importance, he always replies, by inquiring how such a man, will like it? How it will affect his popularity in Virginia, Pennsylvania, &c.? Away with him, I say, to Europe, where he may carry on, in his best style of diplomacy. He never can be president, nor get even one electoral vote, South and West of the Delaware river. Clinton was a great statesman, Van Buren a great Bucktail politician.
We in Tennessee, despise all the cant about "regular nominations" "the republican party" and all that stuff and nonsense. We are all republicans. Gen. Jackson knows, the federalists are as true republicans, as ever breathed, and we ought, to extend, not contract, the circle, which encloses within it, talents, learning, experience, wisdom, virtue and patriotism. Our country has a right to call into her highest offices, the very highest grade of qualifications for those offices. As well might one, passing through an orchard, select the poorest, sourest apples, in preference to the best, merely because the latter was called, "the Rhode
Island Greening," or "the New Jersey Pippin." Even the crab apple, may be useful to a family, in small quantities, but they need too much sweetening to render them palatable enough, to be used exclusively. And so it is, with your miserable Bucktail, who requires too much of office, to keep him true and faithful to us.
You see our views, about the future, and you see too, that we cannot just at this moment, do all we intend to do, but you ought to remember, that the world was not made in one day. It will all come right yet. Gen. Jackson must have lime to effect the reformations, which we know he will effect, in due season. Had he had his health, perfectly, when ho came info power, had not deep, aye, the deepest domestic affliction weighed him down, at that time, none of his present difficulties would have been in his way. My word for it, he will surmount them all, and eventually become, the most useful and the most popular president we ever had, since Washington's time.
Having cleared out the present unfortunate cabinet, I would not be surprised to see him selecting honest Adams men, especially in Ohio, where the original Adams many, voted for Mr. Adams, from the purest motives, as their vote was very unpopular, and the Clay men have used them as mere make-weights, without giving them any thing. Gen. Jackson will not treat them so; he is liberal enough to make allowance, for a little Yankee predilection, in favour of their native New England, and they may yet find Gen. Jackson, far more kind to them, than ever Clay would be, were he in power.
PHILADELPHIAN. Well what will you do with the United States' Bank? Will you re-charter it?
TENNESSEEAN. I presume so. Van Buren, and the New Yorkers, wish to destroy this bank, so that when a new one is chartered, they can get it located in N. York. They calculate, on one of two things; either to destroy this bank and not have one in its place, so as to give the business to their own banks; or if the confusion in the currency and the losses of many millions by the government, in the revenue, make it impossible to get along at all, without a National Bank like the one now in existence, [and that must be the result] in that case; then New Yorkers will make a desperate
effort again, to get the United States Bank, located in New York. But my dear sir, Gen. Jackson, will just as soon, put his hand in the fire, as destroy the present bank, or rather refuse to grant it a new charter. Only think of a few of the consequences. Refuse to re-charter the bank, and Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Louisville, St. Louis, Nashville, and New Orleans, will be crushed at one blow.
The men of business in all countries, have not the most money of their own, for if they had, they would cease to labour and toil to make money enough to retire from business. If they can borrow as much money as they need to do a large business, they will be actively engaged, in improving the country, in ten thousand ways, add to its wealth, increase its value, spread its commerce over every river, lake and sea sweep away the forests and build up towns, villages and cities. Take away the United States' Bank, and all this useful class of men are out of employ, the noisy din of business ceases in the streets, the wave is no longer whitened with the canvas of the vessel, the steamer ceases to snort, or even to snore, the stages pass and repass empty of passengers, no new houses appear, and the old ones decay and become tenantless, the roof falls in, and the tail weeds, and the knotted grass grow in the streets. Do you suppose Gen. Jackson wishes to see all this take place under his administration? No, sir, he has, all his days been a stirring, industrious man, and he loves such men too well, to harbor the most secret wish to injure them. Besides, the injury would be done to his very best friends, who more than all others, made him President, and now sustain him in power. Why should Philadelphia be injured by him? That city, contains the soundest monied capitalists, in the Union. The people are the most moral, most industrious, most useful, in all respects, of any in the world, and like Pennsylvania herself, politically as liberal as the winds of heaven.
