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Scharf, J. Thomas. History of Saint Louis City and County, From the Earliest Periods to the Present Day: Including Biographical Sketches of Representative Men. Vol. I . Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts and Co, 1883. [format: book], [genre: history]. Permission: St. Louis Mercantile Library
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Chapter XVI.


1860. — THE accession of the Republican or anti-slavery party to power filled the Southern States with dismay, and created the greatest excitement throughout the country. Hardly had this result been ascertained before some of the extreme Southern States began military preparations, and set on foot measures to carry into effect their oft-repeated threats of secession, and of confederation in resistance to alleged Northern encroachments. Meetings were held in every city, town, and village, and these were addressed in vehement language by members of Congress and other prominent speakers. Resistance to the authority of the new administration and the duty of the Southern States to secede from the Union were the chief topics of their impassioned appeals to the people. On the 20th of December the State Convention of South Carolina, after a brief debate, passed the ordinance of secession by a unanimous vote, and on the following day a declaration of the causes which had led to this action was also adopted.

The announcement of the passage of the ordinance of secession excited general enthusiasm in all the more Southern slave States, but in the border States it served to intensify the painful feeling with which their people had watched the progress of events in South Carolina. That the action of the latter State had been hasty and ill judged a majority even of the people of the South admitted; and this fact gave additional poignancy to the general sorrow with which this first disunion movement was regarded. By the passage of the South Carolina ordinance of secession an impetus was given to the prevailing excitement in the South, and the measures of the cotton States looking in the same direction were greatly accelerated. Mississippi followed the example of South Carolina on the 9th of January, 1861; Alabama and Florida, January 11th; Georgia, January 20th; Louisiana, January 26th; Texas, February 1st; Virginia, April 17th; Tennessee, May 6th; Arkansas, May 18th; North Carolina, May 21st; and Kentucky, November 20th.

Missouri, as an exposed and frontier slaveholding State, had a large practical interest in the maintenance of the guarantees of the Constitution. From her geographical position she had a heavier stake, proportionately, in the preservation of the Union, as far as her material prosperity was concerned, than any of her sister Commonwealths of the South. This is clearly demonstrated by a consideration of the sources of her wealth, and the nature and direction or her industries and commerce, external and internal. Bound to the Constitution and the United States by every tie that interest could weave or strengthen, she had been uniformly faithful to the performance of every obligation imposed by the one or suggested by her devotion to the other, and in all the dissensions which sectional feeling and fanatical agitation had promoted, her support had invariably been given to moderate doctrines and conciliatory counsels. Sympathizing with the South in her wrongs and just resentments, and

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ready at all times to make common cause with her in the constitutional maintenance of her rights, she had at the same time studiously kept aloof from the mad heresies and passionate bitterness of the more radical Southern leaders. Being the only border slaveholding State west of the Mississippi River and lying contiguous to Kansas, she had often suffered from the aggressions of the Northern States, but had always been prompt to repel them within the limits of her constitutional resources and Federal allegiance and had done nothing whatever to widen the breach between the antagonistic sections of the republic, or to weaken the hands of those conservative Northern citizens who were nobly struggling to maintain the good faith and integrity of the national compact.

1861. — The General Assembly of Missouri began its twenty-first annual session Dec. 30, 1860, at Jefferson City, and on the 4th of January, 1861, Claiborne F. Jackson was inaugurated as Governor. In his first message Governor Jackson recommended the immediate calling of a State Convention "to consider the relations between the government of the United States, the people and governments of the different States, and the government and the people of the State of Missouri, and to adopt such measures for vindicating the sovereignty of the State and the protection of its institutions as shall appear to them to be demanded."

In accordance with this suggestion, a bill was passed on the 18th of January calling the convention, which was to meet at Jefferson City on the 28th of February. In the mean time (on the 18th of January) Hon. Daniel R. Russell, who had been appointed a commissioner from Mississippi, had addressed the Assembly on the advisability of cooperation on the part of Missouri with Mississippi and the other Southern States in the adoption of efficient measures for the common defense and safety of the slaveholding States.

— Considerable excitement was caused in St. Louis on the 9th of January by the arrival of a small body of troops from Newport Barracks to reinforce the garrison at Jefferson Barracks. The excitement continued to increase until the 11th, when it became intense, owing to the fact that Lieut. Thompson, with a squad of United States soldiers, had entered the city, occupied the custom-house and sub-treasury, and removed the government funds. Affairs in the city then assumed such a threatening aspect that Mayor Filley, on the afternoon of the same day, sent a message to the City Council, in which he said, "Very general and unusual excitement prevails in our community, and, although I do not apprehend that any actual disturbance or interference with the rights of our citizens will ensue, yet I deem it best that all proper precautionary measures should be taken to fully prepare for any event. I would hence recommend that the members of the Council from each ward select from among their best citizens such a number of men as the exigencies of the case may seem to require, and to organize them to be ready for any emergency. Our citizens are entitled to the full protection of the laws, and must have it."

— On the 9th of January a number of the members of the Democratic party held a public meeting at Washington Hall, and adopted a series of resolutions, one of which called for the appointment of "a committee of twenty to act with a committee of the ‘;Union party,’ for the purpose of opposing black Republicanism."

About the same time the leading unconditional Republicans, or Union men, agreed with certain leaders of the Democratic party to hold a grand Union meeting at the court-house on Saturday, January 12th, "to declare the sentiments of St. Louis on the great issues before the country."

On the morning of that day the Democratic papers announced that the meeting was expected "to assert its loyalty to the Union, and at the same time to take position in favor of the ‘Crittenden Proposition,’ as a fair basis for the adjustment of all the real differences between the free and the slave States." This proposition, which was thus announced for the first time, met with great objection from the Republicans, who desired to affirm their unconditional devotion to the Union. Hon. Francis P. Blair, after consultation with the leading men of his party, decided that the only legitimate course for them to pursue would be to declare their unalterable fidelity to the Union under any and all circumstances. As this could not be done under the arrangements for the proposed meeting without producing angry debate and probably serious consequences, he determined to advise his Republican friends to decline participation in it. Consequently, on the morning of the meeting-day (January 12th) the following placard was posted around the city:



"As it seems to be the determination of those who called the Union meeting to-day to take narrower ground in support of the Union of the States than that which the Republicans of this city have already assumed, we have judged it expedient to advise the Republicans not to participate in the meeting to-day, but to maintain the position already assumed in favor of the Union under all circumstances.


"F. A. DICK,

"P. L. FOY,



"R. S. HART."

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The meeting was held as announced at the east front of the court-house, and was a grand Union demonstration. At noon a salute of thirty-three guns was fired on the Levee, followed by another at two o'clock. Precisely at this hour the meeting was called to order by Capt. N. J. Eaton, and on his motion Col. Robert Campbell was chosen president. The following gentlemen were selected as vice-presidents:

Col. John O'Fallon, Bernard Pratte, Gen. N. Ranney, D. D. Mitchell, Ed. Haren, H. L. Patterson, J. W. Wills, Robert M. Funkhouser, Adolphus Meier, Samuel Gaty, Chas. Todd, Wm. Patrick, John Hogan, Edward Dobyns, Daniel G. Taylor, Wayman Crow, D. A. January, Jas. E. Yeatman, Andrew Harper, Andrew Christy, Dr. Linton, L. D. Baker, Jas. H. Lucas, Isaac H. Sturgeon, R. J. Lockwood, P. G. Camden, Judge Lackland, J. A. Brownlee, H. E. Bridge, George Penn, A. Gamble, Gerard B. Allen, D. H. Donovan, J. H. Alexander, Thomas Skinker, Marshall Brotherton, John F. Darby, Sol. Smith, J. B. Brant, A. D. Stewart, John G. Priest, John S. McCune, M. M. Pallen.

Secretaries, E. N. Tracy, J. B. S. Lemoine.

A committee on resolutions was appointed as follows:

John D. Coalter, Logan Hunton, Albert Todd, A. S. Mitchell, C. C. Whittelsey, W. T. Wood.

The committee retired for action, whereupon Judge H. Gamble, being called upon, addressed the vast assemblage. At the conclusion of his speech the committee through Judge Coalter reported the following resolutions:

"The citizens of St. Louis, in mass-meeting assembled, not as party men, declare that, living as we do under a republican form of government, whose basis is public opinion, we (a portion of the people of Missouri) believe it to be our right and duty to set forth our sentiments in this crisis of public affairs, and therefore be it

"Resolved, 1. That we are warmly attached to the government under which we live; that we recognize the Federal Union as the great preservative of our liberties; that under it we have, by God's providence, prospered beyond all other people, and even beyond the expectations of our patriot sires, who established it as the best means of perpetuating the blessings which they so gallantly fought for and gained.

"2. That under this government we are respected abroad, prosperous at home, and fast taking our true position as the leading nation of the earth.

"3. That we do not recognize as a necessity any conflict between the institutions of the people of this great country, but, on the contrary, we see in our widely extended territory, our varieties of climate, soil, productions, domestic institutions, modes of industry, and even modes of thought, only the grounds for a more perfect union. In this variety we see nature's great laws pervading all extent, and a necessary characteristic of every great people and widely extended empire.

"4. Valuing as we do thus highly the American Union, we should regard its dissolution as eminently disastrous to our country, and as tending to injure the cause of rational liberty throughout the world.

"5. That as our fathers denounced so we denounce as hostile to the Union the formation of all parties upon a purely sectional basis; and while the temporary ascendency and triumph of such parties is not, of itself, sufficient cause for the dissolution of the Union and overthrow of the government, yet it is sufficient cause for us to give, as we now give, earnest and solemn warning that the Union cannot continue unless all constitutional rights are secured against encroachments.

"6, That the possession of slave property is a constitutional right, and, as such, ought to be ever recognized by the Federal government; that if the Federal government shall fail and refuse to secure this right the Southern States should be found united in its defense, in which event Missouri will share the common duties and common danger of the South.

"7. That the discord prevailing for forty years between the people of the Northern and the Southern States, touching the relation of the Federal government to slavery, affords sufficient reason for all sections of the Union to require a clear and final settlement of all matters in dispute by amendments to the Constitution, so that the slavery question may never again disturb the public peace or impair the national harmony.

"8. That we have ever reposed faith in the virtue, intelligence, and justice of the American people, and now give it as our opinion that if time and opportunity be given they will, when freed from the pernicious influence of mere politicians and demagogues, gladly and cordially agree to such terms of adjustment of our troubles as will secure to all the States equality in the Union and re-establish fraternal relations between the people of the different sections, and revive everywhere the love for our glorious Union; and we cordially approve of the principles of adjustment contained in what are known as the Crittenden Propositions, and believe that a settlement upon such a basis should and will be satisfactory to all parts of the country; and we give it as our unhesitating opinion that if opportunity for a direct vote on the propositions be given, the people, or their representatives elected for that purpose in convention, by overwhelming majorities in all parts of the Union would be found to favor their adoption; and, in our opinion, the country can only be saved from the horrors of civil war by the adoption of some such measure of compromise.

"9. That, holding these views, we are not prepared to abandon the Union with all its blessings while any hope of adjustment remains. Until then we will maintain our place in the Union, and contend for and demand our equal and constitutional rights, and will not be content with less.

"10. That, in the opinion of this meeting, the employment of the military forces of the government to enforce submission from the citizens of the seceding States will inevitably plunge the country in civil war, and will immediately endanger, if it do not entirely extinguish, all hopes of a settlement of the fearful issues now pending before the country. We therefore earnestly entreat, as well the Federal government as the seceding States, to withhold and stay the arm of military power, and on no pretext whatever to bring on the nation the horrors of civil war, until the people themselves can take such action as our troubles demand.

"11. That the people of Missouri should meet in convention for the purpose of taking action in the present state of the nation's affairs, at the same time to protect the Union of the States and the rights and authority of this State under the Constitution; and to secure a consummation so devoutly to be wished Missouri should consult with her sister States, that by united action those fraternal feelings which fanatics at both North and South have turned into bitterness and wrath be again restored, and mutual affection control all passion and redress all grievances.

"12. That in the call of a convention representation should be in proportion to population, as near as may be, and that the final action of the convention should be submitted to the people for their approval and ratification at the polls."

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The reading of each clause produced cheers from the assemblage, and the resolution indorsing the Crittenden Propositions particularly was received with the greatest enthusiasm. "Three times three" cheers were given for Hon. John J. Crittenden. The meeting then adjourned, but the assemblage, not willing to disperse, called upon Maj. Uriel Wright for a speech. Maj. Wright accordingly addressed the meeting and at the conclusion of his speech the vast throng gave three cheers for the Union. After Maj. Wright had concluded his remarks, Col. L. V. Bogy was called to the stand and made a short speech, in which he expressed strong Union sentiments. He was followed by C. C. Whittelsey, who took a philosophical view of the state of the country, and thought if the people remained cool all the difficulties would be settled peaceably. Speeches were also made by Mr. Sanders, Col. Henry N. Hart, Mr. Strong, Mr. Cullen, Hon. C. Kribben, Gen. N. Ranney, and others. It was nearly dark before the assemblage left the courthouse.

— On the 17th of January, Britton A. Hill published an eloquent "appeal to the people of the United States in behalf of peace, of compromise, and of the Union," and on the same day the following memorial to Congress was very extensively signed by all classes of citizens and forwarded to Washington:

"The undersigned, citizens of the State of Missouri, view with alarm the present condition of public affairs. They have seen with great regret the secession of four States from the Union, so far as the action on the part of those States is concerned, and they fear that others may follow the example. They deeply regret that any condition of national affairs should have brought about such an issue; and, without going into an examination of the causes which have impelled sister States to this act, they pray your honorable body at once to pass such acts as will restore the Union and give peace to the country. And in this connection they beg leave to say that the adoption of the propositions contained in what are known as the Crittenden resolutions would be received by the border States as a satisfactory adjustment of existing difficulties, and render us once more a united and happy people."

— On January 17th, Maj. Higgins, an old and highly esteemed citizen of the Ninth Ward, raised a Union pole on Broadway near the "Reveille House," and hoisted the American flag on it.

— A meeting of the citizens of Carondelet, irrespective of party, was held at Lafayette Hall on Thursday evening, January 17th. Maj. Thomas Harney, on motion of Dr. Robert J. Hornsby, was called to the chair, and on motion of W. B. Quigley, Maj. Thomas W. Levant and Dr. A. W. Webster were appointed vice-presidents, and Edward Haren, Jr., secretary. On motion of J. M. Loughborough, Messrs. J. M. Loughborough, W. L. Hornsby, Socrates Newman, R. R. Southard, M. Chartrand, Josiah Cross, and J. F. Hume were appointed a committee on resolutions.

Mr. Loughborough, on the part of the majority of the committee, reported the following resolutions:

"Resolved, That we cordially approve and indorse the resolutions adopted at the mass-meeting of the citizens of St. Louis County, held at the court-house on last Saturday.

"Resolved, That as the Federal government was formed by the people of each State, and was sustained by the affection of each to the whole, it can only be continued by a similar affection, and not by the force of arms."

Mr. Hume presented a minority report.

On motion of Dr. Hornsby, the majority report was agreed to.

The meeting was addressed by Mr. Stafford and Maj. Harney, of Carondelet, and Maj. Uriel Wright, of St. Louis.

— "A meeting of the citizens of all political parties opposed to the black Republican rule in the city of St. Louis" was held on Dec. 26, 1860. It was called to order by Col. T. Grimsley, and John F. Darby was appointed chairman, and Charles C. Whittelsey, secretary. A committee consisting of Charles C. Whittelsey, Albert Todd, James E. Yeatman, John M. Krum, James M. Hughes, Daniel H. Donovan, and Thornton Grimsley, who were "opposed to the principles and practices of the Republican party," was appointed for the purpose of consulting together, and to report to the next meeting "the best policy for the citizens of St. Louis to adopt in view of the present condition of public affairs." The committee was authorized to "take under consideration the municipal affairs of the city of St. Louis only," and were to report at a meeting to be held on the 18th of January, 1861. At the time appointed the meeting again assembled, with John F. Darby in the chair, and Henry Overstolz and James E. Yeatman as vice-presidents, and P. B. Garesche, secretary. After some discussion, participated in by Messrs. Wayman Crow, James E. Yeatman, P. B. Garesehe, Albert Todd, Daniel H. Donovan, Grimsley, H. N. Hart, A. S. Mitchell, J. C. Barlow, and others, the committee appointed at the first meeting amended their address, written by Hon. Albert Todd, so as to read, "to all who are opposed to the Republicans of the city of St. Louis," and the programme of measures recommended for "the overthrow of the present black Republican rule in the city at the coming municipal election in April next" was adopted.

— On January 29th, Thomas C. Johnson, of St. Louis, introduced into the Senate of Missouri a joint resolution appointing commissioners to the "Peace

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Congress" which was to assemble in Washington on February 4th. After some amendments the resolution was adopted, and the following commissioners were appointed, who left without delay for Washington City: Nat. C. Claiborne, Waldo P. Johnson, John D. Coalter, A. W. Doniphan, Harrison Hough, and A. H. Buckner.

— During the Presidential campaign of 1860 the Republicans of St. Louis had organized the celebrated "Wide Awake" club, which afterwards, under the leadership of Hon. Francis Preston Blair, Jr., became the basis of the Unconditional Union party in St. Louis. After the election of Mr. Lincoln the original purposes of the club ceased to exist; but owing to the critical condition of public affairs, Mr. Blair advised the reorganization of the "St. Louis Wide Awakes," and in the latter part of December, 1860, meetings were held in the various wards for that purpose. The calls for enrollment of members were promptly and enthusiastically responded to, but after an organization had been perfected, the movements of the opposition led to an abandonment of their project by the Wide Awakes and the organization of the more popular Union clubs in their stead. Accordingly, on the 11th of January, 1861, a meeting was held at Washington Hall of all those in favor of the Union under any and all circumstances, at which the Wide Awakes were formally disbanded and a Union club organized. Subsequently all the Union men in the city of St. Louis, irrespective of old party ties, were invited to join the new association. The first political movement of this organization was the election of delegates to represent St. Louis in the State Convention, which was to assemble at Jefferson City on February 28th. In view of the critical condition of affairs, the Unconditional Union leaders acted with the greatest caution. Most of the ultra Republicans were in favor of placing a straight-out Republican ticket in the field upon an Unconditional Union platform, but Messrs. G. F. Filley, O. D. Filley, James O. Broadhead, Samuel T. Glover, F. P. Blair, Jr., and other prominent men in the old Republican party of St. Louis advised a more prudent course. James Peckham, in his interesting work on "Gen. Nathaniel Lyon, and Missouri in 1861," says, —

"Mr. Blair explained his anxiety to secure the aid of the State generally in behalf of the Union, and it was to be feared that the prejudice against the Republicans was so powerful that the masses, as well as the leaders who were favorable to the Union, would refuse to support a Republican ticket, no matter who were the candidates. It was upon this idea that Mr. Blair had advised the abandonment of the ‘Wide Awakes’ in January, and that he now advised a further abandonment of the Republican organization in the pending contest. ‘I don't believe,’ said a Republican partisan, ‘in breaking up the Republican party just to please these tender-footed Unionists. I believe in sticking to the party.’ — ‘Let us have a COUNTRY first,’ responded Mr. Blair, ‘and then we can talk about parties.’"

A meeting of Unconditional Union men was held in Mercantile Library Hall, January 31st, at which Sol. Smith was made chairman. Resolutions in favor of the Union were passed, and a committee of twenty was appointed to present to an adjourned meeting the names of suitable candidates for the convention. This committee of twenty was made up of Bell and Everett men and Douglas men. Mr. Blair was in constant consultation with this committee, and gave the movement his indorsement. By the call of the chairman of the former meeting, all Unconditional Union men were invited to meet at Verandah Hall on the 6th of February, for the purpose of receiving the report of the committee. The meeting was largely attended, with Sol. Smith in the chair, and John Riggin secretary. The committee of twenty reported, through Mr. Alexander, the following names as Unconditional Union candidates for the convention: Ferd. Meyer, George R. Taylor, Dr. M. L. Linton, H. R. Gamble, Hudson E. Bridge, John F. Long, Sol. Smith, J. H. Shackelford, Uriel Wright, Turner Maddox, William S. Cuddy, James O. Broadhead, Isador Busch, John How, and Henry Hitchcock.

Mr. Peekham says, "An effort was made to consider the names separately, which might have resulted in discarding several names on the ticket, had it not been for the argument of Messrs. James S. Knight, A. Mitchell, and Mr. Blair. From Messrs. Knight and Mitchell the meeting learned that the first three named were ‘Douglasites,’ the following seven were ‘Bell-Everetts,’ and the last four ‘black Republicans.’ At this last designation by Mr. Knight a storm arose, and cries of ‘take it back’ resounded from all parts of the hall. Mr. Knight pleasantly apologized, and was in turn cheered. Mr. Blair, in a speech of great power, said he did not care what parties gentlemen had belonged to. He was for a new party, an Unconditional Union party, for a party that would stand by the Union in any emergency, and he was satisfied with the ticket as it was presented. He was for remaining in the Union, and in St. Louis too, whether the State went out or not. If Missouri seceded, he was for St. Louis seceding from Missouri; and he wanted all the help he could get to keep her in the Union. In the crisis that was upon us men must cease to belong to parties, and belong, for the time, to the country. It was not a season to talk about individual preferences. What was wanted he felt would be cordially granted, and that was a perfect forgetfulness of party organizations in the determination to save the Union!

"The motion to consider the names separately was then withdrawn, and the whole ticket was nominated amid great enthusiasm. Subsequently George R. Taylor, William S. Cuddy, and Turner Maddox declined being candidates, and T. T. Gantt, Samuel M. Breckenridge, and Robert Holmes were elected to fill the ticket. In their letters of declination both Taylor and Maddox declared their fidelity to the Union cause."

— In pursuance of a call signed by "Union men" who were in favor of "giving the South all her

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constitutional rights," a "Constitutional Union" meeting held at Washington Hall on the 4th of February, and the following gentlemen having received the indorsement of the meeting became candidates for the State Convention: John L. Coalter, Henry Overstolz, Uriel Wright, D. A January, Albert Todd, J. W. Willis, William T. Wood, N. J. Eaton, H. S. Turner, George Penn, H. R. Gamble, L. V. Bogy, L. M. Kennett, P. B. Garesche.

The campaign was opened by the "Constitutional Union" party at a public meeting held in the St. Louis Hall, corner of Biddle and Fifth Streets, on February 8th.

The meeting was called to order by T. F. Keane, upon whose motion Col. Thornton Grimsley was elected president, with the following additional officers: Vice-Presidents, James E. Yeatman, John F. Darby, Fidelio C. Sharp, Andrew Middleton, Edward Brooks, S. H. Laflin, Joseph McBride, Bernard Pratte, Joseph H. Locke, Samuel Gaty; Secretaries, C. C. Whittelsey, Calvin F. Byrnes, H. W. Williams.

Upon taking the chair, Col. Grimsley delivered a short but fervent and eloquent address, in which he took occasion to recite the objects contemplated in the nomination of the Constitutional ticket. At the conclusion of his remarks he introduced Judge William T. Wood, one of the Constitutional candidates for delegates, who delivered an address upon the issues before the people.

Loud calls were then made for Col. Bogy, who in response took the stand and delivered a short but spirited and forcible speech.

Hon. Albert Todd, who was next called to the stand, delivered an eloquent and patriotic address.

On the 9th of February the friends of the Constitutional Union ticket held a grand ratification meeting at Verandah Hall.

The meeting was called to order by ex-Mayor Washington King, upon whose motion Samuel Gaty was elected president. The following additional officers were then elected: Vice-Presidents, Thornton Grimsley, George W. Dreyer, James H. Lucas, H. N. Hart, Thomas C. Chester, Col. S. Wood, Asa Wilgus, Michael A. Hogan, John S. McCune, Earl Matlack, Capt. D. B. Hill, Capt. John Reilly, Gerard B. Allen, Thomas Skinker, Matthias Steitz, John D. Daggett, R. M. Parks, T. T. January, Levin D. Baker, Richard C. Ludlow, P. P. Tippett; Secretaries, Ed. N. Tracy, Charles Miller.

C. C. Whittelsey then offered the following resolutions, which were adopted with overwhelming unanimity:

"We, citizens of St. Louis, opposed to the black Republican party, in mass-meeting assembled, declare, in the language used by the Father of his Country, in his Farewell Address, ‘that the unity of the government which constitutes one people is dear to us.’ In the language of Washington in that same address, we say, further, that ‘toward the preservation of our happy state it is requisite not only that we discountenance irregular opposition to its acknowledged authority, but also that we resist with care the spirit of innovation upon its principles, however specious the pretext. One method of assault may be to effect, in the forms of the Constitution, alterations which will impair the energy of the system, and thus undermine what cannot directly be overthrown.’

"We charge that the Republican party is, in the language of Washington, truly characterized by ‘geographical discrimination’ as a sectional party, whose bond of union is hostility to an institution common to fifteen States of this Union; we charge that it is seeking, under the forms of the Constitution, to subvert its spirit by denying, as that party has done in its platform of principles adopted at Chicago, to the slaveholding States their equality in the Union, by denying to the citizens of Missouri and her sister slaveholding States their rights in the common territories of the States. We therefore feel it to be our duty to resist any such innovation upon the principles of the Constitution which created this American Union, however specious the pretext.

"To this end we do heartily approve the resolutions adopted at the Constitutional Convention held at Mercantile Library Hall on Saturday, February 2d, and do ourselves adopt them. . . .

"Thus approving the principles of said resolutions, we do accept the nominations of said convention of candidates for delegates to the convention of the people of Missouri, to be held on the 28th of February, and in union for the sake of the Union we will do what we can to elect the Constitutional ticket by an overwhelming majority, and thus remove from St. Louis the stigma of being an anti-slavery black Republican county, hostile to the institutions of the State of Missouri, of which State we are proud to be citizens."

After the applause following the reading of the foregoing had subsided, Dr. D. A. January was introduced and made an eloquent speech. He was followed by Messrs. P. B. Garesche, Capt. N. J. Eaton, Maj. Wright, Hon. Luther M. Kennett, Louis V. Bogy, William T. Wood, and Albert Todd.

Another "grand rally" of the Constitutional Union party was held on the 13th, at which Col. Charles S. Clarkson and Messrs. Kennett, Wright, Garesche, Davis, of Illinois, Pauley, and others made speeches. The president of the meeting was James H. McBride, and the vice-presidents were Jas. S. Wilgus, James Shea, Joseph Garneau, Thornton Grimsley, Edward Ludlow, P. T. McSherry, J. D. McAuliff, George Light, Joseph McBride, Jacob Kern, John Mulloy, George Ward, Col. S. Woods, Louis Vallé, Z. T. Knott, William Pope, F. Beehler, Joseph H. Locke, Michael A. Hogan, Charles Todd, Samuel Gaty, James Sweeny, P. J. Pauley, John Busby, Andrew Middleton, John Shiffman, Andrew Reinstadtler, George W. West, J. W. Scimers, Patrick Driscoll,

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Adolph Philibert, C. Pullis, Frank Weston, A. H. Menkins, L. D. Baker. The secretaries were R. C. Ludlow and Capt. P. Naughton.

The last general meeting of the same party for the campaign was held in the rotunda of the court-house on the 16th, and was called to order by R. C. Ludlow, on whose motion J. B. S. Lemoine was elected chairman. The following additional officers were chosen: Vice-Presidents, Henry Whitimore, Ezra O. English, Jas. E. Yore, Col. Chiles, John Ramsey, Wm. F. Stacey, Wm. S. Cuddy, Dr. R. A. Stevens, Thos. Skinker, R. Southard, John C. Degenhardt, John Young, M. W. Warne, Samuel Robbins, L. D. Baker, Wm. S. Stamps, Archibald Carr, Chas. S. Rannells, Andrew Harper, John S. McCune; Secretaries, T. F. Keane, Jas. O. Alter.

At this meeting speeches were made by Col. L. M. Kennett, Judge Wood, Col. Bogy, Mr. Todd, and others.

After a very exciting canvass, during which State rights, slavery, secession, coercion, and many other national subjects were exhaustively discussed, the election took place on February 18th. In many localities throughout the State the direct issue was made for and against the passage by the convention of an ordinance of secession on the part of Missouri, subject, however, to the ratification or rejection of the voters of the State. The election resulted in the choice of a large majority of delegates opposed to secession by a popular majority of over eighty thousand votes. In St. Louis County the Unconditional Union ticket was elected by nearly six thousand majority. The delegates elected from St. Louis County, or the Twenty-ninth District, were Samuel M. Brackenridge, John How, Dr. M. L. Linton, Hudson E. Bridge, Thomas T. Gantt, Hamilton R. Gamble, John F. Long, Uriel Wright, Ferdinand Meyer, Henry Hitchcock, Robert Holmes, James O. Broadhead, Sol. Smith, Isador, Busch, and John H. Shackelford. On the 28th of February the convention assembled in the courthouse at Jefferson City, and organized by the election of Sterling Price as chairman. Robert A. Campbell, who was then a distinguished lawyer of St. Louis, was made assistant secretary. On the second day the convention adjourned to meet in Mercantile Library Hall in St. Louis on March 4th. It reassembled pursuant to adjournment, and during its session in St. Louis adopted some important measures. In a series of resolutions the convention, in the hope of averting the calamities of civil war, declared that it was opposed to secession and in favor of the maintenance of the Union, and that it was opposed to the use of coercion by the general government against the seceding States or the employment of military force by these States against the government. After the firing upon Fort Sumter, however, the opinions of a large majority of the members underwent a change and became more radical. The convention continued in session until March 22d, when it adjourned. It reassembled at Jefferson City July 22d, and after continuing in session until the last day of the month again adjourned, but was reconvened by proclamation of Governor Gamble on Oct. 10, 1861 at Mercantile Hall, St. Louis, and after a session of eight days adjourned. On June 2, 1862, it again assembled at Jefferson City, and on the 14th adjourned. On June 15, 1863, it met again at Jefferson City, and continued in session until July 1st, when it adjourned sine die. During one of its sessions (on July 31, 1861) the convention elected Hamilton R. Gamble, William P. Hall, and Mordecai Oliver respectively Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, and Secretary of State, in place of Claiborne F. Jackson, Thomas C. Reynolds, and Benj. F. Massey, whose seats had been declared vacant.

— An anti-Republican public meeting was held at the court-house March 30th, which was organized by the selection of Capt. N. J. Eaton as president; David B. Hill, Bernard Heidecker, John C. Degenhart, James G. Barry, E. C. Sloan, James H. Lucas, Dr. M. M. Pallen, Washington King, C. D. Blossom, J. P. Robinson, P. T. McSherry, John H. Fischer as vice-presidents; and Ed. Tracy and Louis T. Kretschmar as secretaries. Among those who made speeches were Daniel G. Taylor, George R. Taylor, and Gen. Riley, member of the Legislature.

— Dispatches were received on April 13th announcing the firing on Fort Sumter, in Charleston Harbor, by the Confederate forces under Gen. Beauregard. The dispatches were very unsatisfactory, but the news created intense excitement throughout the city.

— On the 15th of April, President Lincoln made a requisition on Governor Jackson for four regiments of men, to which the Governor replied as follows:


"JEFFERSON CITY, April 17, 1861.


"Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.:

"SIR, — Your dispatch of the 15th inst., making a call on Missouri for four regiments of men for immediate service, has been received. There can be, I apprehend, no doubt but these men are intended to form part of the President's army to make war upon the people of the seceded States. Your requisition, in my judgment, is illegal, unconstitutional, and revolutionary, in its object inhuman and diabolical, and cannot be complied with. Not one man will the State of Missouri furnish to carry on any such unholy crusade.


"Governor of Missouri."

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— The following advice to the merchants of St. Louis in making out their manifests and invoices for their custom-house returns was furnished by Com. W. G. Dales, formerly of the United States navy, but at this time an officer of customs at New Orleans, in the Confederate States:

"In shipping dutiable goods for way points in the new Confederacy, merchants should prepare a printed manifest and invoice of the property shipped, and furnish the clerk of the steamer the same in triplicate. The form of the manifest can be seen at the captain's rooms, Merchants' Exchange. The invoice of all such property must accompany the shipment, or it will be detained at Norfolk, and thus entail upon all parties in interest much trouble and anxiety, with a probable loss of all." 302

— A military company called "The Southern Guard" was organized at the State tobacco warehouse on April 20th. Their motto was, "Thrice is he armed who has his quarrel just." About fifty men signed the following preamble:

"In view of the present state of our country, and deeming it necessary that the State of Missouri should be armed and ready for any emergency that may arise, we, the undersigned, being unalterably attached to Southern institutions, and willing and determined to defend them to the bitter end, have formed ourselves into a military organization, to be called the Southern Guard."

The following officers were then elected: James T. Shackelford, captain; J. Z. Buskit, first lieutenant; Jos. S. Dean, second lieutenant; and D. F. Samuels, third lieutenant.

— The steamer "C. E. Hillman," on her trip from St. Louis to Nashville, Tenn., was seized and detained at Cairo, Ill., on April 26th, by the military commandant at that point, because she had on board arms and munitions of war "consigned to parties in a State in the Union." G. K. McGunnegle, president of the Board of Underwriters of St. Louis, complained to Governor Richard Yates, of Illinois, on April 26th, of the illegal seizure, and on the 29th the steamer, with the remainder of the cargo, was turned over to the owners.

— Capt. Henry Little, of the Seventh Regiment of Infantry, United States army, resigned his commission in April. The captain was a native of Maryland, and had been in the army over twenty years.

— On May 5th a number of guns and equipments belonging to Maj. McKinstry were seized by the Home Guards in the warehouse of James L. Pease on Market Street.

— On the 10th of May occurred the affair of Camp Jackson, of which a full account will be found later on in this work.

— J. B. Moulton, superintendent of the North Missouri Railroad, on May 11th announced that the military had taken possession of his railroad depot in the city, and that all freights passing over the road would be subject to military inspection.

— The Missouri Republican of May 18th contained the following in relation to the seizure of arms and the movement of troops in St. Louis:

"Yesterday there was another seizure of arms and military accoutrements in this city. The seizure was made, however, by civil process, and consequently gave rise to no difficulty, as was the case at Camp Jackson, where military power was brought to bear, independent of civil authority. It appears that several days ago a quantity of muskets, about two hundred in all, were purchased by a private citizen, out of his own pocket, for the purpose of arming the Constitutional Guards. After the terrible results of placing arms in the hands of raw recruits were made manifest by the ‘Home Guards’ at Camp Jackson and on Walnut Street, it was deemed advisable not to place these arms in the hands of the Constitutional Guards, and they were accordingly taken to the Central Police Station, and leave was granted whereby they might be left there for the time being for safe-keeping. Yesterday afternoon, however, Marshal Rawlings appeared with a writ of replevin from the United States District Court, at the instance of Capt. Lyon, U.S.A., with ample bonds, and demanded the arms. Chief of Police McDonough replied that he had no authority over the

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arms whatever beyond their safe-keeping, and after consultation with the commissioners they were ordered to be delivered up. Thereupon several baggage-wagons appeared, and the muskets were brought out and deposited therein and taken to the Arsenal. Quite a crowd gathered about and witnessed the removal, but no demonstrations of a hostile character were made manifest.

"Previous to this a civil process was served by the marshal at the State tobacco warehouse. He had in charge a posse of sixty or seventy United States troops to enforce the process. They surrounded the building, effected an entrance, broke open various boxes, and found all sorts of munitions of war save muskets. A number of gray uniforms were also found, and although not claimed as United States property, were nevertheless transported with the rest of the articles to the Arsenal in baggage-wagons employed for the purpose. A large crowd of people collected at this place, but not the slightest belligerent demonstration was made.

"In addition to the above, early yesterday morning a company of Home Guards left their armory at Turners' Hall, and proceeded across the river to Illinoistown, with furniture-wagons, and took possession of one hundred navy revolvers at the depot, in boxes marked ‘Frank Blair, care H. A. Sloan & Co.’ Blair states that he never ordered the revolvers, and it is supposed that they were intended for other parties than the United States troops. They were taken to the Arsenal.

"About four o'clock yesterday afternoon a regiment of troops passed up Fifth Street, with six field-pieces. They are to be stationed in the extreme northern part of the city.

"The public will observe that a decided improvement has been made in the manner of conducting these things. The usual law process is issued, bonds given, and the marshal is required to execute the writ. If this had been done at Camp Jackson, the slaughter of innocent men, women, and children never would have taken place on the 10th of May.

"Late last night we received the following card from Col. Hart:


May 17, 1861.

"'To the Citizens of the City and County of St. Louis:

"'I pray you stay your opinion with regard to a lot of rifles, bought with my money some time since, which were this evening seized by the United States marshal, until to-morrow, when I will fully and in detail publish all the facts for your judgment. I have just heard of the seizure, having left the city a few minutes before to come to my family here. Suffice for me at present to say, these arms were bought solely for the purpose of being used whenever we were legalized in quelling riots or mobs in the city of St. Louis, and in defense of the life and property of you all, without respect to past political parties.

"'After the surrender of Camp Jackson, the same evening, I delivered all over to the Police Department, ready to serve them with my organization, the Constitutional Home Guards, whenever they should call on us to assist them to quell riots or mobs, and intended they should remain there, and under their control, for that purpose.

"'I have never been a secessionist, have never knowingly done anything in violation of my duty to the Federal and State governments, and on all occasions where I could do anything to preserve peace, am known to have readily given my little aid to effect the same. I shall more fully and in detail set forth all the facts connected with them. In the mean time I ask you all to forbear hasty conclusions about the matter.


On Saturday afternoon, May 18th, United States Surveyor Howard and United States Marshal Rawlings seized on board the steamer "Sioux City," lying at the foot of Pine Street, twenty boxes of cartridges and four cases of musket-barrels, all of which were declared confiscated to the government and taken to the Arsenal. The articles were in boxes marked "soap." The captain of the boat, however, knew nothing about the matter.

— An artillery company numbering forty-eight men, under command of Capt. Spakofski, arrived at the Arsenal from Cairo, onboard the steamer "J. D. Perry," at two o'clock Sunday afternoon, May 19th.

— The steamer "Robert Campbell, Jr.," was fired into on May 21st by a battery erected on the banks of the Mississippi River, northwest of Bremen, and under the command of Col. Boernstein's troops.

— The following persons, who had been arrested upon the alleged charge of threatening Union men at Potosi, Mo., were released from the Arsenal on May 21st and 22d: William Mathews, clerk Circuit Court, Washington County; E. D. Smith, Jefferson County, steamboat pilot; Stephen P. Dunklin, farmer; Joseph H. Dunklin, farmer; Dr. John Wyatt, Jefferson County; Geo. B. Clarke, lawyer; L. W. Casey, livery-stable keeper; Patrick Doyle, livery-stable keeper; Ed. Willoughby, miner; N. B. Buck, editor Potosi Miner; William J. Slater, lawyer; John Dean, smelter and farmer.

— United States Marshal Rawlings on May 21st seized two gun-carriages at Murphy's wagon manufactory on Broadway. Two brass cannon which had been removed by the police commissioners from the State tobacco warehouse to Arnot's building were also seized by the same officer.

— On the 22d of May the steamer "Iatau" left the Arsenal with one hundred men, under the command of Capt. Frantz, and proceeding down the river to Harlow's Landing, seized the steamer "J. C. Swon," which had been lying at that point for several days in charge of the mate.

— At this time all vehicles coming in or out of the city were searched by the military. The searching of private residences for contraband articles was also a daily occurrence.

— Col. Shutner's regiment left St. Louis May 28th, for the purpose of taking up a position at Bird's Point, opposite Cairo.

— In consequence of the agreement entered into between Gens. Price and Harney, on May 27th, Gen. Harney issued orders for the withdrawal of the troops from the suburbs, and the different encampments were vacated on the 29th.

Col. Sigel's regiment remained in the Arsenal, in the place of Blair's regiment.

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Col. Boernstein's regiment, stationed near the reservoir and at Bissell's Point, to stop Missouri River boats, was ordered to the barracks. An order was given to the commanding officer at Duncan's Island to permit all boats to pass up the river unmolested.

— On May 31st, Captain Hall, with a small detachment from Col. McNeil's regiment, searched Dr. McDowell's medical college for arms, but none were discovered.

— There were on June 1st five regiments of Home Guards in the city, — about five thousand men; one regiment was stationed at Soulard Market, one at Jaeger's Garden, one at Turners' Hall, one at Uhrig's Cave, and one at Fourteenth and Chambers Street. The regiment at Turners' Hall was commanded by Col McNeil; that at Uhrig's Cave by B. Gratz Brown. This latter regiment, on May 31st, had changed its quarters from Bechtner's Varieties to Uhrig's Cave, and on the 16th of June embarked on the cars for Rolla.

— Morgan L. Smith opened a recruiting office at No. 78 Fifth Street, in the latter part of May, for a Zouave corps.

— Capt. Totten, in command of four hundred regulars, which had been quartered over Thornton's livery-stable, on June 1st changed his quarters to the Abbey.

— Mayor Taylor, on June 4th, tendered his resignation to the Council, which was accepted. On the 7th the Council reconsidered its action, and the mayor withdrew his resignation, thus continuing in office.

— Mr. Tinnicliffe and two other deputy United States marshals on June 15th arrested Joseph W. Tucker, editor of the State Journal, and seized all of his private papers in his office, upon the charge, made by John D. Stevenson, that he "conspired with, and corresponded with," "traitorous bodies of men." He was taken before Judge Treat, of the United States District Court, who released him upon his giving bond in the sum of ten thousand dollars.

— In compliance with orders issued from the War Department on July 3d, Gen. John C. Fremont on the 25th assumed command of the Western Department. The following officers were at this time announced as constituting his staff: Capt. J. C. Kelpon, Asst. Adjt.-Gen. and Act. Com. Subst.; Brevet Maj. J. McKinstry, Asst. Quartermaster; Sergt. S. G. I. De Camp, Medical Director; Lieut.-Col. T. P. Andrews, Deputy Paymaster-General.

— The Republican of August 15th contains the following in relation to military movements in the city:

"Martial law was declared yesterday forenoon, and Maj. McKinstry appointed provost-marshal. So far, however, there has been no change, and probably will not be, in the police department, and the civil business will be conducted as heretofore. In certain contingencies only, we presume, or in cases not properly coming within the jurisdiction of the police, will the military power be exercised. Although there was very general inquiry as to the effect of martial law, and a sort of general apprehension that it would require people to remain indoors after nine o'clock in the evening, and compel them to obtain passes to leave the town, etc., yet, ‘so far as heard from,’ nothing of the kind will be required, and, in point of fact, martial law as yet does not differ from any other law.

"Mr. Brownlee, the president of the board of police commissioners, was arrested yesterday about noon and taken to the Arsenal. Mr. Basil Duke was appointed president of the board instead.

"In the afternoon the residence of Capt. William Wade, on St. Charles Street, near Fifth, was surrounded by soldiers and searched, but nothing contraband discovered. It was reported that a search was instituted for Capt. Wade with a view to his arrest, but that he was not to be found. Capt. McKellops' residence on Olive Street, near Fifth, was also searched, with a like result. Crowds of spectators gathered on the streets at both the above-named places while the search was being instituted, but there was no disturbance, loud talk, or excitement manifested. The city was perfectly quiet all day yesterday and last evening. About five o'clock last evening the Bulletin, Missourian, and Herald offices were taken possession of by soldiers, and orders issued for the suppression of those papers. The Missourian was printed at the State Journal establishment on Pine Street, between Third and Fourth; the Bulletin, on the same street, between Fourth and Fifth, at the Christian Advocate office; and the Herald, at the Herald office, on Market Street, between Second and Third. These papers have of late published the South side of accounts of affairs, as well as what have been regarded as very improbable and absurd rumors.

"The following is the form of the order for the suppression of the Herald:

"ORDER No. 12.


"ST. LOUIS, Aug. 14, 1861.

"To Col. McNeil, Commanding Home Guards:

"You are hereby ordered to suppress the newspaper called the Morning Herald (James L. Faucett, proprietor), and not allow the publication of the same from the date of this order.

(Signed) "J. MCKINSTRY,

"Major U. S. Army, Provost-Marshal."

On the 16th the same paper gave the following account of the movements of steamboats in the harbor:

"A very large number of arrivals of steamboats at this port occurred yesterday morning. No less than nine steamers came up from Widow Waters' landing and vicinity and were landed at our Levee. We understand that the United States government ordered them to be brought up for greater safety.

"The boats to which we refer are the ‘Continental,’ Capt. B. F. Hutchinson; ‘T. L. McGill,’ Capt. N. Robirds; ‘Planet,’ Capt.————; ‘John Warner,’ Capt. Chas. P. Warner; ‘Gladiator,’ Capt, John Klinefelter; ‘Champion,’ Capt. E. B. Moore; ‘Edward Walsh,’ Capt. Burke; ‘Platte Valley,’ Capt. ———, and ‘John H. Dickey,’ Capt. Danable.

"Nearly all these steamers are St. Louis and New Orleans packets, which were resting from their labors during the continuance of the blockade.

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"The ‘Princeton,’ a celebrated stern-wheel boat, said to be worth $75,000 by the charitable individual who presented her to the United States government some time ago, is employed in cruising around the harbor, for what particular purpose we are not advised."

— Maj. J. Kinstry, provost-marshal, on August 14th strictly prohibited under severe penalties "the wearing of concealed weapons by any person not in the military service of the United States or in the regularly constituted police force of the city." Notice was also given by the same officer "to gunsmiths and dealers in fire-arms resident in the city and county of St. Louis that no description of fire-arms would be permitted to be sold or given away" without a special permit from him.

— On the 16th Maj. McKinstry issued the following order:

"All places of public amusement — theatres, concerts, negro minstrels, etc. — will not be permitted to open for the reception of visitors on Sundays.

"All dance-houses, theatres, concerts, negro minstrels, or any other places of public resort of like character will be closed at 10.30 P.M. When any disturbance of the peace or disorderly conduct occurs, or is permitted by the proprietors, at any of the above-mentioned places of amusement, they will be closed forthwith permanently.

"Assemblage of persons on the streets or sidewalks, interfering with the free passage of the same, will not be permitted at any time or place. It is hereby made the especial duty of the Chief of Police of this city to carry out the prompt execution of the foregoing orders."

The sale of spirituous liquors within the city and county between the hours of twelve o'clock Saturday and seven o'clock on Monday following were at the same time strictly prohibited. The sale of malt liquors was not prohibited.

— The collection of troops and war material in the neighborhood of St. Louis in August was of the most formidable character. At Camp Benton, immediately west of the Fair Grounds, extensive preparations were being made for the accommodation of a large body of troops, but only two regiments had taken post in this vicinity on the 21st. The Twenty-second Indiana was encamped in tents a few hundred yards south of the Fair Grounds, and the Thirty-ninth Ohio, under Col. Groesbeck, which had just arrived, was establishing its quarters immediately adjoining the western inclosure of the Fair Grounds. Much the larger portion of the troops encamped in the neighborhood of St. Louis in the latter part of August were located at the barracks, Arsenal, and Lafayette Park. There were at this time about fifteen thousand troops, well armed and equipped, in the vicinity of the city, and every day one or more regiments was added to the number. The city was also strongly fortified. Two large columbiads were mounted a short distance from the city on the Gravois road, and one was placed at Rock Spring. Sulphur Springs, on the Iron Mountain Railroad, where it left the river, was considered a strategical point, and three columbiads were mounted there about the 1st of September. The work of erecting fortifications on all the commanding elevations in and near the city continued during the summer and fall. At some of these fortifications heavy guns, as we have stated above, were mounted to command the river and the main avenues leading to the city.

— About three hundred of the soldiers wounded at the battle of Springfield were placed under treatment, about the middle of August, at the new House of Refuge, west of the work-house. The building was of brick, five stories high, and the rooms being very large were well adapted for the purposes of a hospital. A large number of ladies from the city visited the hospital, and rendered very material assistance by furnishing bandages and other necessary articles.

— Early in August Gen. Fremont determined to form in the vicinity of St. Louis a camp of instruction capable of accommodating twenty thousand men. Accordingly, A. B. Ogden was instructed to make a thorough survey of the land west of the city from Bellefontaine cemetery to the Arsenal, for the purpose of selecting a suitable location for the camp. After a careful examination of various sites near the outskirts of the city, he finally selected a tract of one hundred and fifty acres owned by Col. John O'Fallon, immediately west of the Fair Grounds. Mr. Ogden addressed a note to Col. O'Fallon, stating that the land belonging to him had been selected for military barracks by the government, and that liberal and patriotic gentleman responded, stating that he would give the government the use of the land for one year at the nominal price of one hundred and fifty dollars. The ground was at this time in a high state of cultivation, and the generous offer of Col. O'Fallon was gratefully accepted by Gen. Fremont. The site chosen was admirably adapted for a military camp, being level, free from obstruction, and covered with a beautiful greensward. It was immediately graded to a perfect plane, and an effective system of underground sewerage was constructed, so that after a rain the water was speedily carried off, and the ground thereby kept in an excellent condition for parade purposes. A large number of mechanics were employed in the erection of barracks for men and of stables for horses. The barracks were constructed in five rows, each seven hundred and forty feet in length, extending from east to west. Each row of barracks was about forty feet in width, exclusive of covered walks on each side,

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which extended six or eight feet from the main building. The interior was divided into compartments of convenient size, and these were lined on all sides with bunks for sleeping. Good provision was made for ventilation by means of openings in the walls, and there were sleeping accommodations for one hundred men in each seventy feet of the barrack building.

In General Orders No. 4, Gen. Samuel R. Curtis, September 18th, directed that the barracks should be known as "Camp of Instruction, Benton Barracks," and added that troops were to be stationed at this post "especially to recruit, organize, and drill." Besides the grounds included in the chain of sentinels which surrounded the barracks and Fair Grounds, his command extended a mile in all directions from his headquarters. The saloons and hotels within this circle were liable to special and stringent supervision and suppression for disorder or riot.

A contemporary writer, who visited the barracks on the 1st of December, gives the following interesting description of the place:

"For a full mile to the west the ground is as level as a house floor and along the entire distance regiments of infantry and cavalry are moving in grand and solid columns here and there, performing all sorts of military evolutions, while drums are beating, fifes screaming, and bugles sounding far and near. . . . The barracks are built in two straight lines, running directly west and are about one-third of a mile apart. Laterally they are divided off into separate compartments, each compartment being capable of accommodating two companies. The quarters of the officers are so arranged in these different compartments that they can have an oversight of their different companies at all times. There are two tiers of bunks, and each bunk is furnished with clean straw and a thick blanket; a coal-stove is also furnished to each compartment, so that even in the coldest day the soldiers will be as comfortable as people living in houses furnished with all the modern improvements. Immediately back of the two lines of barracks is a strip of ground four hundred feet in width, and extending the length of the barracks, upon which temporary shanties have been erected to cover the cooking ranges. At first the common plan of digging a hole in the ground and building a fire in it for cooking purposes was adopted, but it was found that an immense amount of fuel was consumed in this way, and accordingly Capt. Dodds, the commissary and quartermaster, introduced camp cooking ranges, one for each company, and the saving in fuel is already nearly sufficient to pay the cost of the ranges.

"The two lines of barracks extend westward for the distance of nearly half a mile, and directly in the centre of the parade-ground at the west end, on a lot of ground about four hundred feet square, other barracks are erected. A wide space is left on each side of these barracks, so that the troops can move in large bodies out upon the drill-ground, which is still farther west, and embraces some seventy acres.

"The commanding general's headquarters and the quarters for the field-officers are located on the eastern portion of the ground, the former, a two-story frame building, a short distance from the entrance and midway between the parallel line of barracks, and the latter at the extreme east end. The field-officers' quarters consist of a row of barracks, neatly and comfortably furnished, and the house occupied by the commanding general, externally and internally, is all that could be desired. The barracks are all whitewashed outside, and, in consequence of the strict discipline which is maintained, present a neat appearance throughout. On the north side of the barracks, for a considerable distance to the west, a large number of stables for cavalry horses are being erected, while still farther west are two great warehouses, in which are stored supplies for the soldiers and forage for the horses. In the immediate vicinity of the warehouses are various little frame buildings, used as daguerrean saloons and restaurants. Since Gen. Strong assumed command, however, the sale of all intoxicating liquors on the grounds, or within a radius of a mile, has been prohibited.

"The quartermaster's office is in one of the large warehouses, alongside of which a railroad track has been laid, so that stores can be put aboard horse-cars (built especially for the purpose) here in the city, and in a short space of time be delivered at their proper destination.

"Gen. William K. Strong is at present in command of the barracks. He succeeded Gen. Curtis. He was formerly connected with the staff of Gen. Fremont. Capt. Henry Z. Curtis is acting assistant adjutant-general, and Capt. Joseph L. Dodds quartermaster of the post and acting commissary.

"The barracks were built at a cost of sixty thousand dollars, but the improvements which have since been made, such as the introduction of water, the laundry, etc., will reach the sum of one hundred thousand dollars. About one thousand laborers were employed in constructing the barracks."

At one time (in April, 1862) over twenty-three thousand men were stationed at the barracks. About September, 1865, the grounds were turned over by the government to the owner.

— On August 26th, Provost-Marshal McKinstry issued the following order:

"The disturbance of the public peace to-day having been traced by this department to the unauthorized and improper sale of liquors to soldiers by irresponsible and ill-disposed persons, it is hereby ordered that from and after this date, until further orders, all saloons and bar-rooms and other places kept for retailing of spirituous and intoxicating liquors in the city and county of St. Louis, except the saloons connected with the principal hotels, and such others as may after due investigation receive special permission to open, be and remain closed; and the sale, exchange, or giving away of any such intoxicating liquors or beverages at retail, except as hereinbefore excepted, is hereby expressly forbidden. Any violation or evasion of this order will be visited with severe punishment."

The same officer on the 28th issued the following:

"The distribution, sale, exchange, or giving away of any copy or copies of the New York News, Day-Book, Journal of Commerce, Freeman's Journal, or Brooklyn Eagle, newspapers lately presented by the United States grand jury of the Southern District of New York as aiders and abettors of the enemy, also of the New York Journal of Commerce, Jr., is prohibited in the city and county of St. Louis from this date. All railroad and express agents in the city are ordered to deliver into the possession of the provost-marshal all packages of the papers above named that may hereafter come into their possession.

"The delivery from the post-office of any number of either of the above-named treasonable sheets is also prohibited."

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— On the 30th, Maj.-Gen. John C. Fremont, commanding the Western Department, issued the following proclamation, placing the entire State under martial law, as he had heretofore done the city and county of St. Louis:

"Circumstances, in my judgment of sufficient urgency, render it necessary that the commanding general of this department should assume the administrative powers of the State.

"Its disorganized condition, the helplessness of the civil authority, the total insecurity of life, and the devastation of property by bands of murderers and marauders who infest nearly every county in the State, and avail themselves of the public misfortunes and the vicinity of a hostile force to gratify private and neighborhood vengeance, and who find an enemy wherever they find plunder, finally demand the severest measures to repress the daily increasing crimes and outrages, which are driving off the inhabitants and ruining the State.

"In this condition the public safety and the success of our arms require unity of purpose, without let or hindrance, to the prompt administration of affairs.

"In order, therefore, to suppress disorders, to maintain as far as now practicable the public peace, and to give security and protection to the persons and property of loyal citizens, I do hereby extend and declare established martial law throughout the State of Missouri.

"The lines of the army of occupation in this State are for the present declared to extend from Leavenworth, by way of the post of Jefferson City, Rolla, and Ironton, to Cape Girardeau, on the Mississippi River.

"All persons who shall be taken with arms in their hands within these lines shall be tried by court-martial, and if found guilty will be shot.

"The property, real and personal, of all persons in the State of Missouri who shall take up arms against the United States, or who shall be directly proven to have taken active part with their enemies in the field, is declared to be confiscated to the public use, and their slaves, if any they have, are hereby declared free men. 303

"All persons who shall be proven to have destroyed after the publication of this order railroad tracks, bridges, or telegraphs shall suffer the extreme penalty of this law.

"All persons engaged in treasonable correspondence, in giving or procuring aid to the enemies of the United States, in fomenting tumults, in disturbing the public tranquillity by creating and circulating false reports or incendiary documents are, in their own interest, warned that they are exposing themselves to sudden and severe punishment.

"All persons who have been led away from their allegiance are required to return forthwith to their homes. Any such absence without sufficient cause will be held to be presumptive evidence against them.

"The object of this declaration is to place in the hands of the military authorities the power to give instantaneous effect to existing laws, and to supply such deficiencies as the conditions of war demand. But it is not intended to suspend the ordinary tribunals of the country, where the law will be administered by the civil officers in the usual manner and with their customary authority, while the same can be peaceably exercised.

"The commanding general will labor vigilantly for the public welfare, and in his efforts for their safety hopes to obtain not only the acquiescence, but the active support of the loyal people of the country."

To prevent any disturbance caused by the declaration of martial law, Col. Groesbeck's command was ordered into the city and stationed around the courthouse, and Lucas, Biddle, and Broadway Markets. They took twenty rounds of ammunition with them for an emergency, and remained until the following morning, when they were marched back to camp. On the same day (August 30th) Provost-Marshal McKinstry issued the following "Order No. 107":

"It appearing to this department, by satisfactory evidence, that individuals are daily leaving this city for the purpose of treasonably communicating with the enemy, and giving them

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information, aid, and comfort, in violation of law, it is hereby directed that from and after this date all persons are peremptorily forbidden to pass beyond the limits of the city and county of St. Louis without first obtaining a special permit from this office.

"All ferry steamboat, and railway officers and agents, and all other carriers of passengers, are hereby forbidden to sell or transfer any tickets entitling the holder to go beyond the limits of this county to any person, or to carry, or allow to be carried, any person not exhibiting a permit from this office."

The following is a copy of the provost-marshal's pass that was issued to applicants:


"Permission is granted to — to pass beyond the limits of the city and county of St. Louis, to go to — .

"J. MCKINSTRY, Major U.S.A.,


On the back of the pass was the following description of the person:

"Age, — .
"Height, — .
"Color of eyes, — .
"Color of hair, — .
"Peculiarities, — .

"It is understood that the within named subscriber accepts this pass on his word of honor that he is and will be ever loyal to the United States; and if hereafter found in arms against the Union, or in any way aiding her enemies, the penalty will be death.

(Signed) " — ."

"There were some amusing scenes," says the Republican of September 2d, "enacted at the office of the provost-marshal on Saturday morning in consequence of the rather unexpected order requiring every individual to obtain a pass before leaving the town. The rush for passes commenced at an early hour, and must have taken Maj. McKinstry somewhat by surprise, but, like a skillful general, he proved equal to the emergency. Every pass had to be written for the individual applying. This was done by one of the clerks, after which it had to be taken to the provost-marshal, McKinstry, for his signature. This process being found altogether too slow to accommodate the rush of passengers going east, the marshal caused the announcement to be made that all passengers going east on the morning trains would be allowed to leave the city without passes. This decimated the crowd somewhat, but large numbers intending to go out on the Iron Mountain, Pacific, and North Missouri roads remained to be attended to. There was but one alternative. The provost-marshal pulled off his coat, seated himself at his desk, and was speedily surrounded by a dense crowd armed with passes obtained from the clerk, and only awaiting the simple signature of ‘J. McKinstry,’ etc. As each individual submitted his pass the provost-marshal signed his name, looking all the while with his keen searching eyes directly at the applicant, and propounding two or three inquiries, such, for instance, as the following to a young and smart-looking chap who had a pass for Springfield: ‘Going to Springfield?’ ‘Yes, sir.’ ‘Live there?’ ‘Yes, sir.’ In an undertone, ‘Not very profitable to be a minute-man, is it?’ No reply, but a slightly confused and indignant look. In the mean time the signature has been affixed to the pass in a bold hand. Directly the young man is in possession of the important ‘open sesame’ and is leaving the room, when down falls the hand of the provost-marshal upon a little silver bell at his side, and simultaneously he cries out, ‘Spot!’ Two minutes later and the young man bound for Springfield is politely requested by an officer to consider himself under arrest. What follows is, of course, outside the ken of the reporter. The cries of ‘spot’ were numerous during the provost-marshal's eight hours' sitting for the purpose of signing passes on Saturday."

— On September 3d, James Taussig, Dr. Thomas O'Reilly, and E. W. Fox were appointed by the provost-marshal a committee to receive, examine, and report to him upon all applications for the reopening of all public places which he had heretofore directed to be closed. The committee met on the 4th, and decided upon the following order of business:

"1. All persons making applications shall state the number and street of their place of business, and shall have their application indorsed by two persons known to the committee as reliable Union men, who shall vouch for the orderly character of the house, and the loyalty of the proprietor to the United States government. No permit will be granted to persons who have not obtained their city and county licenses according to law.

"2. All applications not already presented shall be handed to Capt. Cozzens, at his office, No. 91 Washington Avenue, for examination by the committee; and all persons whose permits are ready will be notified of the fact and of the place of delivery by publication in the newspapers.

"3. All persons to whom permits are granted will be required to subscribe the following declaration: It is understood that the undersigned accepts this permit or license on his word of honor that he is and will be ever loyal to the United States, and if hereafter found in arms against the Union, or in any way aiding her enemies, the penalty will be death.

"4. A printed copy of the declaration so subscribed shall be kept posted up by the proprietor in a conspicuous place in each bar-room or saloon having a permit.

"Any violation of these rules or disorderly conduct will cause an immediate withdrawal of permits granted.

"By order of



"E. W. Fox,

"Approved, "Committee.


"Maj. U.S.A., Provost-Marshal."

On the 17th this committee was also authorized to grant permits to keepers of public gardens and parks located in the suburbs of the city to keep their places open on Sunday, under such regulations as the committee saw proper to impose.

The committee also issued the following notice:


"ST. LOUIS, Sept. 4, 1861.

"All persons who have heretofore obtained permission from the provost-marshal to reopen drinking saloons are required to comply with the rules established by the committee by subscribing the declaration, exhibiting their city and county license and permits heretofore obtained at the office of Capt. Cozzens, No. 91 Washington Avenue, between Fourth and Fifth Streets,

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on Saturday, the 7th of September, 1861, between 9 o'clock A.M. and 12 o'clock P.M. of said day.

"The permissions granted to persons not complying with this order will be revoked.



"E. W. FOX,

"Approved, "Committee,


"Maj. U.S.A. and Provost-Marshal."

— The two-story brick building at the corner of Fifth and Myrtle Streets, which had been known as "Lynch's Slave-Pen," was on September 3d taken under the control of the military authorities and converted into a military prison.

— The prohibition of the circulation of the New York Journal of Commerce within the city and county of St. Louis, as well as of the Journal of Commerce, Jr., was removed on September 4th.

— Brig.-Gen. J. McKinstry, on September 6th, was assigned temporarily as acting quartermaster-general of the Western Department, and on the 10th forbade any person in his command to deal with any one who was not known to be loyal to the United States.

— On September 11th, Gen. J. McKinstry, provost-marshal, issued an order prohibiting the distribution, sale, exchange, or giving away of any copy or copies of the Dubuque Herald, a newspaper published at Dubuque, Iowa.

— Maj.-Gen. Fremont, on September 15th, placed Col. F. P. Blair under arrest. The act gave rise to a great deal of excited comment in the city, and was received with astonishment throughout the country. Commenting upon it, the Missouri Democrat said, —

"Col. Blair's chief offense is the writing of certain letters to the President, members of the cabinet, and other leading parties' in Washington City, complaining, among other things, of the inefficiency and incompeteney of Gen. Fremont, speaking disrespectfully of him, and asking his removal from the Department of the West."

— A correspondent of the Cincinnati Gazette thus describes Gen. Fremont's headquarters at this time:

"Taking the cars on Fourth Street, from the Planters' Hotel you ride about four or five squares, when you come to the broad avenue, near the market on Fifth Street, known as Chouteau Avenue, named after the celebrated wealthy Indian trader of St. Louis. Two blocks up this avenue, you follow the crowd which emerges from the cars, and which is mostly composed of men in uniform, and in two minutes you are standing before a plain, two-storied stuccoed residence, situated on a raised eminence, and surrounded by a brick wall, before the entrance to which two fine-looking young men, dressed in plain blue, with the French fatigue-cap set jauntily on their heads, are pacing to and fro, armed with Colt's navy revolvers set on carbine stocks. The house mentioned, on which I had forgotten to state was displayed the glorious Stars and Stripes, was none other than the headquarters of the Western Department, the residence of Gen. Fremont.

"At the brick residence just above the general's quarters, and from which waves the flag of our Union, is the Subsistence Department, while to the left is an immense dome, surmounted by another flag, and overshadowing the building known as McDowell's College, and now the headquarters of the Recruiting Department of St. Louis. In the plain brick house back of Fremont's residence, on Gratiot Street, is the Adjutant-General's Department, the duties of which are well executed by Capt. Kelton and his able employés. Hitherto these quarters have been much scattered, but now they are within call of Gen. Fremont, and within reach of officers wishing to join their commands or transact business connected with the army."

On September 20th the following officers were announced as constituting Gen. Fremont's staff:

"Chief of Staff, Brig.-Gen. A. Asboth; Assistant Adjutant-General, Capt. Chauncey McKeever; Military Secretary and Aide-de-Camp, Col. J. H. Eaton; Chief Topographical Engineer, Col. John T. Fiala; Chief of Ordnance, Col. Gustave Wagner; Chief of Artillery, Lieut.-Col. James Totten; Judge-Advocate, Maj. R. M. Corwin; Division Surgeon, Dr. T. Telkampf; Assistant Surgeon. Dr. John Cooper; Acting Assistant Quartermaster-General, Brig.-Gen. J. McKinstry; Deputy Paymaster-General, Lieut.-Col. T. P. Andrews; Commander of Body-Guard, Maj. Charles Zagonyi; Musical Director, Capt. A. Waldauer; Aides-de-Camp, Col. A. Albert, Col. Gustave Koerner, Col. J. P. C. Schenck, Col. Owen Lovejoy, Col. John A. Gurley, Col. J. C. Woods, Maj. James W. Savage, Maj. Frank J. White, Maj. William Dorsheimer, Maj. H. Ramming, Maj. B. Rush Plumley, Capt. J. R. Howard, Capt. Leonidas Haskell, Capt. Joseph Reminyey; Chaplain, Rev. C. M. Blake.

"II. The special duties assigned to the aides-de-camp were as follows: Col. Albert Adlatus to be chief of Staff; Col. Woods, director of transportation; Maj. Savage, military registrator and expediter; Maj. Plumley, postal director; Capt. Haskell, police director; Maj. Dorsheimer and Capt. Howard, private secretaries.

"By order of Maj.-Gen. Fremont.


"Assistant Adjutant-General."

On the same day the following officers were placed on duty in command of divisions as acting major-generals:

Brig.-Gen. Pope, Brig.-Gen. Sigel, Brig.-Gen. Asboth, Brig.-Gen. McKinstry.

The following officers were placed on duty in command of brigades as acting brigadier-generals:

Col. Davis, Col. Mulligan, Col. Kelton, Lieut.-Col. Totten.

— On the 24th, Brig.-Gen. Samuel R. Curtis assumed command of the city of St. Louis and vicinity.

— In September a new military hospital was established in the building at the corner of Fifth and Chestnut Streets, under the charge of Surgeon Mills, of the United States army, assisted by Drs. Wagner and Horton, of the army, and Dr. A. S. Barnes, of the city.

— In consequence of the Cherokee nation of Indians having joined the Confederate cause, the

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assistant provost-marshal, John McNeil, colonel of the Nineteenth Regiment of Missouri volunteers, on October 2d confiscated about thirty-three thousand dollars belonging to the Indians, which they had on deposit in the "St. Louis Building and Savings Association."

— The Fremont Relief Society, for the relief of the sick and wounded soldiers in camp and hospital, was organized in October by the election of the following officers: Mrs. Jessie Benton Fremont, president; Vice-Presidents, Mrs. T. B. Edgar and Mrs. Dr. Heussler; Secretary, Mrs. Clinton B. Fisk; Treasurer, Mrs. Amalia Abeles. Rooms for the use of the society were provided at the residence of T. B. Edgar, on Chouteau Avenue opposite Fourteenth Street.

— Hon. Simon Cameron, Secretary of War, accompanied by Adjt.-Gen. Thomas and others of his suite, arrived in St. Louis on October 12th, and left immediately for Gen. Fremont's headquarters at Tipton, Mo. On his return he was serenaded by Col. Morphy's Eighth Wisconsin Regiment at Barnum's Hotel. Secretary Cameron made a short speech in response. Before his departure from the city, Secretary Cameron, on October 14th, issued the following order to Gen. Fremont:

"In view of the heavy sums due, especially in the quartermaster's department in this city, amounting to some four million five hundred thousand dollars, it is important that the money which may now be in the hands of the disbursing officers, or be received by them, be applied to the current expenses of your army in Missouri, and these debts to remain unpaid until they can be properly examined and sent to Washington for settlement; the disbursing officers of the army to disburse the funds and not transfer them to irresponsible agents, — in other words, those who do not hold commissions from the President and are not under bonds. All contracts necessary to be made by the disbursing officers. The senior quartermaster here has been verbally instructed by the secretary as above.

"It is deemed unnecessary to erect field-works around this city, and you will direct their discontinuance; also those, if any, in course of construction at Jefferson City. In this connection it is seen that a number of commissions have been given by you. No payments will be made to such officers, except to those whose appointments have been approved by the President. This, of course, does not apply to the officers with volunteer troops. Col. Andrews has been verbally so instructed by the secretary; also not to make transfers of funds, except for the purpose of paying the troops. The erection of barracks near your quarters in this city to be at once discontinued."

The Republican, in commenting on this order of the Secretary of War, said, —

"We must adhere to this our firm conviction, which even Gen. Lyon was prudent enough to entertain, for it is well known that before his march to Boonville he instructed Col. Fiala to select the proper strategical points for the erection of works of defense around the city, and that the necessity of erecting such fortifications was strongly apparent to the far-sighted mind.

"Gen. Lyon made preparations for the building of similar works of defense at Jefferson City, Rolla, Ironton, and Cape Girardeau. These four latter points have been the salvation of St. Louis during all the time that Gen. Fremont was preparing his grand army for the forward movement which he has now so happily inaugurated, for they form, with the Missouri River at the north, the great strategic circle which constitutes the first line of defense of the metropolis of the State.

"The acts of Gen. Fremont have been brilliant enough to warrant the recognition of merit, even from Mr. Lincoln, Gen. Fremont raised and organized an army of nearly ninety thousand men in less than half the time it took Gen. Scott to organize an army of the same number, and during the process of organization Gen. Fremont not only held the whole line of defense of St. Louis, from Bird's Point and Cape Girardeau via Pilot Knob and Rolla to Jefferson City, and all along the Missouri River to Kansas City, but even inaugurated the brilliant coup de main in Kentucky which saved that noble State to the cause of the Union, and put our troops in possession of Paducah and Smithland."

— The full commission appointed by the President to examine into the military accounts of the Department of the West, assembled at St. Louis in the fall of this year (1861). It was composed of Hon. David Davis, of Illinois; Hon. Joseph Holt, of Kentucky; and Hugh Campbell, of St. Louis, and was instructed to examine and report upon all unsettled claims against the Military Department of the West which originated prior to the appointment of Gen. Fremont. J. S. Fullerton was secretary, and Samuel T. Glover, of St. Louis, was the counsel for the government.

Joseph Scott Fullerton, the secretary of the commission, was a young lawyer who had removed to St. Louis from Chillicothe, Ohio, in 1858, and whose brilliant talents had already brought him into prominence. Mr. Fullerton performed the duties of this office with such ability and zeal that, on endeavoring to procure a release from the commission in order to enter the army, in which he afterwards became a distinguished officer, his application was twice refused, and it was not until the commission's labors were ended that he was enabled to carry out his cherished desire.

Gen. Fullerton traces his ancestry back to an old and well-known English family of the same name. The branch from which he descended removed to Scotland, where it played quite a conspicuous part in the political and religious dissensions of that country in early days. In 1602, Fergus Fullerton left Arran with Ramdal Na Arran (afterwards Earl of Antrim), and built Bush Mills, in the north of Ireland. He was the first of the Irish family. In 1641, William Fullerton, then the head of the family, successfully defended Ballantoy Castle against the insurgents. In

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1690, Humphrey Fullerton distinguished himself at the battle of the Boyne, and for his bravery a sword was given to him by William of Orange. The sword was brought to this country by his son Humphrey, who came here in 1723. 304

Humphrey, son of the last-named Humphrey, a man greatly respected, lived at Lancaster, Pa. His son Humphrey, who was one of the largest land-owners in Pennsylvania, lived near Greencastle, a man six feet two inches in height, who weighed over four hundred and thirty pounds. His son Humphrey moved to Chillicothe, Ohio, in the year 1806, taking with him his infant son, Humphrey (who was the sixth Humphrey in succession), the father of Joseph Scott Fullerton, the subject of this sketch, who was born at Chillicothe, Ohio, Dec. 3, 1836.

Gen. Fullerton's mother was Elizabeth T. Scott, daughter of Dr. Joseph Scott, a very prominent physician of Lexington, Ky., descended from an ancient Scotch family, whose father and uncle rendered distinguished service in the war of the Revolution.

In those early days of the West educational advantages were very limited, seminaries and schools for girls being unknown, and Mrs. Fullerton's father, a highly-educated man, who appreciated the advantages of a good school, placed her at one in Baltimore, Md. She made the journey with him in midwinter, traveling all the way from Lexington on horseback, their baggage being carried on pack-horses.

Gen. Fullerton's education was carefully superintended by his mother, who was a devout and earnest Christian, and, moreover, a woman of great force of character, and renowned for her goodness and sweetness of temper.

After completing the course of the Chillicothe Academy, young Fullerton, at the age of sixteen, entered the freshman class at Miami University, Oxford. Ohio, one of the oldest colleges in the West, and which perhaps has graduated more men who subsequently became famous than any other college in the West or South. Fullerton was not distinguished as a student; he paid more attention to the literary and secret societies than to study, and was rather too fond of college jokes to be a very earnest scholar, yet he stood among the first twelve of his class throughout the four years of his college life, and graduated without ever having been "conditioned" or "rusticated." He was then nineteen years of age, and he and Whitelaw Reid (now editor of the New York Tribune) were the youngest of their class (that of 1855), one of the largest classes that ever graduated from Miami University.

Young Fullerton then spent a year at Chillicothe, reading history and law, and in 1857 entered the Cincinnati Law School, from which institution he graduated in 1858. His class, though small, became rather noted; two of its members have been Governors of States, four are now on the bench, Gen. Noyes, one of them, was Minister to France under President Hayes, and several of them were distinguished in political life.

In the fall of 1858 Mr. Fullerton removed to St. Louis, and having had but little experience in the practical branches of his profession, he spent some time in the service of the clerk of the St. Louis Court of Common Pleas, giving his work for the advantages he derived from the experience as a deputy clerk of the court. His assiduity attracted the attention of the Hon. Henry Hitchcock, upon whose invitation, in 1859, Mr. Fullerton took a desk in that gentleman's office.

The next year was one of great political excitement, and Fullerton, as a "Douglas Democrat" and a strong Unionist, was thrown into sharp antagonism with most of his associates. His nearest friends were Southern people and sympathized strongly with secession, and a club of young men to which he belonged sent twenty-six members to the Confederate army and but four to the Union army, — Capt. Gratz, who was killed at the battle of Wilson's Creek, Andrew A. Alexander and Winfield Sumner, now in the regular army, and J. S. Fullerton. Though too young to have much influence, Fullerton exerted all his power to stem the torrent of disunionism which threatened to flood Missouri, and was one of a Committee of Safety of Union men, who organized to protect themselves and other Unionists in St. Louis.

The war broke out, and Fullerton was anxious to enter the service under the old flag, but unfortunate complications in his father's business seemed to forbid; besides, more men were offering themselves than the government could accept; so he continued the practice of his profession, and patiently bided his time. He had never belonged to a militia company or performed any kind of military duty or exercise, and had no taste for anything of the sort.

In the fall of 1861 he was appointed secretary of the commission, as heretofore stated, which sat at St. Louis to decide upon the claims of certain contractors and others against the government. It was reported that the work of the commission would occupy but a few weeks, but its labors were prolonged far into 1862. Meanwhile circumstances at home now favored

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Fullerton's desire to take an active part in the war, and the delay was very irksome. Twice he resigned, but the commission refused to accept his resignation. One day he told Mr. Holt, one of the members, that he would not stay in the rear another day, that he must go with the army, and was ashamed to stay back when so many were giving their lives for their country; "and the war, too," he added, "is nearly over!"

"Tut tut, young man," said Holt, "you will have opportunity enough! Be patient till this important task is through. Even the shell of this rebellion is not cracked yet!"

In July, 1862, Mr. Fullerton finally finished the work of the commission, and then joined the "Halleck Guards," a volunteer company of young men of his acquaintance in St. Louis, who were at once mustered into the State service and accompanied an expedition of volunteers against guerrillas up the Missouri River.

Upon his return Mr. Fullerton was offered a major's commission by Governor Gamble, but having so little military experience he declined to accept such a high rank. He continued drilling with his company, and eventually, Oct. 14, 1862, at the request of Gen. Gordon Granger, was appointed second lieutenant in the Second Missouri Infantry, and assigned to duty as aide-de-camp to the general, who was organizing a force in Kentucky to move on Gen. E. Kirby Smith, commanding the Confederate forces in that State. Lieut. Fullerton remained on the staff of Gen. Gordon Granger in the campaign through Kentucky, and in 1863 went with him to Tennessee, where Gen. Granger took command of the reserve corps of the Army of the Cumberland.

In April, 1863, he was appointed assistant adjutant-general, with the rank of major, and was again assigned to Gen. Granger as chief of staff. He assisted that officer in reorganizing the reserve corps, which corps Granger took into battle at Chickamauga, Sept. 19 and 20, 1863, thus probably saving the day. So desperate was the situation that all depended on Longstreet being driven from a position in a gorge, which, had he held an hour longer, might have cost the North an army. Realizing the importance of the crisis, Granger threw one division of the corps into the gorge, without orders, and completely routed Longstreet. Of three thousand three hundred men who made this attack, about one thousand seven hundred were killed and wounded in less than an hour.

As chief of staff, Maj. Fullerton's gallantry attracted the attention of Gen. Thomas, and he was appointed lieutenant-colonel, and assigned to the Fourth Army Corps as chief of staff. Subsequently he was engaged in all the fights of that army until the end of the Atlanta campaign. Then Gen. Howard, commanding the Army of the Tennessee, requested his assignment to the staff of that army, but Gen. Thomas, commanding the Army of the Cumberland, refused to allow him to be transferred.

When Sherman left Atlanta on his famous march to the sea, Col. Fullerton went back as chief of staff under Gen. Stanley, with a part of the Army of the Cumberland, to fight Hood, and was engaged in all the battles of the command until the end of the war. Among the engagements in which he participated were those of Shelbyville, Chickamauga, Chattanooga, Missionary Ridge, Buzzard Roost Gap, Dalton, Resaca, New Hope Church, Pine Top Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain, Allatoona, the two battles at Atlanta, Jonesboro', Lovejoy Station, Columbia, Spring Hill, Franklin, and Nashville, besides many smaller fights and skirmishes. Although usually in the thickest of every engagement he seemed to lead a charmed life, never having been wounded or even received a bullet in his clothes. Yet he had many narrow escapes. Twice his horse was shot under him, several of his orderlies were shot, and once a twig, which he was holding in his hand, and afterwards a vine he had picked up and was examining, were shot away.

The character of his military services appears from a simple statement of the fact that he was recommended for brevet for distinguished services and gallantry in the Atlanta campaign, and was again recommended for brevet by Gen. T. J. Wood, commanding the Fourth Army Corps, and Gen. George H. Thomas, commanding the Army of the Cumberland, for "zealous, intelligent, and efficient performance of duty, and for most valuable services and distinguished personal gallantry in the field, especially displayed at Franklin, Tenn., Nov. 30, 1864, and in the several conflicts of the battle fought at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 15 and 16, 1864."

In May, 1865, Gen. Howard, who had been appointed commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau, requested that Gen. Fullerton be assigned as his assistant; but the latter refused to accept the position, although urged to do so by many of his friends (including Frank P. Blair), and, the war being over, he tendered his resignation from the army. It was not accepted, however, and he was ordered to report to Gen. Howard for the purpose mentioned. Fullerton foresaw that the bureau was likely to become a very convenient political machine, and he accepted service

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under Gen. Howard with the distinct understanding that politics were to be kept out of it. For several months he succeeded in excluding the pseudo-philanthropists and adventurers from the North from the bureau, admitting none but those connected with the United States army; but during the summer of 1865 he again sought to resign, but was persuaded to remain for a while with the bureau. In October he was ordered to Louisiana to strive to bring about an adjustment of difficulties existing there, and to secure a better understanding between the State authorities and the officers of the military department and of the bureau. In this he was very successful. Under the administration of his predecessor the negroes had formed a very exaggerated idea of their importance, having been taught by demagogues and agitators that they were to have "forty acres and a mule." Consequently many of them had become demoralized and refused to work; the planters could not make contracts; the labor system was disorganized, and ruin stared the community in the face. On the other hand, there was a large class of influential whites who seemed disposed to harass the negro as much as possible. Gen. Fullerton directed himself to bringing about a better understanding between the two races. The negroes were told that freedom did not mean idleness, and that they would not be supported by the government, but must work for themselves; and the whites were informed that their late slaves were freemen, and must be treated by them as such; that their labor was necessary, and must be fairly paid for; and that the black man, never having had opportunities for self-improvement, should in all cases be treated with consideration, and when arraigned for infringement of the law, should have justice tempered with mercy.

In this wise and humane spirit Gen. Fullerton instituted the work of reform, and very soon succeeded in modifying the hostility which had existed between the two races. When he was relieved, in November, 1865, the New Orleans Crescent said, "The short administration of Gen. Fullerton has been marked by intelligence of the highest order, and has shown a regard for private rights and civil liberty which has won him the esteem of this community. . . . We would not willingly see Gen. Fullerton leave New Orleans without this acknowledgment on our part of the very great service he has rendered the public in his able administration of the bureau over which he has presided."

His administration in Louisiana was much commented upon by the newspapers. The radical Republican press generally abused him, while he was strongly upheld by the conservative papers. But even such a radical journal as the Washington Chronicle, after his return from Louisiana, said (Nov. 23, 1865), "Gen. Fullerton is a young man who served faithfully and fearlessly through the war. . . . We shall be greatly disappointed if his administration of the Freedmen's Bureau in Louisiana fails to give satisfaction. The work assigned an assistant commissioner of the bureau is a delicate and difficult task, and it is peculiarly so in Louisiana."

After leaving New Orleans, Gen. Fullerton returned to Washington. Congress had convened, and Gen. Howard, Commissioner of the bureau, was unable to withstand the pressure which certain members brought to bear upon him to control the bureau politically. The gates were opened, and floods of adventurers poured into the South, filling the land with corruption and bringing shame upon the bureau. Feeling that he could no longer accomplish any good, Gen. Fullerton asked to be relieved from duty in the bureau, and to be mustered out, so that he might return to St. Louis. His application to be relieved was granted, but he was not mustered out, but was requested to report at the White House, where he acted as President Johnson's military secretary until April, 1866, when he was commissioned, in company with Gen. Steedman, of Ohio, to visit the South and make an inspection of the operations of the Freedmen's Bureau, and the political and social condition of the people in that section. This commission occupied him until August, and the result was the exposure of a vast amount of corruption and incompetency in the administration of the bureau. The report of Generals Steedman and Fullerton was virulently assailed by the radical Republican press, and was the occasion of a long and acrimonious newspaper controversy. As in the Louisiana affair, the radical papers unsparingly denounced the report, but the conservative press as strongly approved it. The New York Times, a leading Republican journal, had the frankness to say that the two commissioners had performed "an important public service," and under date of Aug. 19, 1866, it remarked, "Gens. Steedman and Fullerton have pricked some very pretty bubbles. They have exposed the hollowness of much maudlin sympathy (for the negro). They have stripped disguise off proceedings that were not intended for the public eye, and have reduced divers humanitarians to the level of peculators and squanderers of public moneys."

This duty performed, Gen. Fullerton again urged (this time with success) that his resignation be accepted. In September, 1866, he was mustered out, and returned to St. Louis. Upon this occasion the

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National Republican, of Washington, D. C., which was then, as it is now, an organ of the Republican party, remarked, "Gen. Fullerton returns to his pursuits of civil life crowned with unnumbered laurels fairly won in the military service, and secure of the lasting esteem of all whom he has met in social life in the national metropolis."

Gen. Fullerton had engaged in the war from a sense of duty and had no fancy for military service in time of peace. When, therefore, upon the reorganization of the army, after the war, the President offered him the colonelcy of one of the new regiments, he declined it. He also, in the fall of 1866, declined an appointment to examine certain war claims, as it would interfere with his plan of returning to St. Louis to resume his professional work.

He arrived in St. Louis in December, 1866, and began to review his knowledge of the law, but while engaged in his studies he was surprised, in February, 1867, at receiving the unsolicited honor, at the hands of President Johnson, of being appointed postmaster of St. Louis. At first he was disposed to refuse, but finally accepted and held the office until Gen. Grant became President. During his administration he instituted many reforms, and greatly increased the efficiency of the service in St. Louis. He conducted the affairs of the office on strict civil service principles, and it is worthy of note that his was the first office so conducted in the Post-Office Department. No man was appointed or discharged for political reasons, nor were political assessments permitted. When a circular was received from the Republican Central Committee at Washington requesting him to pay a certain sum for campaign purposes, he returned it with the indorsement that he would not pay one cent, and that no man in his office should pay assessments unless he did so voluntarily. When his final accounts were examined, the auditor of the Post-Office Department complimented him on having had one of the very best conducted offices in the country, and his accounts on first trial were found exact to the last cent.

After leaving the post-office he then, as he is wont to say, began the study and practice of law, the war having deprived him of many of his best years.

The city and county of St. Louis being at that time in the hands of rings which were plundering the tax-payers, Gen. Fullerton, in December, 1872, co-operated with other leading citizens in the organization of the "Tax-Payers' League," "to aid in securing honesty, economy, and efficiency in the administration of municipal affairs and public business." The League appointed an executive committee, composed of Col. Robert Campbell, Col. Henry Hitchcock, J. R. Shepley, Maj. H. S. Turner, Hon. Albert Todd, Capt. Silas Bent, Judge John H. Fisse, and Gen. Fullerton as secretary; and for over three years (until October, 1876) this committee worked efficiently, exposed many rascalities, broke up many rings, pointed out many gross cases of misconduct and willful failure of duty on the part of certain officials, and brought about numerous reforms. The action of the League, more than anything else, led to the adoption of the "Scheme and Charter" for the government of St. Louis. As secretary of the committee, Gen. Fullerton necessarily performed his full share of the laborious work essential in a movement of such magnitude.

Gen. Fullerton also took a prominent part in suppressing the riots of 1877, his military experience serving him well in this unhappy emergency.

He is a member of and an active worker in Christ Church (Episcopalian), St. Louis, being a vestryman and trustee. As in politics, so in religion he is conservative, not a partisan, and not blinded to the good that exists in all parties and all churches.

Since 1868 he has been treasurer of the Army of the Cumberland, and is now treasurer of the Thomas Monument Fund, raised by the Army of the Cumberland for the erection of the statue of Gen. Geo. H. Thomas at Washington, D. C.

On the 29th of October, 1879, Gen. Fullerton married Miss Mary C. Morgan, only daughter of George D. Morgan, a retired New York merchant living at Irvington-on-the-Hudson. Mr. Morgan, with his cousin, ex-Governor Morgan, founded the well-known firm of E. D. Morgan & Co. Gen. Fullerton's tastes are eminently domestic. He avoids the crowd, and never cared for or worked for popularity. He never sought or asked for political preferment or office; but having held office, is one of the few persons who, after holding such, did not think the public owed him another as a debt. In his career he has always been moved by a strict sense of duty; and for this reason he has often, in business and public life, been obliged to act in conflict with his feelings, and at times to wound good friends by opposing them; but they were wounds that hurt him more than they did his friends.

Such is a hasty sketch of an unusually busy and brilliant career. It carries its own comment with it, but may be summed up as the history of one who, as a volunteer soldier, showed great bravery and gallantry on twenty battle-fields; as a lawyer, the possession of high legal attainments and a logical and observing mind; as a citizen, unselfish zeal for the public welfare; and who in private life is loved as a gentleman of the kindest heart and finest character.

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— Gen. Curtis, on October 26th, issued an order, in which he said, —

"Entire secrecy must be preserved in regard to the armament and interior arrangements of our defenses.

"It is enjoined on all the officers and guards of the fort, now nearly completed, in St. Louis to admit no visitors without a pass signed by the commanding officer, Col. Almstedt, or by the commanding general, dated after the publicity of this order."

— Lieut.-Col. B. W. Glover, who was dangerously wounded in the battle of Lexington, died in St. Louis on October 30th. Lieut.-Col. Glover was a citizen of Johnson County, where he had resided a number of years. He had been a member of the State Senate, and was at one time Grand Master of the Masonic order of Missouri. He was buried in Bellefontaine Cemetery.

— Capt. George E. Leighton, of the Nineteenth Missouri Volunteers, and provost-marshal of St. Louis, on November 2d prohibited all steamboats, railways, and express companies from receiving or transporting any boots, shoes, saddles, bridles, or ready-made clothing from St. Louis to the interior of Missouri without a special permit.

— Provost-Marshal Leighton, on November 2d, gave notice that "on and after Monday, November 4th, no passes would be issued to visit the military prison, except to the immediate relatives of prisoners confined therein or to persons having important business, in which a personal interview is absolutely necessary."

— At the suggestion of Hon. Thomas Allen, a memorial of the citizens of St. Louis was signed and presented to Congress, praying that the collection of Federal taxes throughout the State of Missouri for 1862 be suspended.

— On November 6th, Gen. Fremont was relieved of the command of the Western Department, and Gen. Hunter took his place. The removal of Gen. Fremont created the greatest excitement in St. Louis as soon as it was announced, and the German citizens were loud in their expressions of indignation, especially against Col. Frank Blair, whom they regarded as chiefly responsible for the change of commanders. Gen. Curtis, in command at Benton Barracks, sent into the city a troop of cavalry to preserve the peace, and a large force of police were also on duty at points where the popular gatherings were largest.

The Germans determined to give Gen. Fremont a grand reception upon his return to the city from the Southwest, and accordingly, on November 7th, largely attended meetings were held at Soulard Market, Washington Hall, Gerdermann's and Sturgeon Market, at which a general plan was submitted by a committee composed of Dr. G. Fischer, G. Hoeber, John C. Vogel, Louis Wagner, and Capt. T. Niederwieser. The plan was adopted by all the meetings, and the following committee was appointed to make the necessary preparations for the demonstration:

First Ward, John H. Fisse, J. G. Woerner.
Second Ward, Charles W. Gottschalk, Gustavus Fisher.
Third Ward, Felix Coste, Gustavus Hoeber.
Fourth Ward, Philip Weigel, Tony Neiderweiser.
Fifth Ward, E. Anheuser, Julius Hestler.
Sixth Ward, Adam Hindricker, Thomas O'Reilly.
Seventh Ward, John G. Gerdeman, Charles Daunerman.
Eighth Ward, John C. Vogel, Henry Meyer.
Ninth Ward, S. E. Beckman, Louis Wagner.
Tenth Ward, Henry Block.

John C. Vogel, a highly-honored German citizen from the Eighth ward, was chosen president, and mainly through his efforts the reception was a great success.

St. Louis owes much to her citizens of German birth, many of whom, not only during the trying period of the war, but in the various walks of civil, business, and private life, have conspicuously illustrated the peculiar virtues of their native land, and have won recognition in the home of their adoption as broad-minded and able men. Among this number John C. Vogel occupies a praiseworthy position as a type of the foreign-born citizen fully imbued with the spirit of American institutions, and thoroughly devoted to serving the best interests of the community with which he has been identified. He was born at Klanglangheim, a village in Bavaria, Germany, Oct. 9, 1816. His parents were people of education and refinement, and in easy circumstances. Their son enjoyed the advantages of a good education; but though education was compulsory in Germany, the boy needed no other spur than his thirst for knowledge. Upon leaving school he served an apprenticeship as baker, and having fulfilled his term, entered upon the prosecution of an active and useful career with the reputation of being a first-class workman. Business opportunities, however, were not abundant in the land of his birth, and having heard much of the successes of his countrymen in America, he in April, 1835, came hither, with the intention, however, of returning to perform military service, which was compulsory on every German male, under penalty of confiscation of property. After two years' residence in this country he decided to remain permanently, and hired a substitute to perform his military service in Germany, while he devoted himself to bettering his condition in his new home. The estimate which he placed upon his prospects in the United States may be judged from the fact that he paid four hundred florins for his military substitute.

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He reached St. Louis in 1836, and worked for two years at his trade, during which time his economy and intelligent labor enabled him to save sufficient money to go into business on his own account. His naturalization as a citizen of the United States in 1841 was simply the legal and visible record of a fact that was already accomplished, for he was in thought and fibre a citizen of the great republic.

In 1843 he was appointed city weigher, which office he held for three years, after which he served as clerk in the post-office for one year with credit to himself and satisfaction to the department. In 1847 he established the first omnibus line on Franklin Avenue, which proved highly successful. From 1851 to 1858 he was a justice of the peace, and served as a member of the City Council from 1855 to 1861. At the expiration of this term of office he served three months in the Fourth Regiment Missouri Volunteer Infantry (Home Guards).

Meanwhile, in 1851, he had become connected with the St. Louis Fire and Marine Insurance Company, an institution that takes high rank in the insurance world, and has been its president for many years, directing its operations and its policy, and making it one of the most honored and prosperous of such institutions in the West.

Mr. Vogel has always taken an active interest in politics, and his influence in the political world was early recognized as considerable. His assistance was eagerly sought, and he displayed such ability as to be regarded as a leader. When he received a nomination for sheriff of St. Louis County in 1862, his personal and political popularity carried him through triumphantly and secured his election.

As a business man of many years' standing, he enjoys a high reputation, and his judgment has been largely sought in banking and other corporations, in many of which he has served as director.

His social qualities have given him prominence in various societies, especially the Odd-Fellows, of which order Wildey Lodge has numbered him as a member since 1844, he having passed all the chairs. He assisted in the organization of the St. Louis Immigration Society, being one of the few liberal and earnest men who foresaw Missouri's prospective greatness, and who early applied themselves to the work of attracting immigration hither. As an enlightened gentleman of foreign birth, Mr. Vogel had much weight in the organization of the movement, and his counsels have ever been regarded as of unusual value in all matter pertaining to immigration.

Notwithstanding the love Mr. Vogel has ever borne his adopted country, and his reliance on her institutions, he has made several extended visits to his native land, attracted thither by a natural love for the home of his birth, and the recreation that liberal culture craves.

In December, 1840, Mr. Vogel was married to Miss Sophia Wilhelmina Franke, daughter of Christian Henry Franke, a native of Prussia and a well-known citizen of St. Louis. Four children resulted from this marriage, none of whom are now living.

Mr. Vogel's parents were members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, in which faith he was reared, and to which he has steadily adhered. He is a leading member of that communion, and has been a liberal contributor to all its enterprises, as well as a generous supporter of every project designed to advance the interests of the city. His life has been a successful and useful one in a marked degree, and he enjoys the esteem and confidence of the entire community as one of its most honored and honorable members. Broadly liberal in both thought and action, he has done so much that deserves well at the hands of his fellow-citizens that he is both remembered and appreciated with a regard that might well satisfy a more ambitious man.

Gen. Fremont and staff arrived in the city on the 8th, and were received in the most enthusiastic manner by an assemblage numbering twenty thousand citizens. A torchlight procession was formed, which finally reached the front of Gen. Fremont's headquarters, where the committee appointed to deliver the address left the line to perform the duty assigned them. Gen. Fremont received them in one of the large rooms, and John C. Vogel, stepping forward, delivered an address highly eulogistic of the general, after which the following resolutions were read and then presented to Gen. Fremont:

"We, the citizens of St. Louis of German extraction, in mass-meeting assembled to give expression of our sentiments towards Maj.-Gen. John C. Fremont, have solemnly and unanimously resolved,

"1. That we recognize in John C. Fremont the embodiment of our patriotic feeling and political faith.

"2. That, notwithstanding many paralyzing circumstances, he has performed his arduous and responsible task with all possible energy and honesty.

"3. That we admire his impartiality and sagacity in selecting his military counselors, without national prejudices, from among such men as he considered true and worthy of his confidence.

"4. That we will stand by him as long as he shall prove true to us.

"5. That while we submit to the action of the government, as behooves loyal citizens, we regret to be deprived at the present moment of his services in conquering the rebel army, and believe we recognize in this event a wise providence which

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may have reserved him for a still wider sphere of action in future times."

Gen. Fremont, during the reading of the resolutions and the delivery of the address, apparently found it difficult to restrain his emotions, and when he responded his voice was quite tremulous.

During Gen. Fremont's administration of the affairs of this military department, says the Republican, he made an arrangement by which the North Missouri Railroad Company was to be connected with the Iron Mountain and Pacific Railroad Companies.

"The consideration was that the company would repay to the United States twenty-five thousand dollars in transportation thereafter to be done on the road, and a part of that money has thus been paid. The road, two and a half miles in length, was constructed under the express orders of Gen. Fremont, at a cost of a little less than thirty-seven thousand dollars. Anybody can see the manner in which it has been done by examining it. A more substantial road cannot be built, and to suit the peculiar locality (on the Levee) it has been planked with thick stuff, so as to offer no obstacle to drays, wagons, etc., passing over it. The account of this work is before the committee of claims, and suspended under circumstances of peculiar hardship. Not a dollar has been paid to the laborers who built the road, although the United States is the responsible party for it."

— Brig.-Gen. Samuel R. Curtis, on November 7th, assumed command "over all the local commands and military operations within fifty miles of St. Louis on the Missouri side of the Mississippi River."

— The Republican of November 20th gives the following account of the provost-marshal's office and the mode of issuing passes:

"The provost-marshal's general office for the issue of passports is on Washington Avenue below Fourth Street. It is under the superintendence of Mr. Samuel Greene. Besides this principal office, however, passes are issued to guests at the Planters' House, Barnum's, Virginia Hotel, Everett House, City and St. Charles Hotels, and to passengers at all the railroad ticket offices, as also at the Keokuk and Northern Line packet office, and at the Carondelet ferry.

"At the passport office twelve clerks are constantly employed in issuing and recording passes. The form of these passes is familiar to many of our readers. It is nothing more or less than permission to pass beyond the limits of the city and county of St. Louis, signed by George E. Leighton, captain Nineteenth Missouri Volunteers, provost-marshal, and also signed by the clerk issuing the pass. On the reverse side are recorded the name, age, height, color of eyes and hair, nativity and residence of the applicant, and also a printed pledge of loyalty to be signed by the party to whom the paper is issued. A change has recently been made in the form of the obligation. During Gen. McKinstry's administration it was in the following words:

"‘It is understood that the within named subscriber accepts this pass on his word of honor that he is and will be ever loyal to the United States; and if hereafter found in arms against the Union, or in any way aiding her enemies, the penalty will be death.’

"When Capt. Leighton assumed the duties of the office the form was altered to read as subjoined:

"‘I hereby acknowledge that I accept this pass upon my word of honor, solemnly pledged, that I will ever bear true faith and allegiance to the United States of America, and that I will consider such allegiance as paramount to that due to any other power, sovereignty, or State whatsoever; that I will never take arms against the United States or those acting under its authority, or give aid, information, or comfort to its enemies, and that I will do all in my power as a citizen to discourage the present rebellion and preserve the Federal Union.’

"These passports are all numbered and recorded in books kept for the purpose, the clerks transferring number of pass, name, age, height, color of hair and eyes, nativity and residence — an immense amount of labor being thus required.

"The office is constantly thronged during business hours, from 8 o'clock A.M. to 5 o'clock P.M., the principal pressure being in the afternoon. From eight hundred to one thousand passes are issued daily at the office. Many rich scenes and interesting incidents occurring here might be related were our space to justify it. The visitor may often hear utterances of impatience, ranging from the low murmur to the downright rip-roaring oath, fears expressed about being too late for the train or boat, and sundry excited ejaculations, together with some mirth about the general inconvenience of the thing anyhow. The clerks, however, appear as attentive and considerate as possible, and preserve, amidst the hurry and all the abuse they sometimes get, a most equitable temper and disposition.

"We have taken pains to ascertain the number of permits to leave the city that have been issued since martial law was declared in this county. Seventy-five thousand have been recorded, and, as near as can be conjectured, ten thousand more were issued in the grand rush following the declaration of martial law that were not recorded. Altogether, it is perhaps safe to put the whole number of passes issued from the 14th of August to the present time at eighty-five thousand.