Ohio wants capital to enable her, when her canals are completed, to carry off her surplus produce to a market, Her own banks are rather nominal, than real ones, with capital scarcely enough for the stockholders.
The present Bank, could furnish all the millions Ohio would need to enable her to carry off her produce, to build
up new towns, open new roads, and improve all the old ones, and in fine enable her to reap all the rich harvest of profit, now ready for the sickle. Re-charter the bank, and branches of it, will be instantly located along the Ohio Grand Canal.
If this bank fall, who would gain by it? New York, the brokers, shavers, bankers, bankrupts and swindlers, would be the only gainers. Who would lose by it? The industrious classes the farmer and the mechanic, by broken banks, and by all that train of evils, which, fifteen years ago, swept over this country, like a deluge of fire, blasting and destroying all honest men, and defrauding the public treasury of its dues. Sixty millions of dollars, lost to the labouring people of this Union, is a low estimate, for that unfortunate period. Does Gen. Jackson wish to reinstate those times? No, sir, he says, that he throws out hints for reflection, and that is well enough, but ail ho wants, is public reflection, and such restrictions put upon the newly bank, as may be necessary and proper.
No one can object to that course, though the present bank has done no harm, and almost infinite good to our whole country. In order to enrich a few Bucktails in New York, who would wish to see Philadelphia prostrated, in her commerce with Ohio and the Western country, so that New York could shave Ohio to the very bone. Who believes Gen. Jackson would destroy the present bank? I do not, I assure you, gentlemen.
Ohio will carry off her produce, either to New Orleans or Canada, but none to New York. In those portions of the year, when the ice locks up the Northern marker, Ohio will trade to New Orleans, and return with her coffee, cotton and sugar. In the summer, and early in the autumn, when the Ohio and Mississippi are too low for navigation, she will go to Canada with her pork, lard and flour, and return with her British broadcloths, and her guineas and sovereigns. This is the natural course of things, North and South, but she will visit Philadelphia at all seasons of the year, with her droves of cattle, horses and hogs, and return with domestic goods, the wines and the silks of France, the fruits of Portugal, Spain and Italy, the wares of Liverpool, Holland and Germany, the cloths of England, and the
manufactures of Philadelphia herself. Hardware, and heavy articles will sometimes be purchased in Baltimore and sent round by New Orleans, or transported over the mountains, when the rail road is completed.
Kentucky and Tennessee, will do nearly as Ohio will, Sometimes going North, and sometimes going South to a market, as best suits the season of the year, or the price of the article carried to a place of sale.
To enable the Western people to carry on all their business, the state banks, there, can no more do it, than one could dip out the ocean and make its bed dry, with a tin dipper. Gen. Jackson knows better, than to suppose any such thing
MASSACHUSETTS MAN. I think you are from Kentucky, sir, and what think you of our Webster, as an orator compared with your Clay?
KENTUCKIAN. Mr. Clay is the greater orator. When he speaks, his words flow along, in a constant stream, sweeter than honey. He is always self possessed, rising neither too high, nor sinking too low. His oratory costs him no labour, his eye glistens as he proceeds, sometimes, with an arch leer, when he is ironical, sometimes with a frown, when he condemns, and he is as easy, as fluent, and as happy, in his expressions, as heart could desire. His auditors sit at ease, listen to him, with pleasure, and oftentimes, are enraptured with a display of powers, that costs him no effort, to exhibit, There is no appearances, of labour about it, and the auditor is captivated before he knows it, and carried off by the orator, out of himself.
Mr. Webster is a great man, and his very appearance indicates it, and puts the auditor on his guard, from the moment, Mr. Webster rises to address him; but unless the speaker rises to his highest key, and makes his mightiest efforts, the hearer, is determined not to surrender his judgment, to an intellectual giant, who stands in the arena, armed cap-a-pie, to conquer or die. On some great subject, he rises into sublimity, and like some mighty deluge, sweeps away all before him.