"Foreign subjects, on presenting certificates that they are such from the acting consuls, are furnished passports without being required to sign the obligation or pledge. Returns to the superintendent's office are made every morning from the hotels, railroad offices, and packets, where passes are issued. In all respects the issuing and recording are the same at the hotels, etc., as at the passport office.

"Parties are stationed at all the ferries, depots, and steamboats, as well as at all the roads leading out of the county, to inspect passes and overhaul any suspected baggage. Persons losing their passes and applying for new ones are required to go before some justice of the peace and make affidavit as to the disposition they have made of their old ones."

— Brig.-Gen. McKinstry, acting major-general of one of the divisions of the army, arrived in St. Louis December 13th under arrest, in accordance with an order from the War Department. He turned over his command to Gen. Sturgis.

— By an order of the War Department, Gen. H. W. Halleck was transferred from California November 9th, and placed in "command of the Department of the Missouri, including the States of Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Arkansas, and that portion of Kentucky west of Cumberland River," with headquarters in St. Louis. He arrived in the city on the 10th, accompanied by Gen. S. Hamilton,

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and established himself at the Planters' Hotel. On the 18th, Maj.-Gen. Hunter, who had been assigned to the Department of Kansas, relinquished his command of the Department of Missouri to him, and on the 19th Gen. Halleck took command.

— John F. Wielandy, agent for pensions, announced that he had succeeded in procuring the first pension to a disabled soldier in the Western Department. The pensioner was W. H. Wencker, a private of Company I, Third Regiment Missouri Volunteers, who was wounded at Wilson's Creek. His half pension began Oct. 14, 1861.

— Immediately upon assuming command Gen. Halleck proceeded to establish thorough discipline in the army, and to adopt measures for the successful prosecution of the war. On November 26th he issued General Order No. 8, through his assistant adjutant-general, John C. Kelton, in which he said, —

"Numerous cases have been brought to the attention of the commanding general of alleged seizure and destruction of private property in this department, showing an outrageous abuse of power and a violation of the laws of war. To avoid a recurrence of these evils the following rules will hereafter be observed:

"1. No private property will be taken except where necessary for the subsistence or transportation of the troops, or in cases of persons in arms against the United States, or affording aid and assistance to the enemy.

"2. Where it becomes necessary to take private property for the former purpose, intelligent and responsible officers will be detailed for that purpose, who will take an accurate account of the property so taken, and give receipts therefor. All such property must be duly returned and accounted for, and the authority for the seizure must be stated in the receipts and returns. Any unauthorized and unnecessary seizure or destruction of private property will be punished with the extreme penalty imposed by the laws of war, which is death.

"3. The seizure and conversion of the private property of an enemy (where not required for immediate supplies, as provided in the foregoing paragraph) is justifiable only in particular cases, provided for by the laws of the United States and the general laws of war, and should never be made except by the orders of the officer highest in command, who will be held accountable for the exercise of this power. Great caution should be used in this matter, as much injustice has been done to individuals who are not enemies, and much discredit cast upon our patriotic army by excesses committed by unauthorized persons pretending to act in the name of the United States. All property taken from alleged enemies must be inventoried and duly accounted for.

"Any person violating these rules will be immediately arrested and reported to headquarters.

"4. In all cases where prisoners taken at other posts or in the field are taken to St. Louis, they will be accompanied with a written statement of the charges against them, and the evidence on which the arrest was based. Otherwise prisoners so sent will be released on their arrival here.

"5. No person will be hereafter arrested without good and substantial reasons, and officers making arrests without sufficient cause, or without authority, will be held to account and punished. And officers sending prisoners to St. Louis without charges, proofs, or proper explanations will be charged with the expenses of their transportation."

— On November 27th, Gen. Curtis, through Maj. N. P. Chipman, his assistant adjutant-general, issued an order "to check communication with the enemy, prevent conveyance of contraband goods, and avoid the recurrence of assaults upon our steamboats" on the Mississippi River. It required boats entering the river to report at the first military post and stop, and to proceed under military orders at the discretion of the military commander. "Freight and baggage will be subject to careful inspection; an oath to which no patriot can object and no traitor forget shall be taken and subscribed to by all employés and passengers, except such alien friends as may be excepted by commanding generals. The plans of landing and departure will conform as near as may be to the custom of the trade, but all commission and storage business must be transacted with openly avowed and reliable Union men." The officers of boats and officers of the army were directed, and those of the navy were requested, to vigorously carry out the order.

— Gen. Halleck, on November 30th, issued an order, through J. C. Kelton, his assistant adjutant-general, recognizing the following officers of his staff who had reported for duty:

Brig.-Gen. George W. Cullum, chief of staff and chief of engineers; Brig.-Gen. Schuyler Hamilton, assistant chief of staff; Capt. J. C. Kelton, assistant adjutant-general, in charge of office; Capt. William McMichael, assistant adjutant-general; Capt. S. M. Preston, assistant adjutant-general; Maj. Robert Allen, chief of quartermaster's department; Capt. Thomas J. Haines, chief of subsistence department; Surg. J. J. B. Wright, chief of medical department; Lieut.-Col. T. P. Andrews, chief of pay department; Lieut.-Col. J. B. McPherson, aide-de-camp and assistant to chief of engineers; Col. George Thom, aide-de-camp and chief of topographical engineers; Col. Richard D. Cutts, aide-de-camp on topographical duty; Capt. Franklin D. Callender, chief of ordnance department; Lieut.-Col. James Totten, chief of artillery; Capt. George Hoskin, acting aide-de-camp.

— On December 1st, Governor H. R. Gamble issued an order assigning to duty at his headquarters, "upon the staff of the commander-in-chief," the following officers:

Col. Chester Harding, Jr., adjutant-general; Col. Samuel G. Reed, quartermaster-general; Col. Alton R. Easton, inspector-general; Col. Franklin D. Callender, aide-de-camp and chief of ordnance; Col. Hamilton Gamble, aide-de-camp, assigned to duty as assistant inspector-general; Col. William D. Wood, aide-de-camp, assigned to duty as assistant inspector-general; Col. William T. Mason, aide-de-camp, assigned to duty as assistant inspector-general.

— On October 16th the State Convention adopted an ordinance requiring test oaths of loyalty for all

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civil officers, the same to be filed within sixty days, and providing that the offices of those who failed to comply with the ordinance before the 17th of December, 1861, should be declared vacant, and that the vacancy should be filled by appointment. On the 2d of December, M. Oliver, the Secretary of State, called the special attention of those "whom it may concern" to the provisions of the law, and submitted the following as the "approved form of the oath required by the ordinance:"

"I, A. B. (stating the office), do solemnly swear that I will support the Constitution of the United States and the State of Missouri, and that I will not take up arms against the government of the United States, nor the provisional government of the State of Missouri, nor give aid or comfort to the enemies of either during the present civil war, so help me God."

Notwithstanding this was a State measure and only applied to State and city officials, Gen. Halleck deemed it necessary on December 7th to issue the following general order requiring the enforcement of the ordinance:

"The mayor of the city of St. Louis will require all municipal officers to immediately subscribe to the oath of allegiance prescribed in the ordinance passed by the convention of this State on the 16th day of October, 1861.

"The provost-marshal-general will take measures to ascertain whether any civil officer of this State fails, within the time fixed by said ordinance, to subscribe and file the oath there prescribed; and any person having failed to take such oath who attempts to exercise civil authority, in violation of the terms of said ordinance, will be arrested."

— During the year Maj.-Gen. Sterling Price, of the Confederate army, requested D. Robert Barclay, J. R. Barret, and D. H. Armstrong, of St. Louis, to act in his behalf in conducting the exchange of prisoners of war. These gentlemen accepted the humane mission, and having been applied to frequently by ladies for information as to whether they would be permitted to supply the prisoners confined in the military prison in the city with such clothing and other necessaries as their comfort seemed from time to time to demand, they referred the matter to Capt. George E. Leighton, the provost-marshal, with the belief that he would act justly and humanely in the premises. In this anticipation they were not disappointed, as will be seen by the following letter:


"ST. LOUIS, MO., Dec. 3, 1861.

"GENTLEMEN, — Your communication of this day is at hand. In reply thereto, I have to say that the privilege of furnishing any clothing, or whatever may conduce to the personal comfort of any prisoner, has never been denied. It has not been deemed necessary by the government, while confining the person of the prisoner, to prohibit the ordinary offices of humanity or friendship, and while every reasonable effort is made by those in charge of the prison to secure the personal comfort of every prisoner, yet, if desired, anything of the character mentioned by you, upon being left at the prison, will be immediately delivered to the person for whom it is designed.

"Very respectfully,

"Your obedient servant,


"Captain, Provost-Marshal.

"To Messrs. D. ROBERT BARCLAY, and others."

— Gen. Halleck on December 4th issued General Orders No. 13, which, with the exception of Section II. (of little interest), were as follows:

"I. Lieut.-Col. Bernard G. Farrar is hereby appointed provost-marshal-general of this department. Capt. George E. Leighton is provost-marshal of the city of St. Louis and its vicinity. All local provost-marshals will be subject to the orders of the provost-marshal-general, who will receive his instructions direct from these headquarters.

"III. Commanding officers of districts, posts, and corps will arrest and place in confinement all persons in arms against the lawful authorities of the United States, or who give aid, assistance, or encouragement to the enemy. The evidence against persons so arrested will be reduced to writing and verified on oath, and the originals or certified copies of such affidavits will be immediately furnished to the provost-marshal-general in this city. All arms, ammunition, and other personal property required for the use of the army, such as horses, wagons, provisions, etc., belonging to persons so in arms or so assisting and encouraging the enemy, will be taken possession of, and turned over and accounted for. Such property, not of a proper character for issue, will be examined by a board of officers, and sold as directed by the army regulations.

"IV. Commissions will be ordered from these headquarters for the trial of persons charged with aiding and assisting the enemy, the destruction of bridges, roads, and buildings, and the taking of public or private property for hostile purposes, and also for the condemnation of property taken by our forces from disloyal inhabitants for the use of the army.

"V. In all certificates given for private property taken for public use, in accordance with General Orders No. 8 of this department, it will be stated whether the property was taken from loyal or disloyal persons, and as a test of the loyalty of persons claiming to be such, from whom property is so taken, officers commanding districts, posts, divisions, or separate brigades are authorized to appoint some competent and reliable officer to require and administer the usual oath of allegiance to the United States.

"VI. All persons found in disguise as pretended loyal citizens, or under other false pretenses, within our lines, giving information to or communicating with the enemy, will be arrested, tried, condemned, and shot as spies. It should be remembered that in this respect the laws of war make no distinction of sex, — all are liable to the same penalty.

"VII. Persons not commissioned or enlisted in the service of the so-called Confederate States, who commit acts of hostility, will not be treated as prisoners of war, but will be held and punished as criminals. And all persons found guilty of murder, robbery, theft, pillaging, and marauding, under whatever authority, will either be shot or otherwise less severely punished, as is prescribed by the rules and articles of war, or authorized by the usages and customs of war in like cases.

"VIII. The law of military retaliation has fixed and well-established rules. While it allows no cruel or barbarous acts on our part in retaliation for like acts of the enemy, it permits any

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retaliatory measures within the prescribed limits of military usage. If the enemy murders and robs Union men, we are not justified in murdering and robbing other persons who are in a legal sense enemies to our government, but we may enforce on them the severest penalties justified by the laws of war for the crimes of their fellow-rebels. The rebel forces in the Southwestern counties of this State have robbed and plundered the peaceful non-combatant inhabitants, taking from them their clothing and means of subsistence. Men, women, and children have alike been stripped and plundered. Thousands of such persons are finding their way to this city, barefooted, half-clad, and in a destitute and starving condition. Humanity and justice require that these sufferings should be relieved, and that the outrages committed upon them should be retaliated upon the enemy. The individuals who have directly used these sufferings are at present mostly beyond our reach. But there are in this city, and in other places within our lines, numerous wealthy secessionists, who render aid, assistance, and encouragement to those who commit these outrages. They do not themselves rob and plunder, but they abet and countenance these acts in others. Although less bold they are equally guilty It is therefore ordered and directed that the provost-marshals immediately inquire into the condition of the persons so driven from their homes, and that measures be taken to quarter them in the houses and to feed and clothe them at the expense of avowed secessionists, and of those who are found guilty of giving aid, assistance, and encouragement to the enemy.

"IX. The laws of the United States confiscate the property of any master in a slave used for insurrectionary purposes. Should Congress extend this penalty to the property of all rebels in arms, or giving aid, assistance, and encouragement to the enemy, such provisions will be strictly enforced. Military officers do not make laws, but they should obey and enforce them when made.

"X. Where the necessities of service require it, the forced labor of citizens, slaves, and even prisoners of war may be employed in the construction of military defenses, but no one will be forced to such labor without orders from these headquarters, except in cases of siege or attack. All persons so impressed will be fed and quartered at the public expense, and an account will be taken of their labor, to be settled as may be directed by the War Department. All such working parties will be strictly guarded and kept, as far as possible, from communicating with the command where employed.

"XI. These orders may by some be regarded as severe; but they are certainly justified by the laws of war, and it is believed they are not only right but necessary. It is therefore expected that all loyal citizens in this department will assist the military authorities in strictly enforcing them. There is already a large military force in this State, which is daily increasing in numbers and improving in organization and discipline. In a few weeks this force will be able not only to expel or punish all traitors and rebels, but also to strike the enemy in his strongholds.

"XII. All communications relating to prisoners of war will be directed to the provost-marshal-general, to be by him laid before the commanding general, daily, at orderly hours."

In pursuance of this order Bernard G. Farrar, provost-marshal-general of the Department of the Missouri, on December 5th assumed the discharge of his duties. In his "Order No. 1" he required all local provost-marshals to report to him the corps from which and the commander by whom they were appointed, together with the limits of their jurisdiction. The order also contained the following provisions:

"IV. Provost-marshals will not issue orders for the arrest of persons or the seizure of property without satisfactory evidence by affidavit, or the official statements of army officers, showing probable cause to believe that the accused person or owner has been, or is, guilty of either of the crimes specified in the Department General Order No. 13, hereinbefore referred to. This, however, is not intended to refer to arrests or seizures, made by authority of military commanders, which are sent before the provost-marshals for investigation.

"V. Whenever a suspected person is arrested by order of, or sent before a local provost-marshal for examination, he shall immediately examine the witnesses under oath, reducing the several statements to writing, and shall immediately forward the same, together with his opinion thereon, to this office, detaining the prisoner in custody until directions are received for the disposition of the accused. Provided, however, if the evidence does not disclose any of the offenses specified, the prisoner shall be discharged upon taking the oath of allegiance by the local provost-marshal, and a report made to this office of such arrest, examination, and discharge.

"VI. When property is seized a correct description and inventory of the same shall be made and forwarded to this office, together with a sworn statement of the facts and circumstances upon which such seizure was founded, and the property safely held until directions are received from headquarters or the immediate military commander for its disposition.

"VII. The rank, name, and date of taking of all prisoners of war shall be immediately forwarded to this office for the information of the commanding general.

"VIII. Arrests and seizures made by provost-marshals for the mere purpose of enforcing camp and police discipline need not be reported to this office, but may be disposed of at the time, subject only to the orders of the immediate commander."

— To carry out the arrangements for protecting the commerce of the Mississippi, the following oath and blanks for names and description were prescribed by Brig.-Gen. Curtis on December 6th, for the use of the boats and houses engaged in this trade:

"I solemnly swear that I will bear true allegiance to the United States, and support and sustain the Constitution and laws thereof; and I will maintain the national sovereignty paramount to that of all State, county, or confederate powers; that I will discourage, discountenance, and forever oppose secession, rebellion, and disintegration of the Federal Union; that I disclaim and denounce all faith and fellowship with the so-called Confederate States and Confederate armies, and pledge my honor, my property, and my life to the sacred performance of this my solemn oath of allegiance to the government of the United States of America."

Name. Residence. Destination.
Height. Eyes. Hair. Complexion.

This oath was also prescribed as the oath of allegiance to be taken and subscribed in obedience to

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Paragraph V. of General Orders No. 13, heretofore mentioned, and in all other cases in the Missouri Department where an oath of allegiance was authorized and required.

— On December 4th. J. M. Schofield, brigadier-general commanding the Missouri State militia, ordered that the following officers of his staff should be recognized and obeyed:

"Lieut.-Col. Calvin W. Marsh, assistant adjutant-general.
"Lieut.-Col. Bernard G. Farrar, aide-de-camp.
"Lieut.-Col. John B. Gray, aide-de-camp and assistant inspector-general.
"Staff of the First Brigade:
"Maj. Henry Hescock, assistant adjutant-general.
"Maj. Henry L. McConnell, aide-de-camp.
"Maj. John F. Tyler, aide-de-camp."

— The following regulations for the river commerce from the port of St. Louis on the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers were put in force on December 10th by Brig.-Gen. S. R. Curtis:

"1. From and after this date the river commerce from the port of St. Louis will be entirely under military control and surveillance.

"2. No steamboats or other crafts will be permitted to take freights or passengers, or be allowed a clearance, except those authorized and commissioned by the major-general commanding the Department of the Missouri, or the general commanding the District of St. Louis.

"3. Every person or company owning a steamboat or other craft, and desiring to do business on the rivers from and to the port of St. Louis, will immediately after the publication of this notice be required to make written application to the chief quartermaster, United States array, in St. Louis, for permission, accompanying the same with a statement under oath of the true owner or owners of said steamboat or craft, and the amount of interest of each person or company in said steamboat or craft, whether in trust or otherwise, their places of residence and of business, and also the name and residence of each officer and pilot employed or to be employed on the same; and any change in the ownership of said steamboat or craft, or in the officers or pilots thereof, shall also be reported in like manner.

"4. All officers, pilots, and river employés on any steamboat or craft, shall take the following oath (the oath prescribed December 6th).

"5. When application has been made agreeably to the foregoing, it shall be the duty of the chief quartermaster in St. Louis to institute such further investigation as he may deem requisite as to the character and loyalty of the owner or owners, the officers and pilots of such steamboats or crafts, and if found UNEXCEPTIONABLE, he shall issue his commission to the owner or master thereof to do business on the rivers.

"6. The object of the foregoing is to SUPPRESS and ENTIRELY PREVENT any aid or ASSISTANCE to or COMMUNICATION WITH any person or persons (directly or indirectly) disloyal to or in arms against the federal authority of the United States.

"7. ANY OWNER, officer, or pilot of any steamboat or other craft who shall do any act contrary to the object expressed in the foregoing section shall cause the immediate FORFEITURE of said steamboat or craft and her cargo to the Federal government, and such owner, officer, or pilot be subject to the pains and penalties prescribed by the articles of war for giving aid to the enemy. The articles of war referred to above are in the following words:

"‘ART. 56. Whosoever shall relieve the enemy with money, victuals, or ammunition, or shall knowingly harbor or protect an enemy, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a court-martial.

"'ART. 57. Whoever shall be convicted of holding correspondence with or giving intelligence to the enemy, either directly or indirectly, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a court-martial.’"

In order to carry out the objects of Gen. Curtis in relation to the commerce and navigation of the Mississippi, Capt. John A. Scudder and Capt. Parsons were appointed, December 14th, to administer the "oath of allegiance to the United States government to all officers, pilots, and river employés, consignors and consignees, and passengers on any steamboat or craft which shall, by permission of the proper authorities, quit the port of St. Louis.

"Masters of vessels and inspectors who have themselves been fully qualified, entered upon, and are still in the service are also authorized and appointed to administer the oath and carry out the object of the orders concerning the river commerce on the Mississippi and its tributaries."

— The city being crowded with Union refugees from the disturbed sections of the interior, Maj.-Gen. Halleck on December 12th issued the following "General Orders No. 24," for levying a contribution of ten thousand dollars on the Southern sympathizers for their support:

"I. The suffering families driven by rebels from Southwestern Missouri which have already arrived here have been supplied by voluntary contributions made by Union men. Others are on their way, to arrive in a few days. These must be supplied by the charity of men known to be hostile to the Union. A list will be prepared of the names of all persons of this class who do not voluntarily furnish their quota, and a contribution will be levied on them of ten thousand dollars, in clothing, provisions and quarters, or money in lieu thereof. This levy will be made upon the following class of persons, in proportion to the guilt and property of each individual: 1st, those in arms with the enemy who have property in this city; 2d, those who have furnished pecuniary or other aid to the enemy, or to persons in the enemy's service; 3d, those who have verbally, in writing, or by publication given encouragement to insurgents and rebels.

"II. Brig.-Gen. S. R. Curtis, United States volunteers, Lieut.-Col. B. G. Farrar, provost-marshal-general, and Charles Borg, Esq., assessor of the county of St. Louis, will constitute a board of assessors for levying the aforementioned contribution. In determining the amount of property of the individuals assessed, the board will take into consideration the official assessment lists for municipal taxes.

"III. As soon as any part of this contribution has been assessed by the board, the provost-marshal-general will notify the parties assessed, their agents or representatives, stating the amount of provisions, clothing or quarters, and the money value thereof required of each, and if not furnished within the time specified in such notice, he will issue an execution, and sufficient property will be taken and sold at public auction to satisfy the assessment, with costs and a penalty of twenty-five per cent. in addition. Where buildings or parts of buildings

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are to be used, and where any of the sufferers are to be quartered on families, care should be taken to produce as little inconvenience to the owners or families as possible, this not being considered a military contribution levied upon the enemy, but merely a collection to be made from friends of the enemy for charitable purposes.

"IV. If any person upon whom such assessment shall be made shall file with the provost-marshal-general an affidavit that he is a loyal citizen and has been true to his allegiance to the United States, he will be allowed one week to furnish evidence to the board to vindicate his character, and if at the end of that time he shall not be able to satisfy the board of his loyalty, the assessment shall be increased ten per cent. and the levy immediately made.

"V. The supplies so collected will be expended for the object designated, under the direction of the provost-marshal-general, with the advice of the State Sanitary Commission. Where moneys are received in lieu of supplies, it will be expended for them as they may be required. Any money not so expended will be turned over to the sanitary commission for the benefit of sick soldiers. A strict and accurate account of these receipts and expenditures will be kept and returned to these headquarters.

"VI. Any one who shall resist or attempt to resist the execution of these orders will be immediately arrested and imprisoned, and will be tried by a military commission."

On the following day Provost-Marshal Leighton, with a view to provide against the arrest or molestation of the large number of persons who were arriving in the city daily from the South, "ordered that all persons who may arrive in St. Louis or its immediate vicinity from the States in rebellion against the authority of the government of the United States be required to report in person at the office of the provost-marshal of the city of St. Louis immediately upon their arrival.

"All such persons will be required to register their names and testify upon oath their allegiance to the government of the United States."

A "Ladies' Union Refugee Aid Society" was also formed for the relief of those who had thus sought the protection of the government. The rooms of the society for the reception of the refugees were at No. 68 Elm Street. The officers were Mrs. P. A. Child, president; Mrs. William Barr, secretary and treasurer; and the following directors: Mrs. Dr. Heusler, Mrs. Robert Holmes, Mrs. C. S. Kintzing, Mrs. Ferdinand Meyer, and Mrs. Professor Terrell. The following gentlemen acted as an executive committee: Messrs. Pearly, Childs, Robert Holmes, S. A. Braun, and James E. Cozzens.

The Southwestern Missouri refugees, for whose benefit the ten thousand dollar assessment was now being made, were quartered in an old mansion located on Elm between Fourth and Fifth Streets. It was furnished with beds and bedding sufficient to accommodate about sixty persons. The colored quarters in the rear of the house were also fitted up for the same purpose. The refugees, who numbered up to this time (December 20th) about six hundred persons, were quartered as fast as they arrived in the city at the mansion, and remained long enough to be fed and clothed, and were then sent forward to their final destinations in Illinois and other States. Their teams while in the city were quartered on a lot near the mansion. Everything was under the sole management of the officers of the Ladies' Union Refugee Aid Society. The sixty-four persons who were assessed for the ten thousand dollars for the benefit of the refugees on December 20th were served with the following notice:



"ST. LOUIS, MO., Dec. 20, 1861.

" — .

"You are hereby notified that, pursuant to General Orders No. 23 from the headquarters of the Department of the Missouri, directing a levy upon the friends of the enemy for charitable purposes, you have been assessed the sum of — hundred dollars as your contribution in aid of the suffering families driven by the rebels from Southwestern Missouri.

"You will, therefore, pay the amount so assessed, or its equivalent in clothing, provisions, or quarters, to me within five days after the service of this notice upon you, or, in default thereof, execution will be issued against your property for sufficient to satisfy the assessments, costs, and twenty-five per cent. penalty in addition. Should you elect to pay your assessment in clothing, provisions, or quarters, you will give notice of such intention to this office, accompanying the same with an inventory and description of the articles, or of the situation and value of the quarters tendered, which will be accepted, subject to an appraisement of the same by me.

"BERNARD G. FARRAR, Provost-Marshal-General."

On the same day Col. Farrar directed that all those who were desirous of availing themselves of the privilege contained in Section IV. of General Orders No. 24 should file their affidavits of loyalty in his office on or before the 26th of December.

— The main portion of the prisoners captured by Gen. Pope reached St. Louis on the 22d of December by the Pacific train. They numbered about thirteen hundred men. The train consisted of thirty-six cars, and the prisoners were packed into each car so closely as to leave but little more than comfortable standing-room. They were marched in a close column, which extended from Gratiot Street to the Seventh Street Station, to McDowell's College, where they were quartered. They were escorted by the Twenty-fifth Indiana and the Second Iowa Regiments, followed by a large crowd, which occasionally cheered the prisoners.

Gratiot Street Military Prison, which was used by the Federal authorities during the civil war for the confinement of prisoners charged with offenses against military law, was originally the McDowell Medical College.

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It was situated on the northwest corner of Eighth and Gratiot Streets, and consisted of a large octagonal building of gray stone, with arched and square windows, "reminding one of portholes in some antiquated fort or castellated structure," surmounted by an oddly-shaped dome, and flanked by two wings, the southern situated directly on the corner of Eighth and Gratiot Streets, and the northern extending to the building of the Christian Brothers. The fortress-like appearance of the central structure gave some color of probability with the credulous to a story which gained a wide circulation that Dr. McDowell, in erecting it, contemplated the possibility of having some day to make a military defense of the structure. This statement, however, is believed to have had its origin in the fact that during the Know-Nothing political troubles Dr. McDowell purchased a number of muskets from the United States arsenal and several small cannon. The muskets were stored in the cupola, and on the breaking out of the civil war Dr. McDowell sent the arms to Memphis, and subsequently went South himself.

The college was established in 1840 by Dr. J. N. McDowell, who, aided by Dr. John S. Moore, of Tennessee, had matured the plan for the institution during the winter of 1839-40. The two physicians procured a charter for the department of Kemper College (afterwards the Poor-house farm), and under its provisions organized. The first session opened in November, 1840, with a class of thirty-seven matriculates, and was held in a building at the corner of Ninth and Cerré Streets, subsequently the Wainwright brewery. The institution was successful from the first, and in 1847 the building at Eighth and Gratiot Streets was erected. During the same year the college became the Medical Department of the State University at Columbia, Mo., and so continued until 1857, when it was organized under another charter. After the commencement of the war the military took possession of the building, using it first as a barracks, and subsequently transforming it into a prison. In 1865, Dr. McDowell returned to St. Louis, and reorganized the institution with mostly a new faculty. In 1868 he died, and Professor Paul Eve was chosen to fill his place. The college was then removed to the corner of Sixth and Elm Streets. After various changes the institution, under the name of the Missouri Medical College, was transferred to a new building on Twenty-third Street and Christy Avenue, in connection with St. John's Hospital.

Among the graduates of the old McDowell College were Drs. Hodgen, Maughs, Tuholske, Otto, A. W. Wall, S. G. Armor, John J. McDowell, Drake McDowell, T. B. Lester, of Kansas City, and B. Winston and son, of Jefferson City, besides many others.

The occupants of the building during the period of its use as a military prison were captured Confederate soldiers, Southern sympathizers, bushwhackers, spies, mail-carriers and deserters, bounty-jumpers, and other delinquents on the Union side. The prisoners incarcerated there from time to time included many persons of distinction, among them being prominent ministers of the gospel, United States senators, legislators, influential citizens of St. Louis, and leading officers of the Confederate army. Capts. Bishop, Masterson, and Robert Allen were among the commandants. The discipline maintained seems to have been severe, and complaints were frequent, on the part of prisoners, of harsh treatment and insufficiency of heat and food. Hardships, however, are inseparable from prison life, especially in time of war; and there is no evidence before us to show that the administration of the Gratiot prison was more severe than that of the military prisons established by the authorities elsewhere. Its appearance was gloomy and forbidding, — doubly so to those who knew its history, from the fact that it was frequently the scene of military executions. 305

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Escapes of prisoners were of frequent occurrence, but, as a rule, the fugitives were recaptured. On the 24th of February, 1862, the roof of the prison was set on fire by the inmates, but the flames were extinguished without serious damage. Among the most daring and successful of the prisoners was Absalom C. Grimes, a famous mail carrier and spy, who survived the war, and returned to his former occupation of river pilot. Grimes joined the Confederate service in June, 1801, in company with Samuel Bower and Samuel Clemens, the latter of whom subsequently became the well-known humorist "Mark Twain." After having been captured several times but always escaping, Grimes was finally caught again and placed in Gratiot prison. He thus describes his capture and imprisonment, and we reproduce his narrative almost in full, as presenting a vivid picture of the perils encountered by Southern sympathizers in St. Louis during this period:

"I continued in the secret service until Sept. 2, 1862, when I was captured on the ferry-boat ‘Christy’ with a heavy mail for ‘Dixie.’ The circumstances leading to my capture are briefly related. I had been stopping at the Virginia Hotel, on Main Street, St. Louis, where the contraband letters were consigned to my charge. A new clerk named Little was put in charge one day, who mistrusted something was wrong from my asking for letters directed to other names than myself, and he thereupon informed the authorities. To guard against accident I sent my carpet-sack, containing the letters, to the ferry-boat, lying at the foot of Cherry Street, by a bell-boy. I went out at a side-door to keep track of the boy. I saw that he was followed by two men whom I knew to be detectives. They followed him on board the boat. When the bell-boy came ashore the detectives also came ashore. I went round the square to head the bell-boy off and to ascertain from him what the detectives had said to him. While doing so the detectives went back on board the ferry-boat and hid down in the engine-room. The names of the detectives were Newbury and Conners. The boy told me that they had asked whose carpet-sack it was and where it was going to. He told them he did not know whose it was or where it was going to, but was ordered to give it to the engineer. I went back to the ferry landing, waiting for the boat to return from the Illinois shore. I felt well assured that the ‘jig was up,’ but was determined, if possible, to destroy the mail contained in the carpet-sack. I boarded the boat and looked for the carpet-sack, and also the two detectives. I did not see anything of them, but when the boat had got out into the middle of the stream, I being then in the cabin, the detectives came out from their place of concealment, and wanted to know my name and see my passes for leaving the city. I told them my name was John Cooley, and that I had lots of passes. After showing them some bogus passes they wanted to search my baggage. I told them I had none. They ordered some man standing by, who seemed to be one of the party, to go and get that carpet-sack. They asked me for the key. I told them I would unlock it for them. As soon as I got my hands on it I sprang to the door of the boat and flung it into the river.

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While their attention was directed to the floating carpet sack, I drew from my pocket quickly some official documents written on tissue-paper and began to chew them up. One of the detectives drew a pistol on me, and said if I destroyed any more papers he would shoot me. I told him that was the last I had. I was then brought before Provost McConnoll, and while being questioned the carpet-sack was brought in, which was last seen floating in the river, it having been recovered by some boys in a skiff. There were about five hundred letters on love, friendship, and business from parties in St. Louis to their friends in the Southern Confederacy. Several prominent persons were compromised by the letters. These letters were from prominent families, from Governor Trusten Polk's family and many more. All the military letters being on tissue-paper I chewed up, but the balance were saved.

"I was then sent to Gratiot Street prison, Sept. 2, 1862, the date being inscribed on the wall, and brought for trial, on the charge of being a rebel mail-carrier and spy, before a military commission of which Gen. John B. Gray was the president. They brought me in guilty, and I was sentenced to death, the day of execution being fixed for the second Friday in October, 1862. I was placed in solitary confinement, with handcuffs, ball and chain. The room was about fourteen feet square, in the interior of the building, and was formerly used by Dr. McDowell as a back-parlor. There was a window on one side, and on the other side there were folding-doors in the partition separating it from the front parlor on the Eighth Street side, which was used as a female prison. The folding-doors between were securely nailed up. In the female prison were then confined two well-known ladies and two other ladies. One day the ladies handed me a bottle of chloroform, and asked me if I wanted it. I answered it in the affirmative. I took it through the jointure of the folding-doors, which could be pressed apart near the bottom for the purpose." Mr. Grimes then relates how he used the chloroform on his guards, but without accomplishing anything, and continues: "As time wore on I fully matured a plan to escape and regain my liberty. . . . In prosecuting my plan for escape, I during the day would lay on my mattress in one corner of the room and cut a narrow groove across three of the floor planks. This I did in two places, and split the tongues of the grooves with a dirk-knife given to me by the women through a rat-hole in the folding-doors. After I got the planks up in the floor I could replace them, and by inserting thin strips of wood in the cut places, the floor looked perfectly sound and was not observed by the prison officials. I used to open the hole at night, and by crawling along under the floor, which was from two to four feet from the ground, in a northeast direction, brought me immediately under the room where the ladies were in, and with a bar of iron and a large butcher-knife, which had been passed to me by a brother-prisoner named Chapman, I commenced making a breach through a wall which would let me into an alley-way. The implements were procured by Chapman from the cook-room. While I was working at the wall, the women, in accordance with a previous understanding, would dance and move the chairs about, and thereby keep up a racket so as to drown any noise I would be making in burrowing a hole through the wall. At the same time one of the women would watch the door and window in my room through a crack in the folding-doors between their room and mine, and with a string attached to the old rocking-chair, she would rock the chair once in a while, which led the guard to believe that I was lying on the mattress and rocking the chair with my foot, the chair being placed directly between the mattress and the window, with a coat thrown over the back of it. The guards could not get into my room without first going to the office and getting Officer Bishop, or his clerk, Streeter, to unlock the door. It took me two nights to cut through the wall, which was of brick eighteen inches thick, and the foundation of stone two feet thick.

"After effecting a breach through the wall, I knew that it would bring me into a narrow alley between the old stone building and McDowell's residence, which was about four feet wide, and filled with cord-wood. Knowing that the wood-pile was there before, I told Chapman to climb over the far end of the wood-pile before roll-call in his room, on the night agreed upon for our escape, and secrete himself, and then to pile the wood back, so I would have no wood-pile to contend with when I came to the alley.

"Our plan being thus nearly completed, the night of the 2d of October, a few days previous to the time fixed for my execution, was set to carry it into effect.

"My plan not being disarranged by any untoward event, I started in the dead of night to carry out the enterprise. I passed down through the hole in the floor underneath the women's prison-room to the breach in the wall, where I disengaged myself from my shackles and a thirty-two-pound shell, but found that Chapman, who was by prearrangement to meet me, had piled back of him all the cord-wood he possibly could get back, yet I had to pull nearly half a cord in through the breach in the wall, which I piled up behind me under the floor. I then gained the alley-way, which brought me and Chapman together. We found on the outside of the alley a two-inch poplar partition, which shut off our entrance to the street. I then commenced to cut through the plank partition with a dirk-knife, only having to cut a groove across one sixteen-inch plank two inches thick. It took just twenty minutes to do the job. After the hole was cut, Chapman looked at his watch, and it was just twenty minutes of twelve, midnight. As we had the guard to pass, we waited until twelve o'clock, when the guards would be relieved."

The fugitives succeeded in eluding the guard and effecting their escape.

Many other attempts to "break jail" were made by Confederate prisoners, which were equally daring and ingenious. On the 13th of March, 1862, five Confederate officers made their escape, and on the night of December 12th sixty prisoners escaped by means of a tunnel about eighty feet in length, which had been constructed by one man at a time boring into the dirt, which was put in a tin pan and hauled out with its load by a cord to the beginning of the tunnel. On Christmas-night, 1863, Mr. Grimes, who had been recaptured, and others, made an ineffectual attempt to escape, and were detected and severely punished. 306

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On the 20th of June, 1864, about fifteen or twenty prisoners overpowered the guard in the jail-yard and succeeded in getting outside the inclosure. Five of them escaped, two were shot dead, two wounded, and the rest recaptured. The killed were James H. Colclaisair, of Clay County, imprisoned on the charge of bushwhacking, and Leon Schultz, formerly of Arkansas, but afterwards a spy for both the Northern and Southern armies. The wounded were Absalom C. Grimes, mail-carrier, who had been convicted and sentenced to death, and William McElhany. Those who escaped were John C. Carlin, son of Governor Carlin, of Illinois, and colonel in the Texas cavalry, Jasper C. Hill, captain in Clark's command, William H. Sebring, lieutenant in Wood's cavalry, Alfred Yates, private in the Third Missouri, C.S.A., and William M. Douglass, citizen.

Mr. Grimes thus graphically describes this desperate affair:

"There were in our room five prisoners, four of us being condemned men, viz.: Colclaisair and Vandever, two of Quantrell's men, Capt. William A. Douglass, and Schultz, who had been a spy and detective on both sides, with serious charges against him. We scrubbed out our room, and were sent with three guards into a lower yard while the floor dried. Previous to going there we had formed a plan to attack the guard and try to effect our escape. Five slips of paper were prepared; on three of them were written ‘catch the guard;’ on one of them, ‘throw the axe out of the cook-house;’ and on one, ‘break the gate open.’p; The slips were put in a hat, and after being shaken up, Colclaisair drew first, ‘catch the guard;’ I drew next, ‘break the gate open;’ Vandever drew ‘catch the guard;’ Schultz drew ‘throw the axe,’ while Douglass drew ‘catch the guard.’ On leaving our room for the yard, we all put our hands on a Bible, and pledged to each other to die game or triumph, and that there should be no flinching. Our design was, after disarming the guard stationed in the yard in rear of the prison, which was barricaded by a high plank fence, and smashing down the gate with the axe, to escape. Each person had his duty assigned him.

"On arriving in the yard, Schultz quickly passed into the cook-house, as the guards took their positions in the yard, one in the middle and one at each end. I took my position next to the cook-house window. Colclaisair, Vandever, and Douglass played their part by walking carelessly, each pretending to be reading a paper as each singled out and approached his guard. Shultz threw the axe out of the cook-house window. I picked up the axe immediately, when the first guard ordered me to lay it down and drew his gun on me. At this moment the three prisoners seized the three guards from behind. I threatened the first guard with the axe and made him drop his gun. Douglass picked it up. The other guards, seeing that we had them at a disadvantage, dropped their guns and surrendered at discretion by running out of the yard. I then broke open the outside gate with the axe, first smashing the lock. Two guards standing on each side of the gate outside the yard fired upon me, one shot passing through my right leg, to which I had a thirty-two-pound shell attached, and I was disabled from making any further movement. Colclaisair, on getting outside of the fence, was shot by a guard through the head, killing him instantly. Schultz fled in a northwest direction, and ran on two soldiers sitting on an embankment, who having heard the firing and seeing Schultz running, ordered him to stop. He refused, and a soldier shot him through the heart with a revolver, killing him almost instantly. Vandever, having a ball and chain, was overtaken after hobbling off a few hundred yards and brought back to prison. Douglass was the only one who made a clear escape.

"The boys in the strong room No. 2, some of them being condemned men, who had their room open to scrub out just as we were leaving our room for the yard, were notified by me that we were going to make the attack on the guard, and when the yell was given that we had made the attack and the gate open, John Carlin (son of Governor Carlin, of Illinois), Jasper Hill, Mr. Yates, Lieut. Sebring, and Mr. McElhany all made a break for our yard. John Carlin knocked down the guard having him in charge with a brick. Carlin, Sebring, Hill, and Yates all made good their escape, but McElhany had his knee-cap shot off. By this time reinforcements of the guards had arrived and the game was blocked."

In June, 1878, a portion of the prison, being considered unsafe, was demolished by order of the fire department, but the ruins of the octagonal tower and the wing adjoining the building of the Christian Brothers are still standing.

— On the 26th of December Gen. Halleck gave notice of the enforcement of martial law in the city, as will be seen by the following "General Orders No. 34":

"I. In virtue of authority conferred by the President of the United States, martial law, heretofore declared in this city, will be enforced. In virtue of the same authority, martial law is hereby declared and will be enforced in and about all railroads in this State.

"It is not intended by this declaration to interfere with the jurisdiction of any civil court which is loyal to the government of the United States, and which will aid the military authorities in enforcing order and punishing crimes.

"II. Commanding officers of troops and of posts will be held responsible that their commands are ready to move at a moment's warning. Excuses for delay and want of preparation will hereafter not be admitted.

"III. Copies of muster-rolls of volunteers must be filed with the adjutant-general of the State to which the troops belong before commissions can be issued to the officers."

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— The following "protest" was laid before Gen. Halleck by the persons who had been assessed for the support of Union citizens of the Southwest who had taken refuge in St. Louis:

"ST. LOUIS, Dec. 26, 1861.

"TO MAJ.-GEN. H. W. HALLECK, Commanding the Department of Missouri:

"SIR, — The undersigned, citizens of the State of Missouri, residing in the city of St. Louis, have received from the provost-marshal-general of Missouri notices, by which we are respectively informed that, ‘pursuant to General Orders No. 24 from the headquarters of the Department of Missouri, directing a levy upon the friends of the enemy for charitable purposes,’ we have been assessed in sums varying in amount from one hundred to four hundred dollars, as our ‘contribution in aid of the suffering families driven by the rebels from Southwestern Missouri,’ Against this harsh, illegal, and most extraordinary measure we deem it our imperative duty to enter this our respectful but earnest and solemn protest. We do so for the following reasons:

"On the 3d day of August, 1861, Judge Hamilton R. Gamble, on assuming the duties of Provisional Governor of this State, to which he was called by the State Convention, did, by his proclamation of that date addressed to the people of Missouri, set forth in clear and explicit terms the object for, and the principles on which, such provisional government should be administered.

"Among other things, it was in that paper promulgated that ‘the choice of temporary Governor gives the further assurance to all that every effort will be made to stop the practices on the part of the military which have occasioned so much irritation throughout the State, such as arresting citizens who have neither taken up arms against the government nor aided those who are in open hostility to it, and searching private houses without any reasonable ground to suspect the occupants of any improper conduct, and unnecessarily seizing or injuring private property. Such acts must be, and will be, discountenanced; and there is every reason to believe, from a general order recently issued by Lieut.-Gen. Scott, and from the known disposition of Maj.-Gen. Fremont, whose command embraces Missouri, that such oppressive conduct on the part of the military will in a short time be arrested.

. . . "'Civil government in this State has no concerns with men's opinions, except to protect all in their undisturbed enjoyment. It is only when they become the causes of acts that they bring those who entertain them into any responsibility to the law. While this freedom of opinion is the right of all, and while it is the duty of each to respect this right in others, it is plainly the duty of the government to suppress, as far as practicable, all combinations to violate this right, and all violence arising from a difference of opinion.’

"This proclamation, in its most material part, — namely, that respecting persons who had taken up arms against the government, — was sanctioned by the President of the United States, as announced by the publication therewith of the dispatch from the Secretary of War to the author of the proclamation.

"Furthermore, under date of Nov. 26, 1861, a few days after assuming command of this department, you issued your General Orders No. 8, from which we had reason to presume that to the fullest extent we should be protected in the enjoyment of our right of property. In that order you deemed it proper to admonish the army under your command respecting the ‘numerous cases of alleged seizure and destruction of private property in this department,’ showing an outrageous abuse of power and a violation of the laws of war; and, after prescribing the mode of seizing private property when deemed ‘necessary for the subsistence and transportation of the troops,’ you proceed to say, —

"‘The seizure and conversion of the private property of the enemy (when not required for immediate supplies, as provided in the foregoing paragraph) is justifiable only in particular cases, provided for by the laws of the United States and the general laws of war, and should never be made except by the orders of the officer highest in command, who will be held accountable for the exercise of this power. Great caution should be used in this matter, as much injustice has been done to individuals who are not enemies, and much discredit cast upon our patriotic army by excesses committed by unauthorized persons pretending to act in the name of the United States.’

"On the 12th day of December, inst., you issued the orders following: [Here follow General Orders No. 24, of Dec. 12, 1861, which can be found on a preceding page.]

"We have thus placed before you those parts of the proclamation above recited, extracts from General Orders No. 8, and General Orders No. 24 in full, to the end that you may the more readily discover the reasonableness of the ground on which we claim that General Orders No. 24 are in conflict with the assurance theretofore given out to the people of this State.

"But this order, and the proceedings taken under it against us, are open to objection upon weightier and still more serious grounds. They violate the provisions of the fundamental law of the land, — a law to you as well as to us, — prescribing the duties of the citizen, and clearly defining and limiting the powers of the government. That law provides that no person shall ‘be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law;’ that the ‘accused shall enjoy a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense,’

"And yet, in disregard of all these great and dearly-cherished principles of constitutional freedom, at a time when the Federal Congress is in session to enact laws, if new ones be deemed necessary, the courts in full operation to enforce them, civil officers with all the power of the army and navy at hand to aid them in the execution of process, and all branches of the government in full and harmonious operation, we have been tried before a secret inquisitorial tribunal, on what charge we know not, and condemned to pay a forced contribution, arbitrarily levied upon us for alleged charitable purposes. In case of failure to liquidate the amount adjudged against us within the number of days allowed for that purpose our property is threatened to be seized and sacrificed by sale at auction, to satisfy such demand and twenty-five per cent. additional. And what is the remedy prescribed for those considering themselves aggrieved by the secret edicts and decrees of this tribunal? They are allowed one week within which ‘to furnish evidence to the board to vindicate their character,’ and if at the end of that time they fail to satisfy those judges who have already prejudged their cases of their loyalty, they shall be adjudged to pay the further sum of ten per cent. on the sum assessed. How ‘loyalty’ is to be defined, by what particular standard it shall be measured, and under what rules and by what evidence it will be required to be established we are left to conjecture. And why, we respectfully inquire, are we thus to be abused? Not for anything we have done, but because of acts alleged to have been committed by persons to us unknown, remote from the locality in which we move, and over whose acts we could have exercised no control whatever.

"If we have in any manner transgressed the law, we are

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ready to make all the atonement which the violated law demands. Its avenging ministers are near to try, condemn, and punish us conformably to the established forms and usages of law. There exists no necessity, in our opinion, for overriding in the way proposed the great principles of the fundamental law, setting aside all the restraints and limitations it so guardedly places upon power, and thus inaugurating new tests and arbitrary modes for ascertaining guilt. There exists no necessity for such summary proceedings. Within this jurisdiction the ordinary course of justice, except so far only as it has been interfered with by the military authority, has been, and is now, entirely free and unobstucted. All officers of the government, both judicial and ministerial, are in the full exercise of all their official functions, so that all persons charged with having offended against law may be as speedily tried, and, if found guilty, as surely and as certainly punished as when peace prevailed throughout the State. If, then, it be charged against us that we have in any way sinned against the Constitution, or violated any known provision of the law, in God's name let us be tried under and according to the established forms and prescribed rules, and under the solemn sanctions of that Constitution and those laws. Vouchsafe us a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury; make known to us the nature and cause of the accusations against us; let us be confronted with our accusers, that we may see the hand that would smite us, and do not leave us and all we own to the mercy of a Star Chamber court of inquiry, where malice may be the lurking motive that determines the question of guilt and pronounces the judgment that may doom us and ours to want and beggary. If two or three military officers of the United States, or other persons designated for such purpose, may meet in secret, and, without notice, single out such citizens as they may choose upon whom to levy forced contributions, and arbitrarily fix the amount of the same, what man who may perchance hold political opinions not altogether acceptable to the tribunal thus constituted can consider himself secure in his right of liberty or property? If the military, by the authority of the bayonet, may to-day force from us a contribution of hundreds of dollars, they may to-morrow, by the same authority, force from us thousands of dollars, or all we may own, and cast us and ours paupers on the world's wide common.

"We, moreover, claim it to be our right to dispose of and distribute in our own way such charity as it may be in our power to bestow, and respectfully deny the power of the government of the United States, or that of any officer thereof, civil or military, to assess us for such purposes, and protest against the exercise of any such power.

"We do not mean by anything we have already said to be understood as conceding that any ‘necessity’ can justify the assumption by any officer of the government of powers not given by law. The duty of obedience to the Constitution is due alike from the official and the citizen, from those whose privilege it may be to govern as well as those who are governed, and to admit the validity of a plea of necessity to justify the agents of the government in a plain violation of the Constitution, or in the assumption of powers not authorized thereby, ‘is to say as explicitly as could be said in words that it justifies the Federal authorities in breaking up the government themselves under the guise of preventing it being broken up by others. The forms of government may outlast such a catastrophe, but the Federal government, known to and created by the Constitution, must end with it. What remains is revolution in the garb of government, and depending for its legitimacy upon bayonets.’

"In conclusion, we do not mean to resist the proceedings against us under the orders complained of, unjust and oppressive as we deem them to be. We are powerless in the premises. You have the armed hand to enforce your orders and decrees. We are defenseless, and resistance would be idle. We cannot, however, give to your authority in the premises even such recognition as might be implied from our voluntary payment of the sums required of us. We have, therefore, concluded respectfully to protest and remonstrate against it, and to decline paying the same.

"When the constitutional supremacy of the civil over the military power shall again be established, we shall prefer our appeal to it for a vindication of our violated rights.

"Yours, very respectfully,

"Samuel B. Churchill, William M. McPheeters, Louis C. Garnier, George Kingsland, Mrs. Trusten Polk, Erastus Wells, L. Ch. Boisliniere, Charles McLaran, Juliette B. Garesche, D. H. Armstrong, S. S. Farrington, Robert M. Renick, E. C. Sloan, William F. Ferguson, J. W. Wills, John Wickham, Robert M. Funkhouser, Daniel H. Donovan, D. Robert Barclay, Samuel Robbins, L. Dorsheimer, Wiley Rudolph, William G. Clark, Henry B. Belt.

"The undersigned begs leave to annex his individual respectful protest, and to suggest that the adage ‘charity begins at home’ might with particular grace be applied to the inhabitants of a city renowned for her unbiased benevolence, which now, already in the eighth month, with unmurmuring loyal fortitude, groans under the centre weight of war and blockade.

"Very respectfully,


— On the 18th of December, Gen. Halleck released from prison sixteen runaway negro men, being the property of alleged Southern sympathizers. They were confined in the city jail, and were advertised for sale by the sheriff, "in pursuance of the provisions of the statute of the State of Missouri concerning slaves."

— On December 31st, Provost-Marshal G. E. Leighton issued an order that "from and after this date the shipment of printers' ink and book, manilla, news, or other paper for printing purposes from this city to all points in the State of Missouri is prohibited, except under special permits issued from this office."

1862. — Provost-Marshal G. E. Leighton, on January 5th, issued an order directing that

"from this date all saloons for the sale of intoxicating liquors in the city of St. Louis are required to be closed, and all sales to cease at eleven o'clock P. M. All special permits heretofore issued allowing saloons to be kept open until a later hour are revoked. No exceptions whatever will be made to this order, and in case of any violation of its provisions the house or saloon will be permanently closed.

"The police of the city, as well as the United States police, are from this date authorized and empowered to arrest soldiers guilty of riotous or disorderly conduct, or found in a state of intoxication in the city, whether with or without leave of absence from their quarters, and confine them in the military prison, reporting to the officer in charge a statement of the cause of the arrest.

"The sale of intoxicating liquor to soldiers already under its influence, the harboring of soldiers absent from their commands without proper leave, permitting houses to become places of resort for soldiers for drinking, gaming, or other illegal purposes will be regarded as serious offenses, and visited with severe punishment."

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— On the 8th, Provost-Marshal-General B. G. Farrar

"ordered that from and after this date the publishers of newspapers in the State of Missouri (St. Louis City papers excepted) furnish to this office, immediately upon publication, one copy of each issue for inspection. A failure to comply with this order will render the newspapers liable to suppression.

"Local provost-marshals will furnish the proprietors of newspapers with copies of this order, and attend to its immediate enforcement."

— On January 8th, Gen, Halleck promulgated the following regulations for the transportation and travel of the Department of the Missouri:

"1. From and after this date the transportation and travel of the Department of the Missouri, by land and water, will be under joint military and custom-house control and surveillance.

"2. No steamboat nor other craft will be permitted to carry freights or passengers except those commissioned by the quartermaster in charge of transportation in this city; and no boat or other craft shall be so commissioned which is not duly enrolled and registered at some custom-house on the Ohio River or the Mississippi above Cairo.

"3. No railroad car, stage-coach, or vehicle running west or westwardly from the Mississippi River will be permitted to convey freights or passengers without strict compliance with regulations of the Treasury Department at Washington, which require that all freights of whatever nature, except such as may be under military orders, shall be covered by a customhouse permit, and that all baggage of travelers shall be carefully inspected and duly sealed by a custom-house officer.

"4. Every person or company owning a steamboat or other craft, and desiring to do business on the rivers from and to the port of St. Louis, will, immediately after the publication of these regulations, be required to make written application to the quartermaster in charge of transportation in this city for permission, accompanying the same with a statement under oath of the true owner or owners of said steamboat or craft, and the amount of interest of each person or company in said steamboat or craft, whether in trust or otherwise, their place of residence and of business, and also the name and residence of each officer and pilot employed or to be employed on the same; and any change in the ownership of said steamboat or craft, or in the officers or pilots thereon, shall also be reported in like manner.

"5. All officers, pilots, and river employés on any steamboat or craft shall take the following oath, to wit:

"‘I solemnly swear that I will bear true allegiance to the United States, and support and sustain the constitution and laws thereof; that I will maintain the national sovereignty paramount to that of all State, county, or confederate powers; that I will discourage, discountenance, and forever oppose secession, rebellion, and disintegration of the Federal Union; that I disclaim and denounce all faith and fellowship with the so-called Confederate States and Confederate armies, and pledge my honor, my property, and my life to the sacred performance of this my solemn oath of allegiance to the government of the United States of America.’

"6. When application has been made agreeably to the foregoing rule, it shall be the duty of the quartermaster in charge of transportation to institute such further investigation as he may deem requisite as to the character and loyalty of the owner or owners and the officers and pilots of such steamboat or craft, and if they be found unexceptionable, he shall issue his commission to the owners or masters thereof to carry freights and passengers on the rivers within this military district; but such commission shall entitle no boat to receive freight, other than such as may be under military orders, which is not covered by a custom-house permit, and every boat must take out the customary clearance before leaving this port.

"7. The object of the foregoing is to suppress and entirely prevent any aid or assistance to or communication with any person or persons (directly or indirectly) disloyal to or in arms against the Federal authority of the United States.

"8. If any owner, officer, or pilot of any steamboat or other craft shall do any act contrary to the object expressed in the foregoing section, such act shall cause the forfeiture of said steamboat or craft to the Federal government, and such owner, officer, or pilot be subject to the pains and penalties prescribed by the articles of war for giving aid to the enemy.

"The articles of war referred to above are in the following words:

"‘ART. 56. Whosoever shall relieve the enemy with money, victuals, or ammunition, or shall knowingly harbor or protect an enemy, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a court-martial.

"'ART. 57. Whosoever shall be convicted of holding correspondence with or giving intelligence to the enemy, either directly or indirectly, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a court-martial.’

"At any point within this military department where there may be no inspector or other custom-house agent, it shall be the duty of the officer in command of the nearest military post to act in the place of such inspector or agent; and when any duly appointed custom-house officer at any point shall need assistance to enforce the revenue laws of the United States or the instructions of the Treasury Department, and make application for the same, it shall be the duty of the military officer nearest in command to render such assistance."

In order to carry out these regulations and to accommodate the traveling public, and to avoid any unnecessary delay to the several railroads, R. J. Howard, the collector of St. Louis, made the following arrangements:

"The custom-house inspector, Henry S. Lasar, will visit the following hotels, viz.: Planters', Barnum's, Everett, Virginia, Monroe, St. Charles, and the City Hotel, between the hours of 6 and 10 P.M., where and when he will examine and seal all the baggage destined for the Iron Mountain, Pacific, and North Missouri Railroads.

"He will also be ready to attend to all orders left at the custom house office for him to visit private dwellings, in order there, too, to examine and seal the baggage of travelers ready for reception at the depots of the above-named railroads. The hours alloted for this purpose will be from 10 A.M. till 3 P.M., and orders to this end should be left sufficiently in time at the herein-named office previous to the departure of those railroad trains."

— On January 6th, Brig.-Gen. Schuyler Hamilton announced, through his assistant adjutant-general, J. Shaw Gregory, that he had entered upon the command of the St. Louis district, which included the "country bounded by the Missouri, Mississippi, and Maramec Rivers, including the line of the railroad from Pacific to Rolla, as far as Linsey's Station, and a line drawn through that point from the mouth of the Osage

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River to the Maramec River, excepting the camp of instruction at Benton Barracks."

— In view of the fact that the organization of the six months' militia entailed great expense upon the State without any corresponding benefit, the Governor, through Chester Harding, Jr., his adjutant-general, on January 14th, ordered that this class of troops be disbanded on the 25th of January. In this order the following instructions were given:

"Commanding officers of the six months' militia will muster their commands for pay and discharge upon the 25th day of January, 1862, and will be prepared to deliver up all property of the State in their control, and to account for such as has been lost, consumed, or destroyed in the service. Upon compliance with these requirements, or as soon thereafter as the rolls can be examined, the officers and men will be paid by the State.

"Companies which shall report themselves ready for muster into the State service for the term of the war, in accordance with the conditions of the agreement made between the United States and the government of this State, as set forth in General Orders No. 1, series of 1861, will be accepted and mustered without delay. After muster they will be subsisted, clothed, armed, and paid by the United States.

"The following places are designated as points at which the six months' troops will be mustered out of service on the day above named, viz.: St. Joseph, Cameron, Chillicothe, Macon City, Mexico, and Louisiana.

"Officers commanding these troops will march their men to the nearest and most convenient of the above-named places, in time to be present at the muster for pay and discharge as above ordered."

— The aggregate of all the claims filed up to Jan. 18, 1862, before the commission appointed to investigate claims on the government arising out of the war in the Department of the West which accrued prior to Oct. 14, 1861, amounted to $9,667,371.55.

The following persons were employed by the commission in addition to those whose names have already been given:

William H. McHenry, commissioner to qualify witnesses, etc.; R. R. Hitt, phonographic reporter; R. C. Totten, clerk to receive claims; P. A. Hall, expert in railroad matters; John B. Turner, expert in railroad matters; Edward W. Wallace, clerk of railroad accounts; C. Woodward, expert in steamboat matters; Bensom S. Hopkins, expert in mercantile accounts; P. B. Haagena, clerk in mercantile accounts; James H. Bowen, compiler of receipt register; William B. Alford, certificate and copying clerk; G. A. Gannett, certificate and copying clerk; Lawrence D. Alexander, certificate and copying clerk; J. J. Wilcox, certificate and copying clerk; O. T. Fishback, certificate and copying clerk; John P. Camp, messenger; Charles Kick, janitor.

The following is a list of the claims which came under the head of moneys loaned and taken by government. They were among the first to be filed, and were soon after allowed and paid in full, with legal interest added in cases where loans had been made in coin:

Boatmen's Saving Institution, $154,300.55; Buildings and Savings Association, $127,613.17; Mechanics' Bank, $36,000; Merchants' Bank, $75,000; German Savings Institution, $10,000; Commercial Bank of Kentucky, $6100; Robert S. Hays, $42,000; Webb & Kaime, $5000; Southern Bank, $10,000; Belcher's Sugar Refining Company, assignee, $10,000; Partridge & Co., $5000; People's Savings' Association, $10,000; Reed & Co., $4500; McMechan & Ballentine, $2500; George D. Hall, assignee, $10,000; Bank of Missouri, $291,103.50; State Savings Association, assignee, $37,235.06; Exchange Bank, $141,337.74; Union Bank, $62,877.50.

— The following special order was issued by Gen. Halleck on January 26th:

"I. The president, secretary, librarian, directors, and other officers of the Mercantile Library Association of this city, and also the president, secretary, directors, and other officers of the Chamber or Chambers of Commerce of this city, are required to take and subscribe the oath of allegiance prescribed by Article VI. of the State ordinance of Oct. 16, 1861. Any of the above-named officers who shall neglect to file in the office of the provost-marshal-general within ten days of the date of this order the oath so subscribed will be deemed to have resigned, and any one who, after neglecting so to file his oath of allegiance within the time prescribed, shall attempt to exercise the functions of such office will be arrested for contempt of this order and punished according to the laws of war.

"II. It is officially reported that carriages bearing the enemy's flag are in the habit of driving to the vicinity of the military prison in McDowell College. The commanding officer of the prison-guard will seize and take possession of any carriage bearing an enemy's flag, and the horses, carriages, and harness will be confiscated.

"III. It is also officially reported that certain women are in the habit of approaching the vicinity of the military prison and waving hostile flags, for the purpose of insulting our troops and carrying on communications with the prisoners of war. The commanding officer of the prison guard will arrest and place in confinement all women so offending.

"IV. Any carriage or other vehicle bearing a hostile flag in this city will be seized and confiscated. The city police and patrol guards are directed to arrest any persons in vehicles under such flag, and also any person wearing or displaying a hostile flag in the city." 307

— The Governor, on February 1st, appointed a medical board, to consist of Dr. John C. Hodgen (president), Dr. Charles Rosch, and Dr. S. H. Melcher, to convene in St. Louis on February 4th, for the purpose of examining candidates for appointments as surgeons to the State troops.

— On the 2d of February, Gen. Halleck issued the following "General Orders No. 29":

"I. The president, professors, curators, and other officers of the University of Missouri are required to take and subscribe the oath of allegiance prescribed by the sixth article of the State ordinance of Oct. 16, 1861, and to file the same in the office of the provost-marshal-general in this city. Those who

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fail to comply with this order within the period of thirty days will be considered as having resigned their respective offices, and if any one who fails shall thereafter attempt to obtain pay, or perform the functions of such office, he will be tried and punished for military offense. This institution having been endowed by the government of the United States, its funds should not be used to teach treason or to instruct traitors. The authorities of the university should, therefore, expel from its walls all persons who by word or deed favor, assist, or abet rebellion.

"II. The presidents and directors of all railroad companies in this State will be required to take and subscribe the oath of allegiance, in the form, within the time, and under the penalties prescribed in the preceding paragraph. They will also be required to file bonds for such sums as may be designated by the provost-marshal-general that they will employ no conductors, engineers, station-masters, or other officers, agents, or employés who have not taken the oath of allegiance, and who are not loyal to the Union.

"III. No contracts will hereafter be made by quartermasters or commissaries in this department with persons who do not take and subscribe to an oath of allegiance similar to that prescribed by the act of Congress approved Aug. 6, 1861. Purchasing officers are prohibited from making purchases of persons of known disloyalty to the government. When articles necessary for the publie service are held only by disloyal persons, and cannot be purchased of Union men, the fact will be reported to these headquarters, when the proper instructions will be given.

"IV. All clerks, agents, and civil employés in the service of the United States in this department will be required to take and subscribe the oath prescribed by the aforesaid act of Congress. The attention of all military officers is called to this order, and any one who shall hereafter keep in the government employment persons who fail to take the said oath of allegiance, or who announce and advocate disloyalty to the Union, will be arrested and tried for disobedience of orders.

"V. It is recommended that all clergymen, professors, and teachers, and all officers of public and private institutions for education, benevolence, business, and trade, who are in favor of the perpetuation of the Union, voluntarily subscribe and file the oath of allegiance prescribed by the State ordinance, in order that their patriotism may be known and recognized, and that they may be distinguished from those who wish to encourage rebellion, and to prevent the government from restoring peace and prosperity to the city and State."

— On February 3d the "Ladies' Union Aid Society" made their semi-annual report, in which they presented the following statistics: From the organization of the society, Aug. 2, 1861, to Jan. 1, 1862, their receipts were twelve hundred and forty dollars and fifty cents in cash, besides donations of clothing material, etc. The society was in successful operation under the supervision of Mrs. Alfred Clapp, president; Mrs, S. C. Davis, vice-president; Mrs. S. B. Kellogg, treasurer; Miss H. A. Adams, secretary; Mrs. T. M. Post, Mrs. M. O. Darrah, Mrs. Willys King, Mrs. C. S. Greeley, prudential committee; Mrs. Joseph Cranshaw, Mrs. C. L. McMurray, Mrs. N. B. Thayer, Mrs. N. H. Clark, Mrs. Robert Anderson, Mrs. J. E. D. Cousins, and Miss Sarah Tildon, managers; Mrs. N. H. Clark, Mrs. S. F. Thayer, distributors; Miss Bella Anderson, inspector.

The Republican of February 4th contained the following:

"The sale of the property levied upon to satisfy the assessments against sundry citizens, as friends of the enemy, for the relief of the Union refugees from Southwest Missouri, commenced yesterday at Morgan's auction rooms, on Fourth Street. An immense crowd, more than could obtain entrance, was present yesterday morning.

"The articles sold were those which had been advertised in the papers, being the property of some thirteen or fourteen citizens of secession proclivities, viz.: Samuel Engler, John Kennard, Sr., John Kennard, Jr., Wm. M. McPheeters, D. Robert Barclay, D. H. Armstrong, Chas. L. Boisliniere, R. M. Funkhouser, Geo. Kingsland, Alexander Kayser, Charles McLaren, Andrew Park, Trusten Polk, and Mrs. Rebecca Sire. The amount of the assessment on each ranged from one hundred to five hundred dollars (the majority being assessed for three hundred), with twenty-five per cent. penalty and costs of sale, storage, etc. Only so much of the property of each was sold as would satisfy the levy. Three lots belonging to Messrs. Boisliniere, McPheeters, and Kingsland did not bring sufficient to liquidate the amounts charged against these gentlemen, but in the other cases only a portion of the articles seized were put up.

"As a general thing, considering the times, the furniture, etc., brought fair prices, though in some instances great bargains were had. An elegant piano, nearly new, said to have cost Mr. Kayser between five and six hundred dollars in Europe, was sold for two hundred and forty dollars. Another, for which Mr. Polk is reputed to have given over a thousand, went for three hundred and thirty dollars. A set of brocatelle rosewood furniture (sofa, arm-chairs, and fancy chairs), owned by Mr. Park, brought one hundred and forty-five dollars. A lot of miscellaneous books, one hundred and ten in number, the property of Mr. Funkhouser, netted about twenty-nine dollars. Some of the fine carpets, velvet and Brussels, were sold low, whilst others brought full retail prices."

— Gen. Halleck, on February 3d, adopted the following tariff, prepared by Maj.-Gen. Sterling Price, for the exchange of prisoners:

"Where the same grades cannot be exchanged for each other, two of the next lower grade will be substituted; that is, one major-general for two brigadiers, or four colonels, or eight lieutenant-colonels, or sixteen majors, or thirty-two captains, or sixty-four lieutenants, or one hundred and twenty-eight non-commissioned officers, or two hundred and fifty-six privates. In this tariff no distinction will be made between first and second lieutenants, or between sergeants and corporals. Of course alterations of grades can be made, when necessary, on the same basis. Musicians, wagoners, and others will be exchanged as privates or non-commissioned officers, according as they are rated in our service."

— On February 5th the Republican announced that a writ of attachment had been issued by the provost-marshal-general, and was

"executed on Tuesday afternoon upon Dr. William Johnson, assessed under Order 24 for the sum of four hundred dollars. The officers proceeded to his residence on Pine Street near Thirteenth, and seized sundry articles of household furniture, consisting of two sofas, three sofa-bottom chairs, one easy-chair, six cane-seat chairs, one marble-top centre-table, one mirror,

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two Brussels carpets, two window-blinds, one bedstead, one washstand, and one lounge.

"Similar writs were also executed upon property belonging to Gen D. M. Frost and Mrs. T. C. Beckwith. The assessment of Gen. Frost, with costs, amounts to seven hundred and fifty dollars. Mrs. Beckwith's assessment was for but ninety dollars."

On the 11th of the same month the same paper said, —

"Another sale of property, seized from certain citizens of St. Louis, came off yesterday at Morgan's auction-rooms, No. 107 Fourth Street. The sale was attended by a large crowd. In addition to the seized St. Louis property were sold some contraband goods sent here from Sedalia."

The following is a list of the owners of the property that was sold: A. Kayser, T. Polk, S. Robbins, W. G. Clarke, Dr. Johnson, John Wickham, J. W. Wills, George Kingsland.

— The following "circular" was issued by Gen. Halleck on February 14th:

"I. All persons who are known to have been in arms against the United States, or to have actively aided the rebellion, by word or deed, are to be arrested. Those who are accused of acts in violation of the laws of war, such as the destruction of railroads and bridges, or private property, firing into trains, assassination, etc., will not be released on any terms, but will be held for trial before a military commission.

"II. Notoriously bad and dangerous men, though no specific act of disloyalty can be proved against them, will be kept in custody, and their cases referred to the commanding general.

"III. Prisoners not included in either of the above classes may be released upon subscribing to the usual oath, and giving a sufficient bond, with good security, for their future good conduct.

"IV. The bond and oath should be of the form inclosed herewith. The amount of the bond should in no case be less than one thousand dollars, and in some cases should be much larger, varying according to the wealth, influence, and previous conduct of the party. The security should in preference be a secessionist.

"V. Persons now engaged in recruiting for the rebel army, also those enrolled for the rebel service, will be arrested and held as prisoners of war. In addition to this all property belonging to such persons, and which can be used for military purposes, such as horses, mules, harness and wagons, beef cattle, forage, etc., will be seized and turned over to the provost-marshal, to be disposed of according to the orders of the commanding general of the department.

"VI. Where persons who have been in the rebel service voluntarily come forward and take and subscribe to the oath of allegiance and parole, and are released on bonds, all property not of a military character taken from them will be restored."

On the same day he issued the following "General Orders No. 39," in relation to the courts and judicial officers of the city:

"I. Information having been received that certain judicial officers intrusted with the administration of the criminal laws and ordinances in this department have misunderstood the objects and purposes of the establishment of martial law in this city of St. Louis, and in consequence of such misunderstanding have failed to enforce all those laws and ordinances, and as crimes and misdemeanors should at all times he strictly suppressed, it is hereby enjoined upon all such civil officers, whether as judges, attorneys, sheriffs, marshals, coroners, clerks, justices of the peace, presiding officers of police courts, constables, or members of the police, to strictly enforce all criminal laws and ordinances; to have arrested, tried, and punished in the courts established in the State, and in the manner prescribed by the laws of the State, all persons guilty of any violation of such laws and ordinances, in the same manner as if martial law had not been declared to exist.

"II. And it is especially enjoined upon the judge of the St. Louis Criminal Court to have a full complement of grand jurors at every sitting of the court; to strictly charge said grand jurors to diligently inquire into all crimes and misdemeanors under the laws of the State that may come to their knowledge, and present for trial such offenders known to them.

"And the assistant circuit attorney for this county is particularly required to faithfully aid and assist the said grand jurors and officers of the said court in the discharge of their duties, and to strictly perform all charges devolving upon him by the laws of the State.

"III. By the establishment of martial law in the city of St. Louis it is not designed to interfere with or suspend the operation of the laws and ordinances of the State or city with reference to crimes and misdemeanors, nor the remedies and process of the civil courts, except so far as the interests of the government imperatively require. The civil authorities who attempt to interfere with the execution of military orders emanating from these headquarters will be punished for military offense, but in all other cases it is their duty to enforce the laws and punish crimes and misdemeanors."

— Brig.-Gen. Schuyler Hamilton, who had been in command of the St. Louis district, was, by order of Gen. Halleck, on February 15th, relieved of his command, and Brig.-Gen. John M. Schofield on the same day assumed command of the district.

— In February the following places were designated as recruiting and mustering stations for the Missouri State militia:

St. Louis, St. Charles, Hudson, Louisiana, Columbia, Palmyra, Alexander, Chillicothe, Cameron, St. Joseph, Lexington, Kansas City, Sedalia, Pilot Knob, Greenville, Linn Creek, Springfield, and Boonville.

— Considerable excitement was created on the Levee on the 17th of February, in consequence of the seizure of a large number of steamboats by the government, for the purpose of transporting troops and army supplies. The boats seized were the "Northerner," "Pembina," "John J. Roe," "D. G. Taylor," "War Eagle," "Henry Clay," "John D. Perry," "John H. Dickey," and "Edward Walsh."

— The Confederates captured at Fort Donelson were brought to St. Louis on or about February 20th. The following steamboats, as will be seen, brought up 10,685 men: "Empress," 2485; "Gladiator," 1100; "D. A. January," 1200; "White Cloud," 1000; "Emma Duncan," 600; "Tecumseh," 800; "Lebanon," 600; "Stephen Decatur," 500; "Alex. Scott," 1800; "Dr. Kane," 600.

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In addition to these, about 2000 were sent to Chicago by the Illinois Central Railroad. As fast as those who arrived by steamer were landed at St. Louis, they were forwarded by railroad to Springfield, Chicago, Indianapolis, Detroit, and other points.

— On February 20th, Gen. Halleck issued the following important "General Orders No. 44":

"I. In consideration of the recent victories won by the Federal forces, and of the rapidly-increasing loyalty of citizens of Missouri, who for a time forgot their duty to their flag and country, the sentences of John C. Tompkins, William J. Forshey, John Patton, Thomas M. Smith, Stephen Scott, George H. Cunningham. Richard B. Crowder, and George M. Pullium, heretofore condemned to death, are provisionally mitigated to close confinement in the military prison at Alton. If rebel spies again destroy railroads and telegraph lines, and thus render it necessary for us to make severe examples, the original sentence against these men will be carried into execution.

"II. No further assessments will be levied or collected from any one who will now take the prescribed oath of allegiance.

"III. Boards or commissions will be appointed to examine the cases of prisoners of war who apply to take the oath of allegiance, and on their recommendation orders will be issued from these headquarters for their release."

— At the request of the acting Governor of Missouri, Gen. Halleck, on the 15th of February, ordered that in all future elections in the State, whether for State, municipal, county, or town officers, every voter should be required to take the oath of allegiance prescribed by the State Convention of Oct. 16, 1861. Officers at the polls were to see that this order was executed, and if they received the votes of persons who had not taken the oath, they were to be arrested and tried for a military offense, and the election was to be declared null and void.

— On the 22d of February the members of the St. Louis Chamber of Commerce contributed one thousand dollars for the relief of the sick and wounded soldiers under Gen. Halleck's command. The money was handed over to James E. Yeatman, president of the Western Sanitary Commission.

— About two hundred and fifty sick of the Confederate prisoners captured at Fort Donelson were quartered in the large military hospital which then stood at the corner of Fifth and Chestnut Streets, and received very kind treatment from the hospital physicians and nurses and members of the Sanitary Commission.

— The Union residents of St. Louis desiring to testify their appreciation of the services of Gen. Halleck before his "departure for the more immediate field of war," tendered him on the 3d of March a public dinner through the following persons:

Willard P. Hall, acting Governor of Missouri, Daniel G. Taylor, mayor of St. Louis, C. B. Lord, John How, N. Paschall, Hudson E. Bridge, William McKee, Charles G. Ramsay, John R. Shepley, William M. McPherson, Lewis V. Bogy, Isaac H. Sturgeon, Hugh Campbell, Walter B. Foster, George R. Taylor, James H. Lucas, C. S. Greeley, John Cavender, George Partridge, John M. Taylor, Amos Cutter, George K. McGunnegle, James E. Yeatman, S. M. Breckinridge, Benjamin Farrar James O. Broadhead, Henry Hitchcock, Henry J. Moore, John O'F. Farrar, Thomas Allen, James Harrison, J. O'Fallon, Charles Todd, S. Haskell, Gerard B. Allen, S. Treat.

Gen. Halleck, in his reply, said, —

"GENTLEMEN, — Your very complimentary letter, inviting me, in the name of the loyal residents of St. Louis, to a public dinner, is just received. I regret that the uncertainty of my own movements, and the fact that I may leave this city at any moment, compel me to decline your polite invitation. Accept my sincere thanks for the offer, and for the very complimentary terms in which it is made. Permit me to say, in conclusion, that the trade of the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers is now open to the merchants of this city, and I hope in due time to add that of the Mississippi. The restraints which were necessarily imposed on commerce in order to crush the rebels in this State in their mad attempt to destroy the Constitution and the Union will very soon be removed, and St. Louis will assume her sway as the commercial queen of the West. Her own citizens should cheerfully assist in restoring to this metropolis its former prosperity."

— On the 24th of February the roof of Gratiot Street military prison was set on fire by some of the prisoners, but the flames were extinguished before much damage was done. There were one hundred and seventy-seven prisoners in confinement, some of whom were quite disorderly from the effects of liquor. During the progress of the fire Maj. Woods and several other prisoners gathered about the hose with the intention of cutting it. They were ordered away by the prison-keeper, Lieut. Bishop, but they refused to go. The guard was then summoned, and they were arrested and confined in irons.

In about half an hour after the flames at the roof were quenched, fire was again discovered bursting from a pile of mattresses in an entry on the second floor. The articles were at once thrown into the yard and drenched, thus averting a second danger. Scarcely five minutes had elapsed after this event when flames again appeared in a new quarter of the premises. The bed in the apartment of the Confederate Col. Magoffin, in the southwest corner of the second story, was on fire. It was immediately extinguished, together with the flames of some still burning paper which the incendiary had used to effect his purpose.

Magoffin was at a distance from his room when the last fire occurred, and had not been in it for some time. He was not suspected as the perpetrator of the incendiarism.

— On February 26th, Gen. Halleek gave orders that any officer who published, "without proper

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authority, information respecting the movements of the armies, even of battles won, or any official papers," would be arrested and tried by court-martial. He also warned the newspapers that the Secretary of War had directed that the whole edition of the newspaper publishing such information should be seized and destroyed.

— On March 3d, Gen. Halleck announced the restoration of commerce between the loyal section of the Department of Missouri and the country on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers. Steamboats and other vessels trading on these rivers from St. Louis were required, in addition to the customary registratration and enrollment required by the revenue laws of the United States, to take out a special license for their renewed intercourse, with some restrictions.

— Union officers wearing gray or mixed uniforms or overcoats in the field were ordered to be arrested by Gen. Halleck on March 10th, and tried for disobedience and neglect of duty. Commanders of divisions, brigades, and regiments were required to see that no man under their command wore any gray or mixed clothing.

— In compliance with the orders of the President, Gen. Halleck, on March 13th, assumed command of the Department of the Mississippi, which included the Departments of Kansas and the Missouri and the Department of the Ohio, the country west of a north and south line drawn through Knoxville, Tenn., and east of the western boundaries of the States of Missouri and Arkansas, with headquarters at St. Louis.

— On March 13th, Gen. Halleck issued the following "General Orders No. 2":

"I. Martial law has never been legally declared in Missouri, except in the city of St. Louis, and on and in the immediate vicinity of the railroads and telegraph lines; and even in these localities military officers are specially directed not to interfere with the lawful process of any loyal civil court. It is believed that the time will soon come when the rebellion in Missouri may be considered as terminated, and when even the partial and temporary military restraint which has been exercised in particular places may be entirely withdrawn. By none is this more desired than by the general commanding.

"II. It must, however, be borne in mind that in all places subject to the incursions of the enemy, or to the depredations of insurgents and guerrilla bands, the military are authorized, without any formal declaration of martial law, to adopt such measures as may be necessary to restore the authority of the government, and to punish all violations of the laws of war. This power will be exercised only where the peace of the country and the success of the Union cause absolutely require it.

"III. Evidence has been received at these headquarters that Maj.-Gen. Sterling Price has issued commissions or licenses to certain bandits in this State, authorizing them to raise ‘guerrilla forces,’ for the purpose of plunder and marauding. Gen. Price ought to know that such a course is contrary to the rules of civilized warfare, and that every man who enlists in such an organization forfeits his life and becomes an outlaw. All persons are hereby warned that if they join any guerrilla band they will not, if captured, be treated as ordinary prisoners of war, but will be bung as robbers and murderers. Their lives shall atone for the barbarity of their general."

— The Union ladies of St. Louis, in token of their approbation of the vigorous and efficient services Gen. Halleck had rendered as military commander of the Department of the Mississippi, decided to present him with a magnificent sword. The general gave his consent, and designated Monday evening, March 17th, and the Planters' Hotel, as the time and place for the ceremony. At the time appointed the sword was presented to Gen. Halleck in the private parlors of the hotel by the following committee of young ladies: Bliss Helen W. Budd, Miss Mary Crow, Miss Belle Bridge, Miss Sue Benton, Miss Belle Holmes, Miss Fannie Edgar, and Miss Ellen McKee. Miss Budd made the presentation speech in behalf of the committee.

Gen. Halleck, on receiving the sword handed to him by Miss Budd, addressed the committee as follows:


"I thank you and those whom you represent for the honor you have conferred on me in the presentation of this beautiful sword. I cannot believe that I have done anything to merit this distinguished favor from the ladies of St. Louis. I, however, accept it from them, with the promise that it will be used only in the defense of the rights of American citizens and of the flag of our common country. This sword is presented by the ladies; it shall be used, if occasion should require, in their service, and in defense of their rights and their honor.

"I thank you, ladies, for your address, and you, Miss Budd, for the manner of its delivery."

The ladies and gentlemen present were then individually introduced to the general by Charles D. Drake, and the company dispersed.

The following is a list of the contributors:

Mrs. George K. Budd, Miss Helen W. Budd, Mrs. A. Northrop, Mrs. Dennis Marks, Mrs. S. J. Bacon, Mrs. S. T. Hyde, Mrs. Arthur Benson, Mrs. A. L. Holmes, Mrs. Amos Cutter, Miss Mary Thomas, Mrs. George D. Humphreys, Mrs. William McKee, Miss Ellen McKee, Mrs. William Groshon, Mrs. Albert Pierce, Mrs. James Smith, Mrs. Maj. Weber, Mrs. Giles F. Filley, Mrs. T. Woodruff, Mrs. Stephen Ridgley, Mrs. Thomas Yeatman, Mrs. J. B. Sickles, Mrs. Benjamin Farrar, Mrs. Delano, Mrs. E. W. Foy, Mrs. C. B. Hubbell, Mrs. Edward A. Filley, Mrs. Charles Holmes, Mrs. Charles F. Holmes, Mrs. Samuel Kellogg, Mrs. A. F. Shapleigh, Mrs. George Partridge, Mrs. Wayman Crow, Mrs. J. Cheever, Mrs. John Beach, Mrs. Ely Ware, Mrs. H. Wilson, Mrs. L. Eaton, Miss Lizzie Albright, Mrs. Capt. Lowe, Mrs. Haren, Mrs. James Richardson, Mrs. E. J. Cheever, Mrs. Hannah Patterson, Mrs. Carlos S. Greeley, Mrs. R. J. Howard, Mrs. Ira Stansbury, Miss Garritt, Mrs. Edward Wyman, Mrs. Oliver, Miss Adriance, Miss Mary E. Tuttle, Miss Addie F. Tuttle, Miss M. Avery, Mrs. Charles S. Blood, Mrs. S. Treadway, Mrs. Wyllis King, Mrs. R. Scarritt, Mrs.

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Isidor Busch, Mrs. Dwight Durkee, Mrs. J. W. Peck, Mrs. S. M. Allen, Miss Lucia Allen, Master Willie A. Allen, Mrs. Maj. Shaw, Mrs. Col. O'Fallon, Mrs. P. Allen, Mrs. B. Stickney, Mrs. O. Garrison, Mrs. T. B. Edgar, Mrs. W. L. Thoyel, Mrs. Dr. William Eliot, Mrs. Dr. T. M. Post, Mrs. Dr. H. A. Nelson, Mrs. J. J. Porter, Mrs. John How, Mrs. Col. A. R. Easton, Mrs. John J. Roe, Mrs. Robert Holmes, Mrs. Hudson E. Bridge, Miss Belle Bridge, Miss Sue Benton, Mrs. A. Knight, Mrs. C. B. Burnham, Mrs. Eben Richards, Mrs. L. H. Laflin, Miss Dodd, Mrs. James Duncan, Mrs. E. J. Cubbage, Mrs. William Barr, Mrs. James G. Brown, Mrs. John Avery, Mrs. S. J. Breckenridge, Mrs. Sol. Smith, Mrs. John V. Metlar, Mrs. Rumbold, Mrs. R. Barnett, Mrs. James Patrick, Mrs. E. H. Whedon, Mrs. William Patrick, Mrs. N. C. Chapman, Mrs. Dr. E. Hale, Mrs. John C. Porter, Mrs. Isaac Rosenfeld, Mrs. S. A. Ranlett, Mrs. James Blackman, Mrs. A. Vallé, Mrs. M. W. Warne, Mrs. O. D. Filley, Mrs. S. M. Edgell, Mrs. Moody, Mrs. William G. Webb, Miss E. Glover, Miss Emily Young, Miss Minster, Miss Jennie Glover, Miss Fannie Edgar, Miss Belle Holmes, Miss M. D. Budd, Mrs. Clinton B. Fiske, Mrs. Dr. Fisher, Mrs. Adolphe Abeles, Mrs. Ferdinand Meyer, Mrs. Charles Kintzing, Mrs. A. G. Braun, Mrs. Isaac L. Garrison, Mrs. Daniel R. Garrison, Mrs. Kreigler, Mrs. Judge Krum, Mrs. J. H. Parsons.

In addition to this compliment, Gen. Halleck was honored on the same evening with a serenade. A large assemblage gathered, and in response to repeated calls the general appeared on the balcony and delivered a brief address. On the 15th an invitation signed by six hundred children of the public schools was sent to Gen. Halleck, soliciting his attendance at their concert and exhibition for the benefit of the poor.

— All jurors, whether in civil or criminal courts, in the State were required by Gen. Halleck, after March 14th, to take the oath of allegiance prescribed by the convention on the 16th of October, 1861. Those refusing to take such oath were to be regarded as aliens. He also said, —

"Any neglect on the part of army or volunteer surgeons in their duties to the sick and wounded will be immediately reported to these headquarters. It is said that some of the medical officers, prisoners of war, have failed to give proper attention to their own sick and wounded. In all cases of this kind the medical officer will be deprived of his parole, and be placed in close confinement, and the facts reported to headquarters."

In view of the rapid extension of steamboat navigation into the Southern States and the importance of having the boats engaged in such navigation controlled by loyal citizens, Gen. Halleck, on March 28th, ordered that all licenses to pilots and engineers navigating the waters of his military department be revoked from and after the 15th of April; "and that said pilots and engineers take out new licenses from the ‘supervising inspector,’ who will only grant licenses to persons of approved loyalty, or, in case of doubt, will require bond with security for the loyal conduct of such engineers and pilots."

— On the 5th of April, Bernard G. Farrar, provost-marshal-general, issued the following "Special Orders No. 237":

"The following-named judges of election are appointed to act as inspectors at the several election precincts of the city of Carondelet at the municipal election to be held in said city on the 7th instant. They are authorized to enforce General Orders No. 41, current series of Maj.-Gen. Halleck, in every particular; they will administer the oath of allegiance to each voter, and make a certificate thereof, and return the same to this office. A duplicate of said certificate, signed by either of the inspectors, will entitle each voter to vote at the election for clerk of the Land Court, by depositing the same with the inspector at that poll:

"For the First Ward, A. A. Blumenthal.
"Second Ward, L. M. Maxon.
"Third Ward, John Hewitt.
"Fourth Ward, John Schreiber."

— The steamboats "Crescent City" and "Woodford" arrived in St. Louis on April 14th from Tennessee River, the former conveying wounded soldiers and the latter Confederate prisoners. The "Crescent City," when she left the Tennessee, had had on board four hundred and fifteen wounded, four of whom were Confederates, but fifty who were badly injured were left at Paducah, and five died on the trip. This boat was in charge of Dr. J. P. Smith, surgeon of Gen. Thomas' brigade. The "Woodford" brought a large number of Confederate prisoners, in charge of Capt. Newsham, of Gen. C. F. Smith's staff, and a detachment of Union troops. They were all removed under guard and placed in the Gratiot Street military prison. On the same evening the steamer "Louisiana" arrived from the Tennessee with more wounded, many of them belonging to the Confederate army.

At this time the following hospitals in St. Louis were occupied by sick and wounded soldiers:

Fifth Street (corner Chestnut, opposite court-house), Dr. Hodgen.
Fourth Street (near Franklin Avenue), Dr. McGugin.
New House of Refuge (five miles out, southwest), Dr. Bailey.
Pacific House (Spruce Street, west of Seventh), Dr. Martin.
Good Samaritan (Twenty-fifth Street, near O'Fallon Street), Dr. McMartin.
Hickory Street (west of Seventh Street), Dr. Melcher.
City Hospital (St. Ange Avenue), Dr. Grinstead.
Sisters of Charity (Spruce Street, corner Fourth), Dr. Rox.
McDowell's College Hospital (for Confederate prisoners), Dr. Melcher.
Arsenal Hospital (three miles out, south), Dr. Getty.
Marine Hospital (four miles out, south), Dr. Melcher.
Duncan's Island (for smallpox, four miles down the river), Dr. Smith.
Jefferson Barracks (twelve miles out, south), Dr. Fish.
Benton Barracks, general hospital (four miles out, northwest), Dr. Dickinson.
Benton Barracks Convalescent No. 1 (Fair Ground), Dr. Dyer.
Benton Barracks Convalescent No. 2 (Parade Ground), Dr. Colegrove.

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Rev. H. A. Reid was employed by the Western Sanitary Commission as relief agent to furnish all information, etc., and render all needful assistance to the sick and wounded soldiers.

— In compliance with orders from Gen. Halleck, Col. Lewis Merrill assumed command of the St. Louis division, which was bounded as follows:

"A line beginning at the north corner of Pike County, on the Mississippi, running west to the eastern line of Linn County, south to the mouth of Chariton River, down the Missouri to the mouth of the Gasconade, thence the line of the Gasconade and Big North Fork of White River to the southern line of Missouri, excluding the counties of Pemiscott, New Madrid, and Mississippi, and camp of instruction at Benton Barracks."

— Early in April Gen. Halleck left for Corinth, Miss., leaving Maj.-Gen. John M. Schofield in command of the greater part of the State; and on June 1st Gen. Schofield assumed command of the entire Department of Missouri, with headquarters in St. Louis.

— Bernard G. Farrar, provost-marshal-general of the Department of the Mississippi, on June 17th issued the following "Special Orders No. 300":

"Whilst in the State of Missouri, and especially in the city of St. Louis, there has never been any well-founded expectation of success to the rebel cause, still the desperate though fruitless efforts of the rebels in this State have been productive of the greatest evils; the peace of the people has been destroyed, their lives constantly in danger, their industry paralyzed and its fruits ruthlessly seized and stolen. Whilst the interior of the State has been in a miserable condition, constant and effective aid, support, and encouragement have been given to the outlaws in arms by a large number of the inhabitants of this city, who have been equally guilty with those who have taken up arms. These outlaws in spirit amongst us are, many of them, individually well known to the military authorities as active and efficient supporters of this rebellion. Forbearance has been extended to these people in the hope that they would cease their misconduct, but they continue their acts of hatred to the government, deriding its power, and constantly claiming and asserting that it has no rightful existence here, and that it rightfully should and would be overthrown by the rebel government. Their abuse of the Federal government and all in authority under it, their obstinate support of the cause of the rebellion becomes a serious matter; it not only encourages and keeps alive the marauding guerrilla warfare in this State, but it has a great effect upon a large number of persons in this city and State whose disloyal tendencies would long since have been rooted out but for this continuing cause of support.

"In view of the evil consequences of treating these people with leniency, and that to do so tends to keep up the insurrectionary spirit in this city and State, the time has come when they should be recognized in their true character, and dealt with as active and efficient enemies of the government. The peace and welfare of this city and State suffer from the failure of the military authorities to take notice of the evils resulting from the conduct of these cunning traitors, who, while plotting treason, try to practice it in secret. It is therefore ordered that the provost-marshal of the city of St. Louis will cause all persons in this city suspected of disloyal sympathies to take the oath of allegiance to the United States government and the provisional government of the State, and all persons well known by their conduct, bearing, conversation, or companions to be disloyal shall be required to give bond for the observance of their oath, and the provost-marshal of the city will cause the arrest of all persons guilty, after the publication of this order, of any of the disloyal conduct hereinbefore mentioned, whether it consists in acts or language hostile to the government."

In compliance with this order, the provost-marshal of St. Louis sent the following circular letter to nearly a thousand Southern sympathizers in St. Louis, calling upon them to present themselves before him and take the oath and give bond for their loyal conduct:


"ST. LOUIS, MO., — , 1862.

"SIR, — Your attention is called to the following extract from Special Orders No. 300, issued by the provost-marshal-general of this department:

"‘The provost-marshal of the city of St. Louis will cause all persons in the city suspected of disloyal sympathies to take the oath of allegiance to the United States government and the provisional State government, and all persons well known by their conduct, bearing, conversation, or companions to be disloyal shall be required to give bond for the observance of their oath.’

"In pursuance of the same, you are directed to appear at my office within the next — days, and take the oath and give a bond, as required by said order. The bond will be in the sum of — thousand dollars.

"Very respectfully,


"Provost-Marshal, St. Louis.

"To — , St. Louis."

For the information of those who were notified to appear at his office under the special orders of the provost-marshal-general, Major Leighton issued the following "General Orders No. 866":

"I. No person who has once taken the oath of allegiance in any form since July 4, 1861, and before June 18, 1862, will be required to take it anew. Persons who have taken it, who have been or may hereafter be notified to appear, are requested to bring with them the evidence of the same.

"II. Numerous applications have been made for the privilege of taking the Convention oath. This oath cannot be administered under this order, nor be accepted when presented in lieu of the usual military oath, unless it shall have been taken previous to the 18th day of June, 1862. The objections of such persons to the form used present the strongest reasons in its favor.

"III. The oath which will be required of those who have not taken it previous to their notification to appear at this office, will be as follows:

"‘I, — , county of — , State of — , do solemnly swear that I will support, protect, and defend the Constitution and government of the United States, and the provisional government of the State of Missouri, against all enemies, whether domestic or foreign; that I will bear true faith, allegiance, and loyalty to the same, any ordinance, resolution, or law of any State Convention or Legislature to the contrary notwithstanding; and, further, that I will well and faithfully perform all the duties which may be required of me by the laws of the United States. And I take this oath without any mental reservation or evasion whatsoever, with a full and clear understanding that death or other punishment by the judgment of a military commission will be the penalty for the violation of this my solemn

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oath. And I also swear that under no consideration will I go beyond the military lines of the United States forces, so help me God.’

"No modification will be made under any circumstances."

— Lieut.-Col. B. G. Farrar, on June 27th, besides being appointed provost-marshal-general of the District of Missouri also had the military prison at Alton, Ill., included under his jurisdiction.

— A large mass-meeting of the citizens of St. Louis was held on July 12th in the rotunda of the courthouse to take into consideration the subject of offering inducements to the government to locate the navy-yard, the establishment of which on the Upper Mississippi was in contemplation, at St. Louis.

Maj. Daniel G. Taylor was chosen to preside, with the following vice-presidents: C. S. Greeley, L. V. Bogy, J. G. Woerner, C. D. Wolf, A. W. Fagin. The object of the meeting having been stated, Messrs T. S. Nelson, J. E. Burnett, George Partridge, W. H. Benton, James H. Lucas, Benjamin Stickney, John O'Fallon, B. M. Runyon, A. Meier, and John Cairns were appointed a committee on resolutions. They reported a series of resolutions favorable to the proposition, which were adopted, and three members of the Council were requested to visit Washington and lay the matter before the government. During the evening speeches were made by Maj. Taylor, C. C. Whittelsey, and L. V. Bogy.

— Governor Gamble, on July 22d, authorized Brig.-Gen. John M. Schofield, in command of the Missouri State militia, to enroll and organize the entire militia of the State into companies, regiments, and brigades, "for the purpose of putting down all marauders, and defending the peaceable citizens of the State."

Gen. Schofield placed the enrollment and organization of the militia of St. Louis under the general direction of Col. Lewis Merrill, commanding the St. Louis division, who began to organize the militia of the city as follows:

"The militia of each ward will, as far as practicable, constitute a regiment, and will be at once enrolled for this purpose, reporting to the enrolling officers below named at their offices, which will be at the places where the elections are usually held in each ward.

"As soon as sixty-four men are enrolled they will be organized into a company, and proceed to elect their officers. When ten companies are organized in each ward they will be formed into a regiment, and the field and staff officers appointed.

"After the organization of the regiment, all persons enrolled will by the enrolling officer be assigned to companies already organized.

"Capt. R. A. Howard, Merrill's Horse, is hereby appointed superintendent of enrollment for the city of St. Louis, and the enrolling officer will report to him for further orders.

"The following enrolling officers are hereby appointed, and are authorized to detail from the militia the necessary clerks and assistants for the proper discharge of their duties:

First Ward, John Nicolay.
Second Ward, Charles W. Gottschalk.
Third Ward, Jean J. Witzig.
Fourth Ward, Tony Niederwieser.
Fifth Ward, R. J. Howard.
Sixth Ward, George Doan.
Seventh Ward, Thomas J. Dailey.
Eighth Ward, George Kyler.
Ninth Ward, William Bailey.
Tenth Ward, Brainard M. Million.

Who will immediately enter upon the discharge of their duties, and report daily to the superintendent of the enrollment the progress made in the organization.

"All applications for furloughs for any militiaman will be made to Capt. Howard."

By order of the Governor the following persons were exempted from enrollment in the active militia of the State:

"Judges, justices, and clerks of court of record, sheriffs, coroners, and constables, secretary of State, auditors, treasurers, and registers of land and their clerks, postmasters, mail-carriers, mail agents, engine-drivers, conductors, brakemen, and watchmen in actual service upon railroads, millers, keepers of ferries, keepers of jails and other prisons, officers of the penitentiary, practicing physicians, priests, and preachers of any religious denomination when regularly ordained, instructors and pupils in schools established by law, and persons employed in the steam fire department of any city or town."

— On July 24th the board of police commissioners passed the following order, which required all persons doing business with the county wherein the payment of money from the county treasury was involved to first prove their loyalty before obtaining pecuniary satisfaction. In case the loyalty of persons was not established, the accounts against the county were not to be liquidated:

"Ordered, That the auditor inform by letter (including a copy of this order) all heads of departments and officers in the employ of the county, and all other persons and parties who by law are making purchases for which the county is liable, that hereafter no accounts of any person whatsoever in whatever capacity he or they be employed will be allowed unless they furnish satisfactory proof to the auditor that they have taken the oath of allegiance prescribed by the Convention of the State; and the auditor is hereby instructed to indorse on every bill or account presented the fact whether the party concerned has, to his knowledge, taken the oath or not."

— A very large and enthusiastic meeting was held at the court-house on July 25th to encourage enlistments for the war. The rotunda of the court-house, including all the galleries, was completely filled with people, and quite an assemblage gathered on Fourth Street in front of the building to listen to the remarks of volunteer speakers. The principal speeches were made in the rotunda. The meeting was called

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to order by James Peckham, who proposed Mr. Lightner, of the board of county commissioners, as president, and having made a few patriotic remarks, read the following resolutions, prepared for the occasion, which were adopted:

"Resolved, That the preservation of the Union is to St. Louis an interest greater than all other interests, and that we will, regardless of all other interests, contribute in men and means the last man and the last dollar of which our city is possessed, if necessary, to reinforce our armies.

"Resolved, That loyalty should be intolerant of treason, and no description of disloyalty to the government of the United States should be tolerated by the military authorities, and that we demand, as we have a right to do, security from home traitors and rebel spies by their removal from our midst.

"Resolved. That the chairman of this meeting appoint a committee of two persons from each ward of the city to act as a fund committee, who shall collect and dispose of means for raising and organizing the regiments to compose Gen. Blair's brigade."

The resolutions were received with great demonstrations of applause. Mr. Drake then addressed the meeting, and when he had finished loud calls were made for Gen. Blair, and that gentleman came forward and made an eloquent speech.

Speeches were also made by Thomas S. Nelson and others.

— On the 28th the following "General Orders No. 23," relating to exemptions from military duty, were issued:

"All persons who prefer to contribute money rather than personal service in the enrolled militia can procure exemption from military duty for one year by enrolling their names and paying an exemption fee into the military treasury of the State, or of the county in which they reside, at the option of the individual.

"The exemption fee will be ten dollars for each individual, and one-tenth of one per cent. upon all taxable property as shown by the last assessment.

"The exemption fee may be paid in money or in supplies for the support of the militia when in active service.

"It is expected that all persons of means, though legally exempt from military service, will voluntarily contribute, in proportion to their ability, to one of these funds, and thus enroll themselves among the loyal and willing supporters of law and order.