MISSOURI MAN. I have heard both your orators often, and let me compare them, to two animals, one now extinct, though once living in our state, and the other there yet. I suppose neither of you, will like the comparison, yet it
appears to me, not a bad one. Mr. Clay resembles our Antelope, gamboling and playing at his ease sometimes, he runs as swift as the wind, then wheeling about, with his head and tail up, pacing slowly along, upon his back track, until, for his mere sport, he starts again, and away he goes, so swiftly, that you see a mere streak where he runs over the boundless prairie.
Mr. Webster, appears before you, a Mammoth of the largest size, his trunk rising and falling, his monstrous tusks, proudly aloft in the air, until he sees a cane brake, in his way, he rushes into it, breaks it all down and tramples it under his feet, eats every, leaf off the stalks, the cane pitch is all destroyed, levelled with the earth, and desolation reigns, where, a few moments before, a green field appeared
TENNESSEEAN. Mr. Webster is truly a great man, and he is great in every thing, because he scorns to do a mean action, and he is as smooth, in his manners, as liberal in his feelings, and as good a man, as New England can boast, or as any part of the Union, can desire. Gen. Jackson likes him much, as a man, and often invites him to his house. We all like Mr. Webster.
I should like to hear, from some New Hampshire man, if one be present, about Gov. Woodbury, whom we all want for Secretary of the Navy.
NEW HAMPSHIRE MAN. The Hon. Levi Woodbury is forty years of age. He was born is New Hampshire, received his education at Dartmouth College, and studied law Under the venerable Judge Reeves at Litchfield. He entered upon the profession at Portsmouth, in his native state, where he almost immediately rose into high reputation, and before he reached his thirtieth year was raised to the bench of the Supreme Court of New Hampshire. He discharged the duties of this place with great industry, and talent, some of the evidences of which are to be found in elaborate opinions in the printed reports of that state until about the year 1832, when he was elected Governor of the state. This office he filled one term; and was a candidate for a second; but the opposite party receiving an accession of strength, he was unsuccessful. As an evidence, however, that the mutations of party did not impair his essential popularity, or lessen the confidence of his fellow-citizens in his capacity and integrity,
he was a year or two afterwards, on being chosen a member of the House of Representatives, made Speaker of that body, and during the same session was elected a Senator of the United States. In this station he remained until the fourth of March of the present year, distinguished for his attention to public business, and his accuracy in transacting it, both as a member of the Naval and Judicial Committee, and more especially as one of the Committee on Commerce, of which he was the Chairman for the last two or three years. In all the great questions which have called forth the talent of the Senate, during his seat in that body, he his also taken a part and shows himself equal to their discussion. He is remarkable for the accuracy and fullness of his information, on every subject he undertakes to discuss, as well as for the clearness and force with which he communicates it. This valuable, characteristic is not confined merely to his more elaborate efforts on the floor of Congress, but it is shown not less remarkably, and perhaps more usefully, in his various labors on the several committees to which he has belonged, and especially in bringing before the Senate and carrying through it, the various measures recommended by the committee on Commerce. Corning from a commercial quarter of the Union, he has entered warmly into the support of the interests of trade and navigation, and has lost no opportunity of improving all the advantages for obtaining useful knowledge on these subjects, afforded either by his public station, or his extensive acquaintance with men of business.
Amidst the pursuits of law and politics, Judge Woodbury has not neglected the cultivation of letters. As a member of the joint Library Committee of Congress, he has manifested great zeal, as wed as good taste, in forming a collection of books, of which the country may well be proud and as a Senator, he has introduced or aided various measures for the promotion of learning and the arts. From the circumstances of his situation, and the interest he takes in naval matters, his knowledge on this subject is extensive, and the naval service could not find among our public men, a more zealous and more efficient friend.