"All persons not exempt from military service by law, by general orders, or by payment of exemption fee as above stated will be enrolled and organized into companies, regiments, and brigades."

— On the 29th the county commissioners met, all the members being present except Mr. Tippet. Mr. Lightner submitted the following resolution for an appropriation for the relief of the families of volunteers, which was adopted:

"WHEREAS, It is right and proper that aid and comfort should be furnished all loyal Union people and interests; therefore be it

"Resolved, That this board of St. Louis County commissioners pledges itself hereafter, as heretofore, to continue to aid all families in our midst whose male supporters may volunteer to fight our country's battles. This St. Louis County pledges herself to do to the amount of one hundred thousand dollars, or as much more as may be necessary."

— In August the following donations among others were made to aid volunteers enlisting for the war and their families:

State Savings Association $2500
Phoenix Insurance Company 500
Marine Insurance Company 1500
Atlantic Insurance Company 1000
St. Louis Insurance Company 500
Memphis Packet Company 500
St. Louis Shot-Tower Company 250
Bank of the State of Missouri 5000
Merchants' Bank 2000
Union Insurance Company 500
Board of Underwriters 100
United States Insurance Company 500
Merchants' Mutual Insurance Company 500
Citizens' Insurance Company 1000
Lumberman's and Mechanics' Insurance Company 1000
Boatmen's Savings Institution 4000
Southern Bank 500
Bank of St. Louis 600
Hope Mutual Fire Insurance Company 100
Globe Mutual Fire Insurance Company 400
Franklin Savings Institution 500
Franklin Insurance Company 500
Mechanics' Bank 2000
Merchants' Mutual Insurance Company 500
Pacific Insurance Company 500
L. A. Benoist & Co. 500
St. Louis Gaslight Company 1000
Exchange Bank of St. Louis 2000
Tesson & Danjen 100
Allen, Copp & Nesbit 100
Citizens' Railroad Company 200
Union Bank 500

— Gen. Schofield, on August 28th, by Special Orders No. 91, appointed Henry Moore, John Cavender, G. F. Filley, Charles Berg, and Ferdinand Meyer a county board for St. Louis County, "to assess and collect, without unnecessary delay, the sum of five hundred thousand dollars from the secessionists and Southern sympathizers in St. Louis County," the money thus realized to be "used in subsisting, clothing, and arming the enrolled militia while in active service, and in providing for the support of the families of such militiamen and United States volunteers as may be left destitute." On the 30th, Col. John O'Fallon, Daniel Garrison, and James S. Thomas were appointed additional members of the board, and John Cavender, who was president of the committee charged with the disbursement of the fund for the relief of soldiers' families, was relieved from serving as a member of the assessment board.

When this order was issued it created the greatest surprise and indignation among those citizens of St. Louis who sympathized with the South. The assessment was to be graded on a double scale, regulated by the wealth and supposed degree of sympathy for the South on the part of the persons assessed. The board

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of citizens appointed to make the assessment was instructed to ascertain the facts, examine witnesses, and specify the amounts to be paid by each party. The St. Louis Republican long after the war gave a history of the assessment proceedings of 1862, which we reproduce here, and which we think will be found to be "very interesting reading:"

"Ex parte and secret evidence was received; little or no opportunity of defense was practicable. Many persons did not know they were under suspicion until the assessed amount was declared. The collection was to be summary, under the stringency of martial law. When the amount of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars had been reached, and comparatively few persons knew where the blow would strike, the forced collection began, and had proceeded a little way, under the indignant protest but prudent submission of the sufferers, many of whom were good and true citizens in every sense of the word. All at once and quite unexpectedly an order, bearing date Dec. 15, 1862, appeared, which was understood to come direct from Washington, and took the ‘assessors’ themselves completely by surprise, stopping the assessment summarily and forever. There were probably not a dozen persons in St. Louis at the time to whom the immediate causes of the change were known. Great and bitter complaints were made by the board of assessment and by many others. A few months afterwards a leading member of the board, in a long letter arraigning the course of Governor Gamble, and published over his own name in the daily Democrat of June 13, 1863, makes the following statement:

"‘On the 25th of December the board of assessment called on Gen. Curtis at his headquarters, when the general informed the board that — , a good Union man, had got up a petition of remonstrance with many signatures (or ‘rigmarole,’ as the general called it), and that that petition was taken to Gen. Halleck at Washington; and on the strength of that petition and the letter of Governor Gamble the assessment was suspended by Gen. Halleck at Washington. The petit ion of — set forth that the assessment was an arbitrary and unjust proceeding.’

"This is partly right and partly wrong. The memorial or petition was written and signed by a clergyman of this city who was known to be very active in the Union cause and a personal friend of President Lincoln. It was addressed to Governor Gamble, and by him indorsed and forwarded to the President. Mr. Lincoln read the memorial with care, turned it over and indorsed upon it, ‘Stop the whole thing by telegraph,’ and sent it to Gen. Halleck.

"We have lately happened to have access to the original documents and to the order of repeal. They are as follows, and are well worth reading, now that the excitement of strife has passed. Undoubtedly the board of assessment labored to perform its duty faithfully, but few persons will now fail to see that the grounds of objection to the whole proceeding were just and sufficient:

"‘To His Excellency Governor H. R. Gamble:

"'GOVERNOR, — The undersigned, your memorialists, who are now and always have been unconditional Union men and supporters of the government, most respectfully represent: That the ‘assessment’ now in progress, to be levied upon Southern sympathizers and secessionists, is working evil in this community and doing great harm to the Union cause. Among our citizens are all shades of opinion, from that kind of neutrality which is hatred in disguise, through all the grades of lukewarmness, ‘sympathy,’ and hesitating zeal up to the full loyalty which your memorialists, in common with yourself, claim to possess. To assort and classify these; so as to indicate the dividing line of loyalty and disloyalty, and to establish the rates of payment by those falling below it, is a task of great difficulty. If it can be done at all, it must be by patient investigation and after hearing evidence on both sides, giving to each party the opportunity of self-defense. It would require not only a competent tribunal, sitting for a great length of time and possessed of full authority to examine witnesses under oath, but also a kind and degree of scrutiny inconsistent with republican institutions. Such an investigation has to some degree been attempted in the present case, but although the character and standing of the assessment board give assurance that a faithful endeavor to be just and impartial has been made, yet they have been compelled to admit hearsay evidence, rumors, and ‘general impressions,’ and have in no case required witnesses to testify under oath. The natural consequence has been that many feel themselves deeply aggrieved, not having supposed themselves liable to the suspicion of disloyalty; many escape assessment who, if any, deserve it; and a general feeling of inequality in the rule and ratio of assessment prevails. This was unavoidable, for no two tribunals could agree upon the details of such an assessment, either as to the persons or the amounts to be assessed, without more complete knowledge of facts than can be attained from ex parte testimony and current reports. Nothing short of a thorough judicial investigation could lead to a satisfactory result. . . .

"'Your memorialists therefore respectfully petition that you will use your influence, Governor Gamble, with the commanding general and with the authorities at Washington, that the proceedings in assessment be stayed, at least until other methods of obtaining the funds required by the State shall have been first tried. Perhaps, if the case were fully presented before Congress, the just demand of the State would be met, and the payment of our State militia, in defense of the common cause, would be made. . . . It is the opinion of your memorialists that under anything short of congressional authority and judicial action, such assessments as are now in progress would only amount to a forced loan, for which reclamation could ultimately be made and sustained.

"'All of which is respectfully submitted by your obedient servant,

"' — ,

"'ST. LOUIS, Dec. 2, 1862.’

"The memorial was written with the expectation of many signatures, but having been offered to a number of leading citizens without success, it was sent with a single name.

"The consequent order of Gen. Halleck is as follows:


WASHINGTON, D. C., Dec. 15, 1862.

"'Maj.-Gen. S. R. Curtis, St. Louis:

"'GENERAL, — I have received the documents forwarded by you in relation to the assessment ordered by Brig.-Gen. Schofield on the city and county of St. Louis, and have submitted them to the Secretary of War for his decision.

"'I am instructed to say in reply that, as there seems to be no present military necessity for the enforcement of this assessment, all proceedings under the order of Gen. Schofield will be suspended.

"'Very respectfully your obedient servant,

"'H. W. HALLECK, General-in-Chief.’

"When this order appeared the whole community drew a long breath of relief, though there were many dissenting voices. It may seem to us at the present day unaccountable that any one could have expected permanent good results from an arbitrary proceeding like that which was discontinued. That there were many such is one among the many proofs of ‘the madness which ruled the hour.’"

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— On September 3d the headquarters of the different wards and of the districts of the city and county for the enrollment and organization of the militia were announced by Brig.-Gen. John B. Gray:

"First Ward, Col. Nicholas Schuttner, headquarters St. George Market.
"Second Ward, Col. C. D. Wolf, Soulard Market.

"Third Ward, Col. Ferd. Boyle, Chouteau Avenue, three doors west of Seventh Street.

"Fourth Ward, Col. Thomas Ritcheson, Turner Hall.

"Fifth Ward, Col. John Knapp, Lucas building, Pine Street west of Fourth.

"Sixth Ward, Col. John M. Krum, Washington Avenue, between Sixth and Seventh.

"Seventh Ward, Col. E. H. E. Jameson, Valley Hotel, corner of Seventh and Morgan Streets.

"Eighth Ward, Col. William Cuddy, Franklin Engine House, Eleventh Street, between Wash and Carr.

"Ninth Ward, Col. William Bailey, corner of Sixth and O'Fallon Streets.

"Tenth Ward, Col. B. M. Million, northwest corner of Jefferson and Main Streets, Marlow's factory.

"Districts Nos. 21, 22, 23, and 24, or St. Louis township, and Nos 33, 34, and 35, or Central township, will be under command of eorge Rinkle, Jr., headquarters at the Mansion House.

"Districts Nos. 25, 26, 27, and 28, or Carondelet township, Col. E. Stafford, headquarters City Hall, Carondelet.

"Districts Nos. 36 and 37, or Bonhomme township, and Nos. 39 and 40, or Maramec township, Col. William P. Fenn, Hadquarters at Manchester.

"Districts Nos. 29, 30, 31, and 32, or St. Ferdinand township, Col. Julian Bates, headquarters Florissant."

— The following surgeons were appointed on the 3d of September for the examination of those claiming exemption from service in the enrolled Missouri militia of the city and county by reason of physical disability, the surgeons being instructed to report for duty to the colonels of their respective wards and districts as above mentioned:

Dr. William Taussig, Carondelet city and township; Dr. Gustave Fischer, First Ward; Dr. William E. Gempp, Second Ward; Dr. S. Pollak, Third Ward; Dr. Philip Wiegel, Fourth Ward; Dr. John Barnes, Fifth Ward; Dr. H. E. Martheus, Sixth Ward; Dr. F. W. White, Seventh Ward; Dr. John Conzleman, Eighth Ward; Dr. S. Stark, Ninth Ward; Dr. Daniel A. Million, Tenth Ward; Dr. J. N. Morris, St. Ferdinand township; Dr. William A. McMurray, Central and St. Louis township; Dr. L. D. Morse, Bonhomme and Maramec townships.

These surgeons were authorized and instructed to collect a fee of fifty cents from each person examined, one-half of which sum they were to retain as remuneration for services rendered, and the other half they were to turn over weekly to the colonels of their districts, which was to be expended by said colonels in the necessary incidental expenses of organization, and properly accounted for monthly by them to headquarters.

— Maj. Charles L. McConnell, assistant provost-marshal-general, was, on September 5th, appointed provost-marshal-general ad interim of St. Louis district by Gen. Schofield, in place of Col. B. G. Farrar. On the 10th of September, Col. T. T. Gantt received the appointment from Gen. Schofield, succeeding Col. Farrar and Maj. McConnell.

— The unconditional Union men of St. Louis were requested by James S. Thomas, president of the county board to assess and collect the sum of five hundred thousand dollars from Southern sympathizers, to forward to his board "such information as they may have in their possession which will aid them in carrying out the requirements of Special Orders No. 91." He added, "The board wish it to be understood that all communications and evidence will be considered strictly private."

— On September 11th the following orders, under which the property of Missouri Confederates was to be confiscated, were issued by Gen. Schofield:

"I. In compliance with orders from Honorable Secretary of War, the provost-marshal-general of the District of Missouri will proceed without delay to carry into effect the provisions of the act of Congress approved July 17, 1862, and entitled ‘An Act to suppress insurrection, to punish treason and rebellion, to seize and confiscate the property of rebels, and for other purposes,’ so far as the provisions of said act are subject to be carried into effect by the military authorities of the United States in the District of Missouri.

"II. Property seized in pursuance of Section 5 of said act will be reported to the United States district attorney for the district in which it may be, or may first be brought for condemnation and sale, as provided in Section 7 of said act.

"III. Inasmuch as the conviction or the establishment of the guilt of the owners of the property so seized before a court of competent jurisdiction is by the act of Congress aforesaid made the condition of the condemnation and sale thereof, the provost-marshal-general is hereby ordered to transmit at the same time to such United States attorney a list of the witnesses by whose evidence the guilt of such owners has been made to appear to him.

"IV. Whenever an inquiry into the guilt of any person supposed to have violated the act of Congress aforesaid shall be made by the provost-marshal-general, the testimony of the witnesses examined shall take the form of affidavits, and be by them subscribed and sworn to before the provost-marshal-general, and all such affidavits shall be preserved by him on file in his office.

"V. The provost-marshal-general will in no case suspend the payment of any indebtedness which may be a part of the credits of any person violating the provisions of the act of Congress aforesaid, but all such indebtedness will be paid provisionally to the credit of the suit instituted against the person prosecuted or the property libeled in a court of competent jurisdiction, and will abide the final judgment of said court."

— Capt. E. H. Tunnecliff, on October 1st, acting under orders from Maj. George E. Leighton, provost-marshal-general of St. Louis district, was relieved of his command as chief of the United States police,

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and Capt. Henry A. Smith was appointed to fill the vacancy.

— On the 23d of October, William D. Wood, assistant adjutant-general of Missouri, issued the following "General Orders No. 45," relating to elections:

"I. A general election is to take place throughout the State on the first Tuesday in November next. This is the first attempt of the people to choose their officers since the war of this rebellion commenced. It will be an occasion when angry passions, excited by the war, might produce strife, and prevent the full expression of the popular will in the selection of officers.

"The convention has provided by ordinance that every voter shall, before voting, take a prescribed oath, and that no vote shall be counted in favor of any candidate for a State or county office unless he shall have taken an oath prescribed for candidates. The ordinance of the Convention fixes heavy penalties upon those who take the oaths falsely. These are the safeguards which the Convention has judged necessary to keep unfaithful and disloyal persons from exercising power in the State. They are sufficient. No person must be allowed to interfere with the freedom of those qualified to vote under this ordinance.

"The enrolled militia, being citizens of the State, and very nearly all entitled by age to vote, will doubtless be generally at places of voting. They are a body organized for the purpose of preventing violations of the law of the State, and they all know that it is essential to the maintenance of our government that all qualified voters should be allowed, without molestation of any kind, to cast their votes as they please.

"II. It is required of all officers and men of the enrolled militia that they keep perfect order at the polls on the day of election, and that they see that no person is either kept from the polls by intimidation, or in any way interfered with in voting at the polls for whatever candidate he may choose.

"III. If any officer or private shall either interfere with the rights of voters or countenance such interference by others, it will be treated as a high military offense and punished with the utmost rigor.

"IV. Wherever there is any reason to apprehend any interference with the election on the part of bands of guerrillas, the commanding officer of the nearest regiment will detail a sufficient force to prevent any such interference, and station it where there is apprehended danger.

"V. In case of disturbance arising which cannot be arrested by the civil authorities, any commissioned officer present is hereby ordered, at the request of any judge, sheriff, or justice of the peace, to use the necessary military force to suppress it.

"VI. Commanding officers of the E. M. M. 308 are hereby directed to see that the foregoing orders are strictly obeyed."

— Col. T. T. Gantt, provost-marshal-general of the St. Louis district, was relieved by Gen. S. R. Curtis on the 1st of November, and Brig.-Gen. Eugene A. Carr assumed command of the St. Louis district on the 15th.

— On the 22d of November, Col. B. G. Farrar, of the Thirtieth Missouri Volunteers, was appointed by Maj.-Gen. Curtis to "attend specially to the procuring of evidence concerning property liable to confiscation under the law of July 17, 1862, and when he thinks evidence can be found showing the propriety of confiscation, he will take immediate possession of the property and institute proceedings, to determine the matter as defined by law."

On the 11th of December he was also placed by Gen. Curtis in charge of all contraband and confiscated property in the Department of the Missouri, and assigned the important duty of collecting all bonds that had been forfeited by Confederates and Southern sympathizers.

1863. — The Army of Southeast Missouri being within the district of St. Louis, Gen. J. W. Davidson, on February 24th, assumed command of the whole, and Brig.-Gen. E. A. Carr, who had been in command of the district of St. Louis, was ordered to report to him.

— Lieut.-Col. F. A. Dick, provost-marshal-general, on April 21st ordered Edward Wyman, principal of the City University, to hoist "the United States flag over his school building, and keep the same floating daily in a conspicuous position." The parades and military exercises of the school were also to be made under the same flag. In another order issued on the following day the loyalty of Mr. Wyman and his assistants was "fully conceded" by Gen. Curtis.

— The Republican of July 13th makes the following allusion to Maj.-Gen. Bowen, formerly of St. Louis, but then of the Confederate army, and who afterwards died in the service:

"This officer, who was taken prisoner at Vicksburg, graduated a few years ago at West Point, which institution be entered as a cadet from the State of Georgia. He is well known in St. Louis, where, previous to the war, he pursued the profession of an architect and draughtsman. He was connected with our city military organizations, and was adjutant-general on the staff of Gen. Frost at the time of the expedition to the border in search of Montgomery, who was said to have invaded Missouri with a force of Kansas men, and to have perpetrated numerous outrages in that quarter. Bowen remained on the border with a small command until about the time when the Rebellion broke out in the South, when he came to this city and took command of the Second Regiment of Frost's brigade as colonel. He was at Camp Jackson, and, as Frost's acting chief of staff, was the bearer of the letter from Gen. Frost to Capt. Lyon, at the Arsenal, asking to be assured that the rumors of a contemplated attack on Camp Jackson were incorrect, and protesting that the camp was not for any aggressive purpose. Shortly after the release of the Camp Jackson prisoners, Col. Bowen went South, and turned up soon at Columbus, Ky. He has been in several battles, but acted the most conspicuous part at Port Gibson, where he was defeated and compelled to retreat. He was prominent in the negotiations for the surrender of Vicksburg."

— One of the most notable events that took place during this excited period was the arrival at New Orleans on July 16th of the steamboat "Imperial,"

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without obstruction or annoyance down the Mississippi River. This event stimulated the merchants of St. Louis to endeavor to open the commerce of the river, and as a consequence the Chamber of Commerce on July 24th passed the following resolution, which was introduced by E. W. Fox:

"Resolved, That A. W. Fagin, Albert Pearce, Samuel R. Filley, John J. Roe, Samuel Gaty, Alexander B. Moreau, J. H. Oglesby, and J. H. Alexander are hereby appointed a committee to proceed to Washington and urge President Lincoln to remove all restrictions from the commerce of the Mississippi valley, so far as the same can be done with safety to the nation, and that the treasurer is hereby instructed to defray the expenses of said committee during the trip out of the funds of the Exchange."

On the same day the following dispatch was received from Washington announcing the opening of the Mississippi River to New Orleans:

"WASHINGTON CITY, July 23, 1863.


"Clear boats and cargoes, except of prohibited articles, for New Orleans, if desired, taking bonds not to land goods at intermediate points, except under permits authorized by existing regulations.

"S. P. CHASE, Secretary Treasury."

The Republican, commenting upon the internal trade regulations at this time, said, —

"Now that the trade through the whole line of the Mississippi is established by the fact of the arrival of the steamer ‘Imperial’ at Memphis, and her expected arrival here to-day, our mercantile community is strongly and justly exercised at the conditions imposed on it. One of these conditions is that five per cent. shall be paid on the value of all shipments. Of course a duty so onerous is felt to be a grievance, and although it has been paid on shipments to Memphis and Helena, we are informed that no such tax is exacted on shipments made coastwise from the Atlantic ports to New Orleans. The shipments heretofore to Memphis, etc., have been so inconsiderable that the burden has not been generally felt. Now, however, the case is different, and as it is discovered that the eastern cities are exempted from a tax which is imposed on St. Louis, the exaction is regarded as not only burdensome but inequitable. The interest felt on this subject will excuse some reference to these trade regulations and the law that authorizes them."

On the 8th of August the same journal said, —

"The free and unobstructed navigation of the Mississippi from the Falls of St. Anthony to the Balize was announced on Wednesday last by the steamer ‘Imperial,’ arrived at St. Louis from New Orleans. Out of its two years' imprisonment the commerce of the great river feebly revived in twenty-five boxes of lemons, the only consignment of the first boat up, but gives promise of an eager awakening."

— President Lincoln, on October 1st, issued the following instructions to Gen. Schofield:


"WASHINGTON, D. C., Oct. 1, 1863.


"There is no organized military force in avowed opposition to the general government now in Missouri; and if any such shall reappear, your duty in regard to it will be too plain to require any special instruction. Still, the condition of things both there and elsewhere is such as to render it indispensable to maintain for a time the United States military establishment in that State, as well as to rely upon it for a fair contribution of support to that establishment generally. Your immediate duty in regard to Missouri now is to advance the efficiency of that establishment, and to so use it, as far as practicable, to compel the excited people there to leave one another alone.

"Under your recent orders, which I have approved, you will only arrest individuals and suppress assemblies or newspapers when they may be working palpable injury to the military in your charge; and in no other case will you interfere with the expression of opinion in any form, or allow it to be interfered with violently by others. In this you have a discretion to exercise with great caution, calmness, and forbearance.

"With the matters of removing the inhabitants of certain counties en masse, and of removing certain individuals from time to time who are supposed to be mischievous, I am not now interfering, but am leaving to your discretion.

"Nor am I interfering with what may still seem to you to be necessary restrictions upon trade and intercourse. I think proper, however, to enjoin upon you the following: Allow no part of the military under your command to be engaged in either returning fugitive slaves or in forcing or enticing slaves from their homes; and, so far as practicable, enforce the same forbearance upon the people.

"Report to me your opinion upon the availability for good of the enrolled militia of the State. Allow no one to enlist colored troops, except upon orders from you, or from here through you.

"Allow no one to assume the functions of confiscating property, under the law of Congress, or otherwise, except upon orders from here.

"At elections see that those and only those are allowed to vote who are entitled to do so by the laws of Missouri, including as of those laws the restriction laid by the Missouri Convention upon those who may have participated in the Rebellion.

"So far as practicable, you will, by means of your military force, expel guerrillas, marauders, and murderers, and all who are known to harbor, aid, or abet them. But, in like manner, you will repress assumptions of unauthorized individuals to perform the same service, because under pretense of doing this they become marauders and murderers themselves.

"To now restore peace, let the military obey orders; and those not of the military leave each other alone, thus not breaking the peace themselves.

"In giving the above directions it is not intended to restrain you in other expedient and necessary matters not falling within their range.

"Your obedient servant,


— With a view to securing fairness and freedom in the election to be held on November 3d, Gen. Schofield, in the exercise of the powers vested in him, issued an order on the 20th of October, in which he directed that the county courts should make proper selections of judges of elections throughout the State from loyal men, and ordered that those citizen-soldiers who were entitled to vote at elections in Missouri, should vote in their camps, thus dispensing as far as possible with their presence at election precincts. In particular, he required that the oath prescribed by

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the ordinance of the convention should be administered to all the voters before they were permitted to deposit their ballots.

1864. — On the 27th of January of this year a number of Union citizens determined to give Gen. Grant, who was in St. Louis at the time, a public dinner. The members of the general committee were John How, James O. Broadhead, John R. Shepley, James Taussig, John H. Fife, William D'Oench, Samuel Reber, S. H. Laflin, Thomas Richeson. The committee of arrangements was composed of C. B. Lord, George E. Leighton, C. P. E. Johnson, Barton Able, J. H. Andrews, C. B. Hubbell, and W. J. and Romyn G. Hoeber.

— In compliance with orders from the War Department, Maj.-Gen. J. M. Schofield on the 30th of January relinquished the command of the Department of the Missouri to Maj.-Gen. W. S. Rosecrans. The staff of Gen. Rosecrans was as follows:

Brig.-Gen. John B. Gray, adjutant-general; Col. E. Anson More, quartermaster-general; Col. Silas Woodson, inspector-general; Col. John T. Hodgen, surgeon-general; Col. C. P. E. Johnson, paymaster-general; Col. F. D. Callender, aide-de-camp and chief of ordnance; Col. Allen P. Richardson, aide-de-camp; Col. William P. Harrison, aide-de-camp; Lieut.-Col. Melville Sawyer, department paymaster-general; Col. A. R. Easton, aide-de-camp; Maj. C. C. Bailey, aide-de-camp and military secretary.

The honorable aides-de-camp upon the staff of the late Governor were continued as such upon the staff of Gen. Rosecrans.

— Col. J. H. Baker, of the Tenth Regiment of Minnesota Infantry, commanding the post of St. Louis, on March 1st issued an order requiring citizens who had obtained soldiers' clothing by purchase and discharged soldiers to dye their soldier clothing another color. Any citizen who was found wearing soldiers' clothing or any part of the uniform was arrested and the clothing confiscated. Wearing the regulation officer's cord on their hats by either citizens or enlisted men was also prohibited.

— On the 7th of March Gen. Rosecrans issued the following "Special Orders No. 61":

"7. While it is the determination of the general commanding this department that due protection shall be given within its limits to all religious convocations which may assemble to promote the cause of religion and morality, whether convening as conventions, synods, ministerial assemblies, conferences, councils, or under any other name or title, the interests of the country at the present time require that no such assemblages of persons whose proceedings would be disloyal and tend to foment discord and encourage rebellion should be permitted. It is right and proper, therefore, that all members of such assemblages should give satisfactory evidence to the public of their loyalty to the government of the United States, that their patriotism may be known, and that they be distinguished from those who seek its overthrow.

"8. It is therefore deemed expedient and hereby ordered, as a condition precedent to such privilege of assemblage and protection, that each and every person attending such convention, synod, ministerium, assembly, conference, council, or by whatever name it may be called, and participating in the proceedings thereof, shall take and subscribe to an oath of allegiance, and file the same in the office of the assistant provost-marshal of the locality in which the assemblies are held.

"9. It is hereby made the duty of all such assemblages to ascertain, before proceeding to organize and transact business, those who have taken, subscribed, and filed the required oath, and permit only such to participate in their proceedings. And in case any such assemblage shall neglect or refuse so to do, or shall knowingly permit any one who has failed to comply with the requirements of this order to participate in its proceedings, it will be deemed a military offense, for which its members may be held amenable; and any provost-marshal present shall immediately order the assemblage to disperse and prevent the continuance of its proceedings.

"10. The form of the oath of allegiance to be taken, subscribed, and filed as aforesaid shall be in these words:

"‘Oath of Allegiance.

"'I, — , of — County, State of — , do hereby solemnly swear that I will bear true allegiance to the United States, and support and sustain the Constitution and laws thereof; that I will maintain the national sovereignty paramount to that of all State, County, or confederate powers; that I will discourage, discountenance, and forever oppose secession, rebellion, and the disintegration of the Federal Union; that I disclaim and denounce all faith and fellowship with the so-called Confederate armies, and pledge my honor, my property, and my life to the sacred performance of this my solemn oath of allegiance to the government of the United States of America.

"' — .

"'Subscribed and sworn to before me this — day of — , 1864, at — .

"'— .

"'Witness, — , of — .’

"11. District provost-marshals will give their immediate and special attention to the enforcement of this order in their respective districts, and enjoin upon each assistant provost-marshal the duty of attending all such assemblages which may be held in his locality, advise those assembled of this order, and enforce its directions. And they will also report immediately to these headquarters all cases of neglect or refusal, giving a full description of the character of the assemblage, the names of those present, and an account of its proceedings."

On the 29th Provost-Marshal Sanderson also issued the following "General Orders No. 7:"

"1. The sale, distribution, or circulation of such books as ‘Pollard's Southern History of the War,’ ‘Confederate Official Reports,’ ‘Life of Stonewall Jackson,’ ‘Adventures of Morgan and his Men,’ and all other publications based upon rebel views and representations, being forbidden by the general commanding, will be suppressed by provost-marshals by seizing the same and arresting the parties who knowingly sell, dispose, or circulate the same."

— On March 15th "the exhibition and sale of photographs, engravings, paintings, and other kind of likenesses of public persons in the rebel service" was prohibited by Provost-Marshal-General J. P. Sanderson under the severest penalties. On the 26th all

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the copies of a newspaper called the Metropolitan Record and published in New York were confiscated in St. Louis by the same officer for publishing "various articles of an incendiary, disloyal, and traitorous character."

— Brig.-Gen. Thomas Ewing, Jr., on April 4th assumed command of the St. Louis district, and the following changes were made in the staff of the district: First Lieut. Harrison Hannahs, Eleventh Kansas Cavalry, was made aide-de-camp and acting assistant adjutant-general, and First Lieut. Cyrus Leland, Jr., Tenth Kansas Volunteers, aide-de-camp.

— On April 12th, Gen. W. S. Rosecrans issued the following General Orders No. 15:

"I. The following regimental organizations of the Enrolled Missouri Militia are hereby broken up, and the commissions of all officers in the same consequently vacated:

"16th Regiment E. M. M., Col. M. W. Warne.

"17th Regiment E. M. M., Col. Charles L. Tucker.

"22d Regiment E. M. M., Col. Thomas Miller, Jr.

"23d Regiment E. M. M., Col. George R. Taylor.

"24th Regiment E. M. M., Col. F. D. Callender.

"II. By reason of such disbandment the members of these regiments will be required to re-enroll for the year 1864, in the respective wards or districts in which they reside, and to be assigned by the commissary of exemption of St. Louis County to such regiments as are deemed by him the most convenient and proper."

— Saturday, the 15th of April, was very generally observed by the civic and military authorities and citizens as a day of thanksgiving for recent great victories of the Union armies.

— The quartermaster's department up to April 16th had purchased, during the war, in St. Louis one hundred and seventy thousand horses and ninety thousand mules.

— The county court of St. Louis County on April 20th passed the following order:

"The court having duly considered the petition for an appropriation in aid of the Mississippi Valley Sanitary Fair, filed herein on the 14th of March last past, order that the valuable tract of land owned by St. Louis County, known as the Smizer farm, containing about five hundred acres, together with buildings, fencing, and all other improvements, valued at thirty or forty thousand dollars, be and the same is hereby donated to the Mississippi Valley Sanitary Fair, to aid the humane and patriotic work of taking care of the sick and wounded soldiery of our valley."

— On the 29th of April, Gen. Rosecrans issued General Orders No. 65, in which he said, —

"I. No person shall, directly or indirectly, attempt to deter or prevent any other person from working on such terms as he may agree upon in any manufacturing establishment where any article is ordinarily made which may be required for use in the navigation of the Western waters, or in the military, naval, or transport service of the United States.

"II. No person shall watch around or hang about any such establishment for the purpose of annoying the employés thereof, or learning who are employed therein.

"III. No association or combination shall be formed or continue or meeting be held having for its object to prescribe to the proprietors of any such establishment whom they shall employ therein, or how they shall conduct the operations thereof.

"IV. All employés in such establishments will be protected by military authority against all attempts by any person to interfere with or annoy them in work, or in consequence of their being engaged in it."

— Brig.-Gen. Thomas Ewing, Jr., on June 28th divided the St. Louis military district into sub-districts, as follows:

"First sub-district to include the counties of St. Louis, except Benton Barracks, Jefferson, and Franklin, and all that part of the counties of Gasconade, Osage, and Maries lying east of Gasconade River and north of the northern boundary of Washington County extended; headquarters at St. Louis, Lieut. Col. John N. Herder, 1st M. S. M. Infantry, commanding.

"Second sub-district to include the counties of Perry, Bellinger, Cape Girardeau, Scott, Stoddard, Mississippi, New Madrid, Pemiscot, and Dunklin; headquarters at Cape Girardeau, Lieut.-Col. John T. Burris, 10th Kansas Volunteers, commanding.

"Third sub-district to include the counties of Ste. Genevieve, St. François, Madison, Wayne, and Butler, and all of the counties of Washington, Iron, Reynolds, Carter, and Ripley lying east of the fifth principal meridian; headquarters at Pilot Knob, Col. John F. Tyler, 1st M. S. M. Infantry, commanding."

— At a preliminary meeting of citizens of St. Louis, held on the 4th of July, in pursuance of a call from Mayor Thomas, a committee was appointed, who subsequently issued the following address:

"ST. LOUIS, July 4, 1864.

"To the People of St. Louis County:

"The undersigned, a committee appointed for that purpose, earnestly request a large attendance at the rotunda of the court-house at eight o'clock on Thursday evening, the 7th inst. The order from the War Department and the proclamation of the mayor explain the purpose for which the meeting is called.

"It is proposed to obtain a list of three classes of subscribers: 1st, those who will pay a certain amount to the proper committee to hire representative recruits; 2d, those who will directly furnish one or more recruits and make their own arrangements for their compensation; 3d, those who will agree to pay a monthly sum during the service to increase the pay of recruits, and thus aid in supporting their families. . . . The above plan is merely proposed by your committee. Of course it can be set aside and a better one adopted if the meeting see proper.


"James S. Thomas, Louis C. Hirschberg, E. W. Fox, R. J. Rombauer, James K. Knight, James C. Moody, Louis Bach, James Archer, A. G. Braun, William H. Godfrey."

— The following additional sub-districts for military purposes were on July 18th erected in the St. Louis military district:

"The seventh sub-district, consisting of the counties of Gasconade, Franklin, and that part of Jefferson County north of the southern boundary line of Franklin County, with headquarters at Franklin.

"The eighth sub-district, consisting of the counties of Ste.

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Genevieve, Perry, and that part of Jefferson County south of the northern boundary of Franklin; headquarters at Ste. Genevieve.

"The ninth sub-district, consisting of the counties of Washington and St. François; headquarters at Potosi."

— George W. Ford, military harbor master of St. Louis, issued on the 16th of July the following order for the protection of steamers in port:

"All steamers plying to and from the port of St. Louis are required to report at this office at the earliest moment after their arrival.

"All boats permitted at the wharf, in discharging or receiving cargo, are required to keep steam up night and day, either in their main boiler or the doctor boiler, with sufficient engineers to man the same.

"Boats in the stream at anchor, using yawls to communicate with the shore, shall display at the bow of their small boats, when in such use, a white flag one yard square, with a black ball in the centre eight (8) inches in diameter. No small boats will be permitted to ply in the harbor (and those only belonging to steamers in the stream) between the hours of 8 P.M. and 4 A.M., except by special permit. Small boats, when not in use, shall be kept hoisted out of the water.

"All hay, hemp, cotton, and straw now on the landing must be removed at once, and hereafter must be removed in eight hours after being landed."

— H. A. Adams, secretary of the Ladies' Union Aid Society, corner Fifth and Chestnut Streets, on July 25th published an appeal for rags for hospitals and the Army of the Cumberland, and an ambulance and a corps of collectors canvassed the city for "linen and cotton rags, worn shirts and drawers, old handkerchiefs, bed and table linen," and women and children's apparel for refugees.

— Up to July 25th two hundred and sixty-two persons had procured and offered acceptable substitutes at the office of the board of enrollment in St. Louis. The Republican, giving an account of the "substitute market" at this period, says, —

"Eighteen of the principals reside elsewhere in the State, but the balance are from such portions of the city and county as lie within the district limits. The substitutes are nearly all aliens, the Irish having the largest representation among them, and the Germans next. English, Scotch, Welsh, French, and Italian names also adorn the list, but only to a small extent. The prices paid them by their principals have varied according to circumstances. About a year ago, when the original conscription act passed, a few were put in at the cheap rates of forty or fifty dollars each. At that time government bounties to recruits were liberal, and the fever of volunteering was not quite allayed, but when a draft became imminent some months afterwards prices rose to about one hundred and fifty. Withal, however, the substitute business remained at a low ebb until a recent period, that immediately preceding the repeal of the commutation clause. Just before that took place two hundred dollars got to be the ruling price, and when the repeal was at last effected by Congress there was an instant advance to three hundred per man. From that point there has been a steady addition to the cost each week, and closing rates are four hundred to four hundred and fifty dollars for a man competent to pass examination at the enrollment board.

"Occasionally a substitute is obtained by chance by the principal himself or through the medium of a ‘runner,’ But in a large majority of cases they are furnished by Messrs. Stafford, Topping, Cavender & Rowse, Mason & Clements, and others who have opened offices regularly for the transaction of a business of this kind. An applicant who leaves his name at one of these offices is soon supplied at the current rate, and gets his exemption papers made out and filled up in all due form sent directly to his hands.

"Since the business has thus been reduced to a system, aliens and other service-seekers have come to St. Louis in no inconsiderable numbers, some from the interior of this State and Illinois, and some from other cities where substitute hiring is not so well advanced. It is estimated that there are four or five hundred such now here who are open to purchase for the customary three years. None, we believe, have been engaged for a shorter time, although the President may issue his call and order a draft for two years, or for only one. A locum tenens is entitled to a bounty from government of three hundred dollars for the three years he engages to serve, in addition to such sum as he may receive from his principal, making together a very comfortable amount. Until a draft occurs, none but aliens and those who have been in the army or navy two years are eligible for purchase in the substitute market. Veterans, whose term of service is just expiring, having found this fact out, have declined to re-enlist, and will go back into the army as substitutes or not at all. Whenever a man's papers are adjusted by the enrollment, his representative is sent out without delay to Benton Barracks, and in a few days forwarded to some camp or garrison for active duty. Quite a delegation was sent off to Fort McHenry during the recent rebel raid upon the vicinity of Baltimore.

"With regard to the draft itself, we may state that everything is in readiness for carrying it out throughout the State. In this district over thirty thousand tickets bearing names copied from the enrollment-books have been prepared, assorted, and put into packages by sub-districts, and sealed up, ready to be opened and put into the draft-wheel whenever the proper day arrives. The President has just issued his preparatory mandate, fifty days after which a draft will take place. If the call be fixed for five hundred thousand, the quota of Missouri will be about eighteen thousand, and if for three hundred thousand, we are responsible for no more than twelve thousand. Even then there will be a considerable deduction on account of the excess over the last call, which lies to our credit on the books of the adjutant-general at Washington, and for all the substitutes that are now being so plentifully supplied. Those who are nervous with fear of being drafted may comfort themselves with the reflection that there are thirty chances to one in their favor against any such dreaded mishap."

— Maj.-Gen. W. S. Rosecrans, commanding the Department of Missouri, on July 28th issued the following appeal to the "citizens of St. Louis:"

"By authority from the War Department, I have called for some regiments of twelve and six months' volunteers, to meet the local demands of the military service, and give peace and protection to the State.

"Under this call I wish you to furnish two splendid regiments, models of soldiership and military bearing, to serve for twelve months in St. Louis.

"While it is expected that they will serve mainly or entirely here, I want no man in them who would hesitate for a moment to go wherever duty and country calls.

"The officers and soldiers ought to be picked men. None

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should be proposed, and none will be recommended for commissions unless they are qualified to command and give promise of taking, if they do not possess, ‘military polish.’

"As it is, my wish is to make these regiments the pride and honor of St. Louis. They will be kept on duty here on condition that they shall make themselves worthy of it.

"May I not hope, nay, I do hope and expect from the people who got up the most complete, unique, and successful ‘Sanitary Fair’ in the United States, two regiments of the finest troops in the service, to be called the ‘St. Louis Volunteer Guards.’"

To encourage enlistments in the proposed St. Louis Volunteer Guards, a committee representing a number of tax-payers waited upon the judges of the county court on the 8th of August and presented a petition signed by more than one hundred tax-payers, asking that an appropriation of six hundred thousand dollars be made for bounties to recruits for the two regiments called for by Gen. Rosecrans. The members of the committee were

Dr. C. A. Pope, Judge John M. Krum, Hon. Henry T. Blow, A. G. Braun, Carlos S. Greeley, George H. Rea, Charles F. Myers, James Taussing, N. C. Chapman, George R. Taylor, E. W. Fox, Dr. M. L. Linton, J. P. Doan, George Gherke, Christopher Staehlin, James Blackman, James Clemens, Jr., Charles K. Dickson, Gen. A. G. Edwards, James O. Broadhead, Hudson E. Bridge, Oliver Garrison, Bernard Krickhard, and O. A. Hart.

After hearing the remarks of the committee, the court passed an order appropriating four hundred thousand dollars for bounties as requested.

Immediately after the passage of this appropriation measures were taken to organize the regiments. Col. Samuel A. Holmes was appointed to organize one regiment, and the following persons received commissions as second lieutenants, with the necessary authority to recruit six or twelve months' men: W. J. Whitwell, Monroe Harrison, Adam Box, H. Kallman, George W. Gilson, E. J. Castello, Robert C. Allen, M. Green, Henry R. Switzer, and D. G. Stillinger. It was understood that if they succeeded in raising companies they were to command them, with the rank and pay of captains.

The following persons were commissioned second lieutenants for the purpose of recruiting men for the other regiment, which was to be commanded by Col. Weydemeyer: Frederick Gratz, Henry Hulm, Henry J. Bischoff, Felix Lais, H. F. Dietz, Carroll P. Roetter, Christian Elrodt, A. C. Windmuller, James Schubert, and John E. Sanders.

— On the 9th of September, Gen. Rosecrans, under "General Orders No. 165," made an assessment upon the underwriters of St. Louis for the purpose of building or purchasing a tow-boat. A return, under oath, was "required from the proper officer of each insurance company of the city, and from the agents of all other insurance companies having recognized agencies in the city, of one-half of all hull premiums, nett; of one-third of all cargo premiums, nett; and one-sixth of all fire premiums on steamboats, nett; the returns to be based upon the nett receipts for the six months ending on the 30th of June, 1864."

— Col. T. E. Chickering, provost-marshal-general of the Department of the Gulf, at New Orleans, gave notice in August that no permit was required for the shipment of merchandise or produce not contraband of war from St. Louis to New York via New Orleans. Commenting upon this fact, the Republican said that the advantage of this arrangement was "that it removes a fruitful cause of corruption on the part of certain dishonest government officials at New Orleans, whose custom it has been to blackmail St. Louis merchants by extorting large extra fees from them for the privilege of giving them permits. We have heard of local shippers who have been mulcted by such sharpers a dollar and a half per barrel upon whiskey, for the benefit of their own pockets, and independent of the usual treasury regulation fee. Coincident with the abolishment of this permit system, we learn that New Orleans steamers have reduced the freight to that city from a dollar to seventy-five cents per hundred pounds."

— On the 9th of September a river guard was established at each of the six ferries at and near the city, for the purpose of preventing the crossing of soldiers and negroes who did not show papers signed by the military authorities. At night the guard was posted six miles along the river-front to prevent the passage of small boats.

— Gen. Rosecrans, on September 27th, requested the steamboat captains, pilots, engineers, and other boatmen to form a company for the protection of steamboat property in the harbor of St. Louis. The company was organized at the Merchants' Exchange on the 30th of September, with N. J. Eaton as captain, and Griff Prathin second lieutenant.

— In conformity with a letter of instructions from Gen. E. Kirby Smith, dated Aug. 11, 1864, Maj.-Gen. Sterling Price made immediate arrangements for a movement of Confederate troops into Missouri from Arkansas. He formed a junction with the force of Gen. J. O. Shelby, and on the 30th took up the line of march with twelve thousand men. On the 18th of September he divided his army into three divisions, commanded respectively by Maj.-Gen. J. F. Fagan, Maj.-Gen. J. S. Marmaduke, and Brig.-Gen, J. O. Shelby, he then invaded Missouri in three columns, and advanced within ten miles of St. Louis, on the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad. The close proximity of the Confederate army under its dashing leader created the greatest excitement in the city of St. Louis, and alarmed the commanding general. On the 25th all public business was suspended, to enable the authorities to complete the organization for local

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defense. All the enrolled militia of the city was called into active service, and the "exempts from the military service capable of defending their homes" were requested to organize under the direction of the mayor. Officers and soldiers who had been discharged or were on veteran furloughs were requested to report at Schofield Barracks No. 2, where they were organized by Col. Laibold. The Guards were instructed by Gen. E. C. Pike "to arrest all residents of the district who are not with their regiments or show satisfactory evidence of exemption." Complete organizations of "loyal exempts" were also accepted for temporary service, and the chief quartermaster and chief commissary of subsistence were ordered to organize into companies all their employés who could bear arms. The Old Guard, under the command of Capt. N. H. Clark, tendered their services in the emergency, and their offer was accepted. The First Brigade of the enrolled Missouri militia in the city was officered as follows:

Brig.-Gen. E. C. Pike, commanding; Maj. D. K. Stickton, brigade quartermaster; Maj. M. P. Hanthorn, brigade commissary; Maj. E. Marthens, brigade surgeon; Capt. C. H. Tillson, A.A.A.G.; Capt. A. Wilhartitiz, A.A.A.G.; Capt. J. O'Brien, A.D.C.

Besides the organizations for local defense, a large number of men, white and colored, particularly Southern sympathizers residing in the city, were pressed into service, and set to work throwing up breastworks and building or completing fortifications.

Military reinforcements in the mean time began to pour in from every quarter, until there were at least fifteen thousand men under arms in the city. Gen. Price, in his official report of his campaign in Missouri in 1864, says, "I brought out with me over five thousand recruits, and they are still arriving daily. After I passed the German settlements in Missouri my march was an ovation; the people thronged around and welcomed us with open hearts and hands. Recruits flocked to our flag in such numbers as to threaten to become a burden instead of a benefit, being mostly unarmed. In some counties the question was not who should go to the army, but who should stay at home. I am satisfied that could I have remained in Missouri this winter the army would have increased fifty thousand men."

In order to deter young men in the State from joining the Confederate army, Gen. Rosecrans, on the 27th of September, issued the following "General Orders No. 179":

"1. Traitors and spies caught in the act of passing the Federal lines to the guerrillas or to the rebel forces now invading the State will be shot on the spot. Those captured prior to the promulgation of this order will be sent immediately to the nearest headquarters, accompanied by papers and witnesses, for trial.

"The provost-marshal-general is directed to send, without delay, those captured within the past two or three days before a military commission for trial."

— In view of the intense excitement caused by the Confederate invasion, and "to avoid everything calculated to arouse the passions and disturb the public peace and tranquillity," the Democratic Central Committee, through Robert W. Renick, president, D. M. Armstrong, secretary, and Christopher Kribben, chairman of the executive committee, thought it advisable to suspend all public meetings until further notice.

— The city was thrown into the greatest consternation on the 28th of September by the announcement that Gen. A. J. Smith's command had retreated to De Soto before the Confederate advance, that the railroad below Big River had been destroyed, and that Gen. Hugh S. Ewing was surrounded at Pilot Knob and besieged at that place.

In view of the threatened danger, as it was believed St. Louis was Gen. Price's objective-point, Maj.-Gen. Frank P. Blair, who was in the city on sick leave, tendered his services to Gen. Rosecrans, and on the 28th was assigned to the command of the county of St. Louis, and the troops of all kinds for the defense of the city. Col. J. H. Baker commanded the city proper, under the orders of Gen. Blair. Col. B. Gratz Brown was charged with the task of organizing the City Guard, and afterwards, by order of Gen. Rosecrans, was assigned to the command of the militia exempts organized for special duty in St. Louis. On the 28th a large number of veterans from Illinois arrived in the city. There were at this time about twelve thousand militia under arms in St. Louis. As a consequence of the Confederate invasion, the city was full of prominent citizens and other refugees who had fled before the advancing army from all parts of the State, but particularly from Southeast Missouri. To accommodate the refugees and contrabands quarters for twenty-five thousand persons were erected near the city. From a statement made by the Rev. Mr. Wright, who was the chaplain and superintendent of refugees and contrabands, we learn that there were four receptacles for these unfortunates, — two in St. Louis, one at Pilot Knob, and one at Cape Girardeau. At these stations there were on August 31st two thousand three hundred and ninety-seven persons, of whom nineteen hundred and ninety-five were refugees and four hundred and two contraband. They were distributed in the following manner:

  Refugees. Contrabands.
Pilot Knob 1180 125
Cape Girardeau 330 48
St. Louis 299  
Benton Barracks 186 229
  1995 402

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— Under an order issued September 29th, permits required for the shipment by rail or steamer of merchandise to all that portion of the State lying south of the Missouri River.

— The organization of the citizens had so far progressed that business was resumed on October 1st, with the understanding that business houses were to close at three o'clock P.M., to give their employés an opportunity for drill.

— The militia was enrolled with the greatest rapidity, and the entire organization was formed into one division of three brigades, under the command of Brig.-Gen. E. C. Pike. The first brigade, under Col. Miller, went into rendezvous at Carondelet late in September. It was composed of the First, Second, Eighteenth, and Eighty-fifth Regiments, the two latter from Franklin County, Mo. The Second and Third Brigades went into camp at "Camp Sheridan," at the head of Olive Street. About the same time the Second Brigade was composed of the Third, Fourth, and Tenth Regiments, under the command of Col. C. D. Wolff, of the Fourth, acting brigadier-general. The Third Brigade was composed of the Seventh, Eleventh, and Thirteenth Regiments, under the command of Col. G. F. Meyer, of the Seventh Regiment, acting brigadier. The two appointees of Gen. Blair. Cols. Coleman and Gage, had not then assumed command. The Second and Third Brigades on September 30th had over three thousand men on parade. The troops were commanded by Brig.-Gen. E. C. Pike, with the following staff officers: Col. John Knapp and Capt. O'Brien, aides-de-camp; Maj. Hanthorn, commissary sergeant, with Maj. Hoffman, of the Fortieth Missouri, in company. The regiments were commanded as follows: Third, Col. F. Valcamp; Fourth, commanded by the lieutenant-colonel of the regiment; Tenth, Lieut.-Col. Cleveland; Eleventh, Lieut.-Col. Beckman; Thirteenth, Lieut.-Col. John R. Marcy. The First Battalion of cavalry was under the command of Maj. Walton.

— A small detachment of Confederate cavalry made a raid on the post-office at Cheltenham, on the Pacific Railroad, only four miles from the city, on September 29th.

— Maj.-Gen. A. Pleasonton assumed command of the St. Louis district on the 2d of October.