TENNESSEEAN. When I heard him lately, in the Senate, combatting on the republican side of the question, against every other Senator from New England, the words of the
great British bard, naturally occurred to my mind, and I will repeat them.
Among the faithless, faithful only he;
Among innumerable false, unmoved,
Unshaken, unseduc'd, unterrified,
His loyalty he kept, his love, his zeal;
Nor number, nor example, with him wrought,
To swerve from truth, or change his constant mind,
Though single. From amidst them forth he pass'd,
Long way through hostile scorn, which he sustained
Superior, nor of violence fear'd aught;
And with retorted scorn, his back he turn'd
On those proud Senators, to swift destruction doomed."
NEW HAMPSHIRE MAN. The quotation is excellent, and well deserved.
TENNESSEEAN. Who will give us a sketch, of Mr. Van Buren's character
OHIO MAN. I do not like him very well, because he, and his friends, have uniformly, voted in Congress, against every thing dear to us, but still, the Bucktails may see the propriety of desisting from any more opposition to us. We all feel sore enough, already, and wish not to do any thing to widen the breach between Ohio and New York so I wish to be silent.
CLINTONIAN FROM NEW YORK.  Well then, gentlemen, if no one else will describe Martin Van Buren to the life, I will do it in short order, and correctly too.
ALL. Proceed sir, in your biography of Mr. Van Buren.
CLINTONIAN. Who his father was, I never knew, and probably never shall know. Neither his early obscurity nor his emerging from it, has any thing peculiar in it, in this country. Gov. C's. friends educated him, and placed him in a profession, that in all countries is a respectable one, and in this country, often leads to eminence sometimes to the highest offices. He is doubtless, a man of considerable talent, and no one calls him a bad man. When he first appeared at the bar, New York was cut up
into factions, that were led on by great talents. Burrites, Lewisites, Martling men, democrats, federalists, and Clintonians filled the state with strife, and these factions resembled Highland clans, differently clad, marching along, with discordant music. To take an active part among these parties, the young lawyer, left the philosophy of his profession, and became shrewd, cunning, artful and laborious. He was resolved to gain distinction by labor, toil, and diligence.
A word dropped to him, he could remember, or forget, magnify or diminish, repeat it or not, as best suited his interest. He formed a connecting link between the different leaders, none were more convenient, and few so able to effect any object in view. Did any one want a coalition formed? he could cement, or withdraw it, when necessary. He could understand or misunderstand a hint he could advance opinions, either real or pretended, and expressed too, in such a manner, that they might be interpreted in a dozen ways the words might mean almost any thing, or nothing at all. He could create a friendship or a feud, peace or war among friends, or he could neutralize, when he pleased, either friends or foes. If he could be believed, no man would make greater sacrifices for the public good, than Mr. Van Buren. It is easy to see, that amidst scenes like these, the subaltern soon becomes the principal, like an overseer, on a nullifier's plantation. He who is so much confided in, soon becomes at least, the equal of him, who confides in him. A very few years thus spent, brought with them, consideration and rewards, and he took his seat, among the eiders of the political church. He was elected to the Senate of New York. Patronage received, was repaid by patronage, in return. As a public speaker, in the Senate, he was fluent, affable in his manners, quick to think, and always ready to meet any emergency. Few surpassed him in debate, If he did not convince, he was always listened to with respect and attention. At that time, any party in the state, would have hailed him as an able auxiliary, and in the end, nearly all parties had an opportunity to do so. Sometimes he supported Gov. Clinton, sometimes Gov. Tompkins. During Gov. Clinton's last years, he held a divided empire with Mr. Van Buren, in New York.
His onward career very naturally carried him into the United States' Senate. There he moved, whenever he moved at all, with ability, prudence, and discretion. He stood committed to no particular system, or if committed, it was in such a slight manner, that he could easily, in one moment, disengage himself. He was familiarly called, "a non-committal man." He mingled often in debate, and earnestly too, but so contending, that he could shift sides in an instant, without subjecting himself to any imputation on his inconsistency. Assuming and laying aside his weapons of warfare, as best suited his interest, no one seemed to find any fault with him.
He watched every sign of the times, and at a propititous moment, and no one knows that moment better than he does, he threw his whole weight into the scales against Mr. Adams. From that time, his gaze was fixed immovably on the office of Secretary of State, until he actually found himself the Premier under Gen. Jackson. At first, it is said, the President did not esteem him very highly, but this evil was soon surmounted by a mild temper, conciliating manners, and affable, polite and respectful address. He who had, for many years past, roiled along the road in a splendid coach, could now, to please a plain Tennessee Farmer, ride out on horseback, every morning, with the President, through Pennsylvania Avenue, or across Rock Creek, and through Georgetown!
He kindly administered to all the wants of the President. If he discussed any subject with the honest old man, he was sure to be convinced that the President's views were entirely correct. He who wishes to be useful, must render himself acceptable, before he can attain his object. Mr. Van Buren succeeded in all respects. The President very honestly, and naturally enough, concluded that the man who always treated him with so much deference respect, and kindness, was a man of good sense, whose advise it would be safe to follow. He made him the depositary of his secrets, and a liberal sharer of his power, Patronage was showered down, with no sparing hand, on the personal friends of the Premier. Almost any office in the departments of State, of War, and the Post office, was given away, just as he wished. Deference was now
no longer necessary, and the Secretary might almost be considered as the real President. His partisans, every where, openly avowed their belief, that the President was entirely under his control.
The opposition to him in the South, his want of friends in the West, with the certainty that his longer continuance in the cabinet, would retard, if not prevent his future advancement to the highest office in the Union, will induce his resignation of the Premiership. By about June, 1831, he will be studying how he can trim his vessel and spread his sails, so as to reach the desired haven at last.
As I have extenuated nothing, (if I know my own heart) so l have set down nothing in malice, or even unkindness, or if I have, unwittingly, done so, his unkindness to my old friend, Clinton, is my ample apology with all good men. EXEUNT OMNES.John C. Calhoun.
Though I did not become personally acquainted with Mr. Calhoun, the Vice-President, yet seeing him every day, either presiding in the Senate, or mingling with the people, I will give my impressions of the man, as he has appeared to me. Nearly, if not quite, six feet in height, straight limbed, muscular, very well proportioned; he is more wrinkled and care worn, than I had expected from his reputed age, which is not quite fifty years. His voice is shrill, and to my ear, harsh, grating, and very disagreeable. The rapidity, violence, and vehemence, with which he rolls out every sentence he utters in the chair of the Senate, contrasts unfavorably with the mellow tones and silvery voice of Gen. Samuell Smith, who always presides, when the Vice-President leaves the chair. I was told by members of the Senate, that the harshness of Mr. Calhoun's voice, and the violence of his manner, at first always so disagreeable to a stranger, would, in time, wear off, and not he noticed, but thirty days produced, I confess, quite a contrary effect on my unfortunate ears, which could bear the piercing shrieks of the Winnebagoes, in their war dances, but never could endure, without great pain and suffering, the shrill, grating tones of Mr. Calhoun's voice. He sits in the chair, too, where one
naturally expects to see seated, Wisdom, in her mildest, most dignified and loveliest garb; and hear tones issuing thence, soft and melodious as the music of the spheres, or as the harps which angels use, can convey. His manners too, as he appears at the fireside, have in them an uneasiness, a hurried, incoherent air, which savor strongly of a deep, settled unhappiness, buried in the deepest recesses of the heart.
He is a man of considerable talent, without doubt, but I cannot call him much of a courtier, nor a man very well calculated either to rise into the Presidency, or if there, to be very happy, while at the summit of power. He wants, it seems to me, patience, mildness, caution; though not perhaps, all the restless ambition, energy, and activity that any candidate, for any office, could even desire. His honest Scotch-Irish face, too, shows every moment, each thrilling passion, operating within, and peeping out its head at the window of his heart.