— To prevent supplies from reaching the Confederates, an order was issued October 5th prohibiting the shipment of goods outside the county of St. Louis without special permission. These restrictions were removed on November 4th. On account of the scarcity of hay, army horses were fed on half-rations in St. Louis, and the shipment of hay from the city was prohibited. All hay received in the city and not used for private purposes was confiscated by the military.

— In view of the close proximity of the Confederate raiders, two brigades of the First Division of Enrolled Missouri Militia, Gen. E. C. Pike commanding, on the 1st of October marched out of the city and encamped at Laclede Station on the Pacific Railroad.

— The distress in the city caused by the invasion of the State by the Confederates, and the consequent withdrawal from their homes of men having families dependent upon them for support, as well as by the large number of refugees who had been compelled to flee to St. Louis in a most destitute condition, induced Mayor J. S. Thomas to institute measures for their relief. Accordingly, on the 7th of October, he issued an appeal requesting the citizens to contribute such sums of money and such provisions or clothing as might be in their power. For the purpose of carrying his appeal into effect he appointed the following gentlemen a committee to make collections in each ward:

First Ward, Col. Schistner, Stephen Barlow, Aug. Kriekhaus, E. Anheuser.
Second Ward, George Gehrke, Hy. Gemp, Bernard Klein, Chas. Cady.
Third Ward, H. Schepmann, Amade Vallé, B. Kraft, C. C. Simmons.
Fourth Ward, Col. Chas. Fritz, George W. Cline, A. T. W. Goodwin, Ph. Danerheim, Th. Kalb.
Fifth Ward, J. Winkelmeyer, John H. Andrews, Albert Fischer, B. D. Killian, J. H. Herrser.
Sixth Ward, R. Kefler, Dwight Durkee, —— Neilsen, E. W. Fox, Nic. Schaffer.
Seventh Ward, D. Hartmann, Fred. Heigerwald, John Dunn, John H. Gerdemann, Squire Heath.
Eighth Ward, John Gresher, John Stewart, John C. Vogel, Meyer Priedo, R. Weber.
Ninth Ward, Louis Bash, F. Pesh, E. C. Sanders, Caspar Stolle, Pat. Driscoll.
Tenth Ward, Adolphus Meier, Ph. Stremmel, Chas. Irwin, Chas. Borg, N. C. Chapmann.

— Intelligence was received in St. Louis on the 10th of October that Gen. Price and his army had retired from Jefferson City without hazarding a regular engagement, and there now being no immediate danger of an attack on St. Louis, Gen. Rosecrans and staff left the city on the 12th to join Gen. Pleasonton near Jefferson City, but Gen. Rosecrans and Gen. A. J. Smith returned to St. Louis on the 13th of November.

— Col. J. P. Sanderson, who had filled the office of provost-marshal-general of the Department of Missouri for several months, died at his residence in St. Louis on October 14th. Col. Sanderson had been chief clerk of the War Department during Simon Cameron's term

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as secretary. Before resigning that position he was appointed to a lieutenant-colonelcy in one of the new regiments of the regular army, and in a short time attained the colonelcy of the Thirteenth United States Infantry by seniority. His infirm state of health having incapacitated him for protracted service in the field, he was assigned to the Department of the Missouri coincidently with the appointment of Maj.-Gen. Rosecrans as its commander. The duties that devolved upon him were discharged with a vigor and system of detail that proved him to be a man of rare capacity for such a position. In consequence of his death Col. Joseph Darr, Jr., was appointed provost-marshal-general.

— In accordance with orders issued by Gen. Rosecrans, six Confederate prisoners of war were on October 29th executed by shooting, in retaliation for the shooting of Maj. James Wilson and his six comrades, of the Third Missouri State Militia Cavalry, by the Confederates, near Washington, Mo.

The names of the men led to execution were James W. Gates, Third Missouri Cavalry, C.S.A.; Harvey H. Blackburn, Company A, Coleman's Regiment Arkansas Cavalry, C.S.A.; John Nichols, Company G, Second Missouri Cavalry, C.S.A.; Charles W. Minniken, Company A, Crabtree's Arkansas Cavalry, C.S.A.; Asa V. Ladd, Company A, Burbridge's Missouri Regiment of Cavalry, C.S.A.; and George T. Bunch, Company B, Third Missouri Cavalry.

About half-past one o'clock the procession started from Gratiot Street prison, and, under escort of a detachment of the Tenth Kansas, arrived on the ground of execution about half-past two. There were, including soldiers and citizens (the former largely preponderating), about three thousand persons on the ground, with the guards and escort. The firing party consisted of fifty-four men, — forty-four of the Tenth Kansas and ten of the Forty-first Missouri, — thirty-six being detailed to fire, eighteen being in reserve. When the prisoners arrived on the ground they were marched promptly to the places fixed for the execution, there being six upright pine posts set in the ground, with square board seats attached for each man to sit upon. They took their places upon their seats, each with comparative calmness, and nearly all with an appearance of resignation to their dreadful fate. But little emotion was displayed by any of the six, except Nichols and Minniken.

After each had been tied to a stake their eyes were bandaged, and the command to make ready was given. There was a momentary suspense, and then a further command, "One, two, fire!" and the entire volley was discharged almost as one gun. Instantly the blood spurted from the breast of each prisoner, and quivering for a moment their heads fell upon their shoulders, and then their bodies lurched to one side and fell as near the ground as they could with their arms pinioned to the stakes. In this position the blood streamed from their wounds, which were nearly all in the breast, and in one or two places formed little pools upon the ground. The attending physicians examined the bodies as soon as the firing ceased, and found no signs of life in any except Blackburn. In five minutes from the time the volley was discharged they were all dead.

Gates, after he was shot, uttered the exclamation, "Oh!" and Blackburn cried out, "Kill me, quick!" but in an instant later they were evidently insensible.

After this the bodies were placed in coffins and taken in charge by the government undertaker, Mr. Smithers. Then the crowd dispersed and the soldiers returned to their quarters.

It had been the intention of Gen. Rosecrans to execute a major of the Confederate service as soon as one fell into his hands. In a short time Maj. Enoch O. Wolf, of Ford's Confederate regiment, was captured, and was ordered to be executed by Gen. Rosecrans on the 11th of November. At the request of Rev. P. M. McKim and other Union citizens of St. Louis a respite of fourteen days was granted him to prepare for death. Soon after the issue of this order, on the same day, President Lincoln sent the following dispatch to Gen. Rosecrans: "Suspend execution in case of Maj. Wolf until further orders, and meanwhile report to me in the case." The execution of Maj. Wolf was never carried into effect.

— At the request of Rev. P. J. Smet, S.J., the Secretary of War on November 10th exempted the following members of the St. Louis University, drafted in St. Louis: Rev. John L'Esperance, Rev. Joseph E. Kelly, Rev. John T. H. Sealer, and Rev. John W. O'Neill.

— Some time after the war commenced the Secretary of War and the quartermaster-general, having differed as to the mode of conducting the cavalry arm of the military service of the government, the former established a "Cavalry Bureau" at Washington, and placed it under the direction of Maj.-Gen. Stoneman. Subordinate to the bureau were established Eastern and Western Divisions, — one at Giespoint, near Washington, and the other at St. Louis. For the latter Louisville was first considered an eligible site, but after an examination of the relative merits of the two cities the location was finally made at St. Louis. After six or eight months' experience, the secretary's plan of dissociating the cavalry arm entirely from the

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quartermaster-general's direction was found not to succeed as well as had been anticipated. It was, therefore, restored to Gen. Meigs' department, but retained the name of Cavalry Bureau and the division organizations at Giespoint and St. Louis.

West Division Cavalry Bureau was the official title of the institution in St. Louis, and it was opened on Oct. 26, 1863. Brig.-Gen. J. P. Hatch was first assigned to the command, and served until March or April following. Brig.-Gen. J. W. Davidson succeeded, and served until he was ordered to Gen. Canby's department. Brig.-Gen. Edwin Hatch was then ordered to St. Louis, but remained only two weeks, when he gave place to Col. Lewis Merrill, who was in command up to Oct. 30, 1864, when he was relieved and assigned to general inspection service. A further change in the character of the Cavalry Bureau occurred from the law of Congress passed in 1864, which placed it completely under the direction and supervision of the quartermaster's department, and made it, under that law, the first of the nine divisions or bureaus into which the extensive and complicated duties of that office were at that time divided. Under this arrangement, Capt. Ingham Coryell, who originally located the depot in St. Louis, and who had been its chief quartermaster and executive officer, had charge.

The depot grounds were directly north of Benton Barracks, and but a few rods distant, and covered an area of one hundred acres. They were securely inclosed on all sides, and presented the aspect of a thriving village. Long ranges of stables, grain and forage warehouses, a building for the repair of saddles, a blacksmith-shop, carpenter's shop, quarters for employés, various offices for the transaction of business, and many other structures comprised houses and buildings in sufficient number to make a fair-sized country town.

Col. Merrill, Capt. Coryell, Maj. Gleim, and a number of officers and clerks were domiciled in October, 1864, at No. 87 Olive Street.

At the depot were James Wallace, general superintendent; James Lindsay, superintendent of mechanics; Mr. Schneider, in charge of the principal corral; Mr. Buell, superintendent of hospital yard; Dr. Valentine, veterinary surgeon, and assistants, mechanics, teamsters, farriers, laborers, etc., to the number of nine hundred and fifty persons, the pay-roll for all of whom footed up about one thousand dollars per day.

Many of the minor officials and employés, such as watchmen, were discharged soldiers who had become incapacitated for further active service. Those who were capable of service, civil employés and all, were organized into three companies of infantry and one of cavalry, and were officered and well drilled. There was an armory on the grounds, from which they could have been armed in ten minutes, in case of such an emergency as arose when an attack was threatened upon the city by the Confederates under Price.

A fire brigade was also organized among the inmates and employés of the depot, with hose, hooks and ladders, and other appliances for putting out fires. Water was abundant. A large well on the premises, in which was placed a pump, worked by the engine which ran the mill for grinding corn, had a capacity for supplying ten thousand gallons in a single hour.

The police organization was also complete in its way, and all offenders against good order were promptly arrested and punished.

The open market system in the purchase of horses which was adopted in St. Louis in place of the contract system produced very satisfactory results. A man having one or a number of horses for sale brought them to the depot and submitted them to the examination of the government inspectors. The animals were put through severe exercises in running, jumping, etc. The tests applied were so perfect that it was a very rare thing for an unsound or unserviceable horse to pass examination. When he did pass, his owner received one hundred and seventy dollars, or one hundred and sixty dollars, according to the horse's fitness for artillery or cavalry duty. If less than a thousand dollars worth were purchased, Quartermaster Coryell paid the money, if he happened to have it on hand. If the bills exceeded that sum, payment was made as early as practicable in a "certificate of indebtedness." No mules were bought at the depot, the mule business being monopolized at the large corral nearer to the city, on the Franklin Avenue Railroad. Mares were not purchased for army use, for the reason that the government did not desire to lessen the production of the country by the waste of war. A special order for the purchase of two thousand mares was issued in the summer of 1864, but Gen. Halleck forbade the purchase of any more.

During the year the depot existed the number of horses purchased and received was 47,524, of which there were issued

For service 38,714
Total number unserviceable received at the depot 8,563
Of which were condemned and sold 2,524
Died of disease 562
Killed on account of glanders 1,429
Recuperated and issued again to service 4,048

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Horses that were recuperated and returned to the field were preferred to new and inexperienced ones. The number that were ordinarily at the depot awaiting requisitions was about five thousand. Good stabling was constructed for nine thousand. In addition, there was a sub-depot at the town of Mattoon, Illinois, where, there were large and cheap grass pastures. At the two points fully thirty thousand horses could have been accommodated.

About four hundred and fifty thousand dollars per month was disbursed by the government in St. Louis for horses, and on Oct. 30, 1864, there was a million dollars in vouchers lying over and awaiting payment.

— The First, Second, and Third Brigades, First Division of the Enrolled Missouri Militia, were relieved from active service on November 3d, and their arms and equipments were turned over to the quartermaster-general of the State.

— Another military execution took place within the walls of the St. Louis County jail on the 26th of December. James M. Utz, a young man of twenty-six years of age, who was born and raised in the vicinity of Bridgeton, St. Ferdinand township, St. Louis, was the unfortunate victim. Some time in 1862 he was captured in the vicinity of his home. At that time it was supposed that he was acting in the capacity of a Confederate spy. This, however, was not certainly known, but, be this as it may, he managed to get exchanged at the time as a prisoner of war. The circumstances leading to his last arrest, and inducing the belief that he was acting as a spy, grew out of a letter written in an ingeniously-arranged cipher, which was captured some time in the latter part of July, 1864, on the person of one of five men found in Jefferson County, on their way, it was supposed, to join Gen. Price's command. The contents of this letter led to the arrest of James M. Utz, and his trial before the military commission sitting in St. Louis, of which Col. W. A. Barstow, Third Wisconsin Cavalry, was president. Utz was arraigned on three separate charges, — first, being a Confederate spy; second, recruiting men within the lines of the United States forces for the Confederate army; third, carrying correspondence and information to the enemies of the United States. The prisoner was convicted and sentenced to death, and was transferred from Gratiot Street prison to the county jail on Christmas evening. A few minutes before twelve o'clock on Monday, December 26th, he was led by the attending officers from the cell to the scaffold, accompanied by Rev. Father Ward, of the Catholic Church, as spiritual adviser, and at twenty minutes after twelve o'clock the bolts were drawn and the drop fell.

— During the last ten months of 1864 Missouri furnished over twenty thousand volunteers to the Union armies.

— Early in December, 1864, Gen. Rosecrans was relieved of the command of the Department of the Missouri, and Gen. Granville M. Dodge, of Iowa, was appointed to succeed him. Brig.-Gen. Thomas Ewing, Jr., commanded the district of St. Louis, with the following officers as his district staff:

Lieut.-Col. David Murphy, Fiftieth Missouri Volunteers, Inspector; Maj. S. D. Carpenter, Missouri State Volunteers, Surgeon in Charge; Maj. H. H. Williams, Tenth Kansas Veteran Volunteers, Provost-Marshal; Maj. W. Fischer, Fifth Missouri State Militia, Topographical Engineer; Maj. C. H. Gregory, Seventh Kansas Veteran Cavalry, Chief of Cavalry and Acting Ordnance Officer; Maj. H. Hannahs, Fiftieth Missouri Volunteers, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General (in charge of office); Capt. H. Garvens, United States Volunteers, District Quartermaster; Capt. G. W. Gilson, Missouri Volunteers, Assistant Inspector; Capt. C. L. Porter, Eighteenth United States Infantry (colored), in charge of Permit Office; Chaplain J. G. Forman, First Infantry Missouri State Militia, Superintendent of Refugees and Contrabands: 1st Lieut. William Ewing, United States Army, Assistant Commissary Musters; 1st Lieut. A. Vezen, Fourth Missouri Cavalry, A. D. C. and A. A. A. G.; 2d Lieut. G. E. Hodgdon, Veteran Reserve Corps, Judge-Advocate; 2d Lieut. T. F. Oakes, Eighteenth United States Infantry Corps, A. D. C.

— Gen. Dodge, on assuming command of the department, retained the whole force of clerks, and appointed to his staff most of the officers who had served under Gen. Rosecrans. He, however, appointed as his aides-de-camp officers who had served with him in the field in Tennessee, Mississippi, and Georgia during the greater period of the war. His aides were Capt. George Ford, Fourth Iowa; Lieut. George C. Tickenor, Thirty-sixth Iowa; and Lieut. Edward Jonas, Fiftieth Illinois.

1865. — In consequence of the destruction of the refugee barracks, the large marble-front hotel building, erected by Louis G. Picot, at the southwest corner of Broadway and Biddle Streets, at a cost of about one hundred thousand dollars, was rented in February, 1865, by the government for refugee quarters.

— On the 4th of February, Maj.-Gen. John Pope assumed command of the Military Division of the Missouri, embracing the Departments of Missouri, of Kansas, and of the Northwest, with headquarters in St. Louis. His staff consisted of Brig.-Gen. T. C. H. Smith, chief of staff; Lieut.-Col. Edward Meyers, quartermaster; Col. C. A. Morgan, A. D. C., inspector-general; Maj. J. F. Maline, A. A. A. General; Capt. M. Norton, A. G.; Capt. J. McC. Bell, A. A. General; Capt. Edward Haight, A. A. D. C.

— The special orders issued by the provost-marshal-general

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on March 8, 1864, prescribing certain rules to be observed by religious convocations, was on March 3, 1865, so modified by Provost-Marshal J. H. Baker as to read as follows:

"It is hereby made the duty of all such assemblages to submit the roll of the members of their organization to the provost-marshal of the district in which the assemblage has convened before proceeding to the transaction of business.

"The provost-marshal to whom the roll is submitted will thereupon proceed to ascertain from the records of his office whether any of the members of said assemblage have failed to take and subscribe to the oath prescribed by said Special Orders No. 62, and any person found to have so failed will be by him at once forbidden to participate in the business of the assembly until such time as he has complied with the requirements of said order and should any person so forbidden meet with or attempt in any manner to participate in the doings of the said assembly, he will be immediately arrested and sent to this office, with a statement of the facts in his case."

— On March 7th, Governor Thomas C. Fletcher issued a proclamation, in which he stated that there no longer existed in the State of Missouri any organized force of the enemies of the government of the United States, and announced the restoration of civil law.

— In compliance with an act of the General Assembly of Missouri entitled "An Act for the organization and government of the Missouri militia," the State was divided into three military districts, the third district comprising the city and county of St. Louis. Brig.-Gen. D. C. Coleman assumed command of the Third District on the 28th of February, with orders to proceed to enroll the male inhabitants in his district. On the 8th of March he issued the following order, appointing enrolling officers:

"In compliance with General Orders No. 1, Headquarters Second Military Division, State of Missouri, the following officers of the Enrolled Missouri Militia are hereby appointed enrolling officers. They will proceed at once to enroll all male inhabitants (persons of color included) of the several wards and townships in St. Louis County:

"P. J. Hays, lieutenant, Company I, Eighty-fifth Enrolled Missouri Militia, St. Louis township; E. A. Chapman, captain and adjutant, Eighty-fifth Enrolled Missouri Militia, Central township; C. Roeber, captain Company G, Second Enrolled Missouri Militia, Carondelet City; M. Tanzberger, captain Company C, Second Enrolled Missouri Militia, Carondelet township; E. Augustine, captain Company D, First Enrolled Missouri Militia, Bonhomme and Maramec; J. McCarty, first lieutenant Company F, Eighty-fifth Enrolled Missouri Militia, St. Ferdinand township; W. Waldschmidt, captain and adjutant, Third Enrolled Missouri Militia, First Ward; H. Spackler, first lieutenant Company C, Eighth Enrolled Missouri Militia, First Ward; C. Oberbeck, captain Company G, Fourth Enrolled Missouri Militia, Second Ward; E. G. English, captain and adjutant, Company D, Fifth Enrolled Missouri Militia, Third Ward; E. Aechster, captain and adjutant, Sixth Enrolled Missouri Militia, Fourth Ward; R. E. Craig, captain Company A, Eighth Enrolled Missouri Militia, Fifth Ward; L. R. Gordon, captain Company G, Tenth Enrolled Missouri Militia, Sixth Ward; A. Graser, captain Company K, Tenth Enrolled Missouri Militia, Sixth Ward; J. D. Merten, captain Company C, Eleventh Enrolled Missouri Militia, Eighth Ward; C. Luchrmarn, captain Company B, Eleventh Enrolled Missouri Militia, Ninth Ward; J. H. Winkelmayer, captain Company C, Thirteenth Enrolled Missouri Militia, Tenth Ward; M. R. Clark, first lieutenant Company A, Thirteenth Enrolled Missouri Militia, Tenth Ward."

The following officers on March 20th were assigned to his staff:

Maj. A, Wilhartitz, acting assistant adjutant-general; Maj. A. S. Barnes, surgeon; Capt. Gustavus Cohrs, assistant district quartermaster; Lieut. John S. Weber, assistant aide-de-camp.

— There was no means of feeding the refugees in St. Louis except through assessments upon Southern sympathizers, but these assessments, as we have shown, were suspended in the summer of 1864 by Gen. Halleck. There was in existence, however, an order from the War Department authorizing such assessments, and its enforcement was about to be resumed by Gen. Dodge, who was authorized to assess this class of citizens five thousand dollars for the rental of the new hotel, "Asylum Home," and five thousand dollars for its maintenance; but, as will be seen by the following correspondence between Gen. Dodge, the then commander of the department, and J. H. Britton and James B. Eads, of the Third National Bank, the plan of levying assessments upon citizens of Southern sympathies was abandoned, and the generosity of the Union citizens was relied upon for the raising of such sums of money as were required for the refugees, or for any charitable purposes:

"ST. LOUIS, March 14, 1865.

"DEAR SIR, — Having learned during my interview with you this morning that you were desirous of obtaining ten thousand dollars for the purpose of relieving the distress of refugees and contrabands in our community, and assured that your own feelings (if not your judgment) disapproved of raising this sum by assessments upon individuals residing in this department, I expressed the belief that, although our people had suffered as much and had given as freely as any other in the land, the sum would be cheerfully contributed at once by our banking institutions if they were informed of the charitable use for which the money was designed; and that I felt confident they would much sooner give the amount, or a much larger one if need be, than have old animosities and ill feelings revived among us by assessing men who, no matter what their antecedents may have been, were now, and had been for the past two or three years, quiet and peaceable citizens.

"Knowing the plan proposed by the President, and cordially approved by Governor Fletcher, for the pacification of the State of Missouri, and knowing that the President's amnesty proclamation is still in force, I cannot but believe that the levying assessments at this late date in a community as great as this is calculated to defeat the policy indicated by the President. I cannot believe that those who have been disloyal, no matter how desirous they may be to repent of their former conduct and submit to the laws, can enter with any cordiality in this much to be desired movement throughout the State if they are led to believe that assessments will be laid upon them from

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time to time after order is restored, the effect of which will be to remind them of past delinquencies.

"The rebel in arms can scarcely be expected to give up his musket and avail himself of the President's amnesty if he learns that instead of being received as an erring and repentant brother he is to be continually taunted for his past sins, and his property taken without form of law in punishment for them.

"The amnesty implies forgiveness, while the latter course assures him that there was none intended.

"I am happy to be able to assure you that these views are unanimously concurred in by the board of directors of the ‘Third National Bank’ of St. Louis, of which I have the honor to be a director, and I herewith inclose you a letter from the president, informing you of the action of the bank on being notified by me of the charity you desire to extend to the suffering refugees and contrabands in St. Louis.

"I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,


"MAJ.-GEN. G. M. DODGE, Commanding, etc."


"March 14, 1865.

"MAJ.-GEN. G. M. DODGE, Commanding Department of the Missouri, St. Louis:

"DEAR SIR, — Our board, learning that you desired ten thousand dollars for charitable purposes, have this day appropriated one thousand dollars, and instructed me to place the amount in your hands, subject to such disposition as it may be your pleasure to make of it. Permit me to hand you herewith a check for the same.

"Respectfully, your obedient servant,

(Signed) "J. H, BRITTON, President."


"ST. LOUIS, MO., March 15, 1865.

"JAMES B. EADS, Esq., Member Board of Directors, Third National Bank, St. Louis, Mo.:

"DEAR SIR, — I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 14th inst., inclosing action of the Third National Bank of St. Louis, with check for one thousand dollars, to be used for the benefit of the destitute refugees and contrabands in St. Louis, for which, in their behalf, accept my thanks.

"I have suspended collection of the assessments, having been assured that your generous action will be emulated by others, and thereby relieve me from any further action or trouble in the matter.

"I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

"G. M. DODGE, "Major-General Commanding."

The provost-marshal-general, in February, seized about eight thousand dollars belonging to Wm. D. Merriwether, of Batesville, Ark., which was on deposit with the firm of L. Levering & Co. In March the same officer seized property and money valued at over one hundred thousand dollars, which belonged to Mrs. Lisinka C. Brown, a widow, who afterwards married Maj.-Gen. Ewell, of the Confederate army.

— On March 16th, J. E. D. Cousins, who had been chief of police of St. Louis for nearly four years, resigned, and Col. Bernard Laibold was appointed to fill the vacancy. Col. Laibold was born in Baden in 1827, and came to St. Louis about the year 1833. He served throughout the Mexican war, entered the Union service in the civil war on the 1st of August, 1861, as lieutenant-colonel of the Second Missouri Infantry, and on the 8th of January, 1863, was promoted to be colonel of the same regiment. He will be remembered for heroic conduct at Dalton, Ga. Having only four hundred and fifty men under his command, he was pressed by Gen. Wheeler, in command of something like ten thousand men. In reply to Gen. Wheeler's summons to surrender Col. Laibold returned the memorable answer, "I was placed here to defend the post, not to surrender it."

— Mrs. John Smith, a Confederate spy, was arrested in St. Louis on March 22d. Her arrest implicated quite a number of Southern sympathizers who suffered very severely for their imprudence.

— The neighborhood of Eleventh and O'Fallon Streets was the scene of great disorder and excitement on April 16th, occasioned by riotous demonstrations by a party of twelve or fifteen soldiers belonging to the Forty-first Missouri, who beat several citizens and a number of policemen.

— Mrs. Ada B. Haines, of St. Louis City, who had been released from the female department of Gratiot Street prison in the fall of 1864 by Gen. Rosecrans upon her giving bond in the sum of three thousand dollars to reside in the State of New York during the war, was released from her bond in April, and permitted to return to St. Louis. The case of Mrs. Haines, on the occasion of her arrest by the military authorities in the spring of 1863, excited a great deal of interest. She was convicted of being engaged in the service of the South as a kind of Confederate mail-carrier and agent, and banished South. She soon made her appearance again in the city, however, without permission of the authorities, she having learned that one of her children, whom she had left behind her in the care of friends, was ill. She was thereupon again arrested and placed in prison, where she remained five months, when she was released upon the interposition of influential loyal citizens on the terms above mentioned, John How becoming her bondsman in the sum required.

— The members of the St. Louis Presbytery, in session in the Old School Presbyterian Church, corner of Walnut and Sixteenth Streets, were waited upon on the 7th of April by the district provost-marshal, and each was required to take the oath of allegiance.

— The news of the occupation of Richmond, Va., reached St. Louis about noon on April 3d, and created the greatest excitement. Flags were

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displayed in all parts of the city, and business was almost entirely suspended. Bulletins were posted in front of the newspaper offices, and eager crowds gathered to read the news. Salutes were fired at each post and arsenal in the department in honor of the Union victories. The excitement was intensified on the 9th, when news was received of the surrender of Gen. R. E. Lee and his army.

— On April 10th Governor Thomas C. Fletcher issued the following proclamation:

"Whereas, An earnest of speedy peace to our war-distracted country has been given in the recent successes of the nation's brave army, under the guidance and protection of Almighty God; and for this hope of peace and the early restoration of the authority of the Constitution and the laws of the United States over the whole land it becomes us to give thanks to the Giver of all good;

"Now, therefore, I, Thomas C. Fletcher, Governor of the State of Missouri, do hereby earnestly recommend that Saturday the 15th day of April (instant), be observed throughout the State of Missouri by all good citizens as a day of thanksgiving to God, who giveth the victory to truth and justice; that on that day the people, regardless of all differences of opinion in the past, meet in their respective places of worship and unite in religious exercises, the evening of the day to be marked by large assemblages, to be addressed by patriotic speakers; and that, amid bonfires, illuminations, and resounding salutes of artillery, they testify their appreciation of the heroism of the army of the Union in the re-establishment of the national authority in Richmond, the seat of the insurgent forces, the capture of the Army of Northern Virginia, and of the manifestations of a disposition on the part of men in authority to stay the effusion of blood of Americans and freemen."

— On April 29th the Secretary of War directed that the recruiting of men, both white and colored, in the loyal States for the volunteer force be discontinued.

— Gen. Dodge, on May 12th, promulgated the following order, issued by Lieut.-Gen. Grant on May 8th:

"3. Paroled officers and men of the late rebel armies whose homes were, at the date of their joining the armies in States that have never been in rebellion, and who are not excepted from the benefit of the President's amnesty proclamation, will, upon taking the oath prescribed therein, be permitted to return to their former homes in those States."

— The following committee was appointed on June 16th to arrange for the reception of the returning veterans from Sherman's army:

On finance, P. H. Murphy, Tony Neiderweiser, E. Stafford, T. W. Heman, John O. Cavender, Edward Stevens, Adolph Ehlert, and Martin Keary, Judge T. J. Baily, treasurer; on music, E. C. Harrington; on badges, B. F. Daily; on decorations, H. H. Helmkamp; on dinner, James Peckham, B. H. Stone, and James Coff; on extra refreshments, Christian Stocklin, Samuel Wainwright, Julius Winklemeyer, Tony Neiderweiser, Edward Stevens, George Berg, James Peckham, R. R. Beck, F. Kretschmar.

— On June 20th considerable excitement was created in the city by the arrival of the Ninth Missouri Confederate Regiment, comprising ten full companies, and numbering about seven hundred officers and privates. This regiment was surrendered by Gen. E. Kirby Smith, and afterwards paroled at Baton Rouge. It arrived on the steamer "Maria Denning," and on the 21st the officers and men took the oath of allegiance before Capt. Richardson. The regiment had served four years, and was composed entirely of Missourians. It achieved considerable fame in the Confederacy for bravery and endurance, and was complimented by Gen. E. Kirby Smith as the best regiment that Missouri had furnished to the Confederate army. The following is a list of the officers and men of the regiment:

In the absence of Col. Mercer and Lieut.-Col. Richard Gainea, the regiment was commanded by Maj. Hughes.

Company A, Capt. Joseph A. Miller, First Lieut. P. M. Cox, Second Lieut. W. F. Carter.

Company B, Capt. George H. Willis, First Lieut. W. O. Keeble, Second Lieut. Thomas Walden.

Company C, Capt. W. F. Bond, First Lieut. James Leeper, Second Lieut. — Bass.

Company D, Capt. W. W. Stone, First Lieut. George Wayland, Second Lieut, William Wayland.

Company E, Capt. R. Brooks, First Lieut. Samuel Hart, Second Lieut. John W. Page.

Company F, Capt. F. Y. Doak, First Lieut. W. C. Campbell, Second Lieut. David Scott.

Company G, Capt. R. H. Edmondson, First Lieut. L. W. Hanie, Second Lieut. John Millsap.

Company H, Capt. D. H. Lindsay, First Lieut. H. T. Walker, Second Lieut. J. H. Montgomery.

Company I, Capt. J. W. Wallace, First Lieut. William Vaughan, Second Lieut. John W. Paxton.

Company K, Capt. John Hannah, First Lieut. H. Ferril, Second Lieut. S. H, Southerland.

The Republican, noticing the arrivals of the paroled Confederate regiments on June 23d, said, —

"During the present week there have arrived in the city five paroled infantry regiments and two battalions of cavalry, including the Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, and Sixteenth Veteran Infantry, and the Third and Fourth Battalions of cavalry, numbering in all about five thousand officers and privates. Of this number the larger portion have already taken the oath before Capt. Richardson, and many have proceeded on the way to their old homes in various parts of the State. Besides those mentioned there are now on the way to the city from Baton Rouge five or six other regiments, numbering about three, thousand. In the course of a few days all that portion of the rebel army which was recruited in Missouri, with the exception of a few who prefer to remain in the South, or to seek new homes in Texas or Mexico, or in foreign countries, will have returned to their farms, or their former places of labor or business throughout the State, and their character, habits, and feeling as soldiers will disappear as they resume their old habits as citizens. . . .

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"Yesterday morning there arrived by the ‘Belle Memphis,’ from Baton Rouge, the Fourth Missouri Cavalry, under Col. J. Q. Burbridge, and Col. Perkins' battalion, forming a part of Marmaduke's old brigade.

"We give a list of the officers of the Fourth Cavalry:

"Colonel. John Q. Burbridge, Price County; Lieutenant-Colonel, William J. Preston, Buchanan County; Major, James Porter, Lewis County; Adjutant, Daniel Hatch, Lewis County; Surgeon Bennett, Marion County.

"Company A, Capt. Jackson, Cape Girardeau County.

"Company B, Capt. Hicks, Dunklin County.

"Company C, Capt. David Sappington, St. Louis County.

"Company D, Capt. Jacobs, Shelby County.

"Company E, Capt. Hulett, Howard County.

"Company F, Capt. James O'Neil, Texas County.

"Company G, Capt. Roberts, Hickory County.

"We give a list also of the officers of Perkins' battalion:

"Colonel, C. J. Perkins, Randolph County; Major, T. B. Patten, Randolph County; Surgeon Gullett, Linn County.

"Company A, Capt. Frank Davis, Monroe County; First Lieut. Samuel Powell, Randolph County; Second Lieut. C. H. Gardner, Randolph County.

"Company B, Capt. M. G. Madlock, Randolph County; First Lieut, Turner, Randolph County; Second Lieut. William Sommers, Second Lieut. Baker, Randolph County.

"Company C, Capt. J. W. Bryson, Audrain County; First Lieut. Nathan Williams, Boone County; Second Lieut. Wisdom, Audrain County.

"Company D, Capt. Alexander Day, Callaway County; First Lieut. Joseph Boyd, Callaway County; Second Lieut. John Kelsaw, Callaway County.

"Company E, Capt. T. W. Todd, Howard County; First Lieut. Townsend Wright, Howard County; Second Lieut. William Webb, Howard County; Second Lieut. William Harding, Howard County.

"Company F, Capt. G. W. Rowland, Boone County; First Lieut. Ebenezer Arnold, Polk County; Second Lieut. T. B. Wade, Boone County; Second Lieut. William Frost, Boone County."

— On June 23d, Gen. Dodge issued the following order in reference to wearing the Confederate uniform in the city:

"1. Paroled officers and men of the late rebel armies are forbidden to wear within this department the uniform, or any part thereof, or other insignia of said rebel service. Exception, however, will be made in the case of private soldiers who are destitute of means, and such persons will be permitted for a short time to wear such clothing as is in their possession after stripping from the same all Confederate or State buttons and other insignia of the rebel service. In the case of officers of every rank no exception will be made, but such persons will be held to a prompt and strict compliance with this order, and any violation of its terms by either officers or soldiers will be considered as an act of hostility to the government of the United States, and will be punished accordingly."

— In June, Maj. Matlack, the provost-marshal of the district of St. Louis, was relieved from duty and the office abolished. In July, Gen. Dodge, before he took his departure for his new command at Leavenworth, closed up the secret service bureau of the provost-marshal-general's office in St. Louis, and forwarded the papers and records under seal to the War Department at Washington.

The closing of the provost-marshal's department in St. Louis ended the reign of the military commanders in Missouri. President Johnson, on June 23, 1865, rescinded the blockade proclamations issued April 15 and 17, 1861; removed further restrictions Aug. 29, 1865; annulled the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus Dec. 1, 1865; and on April 2, 1866, announced by proclamation that the rebellion had ended.

— Maj.-Gen. W. T. Sherman returned to his home in St. Louis early in July, 1865, and the following gentlemen, as a token of their appreciation of his distinguished military services, tendered him a dinner: Samuel T. Glover, Robert Campbell, F. Whittaker, T. T. Gantt, John J. Roe, Barton Able, Henry S. Turner, O. D. Filley, John How, Edgar Ames, John H. Fisse, William M. McPherson, Carlos S. Greeley, James O. Broadhead.

To their letter of invitation Gen. Sherman replied as follows:



"ST. LOUIS, MO., July 16, 1865.

"Messrs. S. T. Glover, William M. McPherson, T. T. Gantt, John How, Robert Campbell, and others:

"GENTLEMEN, — Your kind note tendering me a hearty welcome to your city and a dinner is received. I accept with pleasure, and appoint next Thursday evening at nine o'clock, as the time most agreeable to me for the proposed dinner.

"I deem it a most fortunate accident that events have cast me back to the very point whence I sallied at the beginning of the late momentous struggle, now so happily ended, and if the good citizens of St. Louis account me one of them, I accept the title with honor and satisfaction. I feel sure that St. Louis, as a city, is more than any other interested in maintaining a firm government and a united people, and therefore that my efforts in the past have tended especially to your welfare. So may it be in the future, and no man will more rejoice than I will to see your city again enter on that path of progress and wealth that was temporarily interrupted by a struggle begotten by ambitious and designing men.

"I am, with great respect, your friend and servant,

"W. T. SHERMAN, Major-General.

The following committees were then appointed to superintend the affair:

Committee of General Arrangements. — John How (chairman), Barton Able, D. A. January, George Maguire. Francis Whittaker, James Archer, Samuel T. Glover, H. T. Blow, J. O. Broadhead, Thomas T. Gantt, C. S. Greeley, C. P. E. Johnson, W. C. Jones, Robert Campbell, John B. Gray, Charles F. Cady, J. J. Witzig, George A. Mitchell, John H. Lightner, John McNeil, J. E. D. Couzins, C. M. Elleard, John J. Roe, Charles P. Johnson, R. E. Rombauer, John Hogan, George B. Kellogg, Edgar Ames, H. A. Homeyer, B. Gratz Brown, William J. Romyn, William E. Taussig, H. S. Turner, T. J. Dailey, E. H. E. Jameson, Gust. W. Dreyer.

Sub-Committees. — Executive Committee, John How, S. T. Glover, C. P. E. Johnson, Thomas T. Gantt, George B. Kellogg, John B. Gray; Invitation Committee, C. S. Greeley, John B. Gray, C. P. E. Johnson, John McNeil; Committee on Supper and Wines, Barton Able, W. J. Romyn, W. C. Jones, F. Whittaker,

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George Maguire, James Archer, C. P. E. Johnson, J. E. D. Couzins, C. M. Elleard, George A. Mitchell; Committee on Toasts and Responses, T. T. Gantt, J. O. Broadhead, George S. Kellogg, William E. Taussig; Committee on Decorations, Badges, and Music, Charles F. Cady, E. H. E. Jameson, T. J. Daily, J. E. D. Couzins, J. J. Witzig; Finance Committee, F. Whittaker, C. S. Greeley, Edgar Ames, Robert Campbell, H. S. Turner, John J. Roe, C. M. Elleard, H. A. Homeyer, Barton Able, treasurer.

The banquet was given at the Lindell Hotel on July 20th, and was a grand affair. There were over three hundred prominent persons present. Capt. Barton Able presided, and eloquent and patriotic speeches were made by Hon. S. T. Glover, Hon. J. S. Rollins, Gen. Sherman, Judge Moody, and others.

Gen. Sherman has been closely identified with St. Louis for many years, having been stationed at Jefferson Barracks in early life, and associated in business with the well-known St. Louis banking-house of James H. Lucas & Co. William Tecumseh Sherman was born in Lancaster, Ohio, on the 8th of February, 1820, and was the son of Hon. Charles R. Sherman, judge of the Supreme Court of Ohio, who died when young Sherman was nine years of age. The boy then entered the family of Hon. Thomas Ewing, and at the age of sixteen received an appointment as cadet at the Military Academy at West Point. His record at that institution was highly creditable, and he graduated in 1840, sixth in his class. He was at once appointed second lieutenant in the Third Infantry, and served with his regiment during the following year in the Florida war. In November, 1841, he was promoted to a second lieutenancy and ordered to Fort Moultrie, S. C. During 1843, while on leave of absence, he visited St. Louis, and was so much pleased with the city that he expressed the desire to make it his place of residence. Lieut. Sherman contracted during his stay in St. Louis many warm friendships which have survived the lapse of years.

When the Mexican war commenced, in 1846, he was engaged in recruiting service in Ohio, and at once applied for active duty, but instead of dispatching him to Mexico as he desired, the War Department ordered him to proceed with his regiment, the Third Artillery, to California. Accordingly, he repaired to New York, and sailed from that city on the 14th of July for the Pacific coast, reaching Monterey, the capital of Upper California, via Cape Horn, on the 26th of January, 1847. Being thus removed from the theatre of active military operations, Lieut. Sherman had but little opportunity of achieving distinction or of exhibiting the conspicuous talents which afterwards won him his present high rank as one of the foremost generals of the age. He discharged his duties on the Pacific slope, however, with great care and characteristic energy, and it so happened that the first gold discovered in California passed under his inspection when Col. Suter, the famous pioneer, applied to Governor Mason for the pre-emption of a tract of land. In his "Memoirs" Gen. Sherman gives an interesting and graphic description of the rush for gold which followed the publication of the official report prepared by the army officers.

In 1850 he returned from California, bearing dispatches for the War Department, and on reaching Washington was granted leave of absence for six months. After visiting his mother, at Mansfield, Ohio, he returned to Washington, where he was married to Miss Ellen Boyle Ewing, daughter of Hon. Thomas Ewing, then Secretary of the Interior, on the 1st of May, 1850. At this time his company, then commanded by Capt. Braxton Bragg, afterwards a distinguished Confederate general, was stationed at Jefferson Barracks, St. Louis; and shortly after reporting at the barracks he received his commission as captain, and was detailed to act as commissary of subsistence at St. Louis, where he was soon joined by his family. In September, 1852, Capt. Sherman was transferred to New Orleans, and about two months later, while stationed there, received a proposition from Maj. Henry S. Turner, of St. Louis, to aid in the establishment of a branch in San Francisco of the banking-house of James H. Lucas & Co., of St. Louis. Subsequently Mr. Lucas himself renewed the proposition, and Capt. Sherman finally determined to accept the position of resident and managing partner of the firm of Lucas, Turner & Co., as the California house was styled at San Francisco.

On the 6th of September, 1853, he resigned his commission in the army, and proceeded with his family to the Pacific coast. For several years he conducted the affairs of the firm in San Francisco with energy and success, and was quite prominent in the affairs of that city. In 1857, however, he came to the decision that it was not desirable to continue the California branch any longer, and his suggestion to that effect having been approved by the parent house, he returned to St. Louis, where, at the request of his partners, he proceeded to New York, and opened there, in July, 1857, a branch of the St. Louis firm. The financial panic of that year, however, caused the abandonment of the enterprise, and in 1858, Capt. Sherman associated himself with Thomas Ewing, Jr., in the practice of the law at Leavenworth, Kan. In July, 1859, he was elected superintendent of the Louisiana Military Academy, and remained in charge

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of that institution until Jan. 18, 1861, when he addressed a letter to Governor O'Moore, announcing his intention to resign his position in case Louisiana seceded from the Union. When the political course of the State had been determined he accordingly withdrew and repaired to St. Louis, where he was made president of the Fifth Street Passenger Railroad.

Soon after taking charge of the company's affairs, he was offered the chief clerkship of the War Department, but declined it. On the 8th of May, however, he tendered his services to the government, and on the 14th was appointed colonel of the Thirteenth Infantry. Three days later he was made brigadier-general of volunteers, and commanded a brigade in the first battle of Bull Run (July 21st). In October he was assigned to the Department of the Cumberland, and upon the retirement of Gen. Robert Henderson from the command of that department he was appointed his successor, but subsequently, at his own request, was transferred to St. Louis, where he took charge of the camp of instruction. He remained at St. Louis until February, 1862, when he was assigned to the command of the District of Paducah, Ky. In the Tennessee and Mississippi campaign he commanded the Fifth Division under Gen. Grant, and was wounded in the battle of Shiloh (April 6th and 7th). He also took part in the movement against Corinth, and in the siege of that place (April 15th to May 30th), and on the 1st of May was made major-general of volunteers. Gen. Sherman commanded the expedition which attempted the capture of Vicksburg on the 27th of December, and while in command of the Fifteenth Army Corps led the assault on Arkansas Post, on the 11th of January, 1863. He took an active and prominent part in the siege of Vicksburg, and was appointed brigadier-general in the regular army in the summer of the same year, his commission dating from July 4th, the day of the surrender of Vicksburg. After the fall of this important point he was assigned to the command of the Army of the Tennessee, and at the battle of Chattanooga (November 23-25) commanded the left wing of the army. In December he compelled the Confederate Gen. Longstreet to raise the siege of Knoxville, and in February of the following year (1864) broke up the railroads centring at Meriden, Miss.

On the 12th of March, 1864, he took command of the Division of the Mississippi, succeeding Gen. Grant, who had been appointed general-in-chief of the army. The division comprised the Departments of the Ohio, the Cumberland, the Tennessee, and the Arkansas. Gen. Sherman addressed himself more particularly to the task of subduing the Confederate forces in Georgia under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, and for that purpose collected at Chattanooga an army of one hundred thousand men. After a series of successful engagements with the enemy he occupied Marietta, an important strategic point, on the 3d of July, and subsequently defeated Gen. Hood, Gen. Johnston's successor, the campaign culminating in the battle of Atlanta. He was appointed major-general in the regular army on the 12th of August, and fought the battle of Jonesboro' on the 31st. On the following day Gen. Hood evacuated Atlanta, which was then occupied by the Union forces, and about the middle of November Gen. Sherman began his famous "march to the sea." He reached Savannah on the 13th of December, and laid siege to that city, which surrendered on the 21st. On the 17th of February he occupied Columbia, S. C., and then invaded North Carolina. Raleigh was occupied by his army on the 13th of April, and on the 26th, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, commanding the Confederate forces, surrendered at Durham Station. He then proceeded north with his army, arriving in Washington on the 24th of May, and on the 27th of June was appointed to the command of the Division of the Mississippi, comprising the Departments of the Ohio, Missouri, and Arkansas, with headquarters at St. Louis. On the 25th of July, 1866, he succeeded Gen. Grant as lieutenant-general, and on the 11th of August took command of the Department of the Missouri. In the fall of the same year he was sent on a special mission to Mexico, and on the 4th of March, 1869, was made general of the army to succeed Gen. Grant, who had been elected President of the United States. In the autumn of 1871, having obtained leave of absence, he went to Europe, and spent nearly a year visiting the different countries of the Old World. Upon his return to the United States he established himself at Washington, but in October, 1874, removed his headquarters to St. Louis. Subsequently, however, he returned to Washington, where he now has his headquarters.

— The ladies of St. Louis early in July determined to form a Missouri Southern Relief Association, and organized by the election of the following officers: Silas Bent, chairman; Charles Miller, treasurer; John G. Shelton, Jr., recording secretary; and Messrs. G. G. Schoolfield, George R. Robinson, William H. Pittman, R. H. Spencer, J. W. Larimore, and John S. Dyer, corresponding secretaries.

The grand Southern Relief Fair was inaugurated on October 10th, in the building of the St. Louis Warehouse Company, on Chouteau Avenue, Fifth, Sixth, and Papin Streets. The fair was a signal

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success, and its managers realized a princely sum for their noble charity, — the succor of helpless widows and orphans, made such by the events of a terrible war.

— Notwithstanding Missouri was a slave State at the beginning of the war and furnished a large quota of men to the Confederate army, it contributed more volunteers to the Union army than did eight free States. If the matter of population is taken into account without allowance for the Confederate soldiers who went out of the State, Missouri will still make a more favorable showing than most of the strong free States. Thus Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont had 87,438 more people in 1860 than Missouri, and yet Missouri sent 55,106 more volunteers to fight the battles of the Union. Again, Rhode Island, Minnesota. Kansas, and Iowa had only 53,248 fewer people in 1860 than Missouri, and yet Missouri furnished 50,820 more soldiers. Again, with but little more than twice as large a population as Iowa, Missouri sent out 40,313 more than twice as many Union soldiers.

The War Department in 1879 issued a statement giving the number of men furnished the Union army by each State and Territory and the District of Columbia from April 15, 1861, to the close of the war of the Rebellion. It shows that the total number of volunteers was 2,678,967, distributed as follows:

Maine 72,114
New Hampshire 36,629
Vermont 35,262
Massachusetts 152,048
Rhode Island 23,699
Connecticut 57,379
New York 467,047
New Jersey 81,010
Pennsylvania 366,107
Delaware 13,670
Maryland 50,316
West Virginia 32,068
District of Columbia 16,872
Ohio 319,659
Indiana 197,147
Illinois 259,147
Michigan 89,372
Wisconsin 96,424
Minnesota 25,052
Iowa 76,309
Missouri 199,111
Kentucky 79,025
Kansas 20,151
Tennessee 31,092
Arkansas 8,289
North Carolina 3,156
California 15,725
Nevada 1,080
Oregon 1,810
Washington Territory 964
Nebraska Territory 3,159
Colorado Territory 4,903
Dakota Territory 206
New Mexico Territory 6,561
Alabama 2,576
Florida 2,190
Louisiana 8,224
Mississippi 545
Texas 1,965
Indian Nation 3,503

The following tables, made up from the official report of the War Department, will prove interesting, as they demonstrate our statements. Missouri must have been quite a loyal State if the number of men she furnished the Union army be taken as a test of loyalty, and this is the only true test:

Missouri   199,111
Vermont 35,262  
New Hampshire 36,629  
Rhode Island 23,699  
Minnesota 25,052  
Connecticut 57,379  
California 15,725  
Nevada 1,080  
Oregon 1,810  
Missouri over all   2,475
Missouri   199,111
Michigan 89,372  
Iowa 76,309  
Minnesota 25,052  
Nebraska 3,159  
Oregon 1,810  
Nevada 1,080  
Missouri over all   2,329
Missouri   199,111
Wisconsin 96,424  
Iowa 76,309  
Minnesota 25,052  
Nevada 1,080  
Missouri over all   246
Furnished by 26 States — 13 free, 13 slave.
Maine 72,114
New Hampshire 36,629
Vermont 35,262
Rhode Island 23,699
Connecticut 57,379
Minnesota 25,052
Kansas 20,151
California 15,725
Colorado 4,903
Nebraska 3,159
Oregon 1,810
Nevada 1,080
Iowa 76,309
Missouri 199,111
Kentucky 79,025
W. Virginia (part of Virginia) 32,068
Tennessee 31,092
Maryland 50,316
Delaware 13,670
Arkansas 8,289
Louisiana 8,224
North Carolina 3,156
Alabama 2,576
Florida 2,190
Texas 1,965
Mississippi 545
Thirteen slave States over the same number of free States 58,955

Military Roster. — The first Union military organization in St. Louis originated in a meeting held early in the year 1861 in the counting-room of O. D. Filley, on Main Street, for the purpose of organizing a body of Union men to repel any attack which might be made by Southern sympathizers. Those present were enrolled, and others joined at subsequent meetings, which were held for some time in the third story of a house on Olive Street, above Twelfth, and in a house owned by Benjamin Farrar, on Seventh Street, near St. Charles. The floors of both buildings were strewn with sawdust to avoid noise in drilling. The roster of the first Union company formed was as follows:

F. P. Blair, Jr. (captain), Henry Hitchcock, Silas Reed, Thomas Cuddy, B. M. Joel, William McKee. Fred. I. Dean (second lieutenant), J. H. Lightner, William S. Hillyer, Frank G. Porter, James Peckham, T. P. Loesch, J. D. Leonard, Joseph M. Hallenbeck, H. L. Pinney, J. McCormack, Joseph E. Boggs, William P. Hollister, William Z. Clark, Lucien Eaton, Jacob Buhr, H. A. Conant, H. Sand, Henry Halterlien, John Service, John McFall, Alexis Mudd, R. J. Healy, W. D. Bowen, Henry Kuntz, William H. Mills, John Popp, William Gadmon, Theodore C. M. Tracie, James J. Wishart, —— Ripply, F. H. Mauter, John P. McGrath, William Cuddy, E. M. Joel, Charles W. Branscome,

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A. S. Thurneck, W. C. Smith, D. M. Houser, Jacob S. Merrill, Michael Summers, C. W. Anderson (first lieutenant), William C. Mahew, Samuel Knox, N. M. Christian, John E. Walker, L. Marsow, Henry McKee, Charles Castello, F. Van Braemer, Thomas Woody, Fred. Broomerfaf, George Casper, Charles Wappiel, D. Kerr, C. H. Lippman, — Gordon, George Pope, R. B. Beck, Thomas Mennott, Henry Gurth, N. B. McPherson, Patrick Costiggan, J. Peter Nee, John J. Russell, James Oats, S. T. Glover, Charles Osburg.