He is no intriguer, nor even a courtier, though called the "Father of the Nullifiers;" and he is accused too, of having changed all his notions about the Tariff and Internal Improvements. This he acknowledges, I believe, and it would not be unjust to pass a severe sentence of condemnation upon him. His whole soul, is, doubtless, engaged in contriving the ways and means, how he may, one day, become the President of the United States. His position in the Union, the daring, restless, unchastened, if not unholy, and dangerous ambition of his prominent friends in South Carolina, have swept away from beneath his feet, nearly all the ground he stood on under Col. Monroe's administration; which, if he could have maintained until now, might have afforded a prospect, not very bright indeed, of his finally realizing the grand object of his lofty ambition.
Mr. Calhoun is now, at the same age of life, when Caesar began his career of conquests, of glory and renown, and displayed, on the whole, perhaps, more real talent, than any one ever did, before or since his day.
At the age of fifty years, the intellect of man is in all its glory. Rich in the accumulated stores of learning, derived from books, through whose wilderness of sweets, the mind has flown, lighting on each opening blossom, and
extracing honey from every flower; it is prepared to bear away to its home, its delicious load, and deposit it in its cell. This is the man of learning.
If he be a politician, there is not one mazy passage, leading into the political labyrinth, that he has not often trodden, with the clue in his hand, and by that means reached its inmost recesses. His passions, though somewhat cooled, yet his senses are not much blunted, his physical powers not much diminished, and all the objects of sense are deeply and vividly impressed upon his soul; to which, they have so long conveyed all the ideas, which the senses can communicate to the mind.
At one glance of his eye, upon any one he converses with, he can read every thought, every emotion of the mind in his every look. Every gesture he makes, every word he utters, strikes through the heart, at which he looks, coolly, calmly, dispassionately, covered, as to his eye, as every heart is, by thinnest gossamer. In a moment, whenever he pleases, he leads captivity captive. If the snows of fifty winters have whitened the head, they have only cooled the passions just enough, to take from all objects, their false glare, and thus enable the eye to behold them in their true light. Passion no longer leads to bewilder, nor dazzles to blind. This is the politician at fifty years old, his passions somewhat abated, but his ambition, at its highest point of temperature, he then best knows how to lay wise plans, and how best to carry them into execution.
Just at this propitious moment, for Mr. Calhoun's elevation to the lofty summit, at which he aims, his petulence and peevishness; his nullifying views; his revelation of bed chamber conversations, have swept away from beneath his feet, all the ground he once stood upon, before the American people. I suspect, that his political life is near its close his sands nearly run out, unless he can turn his political hour glass upside down.
When he appeared in Congress, he was hailed as a fixed star of the tenth magnitude, in the political firmament; but on a careful examination of him, through good glasses, the great eccentricity of his orbit, determined him to be, a comet, moving with a momentary glare, sometimes slowly (as he passed through the constellation of internal improvement,)
sometimes swiftly, as he passed through the sign of impatience, and now, he begins to fade upon the eye, in the sign of nullification, and in a moment, he will, in a faint streak expire.
Thus we see, that the same, heavenly object at first, supposed to be a telescopic star, the smallest ever heard of; on further examination, was deemed a comet, small indeed, but still a comet, of wonderful eccentricity; until, in defiance of all the calculations of the wisest astronomers, with the very best glasses, now in use, of the latest improvement, was at last, discovered by every naked eye, gazing at its faint glare, to be, nothing but a meteor expiring without noise, in the faintest streak of light! Even now, it is gone, to be seen no more forever.
I introduce to the reader, WILLIAM B. LEWIS, one of the Auditors. As I have known him many years, most intimately, what I am about to say of him, I know to be literally true. I have spent many happy days with him, at his own splendid and hospitable mansion, in sight of Nashville; at the Hermitage, and every where else, in Tennessee, where I wished to visit. During many months, in Washington, I saw him every day, and know him perfectly well.
He is now about fifty years old, though, he does not appear so old, by several years. He is six feet in height, perfectly straight limbed of a light complexion, has blue eyes, which carry in them, a mild lustre, a true index of his heart. In company, he is rather silent, remarkably modest in his manners, and his mind is as serene as serenity itself. He is one of the most industrious men, in the world, rising very early in the morning, and attending to business, frequently, until midnight.
He is a most perfect gentleman, and possesses talents, which ought to have placed him in the General Post Office, instead of the present incumbent.
He was Quarter Master General, under Gen. Jackson, in the late war was often employed as Secretary, in making treaties with Southern Indians and commissioner sometimes.
He has been twice married, the first wife was a Lewis his second one, Montfort Stokes' daughter, of North Carolina, now the Governor of that State.
By the first marriage, he has a daughter, an accomplished, sensible and amiable young lady MARY ANN LEWIS.
By the second marriage, he has a son. He is one of the wealthiest men, in Tennessee, and by going to Washington, he loses double the amount of his salary every year.
His enemies accuse him of unduly influencing the President! This would seem strange indeed, when he has not procured the appointment of even one relative, or one friend to office, whereas Mr. Barry, has procured good fat places for all his relatives. The truth is, Maj. Lewis, attends to his own business, and lets the President's business entirely alone.
His situation, one mile and a half East of the Nashville Inn, on an eminence, overlooking the country towards the West, down the Cumberland river, a distance of twenty miles, is one of the most delightful spots in the Western States.
It was not my intention, originally to have said scarcely any thing in this volume, of my best friends in Washington, for fear of being suspected of writing something to affect the next election; but, when I see assaults on the characters of such men as Maj. Lewis, I take a pleasure, in bearing my testimony in their favor. And, I have every where done justice to persons, with whom, I did not agree, in politics, and take the liberty to do the same justice, to a political friend. Self-interest I have none, in the little party squabbles of the moment my days being devoted, to literary, not to political pursuits.
The attacks made on Maj. Lewis, in the papers, I have strong reasons for believing, come out of the General Post Office Department.Edward Livingston.
I take the liberty of introducing to the reader, Mr. LIVINGSTON, who, until recently, was a member of the United States' Senate. Though I had few, almost no opportunities of conversing with him, during my tour, except at the Wistar parties in Philadelphia, in November, 1829; yet, as I remember him well, ever since I first saw him at the bar, and heard him in the courts of New York, more than thirty
years since, I will venture to give the impressions of him, as they exist in my own mind. He is now, though his appearance does not, by any means, indicate it, nearly sixty-six years old. His height is fully six feet, he is large and robust, though not very corpulent, and his head is slightly bent forward, the only effect he shows of his age. When thirty years old, he was one of the handsomest forms I ever beheld. He is neither bald nor grey, his hair being as black as the raven's wing. He has been a man of great industry, always exerting to the utmost limits every power of his body, and every faculty of his mind.
Sometimes he has been deeply immersed in professional business, engaged among the crowds attending court; at other times, he has been as deeply engaged in the study of the laws, and in acquiring every species of useful knowledge. With a mind originally clear, as the purest stream issuing from the Alleghanies, in which, every pebble that forms its bed, can be distinctly seen, he has traced every river and almost every rill of human knowledge, to the clear fountains in which they first appear.