In less than a fortnight several full companies were formed in different parts of the city composed of earnest Union men. There was an "inside organization" and an "outside organization." The latter was composed of the companies themselves, and the former of the power that controlled them. Mr. Blair was president of the inside organization, and E. M. Joel secretary. All the members acted in concert with the Committee of Safety, of which O. D. Filley was chairman, and James O. Broadhead secretary. The roster of the different companies was as follows:

Grand Drill-Master, C. F. Larned.

East Division, Union Club. — President, Chester Harding, Jr.; two hundred men.

West Division, Union Club. — President, —— Fecklenburg; two hundred men.

Fourth Ward, Union Black Rifles. — Captain, George Dahmer; first lieutenant, Gus. Boernstein; second lieutenant, A. Boernstein; eighty men.

Fifth Ward, Union Club. — S. T. Glover, president; George A. Schaeffer, secretary; one hundred and five men.

Seventh Ward, Union Guard. — Captain, Julius Wagner; first lieutenant, Frank Golde; second lieutenant, Charles Nager; fifty-eight men.

Tenth Ward, Union Guard. — Captain, Linkerman; first lieutenant, Wingar; second lieutenant, Siegermann; sixty-five men.

Second Ward, Black Rifles (Company A). — Captain, Chris. Goerish; first lieutenant, George Geigler; second lieutenant, Philip Frank; one hundred and thirty-six men.

Second Ward, Black Rifles (Company B) — Captain, Bernard Klein; first lieutenant, Ferd. Schuddig; second lieutenant, John A. Lippard; ninety-six men.

Company No. 5, Union Guard. — Captain, Geo. Smith; first lieutenant, Joe Gerwina: second lieutenant, John Nolte; fifty-three men.

Citizen Guard. — Captain, C. E. Solomon; first lieutenant, F. W. Noel; second lieutenant, A. Albert; eighty-three men.

Citizen Guard. — Captain, C. D. Wolf; sixty men.

Black Rifles. — Captain, Ott; first lieutenant, Hrudicka; second lieutenant, Nickerle; forty-six men.

Mounted Citizens' Guard. — Captain, Henry Almstedt; forty men.

Black Rifles. — Captain, Fred. Niegermann; first lieutenant, Wm. Rotterman; second lieutenant, D. Gronemeier; one hundred and twenty men.

Third Ward, Union Guard. — N. Schuttner, major; forty men.

Black Jaegers. — Captain, Michael Praester; first lieutenant, P. Miller; second lieutenant, C. Weiss; sixty men.

The following is a list of those who, in addition to Capt. Blair's company, in January, 1861, organized secretly for the purpose of sustaining the government of the Union and to protect Union men in St. Louis, but more especially to protect the St. Louis arsenal from falling into the hands of the Confederates:


Bernhard Klein, captain; Ferd. Schueddig, first lieutenant; J. Peter Lipphardt, second lieutenant; Julius Sauer, quartermaster.

Altenbach, Chr.
Adrian, Friedrich.
Altschul, Leopold.
Altschul, Charles.
Abler, Samuel.
Amitt, Peter.
Berk, Ernst.
Beckmann, Charles.
Bruno, Charles.
Becher, John.
Drum, Charles.
Ewald, Leopold.
Emunuel, N.
Emanuel, Samuel.
Evertz, C.
Everts, Friedrich.
Franck, George.
Flugel, Jacob.
Gelzhauser, Andres.
Gettler, M.
Gessert, Chr.
Geldmacher, Fried.
Geldmacher, Karl.
Gleichaup, J. C.
Grison, Christopher.
Heder, Balthaser.
Hinterscheitt, John.
Hesse, Ferd.
Heinze, Henry.
Horn, Conrad.
Herby, John.
Heller, M.
Hart, Alex.
Jung, Chr.
Jost, Charles.
Klein, Louis.
Koeunker, William.
Kob, Andreas.
Kaltwasser, F. P.
Kaltwasser, Fred.
Krause, John.
Klein, Albert.
Klarenbach, Gustav.
Knoblauch, Chr.
Leilich, Franz.
Loeffel, William.
Lange, Emil.
Lorenz, Henry.
Maurer, Adam.
Magnus, M.
Montag, A.
Meithe, E.
Mees, P.
Mads, August.
Melcher, Gustav.
Nickerl, Franz.
Nitz, Ph.
Neun, Ph.
Neun, Charles.
Oekenfuss, John.
Rohs, Valentin.
Reichert, Jacob.
Rogge, Herman.
Stark, Dr. C. E.
Stamm, Fried.
Sicher, M.
Sauer, August.
Spengler, Fried.
Stoecker, Robert.
Schueddig, Fred.
Stoecker, Fred.
Threscher, George.
Trauer, M.
Trauer, A.
Templer, William.
Voght, Anton.
Vasterling, Fried.
Wodiska, Ignatz.
Wippermann, George.
Wilz, Franz.


— Ott, captain; — Hrudicka. first lieutenant; — Nickerlie, second lieutenant; J. Mottel, quartermaster.

Bily, M.
Bauda, Jacob.
Bilek, Wenzel.
Celerin, Ignatz.
Dolar, Fritz.
Holy, L. J.
Hayek, W.
Karel, J.
Kristufek, Jacob.
Koran, Jacob.
Konat, Thomas.
Loyda, Albert.
Machacek, John.
Macha, M.
Meyer, Joseph.
Moller, W.
Massek, Fr.
Polak, Matthias.
Pamiska, Wenzel.
Pericha, John.

-- 455 --

Richa, Math.
Stessanek, John.
Swacina, J.
Stodola, Joseph.
Slika, John.
Schultz, Joseph.
Sissek, Joseph.
Serry, W. J.
Suda, A. M.
Sery, Sr.
Trescher, S.
Wodika, Ignatz.
Worel, John.
Wesselly, Emil.
Wirlel, John.
Woracek, Wenzel.
Zonf, Joseph.
Zika, John.


Henry Almstedt, captain pro tem.

Almstedt, H.
Alfelt, C.
Block, J.
Burger, John.
Berg, Nich.
Berg, Fred.
Balz, William.
Decker, William.
Fath, Jacob.
Flore, Edward.
Garney, Thomas.
Gleisser, William.
Keppler, Ch.
Kohler, Conrad.
Lipphardt, H.
Launert, Conrad.
Maurer, S.
Marschael, A.
May, G.
Okel, C.
Ottenat, John.
Ostz, Lewis.
Pollack, P.
Remhardt, G.
Reuneberg, George.
Reith, J.
Reinhart, J.
Rintzkopf, J.
Rapp, Fred.
Scheitz, John.
Schliete, John.
Stoll, H.
Schaefer, G.
Seiber, John.
Stieffer, Frantz.
Slawick, Albert.
Schneider, M.
Weber, B.
Wacker, John.
Woethe, Joseph.


Chris. Goerisch, captain; George Zigler, first lieutenant; Ph. Frank, second lieutenant.

Ackerman, Peter.
Anheiser, Peter.
Benning, Henry.
Bloetz, John.
Beitzoldt, Carl.
Brehm, T. C.
Ballmann, Theo.
Bernnard, Fred.
Besk, E. A.
Behr, George.
Bauschnaurt, Michael.
Ballmann, Valentine.
Baumgarden, Henry.
Biskenburg, Caspar.
Boldonen, George.
Blorcker, F.
Bang, George.
Becker, Caspar.
Biemann, George.
Clumn, Carl.
Daub, John.
Draspz, Felix.
Dawer, C.
Doll, William.
Dotte, Ed.
Eckert, Chr.
Englemann, A.
Frank, Ch.
Freukes, Gerhardt.
Fugle, F.
Grau, John G.
Goessel, August.
Geroldt, E.
Guitzahr, E. B.
Gleisk, Jacob.
Gleisk, Nich.
Goerisch, Jacob.
Goerisch, David.
Gizzike, T. W.
Geisel, Ph.
Haefner, A.
Hauser, Carl.
Holwez, A.
Harting, Wilhelm
Heisel, Cassimer.
Hesse, Herman.
Hoffmann, John.
Haffti, Thomas.
Helmn, John.
Hunicke, John.
Hunicke, Julius.
Klink, Peter.
Kerner, T. Ch.
Klein, Henry.
Klein, Lewis.
Kinnbe, Ed.
Kaufmann, Chr.
Kuetzel, A.
Kortmann, Louis.
Landfried, Jacob.
Lorentz, Henry.
Lehm, Chr.
Mettzau, A.
Maxwell, James.
Milbach, A.
Morsch, Adam.
Muller, A.
Mohr, Ludwig.
Meschab, Philipp.
Nessel, Henry.
Nagel, Conrad.
Nax, Ph.
Ohl, William.
Ost, L.
Petry, Jacob.
Petreh, Ed.
Prach, Jacob.
Ranft, Adam.
Reis, Jacob.
Rossel, Martin.
Rascher, Willigan.
Rausch, Emil.
Rogge, Herman.
Ruf, Stephen.
Rolfing, Henry.
Spahn, P.
Stock, Peter.
Schmidt, Herman.
Stetter, Paul.
Stoll, Carl.
Seinert, Nicholas.
Stumpf, Henry.
Schneider, Ph.
Schmaudt, Hardin.
Saupe, Carl.
Sandermann, Gottleib.
Stoeber, Henry.
Stremmler, John.
Seipp, Conrad.
Saude, Ferd.
Tahter, Joseph.
Teuber, August.
Vowenskel, Jacob.
Volhers, W. H.
Winzliek, Peter.
Wolf, Gustav.
Walter, Ph.
Wenger, Joseph.
Wetzel, John.
Wallet, Jacob.
Wurster, Fred.
Wagner, Gustav
Weisenborn, Chr.
Waldemeier, Chr.
Wand, Henry.
Zauer, Ph.
Zimmer, Conrad.


Fred, Niegemann, captain; Wm. Rotermann, first lieutenant D. Gronemeier, second lieutenant.

Arand, D.
Arnold, Fred.
Andres, —
Auton, J.
Anders, C.
Bruhlinger, W.
Brandle, B.
Bolte, H.
Blosser, F.
Bonifer, M.
Buschle, J.
Bastian, J.
Bernhard, J.
Bauge, H. A.
Brauer, C.
Cunzelmann, C.
Dunkler, F.
Deibing, L.
Doerr, G.
Dunke, F.
Duermeier, H.
Ellersick, H.
Erb, J. A.
Fischbach, F.
Flugelmann, B.
Gerauf, C.
Gottelmann, P. G.
Gottelmann, John.
Grund, A.
Gutter, F. A.
Goebel, Franz.
Horst, C.
Hausfurther, G.
Huxhold, G.
Heim, G.
Herbst, H.
Halbes, H.
Hufshmidt, P.
Hoffmann, L.
Jobs, J.
Jost, J. D.
Kleibstein, A.
Kutzer, H.
Keppert, E.
Kuell, V.
Kaufmann, P.
Kussling, M.
Kramer, J.
Keller, T.
Kick, C.
Koch, J.
Lange, J.
Lamer, L.
Lieblang, N.
Lungenbuhl, E.
Mahrs, H.
Mack, F.
Mahrs, August.
Mackes, A.
Muckstadt, J.
Mackes, H.
Muller, W.
Neuenhaus, H.
Nagel, Jacob.
Neustatter, F.
Neumeister, G.
Obenauer, M.
Reisse, Wm.
Reisse, C. A.
Reighner, A.

-- 456 --

Reuting, H.
Rudolph, F.
Rio, L.
Reisser, J.
Rotermann, T.
Rieth, G.
Spuhler, P.
Saller, A.
Sterner, J.
Schatz, M.
Schmidt, H.
Strob, F.
Schubert, J.
Schadler, J.
Schartz, C.
Schartz. B.
Stupp, P.
Seybold, W.
Schmahlenbach, M.
Thoma, A.
Ufen, A.
Ullins, H.
Vogel, A.
Volz, C.
Wolf, J.
Withrosch, Wm.
Wolf, Chr.
Weiss, J.
Will, H.
Westhus, T.
Zesch, M.
Zesch, R.


Moritz Schoenfeld, captain; Fred. Unger, first lieutenant; Francis Unger, second lieutenant; Leopold Helmpt, third lieutenant.

Argast, Sebastian.
Boemer, Ferd.
Berk, Fred.
Carrel, Ph.
Duebelweiss, John.
Dreyer, George.
Dreyfuss, John.
Engel, Moritz.
Engert, Sebastian.
Eschlebach, George.
Eckert, Frank.
Fauth, Jacob.
Federle, M. S.
Frohnhoeffer, Aug.
Gibel, Edmund.
Horn, Adam.
Koenig, Nicholas.
Kaiser, Jacob.
Lendy, Henry.
Leoscher, Wm.
Maurice, Wm.
Maess, R.
Mueller, And.
Mueller, Gus. T.
Metz, Andreas.
Nuss, Henry.
Necker, Jacob.
Nerker, John.
Pleeish, Charles.
Roemer, William.
Raab, Andreas.
Ruedi, John.
Schneeweiss, Ch.
Seinninger, Steph.
Steiner, Ph.
Schiller, George.
Striehel, George.
Stumpf, Chr.
Schmerthe, Theo.
Schreiner, Fred.
Stapff, Danl.
Schneeweiss, Wm.
Sutter, Gottlieb.
Sturbarth, Adolph.
Steitz, Ludwig.
Volkmann, John.


Nicholas Schuttner, major.

Ackerman, John.
Brauns, Aug.
Baeker, John.
Bottcher, Adolph.
Coring, F. H.
Clauditz, Hy.
Diekhorner, H. W.
Eckman, Chas.
Freudt, Chas.
Gulde, Frank.
Gross, Henry.
Glorius, Wilhelm.
Gosker, Hy.
Hittman, Wilhelm.
Herr, Max.
Haug, Jacob.
Hartman, Fr.
Herwig, Wilhelm.
Herzog, Ed.
Hagner, Charles.
Haug, Alex.
Koch, Henry.
Koth, Chas.
Langenstrasen, Aug.
Lipf, John.
Morelbach, Charles.
Obrecht, Fred.
Osburg, Chris.
Pross, Andreas.
Rein, John.
Schadler, Wilhelm.
Schaffer, Alfred.
Schnabel, Anton.
Schonhardt, Chr.
Sauer, John.
Schobb, Ph.
Schwauter, Adolph.
Venn, Robt.
Valkenet, John.
Vollmer, Wilhelm.
Walther, Michael.
Weigel, John.
Wagner, Julius.
Wagner, E. F.
Willcricpt, Hy.
Wertheim, Joseph.
Weigel, Jacob.


Michael Priester, captain; P. Muller, first lieutenant; C. Weiss, second lieutenant.

Aurnst, A. F.
Bloecher, C.
Buk, Karl.
Bauer, W.
Burkel, F.
Bruckmauar, H.
Dreyer, J. H.
Drowinger, L.
Derpp, Henry.
Ekert, F.
Faller, A.
Gutgeman, J.
Gessman, C.
Hausler, H.
Hornbach, M.
Hoffman, A.
Hoerer, J.
Hacker, F.
Huck, L.
Heim, Geo.
Jobs, Jacob.
Krauss, A.
Kolbing, F.
Kolbing, A.
Knell, V.
Kastler, Adam.
Kaufman, P.
Lick, Frank.
Linder, Geo.
Patow, John.
Roch, John.
Stas, C.
Stender, F.
Stoener, D.
Sauerwein, F.
Sauerwein, U.
Sauerwein, C.
Schaeffer, P.
Schmidtz, L.
Schoeneman, L.
Schuller, A.
Weber, C.
Weyant, J.
Wyant, J.
Wilderger, J.
Wolf, Louis.
Zick, W.


George Dahmer, captain; Gus. Boernstein, first lieutenant; Aug. Guntzel, second lieuenant.

Adam, Aug.
Alis, Jacob.
Busch, Jacob.
Berg, Hy.
Bayer, B.
Brekle, John.
Beyrer, Albert.
Bossard, Herman.
Deitz, Fr.
Deyple, Charles.
Gotz, John.
Gluckert, Fr.
Guide, Fr.
Gerichtel, J.
Gunther, W.
Gerichten, P.
Haier, R.
Heizmann, Jos.
Hahn, John.
Hemle, Leopold.
Krumholz, John.
Kayser, John.
Kesten, Daniel.
Keil, Wm.
Lind, Jno.
Leberg, Martin.
Leilich, Fr.
Mittmann, W.
Mayer, W.
Mettbach, Albert.
Mayer, Fr.
Mantel, C. P.
Muller, Chr.
Mayer, T. H.
Maier, P. H.
Ott, Chr.
Reisse, Ernst.
Rapp, Wm.
Ruedi, T. W.
Schunk, George.
Steiner, Jacob.
Schlumpf, William.
Schmidt, Mack.
Schaereff, Ch.
Schuster, A. J.
Schadt, Otto.
Sukoff, J.
Schmitt, Peter.
Siefert, E.
Saups, Chas.
Stubenrauch, Charles.
Stoehr, Martin.
Stroh, Lud.
Warneke, T. Henry.
Walz, Joseph.
Wichner, Jno.
Waechter, L.
Wiedmann, Hy.
Weiss, George.

-- 457 --


Gotfried Schmidt, captain; Joseph Gerwiner, first lieutenant; John Nolte, second lieutenant.

Aberle, Const.
Anhauser, Peter.
Bauer, H.
Barttelt, F.
Bouhner, H.
Bardell, Ferd.
Claus, H.
Dage, H.
Dewald, Peter.
Dewald, Nick.
Datweiler, Jacob.
Ernst, George E.
Fink, W.
Fipper, Julius.
Flaminger, J.
Fahler, A.
Huebner, Ed.
Herkel, H.
Hinzpeter, F.
Hamm, Herman.
Hoehl, J.
Heinz, A.
Hehrlein, S. H.
Hemler, Frank.
Hanisch, D.
Herschoman, A.
Hamm, Wm.
Harwigh, H.
Kaiser, G. P.
Kassel, Fred.
Kiepart, A.
Kircher, J.
Kulin, J. O.
Lemmer, J.
Lehn, A.
Muech, J.
Meyer, B. V.
Marbeth, J.
Maier, M.
Ott, Henry.
Polzer, J.
Schmitter, J.
Spietzig, Carl.
Schweizer, C.
Schandzler, Tr.
Schaller, J.
Spehn, J.
Soll, F.
Schnell, H.
Ulz, J.
Vogt, Jacob.
Vedder, H. P.
Wohlehlager, B.
Weber, Wm.
Wiesean, A.
Wagner, H.
Zahn, Fr.

Among the meetings held by Union men during the winter of 1861 was one which took place at a lawyer's office, and which was attended by O. D. Filley, Giles F. Filley, James O. Broadhead, F. A. Dick, Barton Able, Charles M. Elleard, William McKee, B. Gratz Brown, S. T. Glover, Benjamin Farrar, Samuel Simmons, P. L. Foy, and F. P. Blair. Messrs. S. T. Glover and F. P. Blair urged the importance of arming on the part of Union men without delay, but the meeting broke up without reaching any definite conclusion. Another meeting was held at Washington Hall about the 1st of February, at which a military organization was effected, and a company of Union Guards enrolled for secret drill. It was suggested that Francis P. Blair should be made the colonel of the regiment, but that gentleman, anticipating a visit to Washington, advised the appointment of O. D. Filley, John How, Samuel T. Glover, James O. Broadhead, and J. J. Witzig as a Committee of Safety. The suggestion was adopted, and the committee entered at once upon the active discharge of its duties. The organization at Washington Hall and the arming and drilling of the Union men were conducted with the utmost secrecy. The members of the recently disbanded Wide Awakes were enrolled into military companies, which drilled at night in the foundry of Giles F. Filley, in a house on the east side of Seventh Street, near St. Charles, owned by the Farrars; in the brewery of Mr. Winkelmeyer, on Market Street; in Washington Hall, in Yaeger's Garden, and elsewhere. The meeting-places were always approached with caution, and guards were stationed outside to prevent surprise.

After these companies had been organized the question arose as to how the means might be procured for arming them. It was decided that it would be unwise to apply to the authorities at the arsenal for arms, as such application might expose their plans to the secession leaders. In this quandary Capt. Blair applied to Messrs. E. A. and S. R. Filley, leading merchants of St. Louis and earnest friends of the Union cause, for assistance and advice. They agreed with him that arms should be at once procured, and Samuel R. Filley offered to raise the necessary funds. It was thought at first that three hundred dollars would be sufficient to purchase such arms as could be privately disposed of immediately, and this amount was speedily secured, E. A. and S. R. Filley subscribing one hundred dollars, and O. D. Filley and Giles F. Filley each one hundred dollars. Capt. Blair himself added twenty-five dollars, and with this amount purchased seventy muskets from T. J. Albright for four hundred and seven dollars and ninety cents, giving a due bill for the amount (eighty-two dollars and ninety cents) not covered by the subscription of three hundred and twenty-five dollars. Governor Yates, of Illinois, also contributed about two hundred muskets for the use of the Union men of St. Louis, the guns being shipped to Giles F. Filley, in the care of Woodward & Co., hardware dealers, Main Street, St. Louis. Upon their arrival they were taken to Turner Hall in a beer-wagon, under cover of a lot of beer-barrels, and distributed to members of the Union Guard. Woodward & Co. had also sixty Sharp's rifles, which Giles F. Filley had purchased, in order to prevent them from falling into the hands of the secessionists, and which he reserved for the use of the company that was drilling in his own foundry. About fifty other guns were transferred by Mr. Woodward to the Union Guard, the pay for which, it is said, he never claimed. In addition to these, a number of arms were procured by different Union citizens, "and thus, silently and secretly, there were enough muskets and rifles reported to Mr. Blair to arm a regiment." 309

It now became necessary to raise a considerable sum for the work of the Committee of Safety, and after a full consultation in the store of O. D. Filley, Messrs. Samuel R. Filley and E. W. Fox agreed to

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act as a committee to solicit subscriptions in order to raise funds not only for the use of the committee, but for the use of the Guards, "upon whom Union men relied for the defense of the arsenal." It was thought at first that one thousand dollars would be sufficient, but subsequently, when it was found that more assistance would be needed, the committee acted in conjunction with a sub-committee of the Committee of Safety and the colonels of the first four regiments of volunteers.

The following firms and individuals contributed one hundred dollars each in response to the application of Messrs. Samuel K. Filley and E. W. Fox: Henning & Woodruff, Child, Pratt & Fox, Cash (H. Weil & Bro.), J. B. Sickles, Wolfe & Hoppe, Robert Holmes, Cash, Giles F. Filley, Oliver D. Filley, Greeley & Gale, Samuel C. Davis & Co., Pike & Kellogg, Benjamin Farrar, Pomroy & Benton, Lee Claflin, Thomas Mellen (Philadelphia), E. A. & S. R. Filley, Partridge & Co., Isaac V. Brown, Ubsdell, Peirson & Co., N. P. Coburn, Goodrich, Willard & Co., H. Crevelin, Bridge, Beach & Co., Thomas T. Gantt, Dr. M. L. Linton.

The following subscribed fifty dollars each: Christopher & Richards, Eben Richards, D. Durkee, Chauncey I. Filley, H. Ames & Co., H. J. Loring & Co., John Tilden, Archer, Whitesides & Co., A. S. Roberts, Jr., J. F. Comstock & Co., T. B. Edgar, Henry Whitmore, Morris Collins, James Brown, O. B. Filley, Cutter & Tirrill, Cash.

The following subscribed twenty-five dollars each: Solomon Smith, Plant & Bro., Cash, H. Whitmore, Morris Collins, Mr. Richardson, P. L. Foy, E. B. Hubbell, Jr., L. & C. Speck & Co., J. H. Lightner, Samuel G. Reed, R. J. Howard, H. C. Creveling, James Harkness, Claflin, Allen & Co., Stranger from Western Missouri, Reed & Co.

Twenty-dollar subscriptions: G. B. Smith, Capt. J. B. Phillips, Henry Martin, J. H. Andrew.

Ten-dollar subscriptions: J. M. Brown, L. W. Patchin & Co., Thomas Taylor, J. H. Simpson, C. F. Eggers, Henry Pettis, George D. English, Stephen Hoyt, H. Bakewell, W. H. Tasker, R. P. Studley, E. Greenleaf, S. Bonner, William Rumbold, Cash, Woodbury & Scott.

Five-dollar subscriptions: E. Crawshaw, J. Crawshaw, Jr., J. Crawshaw, S. Gardner, M. J. Lippman, W. T. Dickson, Mr. Dodge, Cash. T. J. Albright, Cash, E. G. Brooks, J. J. Flippen.

Miscellaneous subscriptions: T. H. and St. Louis Railroad, $3.95; Testimonial Fund, $48; John Clark, 65 cents; Cash, $62; S. C. Mansur, $15.

Money subscriptions from the East:
Check on Barlow & Taylor $10
Gilmer, Dunlap & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio 449
Certificate of Deposit, Atlas Bank, Boston 50
Draft on Field & Co., Philadelphia 50
Received through George Partridge 1,140
Received through F. P. Blair 150
Received through Governor Koerner, Ill. 215
Received through F. P. Blair, draft on Boston Bank 500
Received through F. P. Blair, draft on Seventh Ward Bank, N. Y 50
Received through F. P. Blair, currency 115
Received through Governor Koerner, Ill. 240
Received through Isaac Sherman, N. Y. 2,000
Received through J. W. Forney, Pa 100
Received through Rindskoff Bros. & Co., Cincinnati, O. 150
Received through Isaac Sherman, N. Y. 3,000
Received through John How, from Cash, N. Y 100
Received through George Partridge, collections 1,657
Received through Governor Koerner, from Roosvelt & Son and J. D. Wolf, draft on Chemical Bank, N, Y 200
Received through W. & S., St. Louis $10
Received through F. P. Blair, draft on Isaac Sherman, N. Y. 4,000
Received through F. P. Blair, draft on Isaac Sherman, N. Y 4,000
Received through F. P. Blair, from Isaac Sherman, N. Y. 20
Received through Morris Collins, from Hartford, Conn. 1,500
Received through J. H. Filley, Bloomfield, Conn. 110
Received through Isaac Sherman, N. Y. 575
Received through A. C. Barstow, Providence, R. I. 10
Received through Meyer & Braun, from N. Y. merchants. 85
Received through George Partridge, donation from Boston 1,498
Received through Morris Collins, from Hartford, Conn. 102
Received through F. P. Blair, per E. W. Fox, when at Washington City 200
Including sundry small cash donations, the whole amount reaching very nearly 30,000

Besides the above there were vast quantities of goods received from the East, which were carefully distributed.

On the 15th of April, 1861, President Lincoln issued his famous proclamation calling for seventy-five thousand men. At that time Capt. Nathaniel Lyon, U.S.A., soon afterwards made brigadier-general of volunteers, was in command of the United States arsenal at St. Louis, and under his direction the first organization of troops in St. Louis for the United States service was effected by Col. Chester Harding. As we have seen, the Union men of St. Louis, under the leadership of Francis P. Blair, and Messrs. Glover, Broadhead, the Filleys, and others, had already formed a number of companies, and these were now incorporated in Gen. Lyon's command.

Early in May authority was obtained to enroll and arm the loyal citizens of St. Louis as a "reserve corps," the number so enrolled not to be more than sufficient to make the whole number of volunteers and reserve corps amount to ten thousand. This limit was not strictly adhered to. On the 7th, 8th, and 11th days of May five regiments of reserve corps, numbering four thousand seven hundred and seventy-four officers and men, were mustered.

A brigade morning report of the 1st of June shows the strength of the whole force then under the command of Gen. Lyon to have been as follows:

First Regiment Volunteers, Col. F. P. Blair 1220
Second Regiment Volunteers, Col. H. Boernstein 1128
Third Regiment Volunteers, Col. Fr. Sigel 1103
Fourth Regiment Volunteers, Col. N. Schuttner 1027
Fifth Regiment Volunteers, Col. C. E. Saloman 926
Battalion of Artillery, Maj. Backoff. 253
Pioneer Company, Capt. Voerster 120
First Regiment U. S. R. C., Col. H. Almstedt 1195
Second Regiment U. S. R. C., Col. H. Kallman 736
Third Regiment U. S. R. C., Col. John McNeil 839
Fourth Regiment U. S. R. C., Col. B. Gratz Brown. 1169
Fifth Regiment U. S. R. C., Col. Stifel 1014

The whole of this force was raised in St. Louis, and the German citizens furnished at least four fifths of it. The whole of it was actively and usefully

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employed in the field and in garrison until discharged or remustered into the three years' service.

The new organization was called the "United States Reserve Corps," but was known better as "Home Guards." The Fifth Regiment of Volunteers was regularly mustered into the service by orders from Washington. On the 7th of May the First Regiment Home Guards, made up of residents of the First Ward; on the morning of the 8th the Second Regiment, from the Second Ward; at four P.M. the same day the Third Regiment, from the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Wards; at nine P.M., same day, the Fourth Regiment, from the Seventh and Eighth Wards, were all mustered in and armed. These regiments established their quarters as follows: The First, Col. Almstedt, in Yaeger's Garden; the Second Col. Kallman, on Chouteau Avenue; the Third, Col. John McNeil, at Turner Hall; the Fourth, Col. B. Gratz Brown, at Bechner's Garden, on Fifth Street. On Saturday, May 11th, Col. Stifel's Fifth Regiment was mustered in, and established its quarters in the Tenth Ward. The commissioned officers of these regiments elected Capt. Thomas W. Sweeney their brigade commander, and he was at once recognized as such. Col. Harding continued upon the staff of Gen. Lyon as his adjutant-general.

During the interval between the departure of Gen. Lyon from St. Louis in June and the assumption of the command of the department by Gen. Fremont in July, the Union men of St. Louis were actively engaged not only in equipping and preparing the companies for local service, but also in perfecting the organizations then being formed of volunteers for the United States service "for the term of three years, or during the war."

The following is the roster of the various Union military organizations formed in St. Louis during the early part of the war:

First regiment of United States Reserve Corps, three months' service, mustered in May, 1861, and discharged in August the same year:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Henry Almstedt, col.; Robert J. Rombauer, lieut.-col.; Phil. J. Brimmer, major; Emil Seemann, surg.; John Heinback, asst. surg.; William Waldschmidt, adjt.; Aug. Luessler, q.m.

Co. A, CAVALRY. — Jacob Melter, capt.; John Traber, 1st lieut.; Charles Wagmann, 2d lieut.

Co. A. — Jacob Horn, capt.; Emil Mark, 1st lieut.; W. Waldschmidt, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — Rod. E. Rombauer, capt.; Theo. Eckerle, 1st lieut.; Isaac Baer, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — Theo. Hilderbrandt, capt.; James H. Vodoarka, 1st lieut.; George Ost, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — Leonhard Weindel, capt.; Fred. W. Henkels, 1st lieut.; Peter Schardin, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — George Rothweiler, capt.; Lorenz Liebermann, 1st lieut.; Gustav Garvell, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — William Balz, capt.; William Balz, 1st lieut.; Jacob Remhardt, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — Charles Hartig, capt.; Arnold P. Roeter, 1st lieut.; George Clemens, 2d lieut.

Co. H. — Joseph Schubert, capt.; Casper Kochler, 1st lieut.

Co. I. — Herman T. Hasse, capt.; Clemens Gutgesell, 1st lieut.; Fred Krenning, 2d lieut.

Co. K. — William Hahn, capt.; Henry Delus, 1st lieut.; Joseph Witzel, 2d lieut.

Co. L. — William Prolerman, capt.; Jacob Bischoff, 1st lieut.; Augustus Leupler, 2d lieut.

Co. M. — Augustus Eichele, capt.; Charles B. Gutzahr, 1st lieut.; Hern. Lantenscklager, 2d lieut.

Of this regiment, Company A, cavalry, served as mounted orderlies of Brig.-Gen. Lyon from the 11th of June, 1861, to the 10th of August, and subsequently served in various portions of Missouri. Company A, infantry, and Companies B, C, D, E, F, G, H, and M took part in the capture of Camp Jackson, May 10, 1861, the First Regiment, commanded by Col. H. Almstedt, serving as the reserve of Gen. Lyon's brigade. Company I also participated in the capture, and was principally stationed at Jacques' Garden. Company L, on July 30, 1861, marched with a detachment of the First Regiment, United States Reserve Corps, under command of Col. Henry Almstedt, to Rolla, Mo., and subsequently to several other points in the State.

Second Regiment of U. S. Reserve Corps, three months' service, mustered in in May, 1861, and discharged in August of the same year:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Herman Kallman, col.; John T. Fiala, lieut.-col.; Julius Rapp, maj.; Anthony Teitinger, adjt.; Charles W. Gottschalk, q.m.; F. C. Castlehun, surg.; Charles Sprinzig, asst. surg.; Henry L. Rothsew, maj.

Co. A. — Bernard Essroger, capt.; Herman Bleck, 1st lieut.; Leopold Swanziger, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — Edmund Wurpel, capt.; Joseph Gerwiner, 1st lieut.; Franz Shindler, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — Fred. Mueller, 1st lieut.; Fred. Cratz, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — F. M. Wolke, capt.; Bernhard Klein, 1st lieut.; Fred. Gottschalk, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — Laies Felix, capt.; Ploser Christian, 1st lieut.; Michel Phillip. 2d lieut.

Co. F. — Theodore Boethelt, capt.; Alexander Windmiller, 1st lieut.; Anthony Ochosky, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — Herman Takrzewski, capt.; Ger. Bensberg, 1st lieut.; Herman Moll, 2d lieut.

Co. H. — Charles Goerisch, capt.; Charles Hoppe, 1st lieut.; John Heusack, 2d lieut.

Co. I. — Jacob Reseck, capt.; John Raedi, 1st lieut.; August Frohnhaeser, 2d lieut.

The regiment participated in the capture of Camp Jackson, and for some time occupied prominent places in St. Louis, in order to be ready for any emergency. It also performed service in guarding bridges

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on the North Missouri and the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroads.

Both the First and Second Regiments subsequently re-enlisted for the war.

Third Regiment of U. S. Reserve Corps, three months' service, mustered in in May, 1861, and discharged in August of the same year:

FIELD AND STAFF. — John McNeil, col.; Charles A. Fritz, lieut.-col.; Calvin W. Marsh, maj.; Samuel P. Simpson, adjt.; George E. Leighton, q.m.; William Arthur, com'y; Ellery P. Smith, surg.; Edmund Boemer, asst. surg.

Co. A. — Charles W. Smith, capt.; H. Rupert Serot, 1st lieut.; Fred. Leser, 1st lieut.; Fred. Holst, 1st lieut.; George Haran, 1st lieut.; H. Wigand, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — Charles Albert Warner, capt.

Co. C. — Tony Niederwieser, capt.; H. P. Fabricius, 1st lieut.; William Hirt, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — Merritt W. Griswold, capt.; William M. Wherry, 1st lieut.; Charles C. Johnson, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — W. A. Hequembourg, capt.; Felix Coste, 1st lieut.; Fritch Carl Adolph, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — Philip F. Weigel, capt.; John C. Blech, 1st lieut.; Max. Kornex, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — George Dominick, capt.; Charles Moeller, 1st lieut.; Samuel P. Simpson, 2d lieut.

Co. H. — Henry Lischer, capt.; The. Kalb, 1st lieut.; Adolph. Knipper, 2d lieut.

Co. I. — Robert Hundhausen, capt.; Louis Duestrou, 1st lieut.; J. Conrad Meyer, 2d lieut.

Co. K. — George A. Rowley, capt.; Edward J. Clark, 1st lieut.; George E. Leighton, 2d lieut.

The Third Regiment was organized in the city of St. Louis, at Turners' Hall, early in 1861, and upon the first suspicion that the political controversy of that period would have to be decided in the arena of arms, numbers of loyal citizens assembled at this hall for the purpose of preparing themselves in military exercises to meet the issue in Missouri. The result was the organization of a regiment, which retained Turners' Hall as its headquarters during a considerable period of the service. John McNeil, afterwards colonel, Charles A. Fritz, afterwards lieutenant-colonel, with others of the field, staff, and company officers, were active in these preparations. The regiment was mustered into service on the 8th of May, 1861, by Capt. (afterwards brigadier-general) Nathaniel Lyon, who personally administered the oath at the St. Louis arsenal; on that day the regiment, nearly twelve hundred strong, received its arms; the accoutrements and clothing were obtained by the officers pledging their individual credit. On the 10th of May, 1861, this regiment was engaged with others in the capture of Camp Jackson, and subsequently rendered efficient service in Northern and Southern Missouri. On the 17th of July. 1861, it repelled an attack of Confederates under Gen. Thomas Harris near Fulton, Mo. Col. McNeil was succeeded in the command of the regiment by Col. C. A. Fritz, and in January, 1862, the organization was consolidated with that of the Gasconade County battalion, the regiment thus formed being known as the Fourth Infantry, Missouri Volunteers.

Fourth Regiment U. S. Reserve Corps, three months' service, mustered in in May, 1861:

FIELD AND STAFF. — B. Gratz Brown, col.; Rudolph Wesselling, lieut.-col.; S. B. Shaw, maj.; John C. Vogel, q.m.; Jacques Ravald, surg.; George Kaufhold, adjt.

NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. — Ed. Schultz, com. sergt.; E. M. Joel, q.m.-sergt.

Co. A. — Charles E. Adams, capt.; George Kaufhold, 1st lieut.; G. C. Albert, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — Alexander G. Hequembourg, capt.; Louis Schnell, 1st lieut.; Charles Schnell, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — , capt.; J. W. Koch, 1st lieut.; Louis Reicholz, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — Louis Schneider, capt.; Philip Winkel, 1st lieut.; Charles Bromser, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — Charles Zimmer, capt.; John Schenkel, 1st lieut.; Henry Obermeuller, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — Peter Helle, capt.; F. Merzwieler, 1st lieut.; Charles Knolle, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — John H. Dierke, capt.; Casper Kopp, 1st lieut.; M. S. Hasie, 2d lieut.

Co. H. — William Heyl, capt.; A. Loblein, 1st lieut.; John Reuter, 2d lieut.

Co. I. — William C. Jones, capt.; John W. Stevens, 1st lieut.; John W. Holman, 2d lieut.

Co. K. — Charles Osburg, capt.; Julius Glade, 1st lieut.; Henry Kleeman, 2d lieut.

Co. L. — Louis Loos, capt.; G. Quernori, 1st lieut.; M. Heiloseck, 2d lieut.

Co. M. — James C. Campbell, capt.; J. W. Wilson, 1st lieut.; John Obercombie, 2d lieut.

Fourth U. S. Reserve Corps, Infantry, Missouri Volunteers, mustered in in the fall of 1861:

FIELD AND STAFF. — John M. Herder, lieut.-col.; Charles H. Mannhardt, adjt.; Gustavus R. Spannagel, q.m.; Frederick Roepke, surg.

Co. A. — Charles A. Meyer, capt.; Frederick Hass, 1st lieut.; John D. Merton, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — Frederick Lubbering, capt.; Frederick Kreuter, 1st lieut.; Wolrad Schurmann, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — Frederick Pohlmann, capt.; Leopold Dingert, 1st lieut.; Henry Mester, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — Frederick Wedekind, capt.; Conrad Mueller, 1st lieut.; John Collonnes, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — George Adler, capt.; Robert Moss, 1st lieut.; Andrew Lepp, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — Julius Clade, capt.; Louis Sagel, 1st lieut.; Frederick Feldman, 2d lieut.

This battalion, like the Third Reserve Corps, was formed from the German population of St. Louis, and, like the other Reserve Corps organizations, rendered valuable service. It was mustered out Jan. 13, 1862.

Fifth Regiment of U. S. Reserve Corps, three months' service, organized in May, 1861, and discharged in September of the same year:

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FIELD AND STAFF. — Charles G. Stifel, col.; Robert White, lieut.-col.; John J. Fischer, maj.; John K. Cummings, adjt.; John B. Mears, q.m.; Adalbert Gemmer, surg.; William Drechsler, asst, surg.; Rudolph Docker, chap.

Co. A. — E. H. Steinman, capt.; Henry Wilke, 1st lieut.; Otto Grassmer, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — Julius Krusch, capt.; George Dietrich, 1st lieut.; Frederick Forthmann, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — August Thorwald, capt.; Herman Schuk, 1st lieut.; Bern. Wingastner, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — William S. Herd, capt.; Joseph Tallman, 1st lieut.; William S. Robinson, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — Frederick Wedekind, capt.; John Gutberlet, 1st lieut.; Frederick Barth, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — John N. Herder, capt.; Frederick Kreuter, 1st lieut.; Frederick Lubbering, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — William Lorbe, capt.; Henry Mester, 1st lieut.; Frederick Pollman, 2d lieut.

Co. H. — Charles F. Koch, capt.; Gustavus Knoch, 1st lieut.; John B. Staunch, 2d lieut.

Co. I. — Charles Schoenbeck, capt.; Charles Beck, 1st lieut.; Conrad Miller, 2d lieut.

Co. K. — James B. Tannehill, capt.; Nic. F. Wolff, 1st lieut.; Philip Reeger, 2d lieut.

The regiment was mustered into service by Capt. Lyon on the 11th of May, 1861, and on returning from the arsenal was attacked by a mob at the corner of Fifth and Walnut Streets, St. Louis. Shots were exchanged, and four members of the regiment were killed; the loss of the mob was not ascertained. Subsequently, Companies A, D, and K volunteered to proceed to Jefferson City, and suppressed the insurrection of prisoners in the penitentiary. The regiment then performed much active service in various portions of the State, and re-enlisted in September, 1861, Lieut.-Col. John Jacob Fischer, commanding; C. F. Koch, maj.;. Adolphus Zobel, adjt.; Frederick P. Zeppenfeld, q.m.; and Adalbert Gemmer, surg.

First Regiment of Missouri Volunteers, three months' service, mustered in April 20, 1861, reorganized June 10th:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Frank P. Blair, col.; George L. Andrews, lieut.-col.; John M. Schofield, maj.; Henry Hescock, adjt.; Herbert M. Draper, q.m.; Florence Cornyn, surg.; William Simon, asst, surg.

Co. A. — Rufus Saxton, capt.; William A. Gordon, 1st lieut.; Ernest W. Decker, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — W. L. Lothrop, capt.; Benjamin Taumatie, 1st lieut.; John L. Matthai, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — G. Harry Stone, capt.; — Marshall, 1st lieut.; John H. Tiemeyer, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — Charles Anderson, capt.; Stillman O. Fish, 1st lieut.; Fulton H. Johnson, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — Robert B. Beck, capt.; John McFall, 1st lieut.; William D. Bowen, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — Cary Gratz, capt.; William T. Stewart, 1st lieut.; George Meyers, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — John S. Cavender, capt.; Frederick Welker, 1st lieut.; Charles S. Sheldon, 2d lieut.

Co. H. — Theodore Yates, capt.; Francis H. Manters, 1st lieut.; Thomas Haynes, 2d lieut.

Co. I. — Madison Miller, capt.; David Murphy, 1st lieut.; James Mar, 2d lieut.

Co. K. — Patrick E. Burke, capt.; E. W. Weber, 1st lieut.; Edward Madison, 2d lieut.

The first company of this regiment was organized at the first call of the President in the spring of 1861, and C. F. Larned was the first man to drill and organize the company. A second and third company was soon filled up and ready for service. These three companies were made up almost entirely of German Turners of St. Louis. Gen. Harney, at this time in command at St. Louis, refused to accept them into the United States service, he having no orders on the subject. After several ineffectual attempts to be admitted into the St. Louis arsenal, the companies resolved to offer their services to the Governor of Illinois. On making their intentions known to Hon. F. P. Blair, Jr., he at once, in conjunction with Capt. Lyon and Lieut. J. M. Schofield (afterwards general), consulted the companies, and promised to admit and arm them at the earliest possible moment. Accordingly, on the morning of April 22, 1861, these three companies were the first volunteers to enter the St. Louis arsenal, and were commanded as follows: Company A, Capt. Rufus Saxton, U.S.A.; Company B, Capt. Warren L. Lathrop, U.S.A.; Company C, Capt. G. Harry Stone, U.S.A. During the following few days several other companies entered the arsenal, and on the evening of the 27th, at the meeting of the officers, Hon. F. P. Blair, Jr., was unanimously elected colonel; George L. Andrews, lieutenant-colonel; and J. M. Schofield, major. The regiment on its organization numbered one thousand and twenty men. On the 27th of April a detachment of the regiment, under Capt. Harry Stone, was placed on board the steamer "City of Alton," and had the charge of the safe removal of a large quantity of arms and ammunition to Springfield, Ill., to arm Illinois troops. On the 10th of May the whole regiment participated in the capture of Camp Jackson, acting as guard to the prisoners until they were paroled. On the 10th of June the regiment, still having over a month of its original three months' enlistment to serve, was reorganized into a three years' or during the war regiment, and on the 1st of September following into the First Light Artillery Regiment. The regiment played a prominent part in the battle of Wilson's Creek.

For the Second Regiment Missouri Volunteers, for the three months' service, Henry Boernstein, colonel, no returns were made to the adjutant-general's office. On the 10th of September, 1861, the regiment was reorganized, the men having enlisted for the war. Its officers were:

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FIELD AND STAFF. — Frederick Schaefer, col. (killed in battle, Murfreesboro', Term., Dec. 31, 1862); Bernard Laibold, col. (Jan. 8, 1863); Bernard Laibold, lieut-col.; Francis Ehrler, lieut-col.; Arnold Beck, lieut.-col.; Julius Windsbecker, maj.; Francis Ehrler, maj.; Arnold Beck, maj.; Matthias Kreamer, maj.; Frederick Jaensch, adjt; Charles Fuelle, adjt.; Henry Busing, adjt.; Philip W. Schmidt, q.m.; Robert Kunz, q.m.; Richard Veeter, surg.; Charles Spinzig, surg.; George Bang, asst surg.; Gustave Stegemann, asst. surg.

Co. A. — Francis Kohr, capt.; Matthias Kraemer, capt; Adolph Loehr, 1st lieut.; Henry F. Dietz, 2d lieut.; William Strumpf, 2d lieut.; Leopold Kunth, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — Christian Burkhardt, capt.; Carroll A. Bernard, capt.; Jacob Zibelin, 1st lieut.; Matthias Kraemer, 1st lieut.; Robert Kunz, 1st lient.; Henry Haverkamp, 1st lieut.; Charles Eichles, 2d lieut.; Henry Haverkamp, 2d lieut.; Christian Hoffmeister, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — Arnold Beck, capt.; Charles Fuelle, capt.; Carroll A. Bernard, 1st lieut.; Christopher Geissler, 1st lieut.; William Aulbach, 1st lieut.; William Boder, 2d lieut.; John Claude, 2d lieut.; Leopold Arndt, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — Henry Landfried, capt.; August Geuntzel, 1st lieut.; John Claude, 1st lieut.; John Klein, 2d lieut; G. A. Rotter, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — Th. Trauernicht, capt.; Louis Bergan, capt.; Th. Trauernicht, capt.; Clemens Landgraeber, 1st lieut.; J. S. Fullerton, 1st lieut.; Michael V. Sheridan, 1st lieut.; Charles Knappe, 2d lieut.; Louis Raum, 2d lieut.; Henry Block, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — Francis Ehrler, capt.; Herman Hartman, capt.; August Zerman, 1st lieut.; Henry F. Dietz, 1st lieut.; Manilius Karl, 1st lieut.; William Kreuger, 1st lieut.; Matthias Kraemer, 2d lieut.; Julius Hunicke, 2d lieut.; William Zawadill, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — Charles W. Doer, capt.; Henry F. Dietz, capt.; P. U. Schmidt, capt.; Philip Wild, 1st lieut.; Charles Schoerckel, 1st lieut.; Edmund Dorsey, 2d lieut.; Charles Fuelle, 2d lieut.; Charles Schoerckel, 2d lieut.; Christian Heydtmann, 2d lieut.

Co. H. — Walter Hoppe, capt.; William Stoecker, capt.; Julius Hunicke, capt.; Herman Hartmann, 1st lieut.; Julius Hunicke, 1st lieut.; Leopold Arndt, 1st lieut.; Charles Deghle, 2d lieut.; Julius Neudorf, 2d lieut.; John Murphy, 2d lieut.

Co. I. — William Siefert, capt.; Charles Deghle, capt.; Jacob Zieblin, capt.; Nio Sand, 1st lieut.; William Stoecker, 1st lieut.; Henry Busing, 1st lieut.; Julius Neudorf, 1st lieut.; Henry Loeffel, 2d lieut.; Adolph Lohr, 2d lieut.; Gottfried Hauser, 2d lieut.; William Kreuger, 2d lieut.

Co. K. — Fred. Louis Weber, capt.; Jacob Zieblin, capt; Christopher Giessle, capt; Charles Miller, 1st lieut.; William Strumpf, 1st lieut.; Frederick Jaensch, 2d lieut.; Henry Busing, 2d lieut.; Ferdinand Hahn, 2d lieut.

The regiment took part in various engagements in Southwestern Missouri, Arkansas, and Mississippi, and in the battles of Murfreesboro', Chickamauga, and Chattanooga, in Tennessee.