Without a particle of intrigue in his composition, he is as artless as simplicity itself. Since Gov. Clinton's death, within the circle of my personal acquaintance, Mr. Livingston is decidedly superior to all others, for his present station. To a man like him; like Franklin, Jefferson, Madison, Jay, Marshall, and thousands besides, I hope, in our happy country; MEN, to whom business and books, science and literature, all the pleasures of taste, friendship and society, have furnished all that refines and strengthens the mind, renovates and expands all the affections of the heart, old age exhibits no dimunition, either of talent or of happiness. Such men, should they cease to be statesmen, would not the less love mankind; the less rejoice in human happiness, nor the less participate in it: too many in our country think and act as if there was a law of the mind that limits its powers and its pleasures to a certain age. With the French people it is different, who cherish their vivacity, their usefulness, their pleasures, and exert all their faculties to the final period of life. No man among them is excluded from the society of the gay, the young, the artless and the virtuous, because he is old. Among us,
there is a gloomy sect of ascetics, who wish to violate a law of our Creator by severing the chain that connects the present with the future state our existence. This visionary sect admonish us that we may live here too long, for ourselves and our affections, and that to become devout, we must, after a certain age, (the sooner the better) detach ourselves from the world, become gloomy, sad, contemplative, and in that way, dull, inactive, indifferent to all earthly objects, and perfectly useless to mankind. Mr. Livingston does not belong to this gloomy sect of religionists, but is a perfect man of the world, as the Creator intended all should be, enjoying every innocent pleasure, every rational amusement, cultivating all the affections of our nature, and mingling freely and sociably with the well informed, innocent and virtuous of both sexes, whom, in the best sense of that term, I call THE WORLD.
At his age of life, his physical powers may be somewhat diminished, his senses somewhat blunted, but the impressions they have so long conveyed to him remain vivid, and the treasures they have conveyed to him are laid up "where no moth can corrupt, and no thief can break through and steal them." The objects of his early attachment, his first wife, a most promising son, a daughter, sister, a brother. &c. have been taken from him by death, sometime since, but they were wise, innocent human beings, who have only preceded him a few years, to his and their ultimate, eternal home, and they must have left with him recollections that will become dearer, and hopes that will shine brighter and brighter every day during his life time.
To use the impressive and beautiful language of Mr. Walsh, in continuation. Our virtues, our attainments, our virtuous affections, as well as our devotion, are eternal, and if we wish to obey their great Author, we must multiply, cultivate, and exalt them, and thus advance towards perfection, and accomplish our own happiness.
Mr. Livingston lives, as though he believed as I do, that there is no period of human life in which we may not make new acquisitions in knowledge, may not communicate intelligence and pleasure, may not be rational, cheerful, pious and happy.
Mr. Livingston, was long since, married a second time, to a beautiful, sensible and accomplished French lady.
Such a man is the present Secretary of State, whose elevation to this office, was called for, from the very first, by nearly every supporter of Gen. Jackson. The President has finally obeyed the public voice, and given new evidence of regard to the wishes of his country.
Mr. Livingston has been much in Congress, more or less indeed, ever since our constitution was framed and adopted. He was born in New York, and long lived in Louisiana. He personally knows almost every man, of any note, in the nation. He was never ambitious of office, although almost forty years in office. He never was an intriguing politician, but is a statesman, whose views are large, liberal, expanded, enlightened and free from selfish motives. Free from prejudice himself, as any one can be; there is less prejudice against him, than there is against almost any other public man in the nation.
Now, at the very summit of all his wishes, as to office, he will doubtless, do his best, to so manage the affairs of the Department of State, as to add largely to this fame, as a statesman, a jurist, a scholar, a patriot and a man. He reads with ease, all the dead languages, and speaks all the living ones fluently and correctly. Without this qualification, no man should be Secretary of State. His mild temper, manly, but easy and engaging manners, elegant and interesting conversation, and perfect acquaintance with the world, and all its concerns, have been, and now are, duly appreciated by the President. His perfect sincerity, his old, constant, unbought friendship for the President, may be, will be safely relied on, at all times, and in all case. He represents in his feelings, the interests of the East and the West, the North and the South. His age; his profound learning; his knowledge of mankind; his disinterestedness and sincerity; his broad and liberal views; his experience of every kind; his business, talents, and his other invaluable qualifications for the station he occupies, peculiarly fit him to shine in it, brighter, and to throw his light further into the world, than any one, who has preceded him, as Secretary of State Such a man, is EDWARD LIVINGSTON.
Atwater, Caleb. Remarks Made on a Tour to Prairie Du Chien; Thence to Washington City, in 1829 . Columbus, OH: Isaac N. Whiting, 1831. [format: book], [genre: history; narrative; travelogue]. Permission: Illinois State University
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