Third Regiment of Missouri Volunteers, three mouths' service, mustered in in April, 1861, discharged in August, 1861:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Francis Sigel, col.; Albert Anselm, lieut.-col.; Henry Bishoff, maj.; Gustav Heinrichs, adjt.; Sebas. Engert, qrmr.; Frederick Hanssler, surg.; Charles Ludwig, asst. surg.

Co. A — RIFLES. — Joseph Indes, capt.; Leopold Helmle, 1st lieut.; William Roemer, 2d lieut.

Co. A. — John F. Cramer, capt.; William Osterhorn, 1st lieut.; Charles Weistney, 2d lieut.

Co. B — RIFLES. — Henry Zeis, capt.; Joseph Fries, 1st lieut.; Peter Steven, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — Joseph Conrad, capt; William Mettmann, 1st lieut.; George Damede, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — Jacob Hartmann, capt; Henry Bishoff, 1st lieut; Z. Heckenlaner, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — Aug. Hackman, capt.; Liverott Danner, 1st lieut.; Stephan Tehl, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — Charles Schaerff, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — Hugh Gollmer, capt.; Aug. William Busche, 1st lieut.

Co. G. — Adolph Dengler, capt.; Charles Hoenny, 1st lieut.; Edward Krebe, 2d lieut.

Co. H. — George D. Friedlein, capt.; George Marschall, 2d lieut.

Co. I. — Charles H. Mannhardt, capt.; H. Klostermann, 1st lieut.; Joseph Briesner, 3d lieut.

Co. K. — Theodore Menmann, capt.; Theodore Henck, 1st lieut.; George Schuster, 2d lieut.

Of this regiment, Company B (Rifles) was engaged in the battles of Carthage and Wilson's Creek, and Companies B, C, E, F, G, H, I, and K also participated in the campaign in Southwestern Missouri, having previously taken an active part in the Camp Jackson affair. The regiment re-enlisted, and was reorganized Jan. 18, 1862, and consolidated with a portion of the Nineteenth Regiment, Isaac F. Shepard, and subsequently Theodore Meumann, being the colonel of the new regiment. It participated in the campaign which ended with the capture of Vicksburg.

Fourth Regiment of Missouri Volunteers, three months' service:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Nic. Schüttner, col.; A. Hammer, lieut.-col.; F. Niggeman, maj.; S. Homburg, adjt; Charles Grison, q.m.; Dr. Beck, surg.; A. Keosch, asst. surg.

Capts. George Dahmer, Co. A; George Rehman, Co. B; Frederick Schuddig, Co. C; George Hasfurther, Co. D; Theodore Fishback, Co. E; George Berg, Co. F; Charles Dening, Co. G; Phil. Frank, Co. H; J. Hubbel, Co. I; Louis Rohrer, Co. K; — Henry, Co. L; — Weber, Co. M.

Out of a body of Union men called the Black Jaeger, and organized under Maj. Schüttner in the winter of 1861, "for the maintenance of the constitutional government of the United States, and for the protection of the St. Louis arsenal in particular," the Fourth Regiment Missouri Volunteers, for the three months' service, was mainly recruited. They were encamped and were sworn in on the arsenal grounds on the 22d and 23d days of April, 1861. The regiment consisted of ten companies (each full number) and one rifle battalion of two companies, — total, twelve companies, with over one thousand men, under the

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command of Col. N. Schüttner. After being encamped in the arsenal a short time, Gen. N. Lyon, on the 10th day of May, issued the order to march on Camp Jackson, where the Fourth Regiment occupied the east front, and after the surrender of the camp, the regiment, in connection with the Third Regiment, held possession of the same till the camp equipage and all the captured articles were removed to the St. Louis arsenal. Subsequently the regiment rendered effective service in Illinois and Missouri. In 1862 the Third and Fourth Battalions, Reserve Corps, were consolidated, and the Fourth Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers, formed from them. It was chiefly employed within the State. The officers then were:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Robt. Handhausen, col.; Julius Handhausen, lieut.-col.; Charles A. Warren, maj.; Jerome H. Bacon, adjt; George Husmann, q.m.; Edmund Boerner, surg.; John Feldman, asst. surg.; George Feutschmann, chaplain.

Co. A. — Adolph Knipper, capt.; C. A. F. Halst, 1st lieut.; Louis Krauthoff, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — Michael Bauer, capt; Christian Strobel, 1st lieut.; Alexander Lowry, 1st lieut.; Louis Waechter, 2d lieut; Julius Sporleder, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — Constance Rick, capt; Henry German, 1st lieut; Charles Rick, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — Wm. Hirt, capt.; Louis Koop, 1st lieut.; Louis Miller, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — Balthazar Mundwiller, capt.; Eugene Alcan, 1st lieut.; J. J. Stocklin, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — Cespar Schubert, 1st lieut.; J. C. Myer, 1st lieut.; Frank Emser, 2d lieut.; Wm. R. McCracken, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — A. H. Piquenard, capt; Louis Hild, 1st lieut.; Michael D. Lemoine, 2d lieut.

Fifth Regiment of Missouri Volunteers, mustered in in May, 1861, for three months' service; discharged Aug. 26, 1861:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Charles E. Solomon, col.; Chest. Dick Wolff, lieut.-col.; F. W. Cronenbold, maj.; Edward C. Franklin, surg.; Samuel H. Melcher, asst. surg.; William Gerlach, adjt.; Ben. Meisner, q.m.

Co. B. — Louis Gottschalk, capt.; Emil Wachter, 1st lieut.; William Beng, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — Frederick Solomon, capt.; William Kassak, 1st lieut.; Otto Veme; 2d lieut.

Co. D. — Charles Mehl, capt; Gustav Leibold, 1st lieut; Christopher Stork, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — Charles Stephany, capt.; James Ballhaus, 1st lieut.; Julius Nehrig, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — Alfred Armaud, capt.; Rudolph Schneider, 1st lieut.; Emilie Thomas, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — Charles E. Stark, capt; Nicholas Fuester, 1st lieut.; Charles Weiss, 2d lieut.

Co. H. — William J. Chester, capt.; John Coleman, 1st lieut.; Samuel Morris, 2d lieut.

Co. I. — Charles P. Meisner, capt.; G. Adam Bauer, 1st lieut.; Joseph Spiegelhalter, 2d lieut.

Co. K. — Samuel A. Hogg, capt.; William S. Boyd, 1st lieut.; William H. Thompson, 2d lieut.

The regiment took part in various engagements in the southwestern part of Missouri.

Fifth Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — August H. Poten, col.; Samuel A. Foster, col.; John Jacob Fischer, lieut.-col.; Emil Stradtman, lieut.-col.; James A. Greason, lieut.-col.; C. F. Koch, maj.; Elliott Charles, maj.; Adolphus Zobel, adjt.; Frederick P. Zeppenfeld, q.m.; Adalbert Gemmer, surg.; Henry Schoenick, asst. surg.; William Wilken, chaplain.

Co. A. — Wm. H. Moeller, capt.; Theodore Becher, 1st lieut.; Wm. F. Gieselmann, 1st lieut.; George Frommann, 1st lieut.; Wm. F. Gieselmann, 2d lieut.; Frederick Schmidt, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — Henry Obermuller, capt.; Louis Reichold, 1st lieut.; Hermann Draege, 2d lieut.; Roger T. Davidson, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — Peter Holle, capt.; Bernard Essroger, capt.; Felix Sprohmle, capt.; Charles Sarstedt, 1st lieut.; H. J. Kleimann, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — Philip Adolph, capt.; John B. Straush, 1st lieut.; Wm. Heidemann, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — Henry Deubark, capt.; Henry Heimburger, 1st lieut.; Conrad Ludwig, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — Henry Nagel, capt.; Frederick L. Muller, capt.; A. A. Blaumenthal, 1st lieut.; Wm. B. Putnam, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — Richard Flack, capt.; Louis Fred. Muller, 1st lieut.; A. Frumhold, 1st lieut; F. W. Bodungen, 2d lieut.

Co. H. — Anton Gerster, capt.; John Kies, 1st lieut.; Thos. F. Haskell, 2d lieut.

Co. I. — J. D. Voerster, capt.; John E. Henseler, capt.; John E. Henseler, 1st lieut.; Christian Lochbuler, 1st lieut.; John E. Henseler, 2d lieut.; Christian Lochbuler, 2d lieut.; John Kribs, 2d lieut.

Co. K. — Louis Winkelmaier, capt.; Felix Sprohmle, capt.; J. B. Reavis, capt.; George Berg, capt.; Philip Dickendorff, 1st lieut.; Charles C. Allen, 1st lieut.; Jacob Schomle, 2d lieut.

Co. A (new). — J. B. Reavis, capt.; Wm. H. Miller, 2d lieut.

The regiment was formed by the consolidation of the Fifth Reserve Corps with three unattached companies, under Special Orders No. 43, 18th March, 1862. The regiment was chiefly employed within the State, and performed valuable service.

Sixth Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Peter E. Bland, col.; James H. Blood, col.; Ira Boutell, lieut.-col.; Mahlon Weber, maj.; John W. Fletcher, maj.; William D. Coleman, maj.; James S. Temple, maj.; Ira Boutell, maj.; Joseph S. Gage, maj.; Bowman H. Peterson, maj.; George S. Walker, surg.; E. M. Joslin, surg.; Jacob Keller, asst. surg.; Warren P. McChesney, asst. surg.; Walter C. Gantt, adjt.; James P. Needham, adjt.; William S. Jewell, adjt; William Wolf, adjt.; John A. Blood, q.m.; Samuel Huffman, chaplain.

Co. A. — George A. Schaffer, capt.; Frederick A. Bragg, capt.; Henry C. Houts, 1st lieut.; George Goodwin, 1st lieut.; John E. Thompson, 2d lieut.; L. W. Williams, 2d lieut.; William L. Gordon, 2d lieut.; Garret D. Brookman, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — John W. Fletcher, capt; Charles C. Fletcher, capt.; T. L. Harrington, capt.; Charles C. Fletcher, 1st lieut.; T. L. Harrington, 1st lieut.; Joseph F. Dutch, 1st lieut.; M. Elwood Miller, 2d lieut.; Thomas J. King, 2d lieut.; J. G. Rhomberg, 2d lieut; Philip H. Snider, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — James S. Temple, capt.; James Adams, capt.; Lewis M. Habish, 1st lieut.; James Adams, 1st lieut.; Robert L.

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Vance, 1st lieut.; George H. Stockman, 1st lieut.; Robert L. Vance, 2d lieut.; George H. Stockman, 2d lieut.; Richard D. Bland, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — Joseph S. Gage, capt.; Julius Pitzman, capt.; Charles O. Patier, 1st lieut.; Julius Pitzman, 1st lieut.; William L. Gordon, 1st lieut.; William Wolf, 2d lieut.; Mark Anthony, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — Francis P. Rush, capt.; Solomon Males, 1st lieut.; John F. Bailey, 1st lieut.; Stephen Child, 2d lieut.; George W. Bailey, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — Ira Boutell, capt.; James P. Needham, 1st lieut.; Edwin R. Messenger, 1st lieut.; James P. Needham, 2d lieut.; Edwin R. Messenger, 2d lieut.; David R. Mortimer, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — George W. Bywater, capt.; W. P. Hollister, capt.; L. W. Williams, capt.; William P. Hollister, 1st lieut.; Thomas J. King, 1st lieut.; William R. Duff, 1st lieut.; Simeon S. Baker, 1st lieut.; Thomas L. Harrington, 2d lieut.; T. H. Seward, 2d lieut.; Charles Johnson, 2d lieut.; John Williams, 2d lieut.

Co. H. — Delos Van Daison, capt.; Jacob Lyman Perly, 1st lieut.; Patrick G. Galvin, 2d lieut.; Shelby Tyler, 2d lieut.

Co. I. — James C. McGinnis, capt.; Robert L. Vance, capt.; Daniel O. Ketchison, capt.; Frederick A. Bragg, 1st lieut.; Daniel O. Kethison, 1st lieut.; J. G. Rhomberg, 1st lieut.; Daniel O. Ketchison, 2d lieut.; John H. Pinney, 2d lieut.; Herman D. Stevens, 2d lieut.

Co. K. — Robert H. Buck, capt.; Jacob Lyman Peerly, capt.; Charles O. Patier, capt.; Symmes H. Voorhees, 1st lieut.; Belmont Perkins, 1st lieut.; Charles O. Patier, 1st lieut.; Belmont Perkins, 2d lieut.; Edward Stanton, 2d lieut.; Frank Bennett, 2d lieut.

The Sixth Regiment was organized at St. Louis in the months of May and June, 1861, and was employed in Missouri until June, 1862, when it proceeded to Corinth, Miss., subsequently taking part in various engagements. It was prominent in the assault on Chickasaw Bluffs, Dec. 29, 1862, and suffered severely at Arkansas Post. It was subsequently ordered to reinforce Gen. Rosecrans in Tennessee, and participated in the engagements of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, Nov. 24 and 25, 1863.

Seventh Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — John D. Stevenson, col.; Wm. S. Oliver, col.; Egbert B. Brown, lieut.-col.; Thomas Curley, lieut.-col.; Wm. S. Oliver, lieut.-col.; Robert Buchanan, lieut.-col.; Thomas Curley, maj.; Wm. S. Oliver, maj.; Edwin Wakefield, maj.; Wm. B. Collins, maj.; Frederick Whitehead, adjt.; Thomas Whelan, adjt.; Charles D. Beman, adjt.; John F. Neville, q.m.; E. M. Powers, surg.; P. S. O'Reilly, asst. surg.; B. F. Thayer, asst. surg.

Co. A. — Wm. A. Taulby, capt.; Henry R. Switzer, capt.; Henry R. Switzer, 1st lieut.; John O'Conner, 1st lieut.; John O'Neil, 2d lieut.; John O'Conner, 2d lieut.; John Lamb, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — Wm. S. Oliver, capt.; James H. Coffee, capt.; Frank A. O'Mara, 1st lieut.; Thomas Whelan, 1st lieut.; Robert Porter, 1st lieut.; James F. How, 2d lieut.; Thomas Whelan, 2d lieut.; Robert Porter, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — James Sullivan, capt.; Moroe Harrison, capt.; James H. Steger, 1st lieut.; Samuel McGoffin, 1st lieut.; Leonard Snell, 2d lieut.; Samuel McGoffin, 2d lieut.; Timothy D. O'Sullivan, 2d lieut.; Charles W. Tetsell, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — Edwin Wakefield, capt.; Thomas H. Oliver, capt.; James Hester, 1st lieut.; Thomas Russell, 1st lieut.; Robert Menagh, 1st lieut.; John B. Mead, 2d lieut.; Thomas Russell, 2d lieut.; A. P. Cindall, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — Edward J. Castello, capt.; James H. Coffey, 1st lieut.; Henry W. Chanfrau, 1st lieut.; Henry Smith, 1st lieut.; Albert T. Smith, 2d lieut.; Henry W. Chanfrau, 2d lieut.; Henry Smith, 2d lieut.; Brice P. Munns, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — Jesse H. Holmes, capt.; Wm. B. Collins, capt.; Thomas Russell, capt.; Wm. B. Collins, 1st lieut.; Michael A. Doyle, 1st lieut., Dan. McBride, 1st lieut.; George Fonda, 1st lieut.; Michael A. Doyle, 2d lieut.; George W. Jennings, 2d lieut.; Dan. McBride, 2d lieut.; Wm. T. Followell, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — John W. Watts, capt.; Alfred J. Judy, capt.; Thomas Whelan, capt.; Alfred J. Judy, 1st lieut.; Frank F. Gray, 1st lieut.; Martin L. Watts, 2d lieut.; Frank F. Gray, 2d lieut.; Benjamin F. Haynes, 2d lieut.

Twenty-seventh Regiment:

Co. H. — Wm. J. Hawkins, capt.; Philip D. Toomer, capt.; Munroe Harrison, 1st lieut.; Philip D. Toomer, 1st lieut.; George W. Jennings, 1st lieut.; Bartlett Reames, 1st lieut.; Philip D. Toomer, 2d lieut.; John W. Burrett, 2d lieut.

Co. I. — Joseph S. C. Rowland, capt.; Jay J. Drake, capt.; Andrew Hosmer, 1st lieut.; Thos. H. Oliver, 1st lieut; John K. Aldrich, 1st lieut.; Jay J. Drake, 2d lieut.; George Fonda, 2d lieut.

Co. K. — George W. Smith, capt.; Robert Buchanan, capt.; Joshua W. Bourne, capt.; Joshua W. Bourne, 1st lieut.; Chauncey F. Wilson, 1st lieut.; John B. Rowland, 2d lieut.; John H. Schooley, 2d lieut.; Chauncey F. Wilson, 2d lieut.

This regiment was organized in June, 1861, and saw much hard service, which it performed with great zeal and unflinching courage. Its first colonel, John D. Stevenson, was subsequently in command at Harper's Ferry during Sheridan's operations in the Valley of Virginia, and it was through him that all the telegraph reports were communicated to the country. At the close of the war he was in command of Fort Russell, which he built, near Cheyenne. Col. Stevenson was a Free-Soil member of the Missouri Legislature before the war, and in October, 1875, was appointed United States Marshal of Missouri, vice Newcomb resigned.

Eighth Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Morgan L. Smith, col.; Giles A. Smith, col.; David C. Coleman, col.; James Peckham, lieut.-col.; Giles A. Smith, lieut.-col.; David C. Coleman, lieut-col.; Dennis T. Kirby, lieut.-col.; John McDonald, maj.; Dennis T. Kirby, maj.; Bowman H. Peterson, surg.; John R. Bailey, surg.; John R. Bailey, asst. surg.; Trolius Brown, asst. surg.; Amos L. Flint, asst. surg.; Darius Crouch, chaplain; Samuel D. Longhead, chaplain; David C. Coleman, adjt.; Edwin E. Furber, adjt.; James Hall, q.m.; Frederick B. Clapp, q.m.; Isaac B. Halsey, q.m.

Co. A. — John McDonald, capt.; Wm. G. Johnson, capt.; George W. Crane, capt.; Wm. G. Johnson, 1st lieut.; George W. Crane, 1st lieut.; Charles Vierheller, 1st lieut.; Ezra W. Cummings, 1st lieut.; George W. Crane, 2d lieut.; Nelson

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Patterson, 2d lieut.; Isaac B. Halsey, 2d lieut.; John Fitzgerald, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — William Hill, capt.; Edward R. Otis, 1st lieut.; Henry C. Moffett, 1st lieut.; Alonzo S. Sterling, 1st lieut.; Henry C. Moffett, 2d lieut.; Samuel Boyd, 2d lieut.; Edward Perret, 2d lieut.; Harvey W. Green, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — Charles McDonald, capt.; Thomas Lee Morgan, capt.; G. Frederick Eckhard, 1st lieut.; Harry B. Harris, 1st lieut.; William D. Murphy, 1st lieut.; Thomas Lee Morgan, 1st lieut.; Wm. F. Sheely, 1st lieut.; Harry B. Harris, 2d lieut.; Thomas Lee Morgan, 2d lieut.; Clifford A. Hand, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — Giles A. Smith, capt.; Morgan Potts, capt.; John B. Cole, capt.; John W. White, 1st lieut.; Morgan Potts, 1st lieut.; Jacob C. Hill, 1st lieut.; Frederick B. Clapp, 2d lieut.; Isaac E. Huff, 2d lieut.; George Ostram, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — Dennis T. Kirby, capt.; Sidney W. Ainsworth, capt.; Nelson Patterson, capt.; Sidney W. Ainsworth, 1st lieut.; Louis Lipman, 1st lieut.; Wm. G. McSpadden, 1st lieut.; Addison Ware, Jr., 2d lieut.; Wm. G. McSpadden, 2d lieut.; Elias Reitenaur, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — Alex. A. Jameson, capt.; Elias S. Bedford, 1st lieut; Bushrod W. Musselmann, 1st lieut.; Philip H. Murphy, 2d lieut.; Bushrod W. Musselmann, 2d lieut.; Wm. H. Bogart, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — David P. Grier, capt.; Henry C. Moffett, capt.; Hugh Neill, 1st lieut.; Addison Ware, Jr., 1st lieut.; William D. Murphy, 2d lieut.; Alonzo S. Sterling, 2d lieut.; Ezra W. Cummings, 2d lieut.

Co. H. — George B. Swarthout, capt.; John W. White, capt.; Charles L. Corwin, 1st lieut.; William C. Russell, 1st lieut.; George W. Baker, 1st lieut.; George W. Baker, 2d lieut.; Edwin A. Ware, 2d lieut.; Harvey Eno, 2d lieut.

Co. I. — Alexander Hart, capt.; William H. McGowan, capt.; Joseph W. Barr, 1st lieut.; Edwin E. Furber, 1st lieut.; William H. McGowan, 1st lieut.; Edward Perret, 1st lieut.; Edwin E. Furber, 2d lieut.; William H. McGowan, 2d lieut.; William H. Sheely, 2d lieut.; John B. Cole, 2d lieut.; Samuel H. Halsted, 2d lieut.

Co. K. — Edward M. Seibel, capt.; Hugh Neill, capt.; Edward E. Lane, 1st lieut.; Nelson Patterson, 1st lieut.; Edwin A. Ware, 1st lieut.; Charles Vierheller, 2d lieut; Joshua A. Browner, 2d lieut.

This regiment, known originally as the American Zouaves, was organized in June, 1861, and appeared conspicuously in many important battles. It lost largely in men, and no regiment rendered more honorable service. Cols. Morgan L. Smith and Giles A. Smith became brigadier-generals of volunteers.

Tenth Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — George R. Todd, col.; Samuel A. Holmes, col.; Francis C. Deimling, col.; George R. Todd, lieut.-col.; Samuel A. Holmes, lieut.-col.; John D. Foster, lieut.-col.; Leonidas Henry, lieut.-col.; Christian Hoppel, lieut.-col.; Samuel A. Holmes, maj.; Aaron Brown, maj.; Leonidas Henry, maj.; Francis C. Deimling, maj.; Joseph Walker, maj.; Francis C. Deimling, adjt.; John M. Boyd, Jr., adjt.; Thorwald Jacobson, q.m.; William A. Kellogg, q.m.; Oliver B. Payne, surg.; Philander J. Payne, surg.; Absalom B. Stuart, asst. surg.; Thomas L. Morgan, asst. surg.; George R. Palmer, chaplain.

Co. A. — Leonidas Henry, capt.; Charles A. Gilchrist, capt.; Samuel W. Craft, capt.; Joseph Walker, 1st lieut.; Samuel W. Craft, 1st lieut.; Asaph J. Davis, 1st lieut.; Miles McCabe, 2d lieut.; William F. Snyder, 2d lieut.; Samuel W. Craft, 2d lieut.; Asaph J. Davis, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — William F. Bayne, capt.; Gilbert D. Gray, capt.; James E. Fleming, 1st lieut.; Isaac N. Vanhosen, 1st lieut.; Jerry Randolph, 2d lieut.; John M. Boyd, Jr., 2d lieut.; Isaac N. Vanhosen, 2d lieut.; Duncan McVickar Stuart, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — Andrew J. Lovell, capt.; James B. Fitch, capt.; John F. Noyes, 1st lieut.; Gerald M. Finley, 1st lieut.; Alexander S. Buchanan, 1st lieut.; Peter Craigmiles, 2d lieut.; Alexander S. Buchanan, 2d lieut.; Samuel A. Shannon, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — David C. Dougherty, capt.; Samuel McAchanan, 1st lieut.; Gilbert D. Gray, 1st lieut.; Manus O. Frost, 1st lieut.; Gilbert D. Gray, 2d lieut.; Albert A. Wilson, 2d lieut.; Lewis D. Phillips, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — Elihu H. Henry, capt.; Thomas D. Seawell, capt.; Thomas D. Seawell, 1st lieut.; James B. Logan, 1st lieut.; Solomon L. Elwood, 1st lieut.; James B. Logan, 2d lieut.; Solomon L. Elwood, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — Andrew C. Todd, capt.; Joseph Walker, capt.; Morris Frazer, capt.; James Crawford, 1st lieut.; Morris Frazer, 1st lieut.; Russell T. Stokes, 1st lieut.; John Stevenson, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — William A. J. Russell, capt.; James K. Davidson, 1st lieut.; Joseph K. Lloyd, 1st lieut.; Morris Frazer, 2d lieut.; Joseph K. Lloyd, 2d lieut.

Co. H. — James F. Dougherty, capt.; Christian Hoppel, capt.; William H. White, capt.; James Kay, 1st lieut.; Cyrus C. Bemis, 1st lieut.; H. H. Meredith, 1st lieut.; Michael Diemar, 1st lieut.; Robert P. Todd, 2d lieut.; A. H. Baum, 2d lieut.; Michael Diemar, 2d lieut.

Co. I. — Charles A. Gilchrist, capt.; Joel W. Strong, capt.; Gerald M. Finlay, 1st lieut.; Austin Swan, 1st lieut.; William B. White, 1st lieut.; John A. Donaldson, 1st lieut.; Samuel W. Craft, 2d lieut; William B. White, 2d lieut.

Co. K. — George Heppenheimer, capt.; William Forbes, capt.; James B. Logan, capt.; Jacob Keller, 1st lieut.; William H. Fenner, 1st lieut: David W. McClurken, 1st lieut.; Charles Wezler, 2d lieut.; Henry H. Meredith, 2d lieut.; Schuyler von Tifflin, 2d lieut.

The Tenth Regiment rendezvoused at the St. Louis arsenal on the 1st of August, 1861, and its original officers were: Colonel, Chester Harding, Jr.; lieutenant-colonel, George R. Todd; major, Samuel A. Holmes; adjutant, Francis C. Deimling; quartermaster, Thorwald Jacobson; surgeon, Oliver B. Payne; assistant surgeon, A. B. Stuart. On the 1st of December, 1861, Col. Harding, having been appointed adjutant-general of the State of Missouri, resigned the colonelcy, and Lieut.-Col. Todd was promoted to be colonel, and Maj. Holmes to be lieutenant-colonel. At the same time a battalion, known as the Twenty-first Missouri Infantry, was consolidated with the regiment, with A. Brown as major. Subsequently Lieut.-Col. Holmes became colonel, and Capt. Leonidas Horney, of Company A, major. At the same time three companies of the battalion known as the Twenty-second Missouri Volunteers were consolidated with the regiment, and their commander, Lieut.-Col.

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John D. Foster, was made lieutenant-colonel of the Tenth. After serving at various points in Missouri, it was assigned to the Army of the Mississippi, under Gen. Pope, and participated in a number of severe engagements. At the battle of Corinth, Oct. 3 and 4, 1862, it recaptured a battery at the point of the bayonet and held its position against repeated assaults. In November and December, 1862, it formed a part of the expedition into Central Mississippi, and subsequently served in Louisiana, Arkansas, and Mississippi. On the 14th of May, 1863, during the attack on the city of Jackson, the capital of Mississippi, the Tenth had a desperate fight with the Twenty-fourth South Carolina Regiment, which it defeated with heavy loss. On the 16th, at the battle of Champion Hill, it executed a bayonet charge which forced the enemy back at a critical juncture and elicited the acknowledgments of Gen. Grant. During the charge Lieut.-Col. Horney, who commanded, was killed. The Tenth also took part in the siege of Vicksburg. At the battle of Missionary Ridge the regiment again distinguished itself. In the mean while, Col. S. A. Holmes having resigned, Maj. F. C. Deimling was promoted to be colonel, Capt. Christian Happel to be lieutenant-colonel, and Capt. Joseph Walker to be major.

Twelfth Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — P. J. Osterhaus, col.; Hugo Wangelin, col.; Otto Schadt, lieut.-col.; Jacob Karcher, lieut.-col.; Hugo Wangelin, maj.; Jacob Karcher, maj.; Gustavus Lightfoot, maj.; Frederick Ledergerber, maj.; William A. Gordon, adjt.; Joseph A. Ledergerber, adjt.; Charles Louis Kasten, adjt.; Anthony Sanspeur, q.m.; Herman F. Mons, q.m.; Charles Cook, surg.; L. H. Junghaus, surg.; Joseph Spiegelhalter, surg.; William Fritz, asst. surg.; Joseph Spiegelhalter, asst. surg.; Frederick Hohly, asst. surg.; Albert Kraus, chaplain.

Co. A. — Jacob Karcher, capt.; Christian Andel, capt.; Albert Affleck, capt.; Albert Affleck, 1st lieut.; Anthony Engleman, 1st lieut.; Herman Grenzenberg, 1st lieut.; John Kaufman, 1st lieut.; Joseph A. Ledergerber, 2d lieut.; Herman Garvins, 2d lieut.; Casemir Andel, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — Frederick Ledergerber, capt.; Herman Grenzeberg, capt.; Christian Andel, 1st lieut.; Charles Louis Kasten, 1st lieut.; William Bechtel, 1st lieut.; Anton Engleman, 2d lieut.; Trolius Tyndale, 2d lieut.; Charles Thery, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — Herman Bendel, capt.; William Mittmann, capt.; Frederick Von Bodungen, 1st lieut.; Anthony Engleman, 1st lieut.; Casemir Andel, 1st lieut.; Frederick Dinkleman, 2d lieut.; Henry Kircher, 2d lieut.; Ferdinand Dallmyer, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — Julius Fauer, capt.; Albert Affleck, capt.; Adam Rauft, capt.; William McKenzie, 1st lieut.; Charles G. Doerg, 1st lieut.; Herman Grenzeberg. 2d lieut.; E. Schierenberg, 2d lieut.; Henry Seipel, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — Charles Denny, capt.; Henry Kircher, capt.; John Kayser, 1st lieut.; William Reinicke, 1st lieut.; Herman Tuerk, 2d lieut.; Herman F. Mons, 2d lieut.; Theodore Hermann, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — Gustavus Lightfoot, capt.; John Kaisir, capt.; Adam Rauft, 1st lieut.; Herman Garvens, 1st lieut.; Charles G. Doerge, 2d lieut.; Frederick Meyer, 2d lieut.; George Eggart, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — John Mockenhaupt, capt.; Anthony Englemann, capt.; Frederick Wallmann, 1st lieut.; Frederick N. Wolf, 1st lieut.; Frederick Meyer, 1st lieut.; Charles Louis Kasten, 2d lieut.; William Reincke, 2d lieut.; John Kaufman, 2d lieut.

Co. H. — William Schunhr, capt.; William McKenzie, capt.; Adam Rauft, capt.; Christian Andel, capt.; Anthony Steffens, capt.; O. Steinberg, 1st lieut.; Joseph A. Ledergerber, 1st lieut.; Alex. Pfeiffer, 1st lieut.; Anthony Steffens, 1st lieut.; Theodore Hermann, 1st lieut.; Adolphus Schoettler, 2d lieut.; Frederick Kessler, 2d lieut.

Co. I. — John Ahlefeld, capt.; Joseph A. Ledergerber, capt.; Robert Henne, 1st lieut.; Henry Seipel, 1st lieut.; Anton Steffens, 2d lieut.; Ernst Arp, 2d lieut.; Edward Neiseck, 2d lieut.

Co. K. — C. Von Haseler, capt.;.F. O. Steinberg, capt.; William Mittman, 1st lieut.; Henry Kircher, 1st lieut.; Frederick Kessler, 1st lieut.; Alex. Pfeiffer, 2d lieut.; William Bechtel, 2d lieut.; Ernst Schmidt, 2d lieut.

This regiment was organized under Col. P. J. Osterhaus, in St. Louis, in August, 1861. It left St. Louis with the Fremont expedition, as part of Gen. Sigel's division; went to Jefferson City, and from there to Sedalia, where Col. Osterhaus took command of a brigade, and Lieut.-Col. Otto Schadt succeeded him in the command of the regiment. From Sedalia it went to Springfield; from there, October 6th, to Wilson's Creek; returned October 8th to Springfield, and moved into quarters at Rolla.

After performing much active service, it took boats for Yazoo River December 21st; fought the battles of Chickasaw Bayou, and was in the first attack upon Vicksburg, December 28th, 29th, and 30th. From thence it returned to Arkansas Post, Jan. 2, 1863; partook in the siege and capture of that place, and returned from there to Young's Point, La. In February it took boats for Old Yazoo Pass, and formed part of the expedition against Fort Pemberton, from which, returning in the latter part of April, it moved its camp to Milliken's Bend. From there it marched by way of Grand Gulf, as a part of Gen. Grant's army, upon Vicksburg; took part in the different battles and skirmishes before Vicksburg; was in the assault May 22, 1863, and until the day of surrender of that place in the trenches before it.

On the 5th of July the regiment marched to Canton, Miss., where it was again engaged with the enemy on July 10th, and afterwards encamped near Black River bridge. From there it marched by Memphis, Corinth, etc., to Iuka; advanced to Tuscumbia, being engaged in frequent skirmishes on the way, and received orders to join the United States forces at Chattanooga,

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where it partook in the battles of Chattanooga, Ringgold, and Missionary Ridge.

No regiment lost more severely in officers and men, and in the famous charge on the enemy's works at Vicksburg it met the terrific fire with great heroism.

Fifteenth Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Francis J. Joliat, col.; Joseph Conrad, col.; William Jacquien, lieut.-col.; Joseph Conrad, lieut.-col.; John Weber, lieut.-col.; George Landry, maj.; John Weber, maj.; H. F. Dietz, maj.; Francis Mohrhardt, maj.; George Hollman, adjt.; Adolphus Schuster, adjt.; Martin Schroeder, adjt.; Frederick Lipps, adjt.; Charles Perret, q.m.; Jacob Gross, q.m.; Charles Perret, q.m.; Adolphus Erdmann, q.m.; Wm. Steiger, surg.; John Ernst, surg.; August Roach, surg.; Galles Reitz, asst. surg.; John B. Chaffie, asst. surg.; Edward Keller, chaplain.

Co. A. — Joseph M. Elmer, capt.; Francis Unger, capt.; Edward De Borde, capt.; George Ernst, 1st lieut.; Jacob Bugg, 1st lieut.; Adolphus Erdmann, 1st lieut.; Jacob Bugg, 2d lieut.; Marca Rigoni, 2d lieut.; Adolphus Erdmann, 2d lieut.; Anton Tanner, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — John Weber, capt.; George Ernst, capt.; Henry Nelson, 1st lieut.; Francis Unger, 1st lieut.; Fridolin Ramnel, 1st lieut.; Frank Unger, 2d lieut; Geo. Albert, 2d lieut.; Christian Queinzius, 2d lieut.; Wm. Eisermann, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — Melchior Zimmerman, capt.; Martin Schroeder, capt.; Jacob Gross, capt.; John G. Reis, capt.; Frederick Unger, 1st lieut.; Jacob Gross, 1st lieut.; Justin Troxler, 1st lieut.; George A. Bauer, 1st lieut.; Jacob Seeli, 2d lieut.; Justin Troxler, 2d lieut.; Frederick Lipps, 2d lieut.; Frederick Eckert, 2d lieut.; Hermann Koenig, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — Jacob Straub, capt.; Louis Bergau, capt.; Gustav Linkleman, 1st lieut.; Martin Schroeder, 1st lieut.; John Postel, 1st lieut.; Martin Schroeder, 2d lieut.; Victor Vanderneale, 2d lieut.; George F. Elwerth, 2d lieut.; John Kraehe, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — John Wildberger, capt.; George Isenstein, capt.; Max Gaedon, 1st lieut.; Samuel Reisenger, 1st lieut.; John Buerki, 1st lieut.; Samuel Rexinger, 2d lieut.; John Postel, 2d lieut.; Charles Kellner, 2d lieut.; John Behrend, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — Francis Morhardt, capt.; Samuel Rexinger, capt.; Constantine Aberle, 1st lieut.; Edward Deborde, 1st lieut.; Frederick Eckert, 1st lieut.; Zebastien Zahner, 2d lieut.; Edward Deborde, 2d lieut.; George Morhardt, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — George Birg, capt.; George Muller, capt.; Edward Koenig, 1st lieut.; George Muller, 1st lieut.; Herman C. Koerner, 1st lieut.; George Muller, 2d lieut.; Herman C. Koerner, 2d lieut.; John Buerki, 2d lieut.; Charles Bretschneider, 2d lieut.

Co. H. — John G. Reis, capt.; John Brengartner, capt.; John Krebs, capt.; Joseph Ebner, 1st lieut.; John Brengartner, 1st lieut.; William Hark, 1st lieut.; John Brengartner, 2d lieut.; Frederick G. Elwerth, 2d lieut.; Fridolin Romnel, 2d lieut.; William Hark, 2d lieut.; George Horr, 2d lieut.

Co. I. — Edward Richter, capt.; Adolphus Schuster, capt.; George Isenstein, 1st lieut.; Adolphus Schuster, 1st lieut.; John Krebs, 1st lieut.; Max Goedon, 1st lieut.; Adolphus Schuster, 2d lieut.; John Krebs, 2d lieut.; Joseph Shaer, 2d lieut.

Co. K. — John Jecklin; capt. Henry Nelson, capt.; Ulrich Schwendener, capt.; Ulrich Schwendener, 1st lieut.; Nicholas D. Randall, 1st lieut.; Jacob Gross, 2d lieut.; Jacob Leupp, 2d lieut.; Casimir Muri, 2d lieut.

This regiment was formed in August, 1861, and was in active service continually, its losses in the many engagements in which it took part being extremely severe, both in men and officers. As a part of the Army of the Cumberland, it was constantly in the front, and in the battles of Murfreesboro', Chickamauga, and Missionary Ridge its behavior was heroic.

Seventeenth Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Franz Hassendeubel, col.; John F. Cramer, col.; John F. Cramer, lieut.-col.; August H. Poten, maj.; Ferd. Niegemann, maj.; Francis Romer, maj.; Frederick Leser, adjt.; Adolphus Rodenbruck, adjt.; John Schenk, q.m.; Adolph Roesch, surg.; Herman Hubrick, surg.; J. B. McConnaughy, surg.; Herman Hubrick, asst. surg.; J. B. McConnaughy, asst. surg.; George Holst, asst. surg.; Andrew Adam, asst. surg.; Charles Bruckner, asst. surg.; Herman Fehrmann, chaplain.

Co. A. — August W. Busche, capt.; Theodore Weller, capt.; John G. Cangguth, capt.; Julius Wagner, 1st lieut.; Julius Muller, 1st lieut.; Robert Lange, 1st lieut.; Julius Muller, 2d lieut.; Morris Jacobi, 2d lieut.; Theodore G. Knapp, 2d lieut.; Adolphus Rodenbruck, 2d lieut.; Conrad Andres, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — William Andre, capt.; Julius Muller, capt.; Louis Voss, 1st lieut.; Wm. Streisguth, 1st lieut.; John G. Langguth, 1st lieut.; Herman O. Kottberg, 1st lieut.; Wm. Streisguth, 2d lieut.; Louis Darmstaetter, 2d lieut.; John G. Langguth, 2d lieut.; Andrew Moes, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — Francis Romer, capt.; Adolph Boettscher, capt.; Joseph Fries, 1st lieut.; Adolph Boettscher, 1st lieut.; Charles Bruno, 1st lieut.; James T. Mollinkrott, 1st lieut.; Stephen Sutler, 2d lieut.; Robert Lange, 2d lieut.; George Moehl, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — Frederick Niegerman, capt.; Paul Morensky, capt.; Louis Darmstaetter, capt.; Francis Guide, 1st lieut.; Henry Neen, 1st lieut.; August Boettscher, 2d lieut.; Frederick Martin, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — Wm. Fuchs, capt.; Joseph Fries, capt.; August Fischer, capt.; Theodore Weller, 1st lieut.; Theodore G. Knaup, 1st lieut.; Julius Montzheimer, 1st lieut.; Adolphus Rodenbruck, 1st lieut.; Conrad Andres, 1st lieut.; Paul Morensky, 2d lieut.; August Fischer, 2d lieut.; Herman O. Rottberg, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — Charles Booking, capt.; Hugo Gollmer, capt.; Francis Gulde, capt.; Charles Zimmer, 1st lieut.; August Fischer, 1st lieut.; Leonard A. Horn, 1st lieut.; August Haunitzky, 2d lieut.; William Christ, 2d lieut.; Herman O. Rottberg, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — Francis Wilhelm, capt.; Edward Schneller, 1st lieut.; John Kaegi, 1st lieut.; Louis Darmstaetter, 1st lieut.; John A. Shaub, 1st lieut.; August Spinner, 2d lieut.; Charles O. Bruno, 2d lieut.; John A. Shaub, 2d lieut.

Co. H. — Adolph Ehlert, capt.; John Kaegi, capt.; John M. Manzlinger, 1st lieut.; August Haunitzky, 1st lieut.; Gustav Wetzlaw, 1st lieut.; Henry Nean, 2d lieut.; Jas. T. Mollincrott, 2d lieut.

Co. I. — Charles Reiss, capt.; Edward Schneller, capt.; John Kaegi, 1st lieut.; Paul Morentzky, 1st lieut; Robert Fischer, 1st lieut.; John Reinhardt, 2d lieut.; Robert Fischer, 2d lieut.; Julius Uhlenhuth, 2d lieut.

Co. K. — Adolph Schill, capt.; Charles Bruno, capt.; Herman Ihern, 1st lieut.; John H. Peterson, 1st lieut.; Julius Montzheimer, 2d lieut.; Peter Hassendeubel, 2d lieut.

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This regiment was organized by order of Maj.-Gen. Fremont in August, 1861, and took a prominent part in the following battles: Pea Ridge, Searcy Landing, Ark., Chickasaw Bayou, Miss., Arkansas Post, Ark., Fourteen-Mile Creek, Miss., Jackson, Miss, Vicksburg, Miss., Canton, Miss., Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, and Ringgold, Ala.

Col. Hassendeubel died of wounds received before Vicksburg, Miss. The regiment lost severely in officers and men, and on every occasion proved itself worthy of the highest commendation.

The Thirtieth Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers, was organized in October, 1862, and its officers were:

B. G. Farrar, col.; John W. Fletcher, lieut.-col.; Otto Schadt, lieut.-col.; John W. Fletcher, maj.; James S. Farrar, maj.; John P. Coleman, adjt.; Amos P. Foster, q.m.; Robert P. Fendick, q.m.; Webster B. Sargent, surg.; Webster P. Sargent, asst. surg.; James Hill, asst. surg.; Robert J. Sloan, asst. surg.; J. G. Rodgers, chaplain.

The regiment formed part of Blair's brigade, and participated in most of the battles of the campaigns on the Mississippi and in the interior.

The Thirty-first Regiment was organized in St. Louis on the 7th of October, 1862, with the following officers:

Thomas C. Fletcher, col.; Samuel P. Simpson, lieut.-col.; Frederick Jaensch, maj.; Robert M. Swander, adjt.; Wm. B. Pratt, adjt.; Wm. H. Barlow, q.m.; Churchill D. Strother, surg.; Oliver H. P. Stone, asst. surg.; Julius A. Ruge, asst. surg.; E. H. Hoffman, asst. surg.

The regiment was incorporated with the brigade of Gen. F. P. Blair. At Chickasaw Bluffs, Dec. 29, 1862, the regiment lost two hundred and eighteen killed, wounded, and missing, and its commander, Col. Fletcher, was wounded and captured. At Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge the Thirty-first was also in the thickest of the fight, and behaved with conspicuous courage.

The Thirty-third Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers, was the seventh in the quota of eight regiments raised by the State under President Lincoln's call for three hundred thousand troops in July, 1862. It was organized on the 5th of September by Clinton B. Fisk, who, having been promoted to a brigadier-generalship Nov. 24, 1862, was succeeded as colonel of the regiment by William A. Pile. The other officers were:

William H. Heath, lieut.-col.; George W. Vanbeck, maj.; George A. Holloway, adjt.; Edward S. Day, adjt.; Lyman B. Ripley, q.m.; Thomas Smith, surg.; Aurelius T. Bartlett, surg.; Albert R. Sawyer, asst. surg.; Milton Kile, asst. surg.

After serving at various points in Missouri, it joined Fisk's brigade, and subsequently formed part of the White River expedition to Duvall's Bluff.

The Engineer Regiment of the West, Missouri volunteers, was organized at the St. Louis arsenal on the 26th of July, 1861, by Col. J. W. Bissell. The officers were Col. J. W. Bissell, who was succeeded in July, 1861, by Col. Henry Flad; lieutenant-colonels, successively Charles E. Adams, Henry Flad, William Tweeddale; majors, successively M. S. Hasie, William Tweeddale. Henry Flad, and Eben M. Hill; surgeons, Charles S. Skelton, John C. Book, and Charles Knower (assistant surgeon). In October, 1863, the regiment was reorganized with the following officers:

Henry Flad, col.; William Tweeddale, lieut.-col.; Frederick C. Nichols, maj.; Eben M. Hill, maj.; Hamilton Dill, maj.; John C. Book, surg.; Charles Knower, asst. surg.; Alpha Wright, chaplain.

The First Regiment Artillery, Missouri Volunteers, was formed on the 1st of September, 1861, by the conversion of the First Regiment of Infantry, Missouri Volunteers, into artillery. The first colonel was Francis P. Blair, who, being promoted to a brigadier-generalship, was succeeded, Sept. 1, 1862, by John V. Dubois, who resigned Oct. 14, 1862. Lieut.-Col. Warren L. Lothrop was then promoted to the command of the regiment. The lieutenant-colonels of the regiment in succession were:

James Totten (promoted to brigadier-general), Warren L. Lothrop, and A. M. Powell; majors, John V. Dubois, John M. Schofield, Warren L. Lothrop, George H. Stone, A. M. Powell, Thomas D. Maurice, David Murphy, Nelson Cole, Charles Mann; William Hill, surg.; Joseph Brooks, chaplain; George W. Schofield, capt.

At the battle of Fort Donelson, the Second Battalion, consisting of Batteries D, H, and K, won great distinction, and at the battle of Shiloh the regiment had five batteries engaged. Welfley's battery, at Pea Ridge, and Murphy's, Cole's, and Backof's, at Prairie Grove, also rendered effective service. At the battles of Iuka and Corinth, at the siege of Vicksburg, and at Murfreesboro', Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, and other important battles one or more batteries of the regiment participated. In fact, the First Missouri was represented in almost every engagement or any magnitude in the West, and is claimed to have contributed more general and field officers than any other regiment in the United States service, not including the line officers.

The Second Regiment of Artillery, Missouri Volunteers, was organized in the autumn of 1861, and was chiefly employed in garrisoning the forts about

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St. Louis. The men composing it were nearly all from the German population. The officers were:

Henry Almstedt, col.; Joseph Weydemeyer, lieut.-col.; Theodore Wilkins, maj.; Dominick Urban, maj.; Dominick Urban, adjt.; John J. Witzig, q.m.; Emil Seemann, surg.; J. B. Pondrom, surg.; John Jacob Schulte, asst. surg.; J. B. Pondrom, asst. surg.; William C. Finlaw, asst. surg.; Hugo Krebs, chaplain.

Attached to the regiment was the famous independent battery of Missouri horse artillery known as "Landgraeber's," from the name of the commander, Capt. Clem. Landgraeber, who was dubbed by the enemy "the Flying Dutchman," on account of the celerity of his movements. The battery took part in many engagements, and always behaved with gallantry and credit.

The Second Regiment was reorganized in the fall of 1863, the officers being Nelson Cole, lieutenant-colonel commanding; Frank Backof, major; J. B. Pondrom, surgeon; William C. Finlaw, assistant surgeon.

The First Regiment Cavalry, Missouri Volunteers, was mustered into service under Col. C. A. Ellis, on the 6th of September, 1861, at Jefferson Barracks, its membership being largely composed of citizens of St. Louis. Its officers were:

Calvin A. Ellis, col.; John F. Ritter, col.; Frederick W. Lewis, lieut.-col.; John T. Price, lieut.-col.; John J. Joslyn, lieut.-col.; J. M. Hubbard, maj.; Henry Townsley, maj.; Albert P. Peabody, maj.; Charles Banzhof, maj.; Henry J. Stierlin, maj.; John J. Joslyn, maj.; Harry Wilde, adjt.; Samuel Caldwell, adjt.; Joseph Tinker, adjt.; W. T. Hamilton, adjt.; John C. Crane, q.m.; T. J. Golden, q.m.; Joseph E. Lynch, surg.; W. W. Bailey, asst. surg.; Thomas W. Jones, chaplain; James P. Craig, commissary.

The regiment rendered valuable service in the campaigns in Missouri and Arkansas.

The Fourth Regiment of Cavalry, Missouri Volunteers, was formed by the consolidation of the Fremont Hussars and Benton Hussars, two battalions of six companies each, organized by authority of Gen. Fremont in the fall of 1861. The First Western Cavalry, Fremont Hussars, was organized at the Abbey Track, St. Louis, and under the command of Maj. George E. Waring, Jr., accompanied Gen. Fremont on his Western expedition. In January, 1862, Wood's battalion of Missouri cavalry was consolidated with the Fremont Hussars, under the name of the Fourth Missouri Cavalry, and Maj. Waring was commissioned colonel of the regiment. Subsequently Wood's battalion was withdrawn from the command, and three companies of the "Hallan Horse" were added. These also were finally withdrawn, and the Benton Hussars were then incorporated with the regiment. The Fourth saw much active service during the war, and gained an enviable reputation. The officers were:

G. E. Waring, Jr., col.; Rudolph Blome, lieut.-col.; Gustav Von Helmrich, lieut.-col.; Eugene Kilmansegge, maj.; Gustavus M. Elbert, maj.; Edward Langen, maj.; Eminic Mezaros, maj.; James F. Dwight, maj.; B. C. Ludlow, maj.; Gustavus Heinrichs, maj.; James F. Dwight, adjt.; Hann Hanson, adjt.; Joselyn S. Foulkes, q.m.; Joselyn S. Foulkes, q.m.; Charles A. Snell, commissary; Emil Schurback, commissary; Henry W. Nichols, surg.; William A. Wilcox, surg.; Jacob Affolder, asst. surg.

The Tenth Regiment of Cavalry, Missouri Volunteers, was organized in December, 1862, by Florence M. Cornyn, at Camp Magazine, near Jefferson Barracks, Missouri. The officers were:

Florence M. Cornyn, col., killed Aug. 10, 1863; Andrew J. Alexander, col.; William D. Bowen, lieut.-col.; Thomas Hynes, maj.; Frederick W. Benteen, maj.; William H. Lusk, maj.; Thomas Hynes, adjt.; Jeremiah F. Young, adjt.; Duncan McNicol, q.m.; Albert E. Hall, q.m.; Michael Ravold, commissary; Edward L. Feehan, surg.; William L. Tallman, asst. surg.

The regiment distinguished itself in the campaign of the spring of 1863 against Van Dorn, and subsequently in various raids in Alabama and Tennessee.

Carondelet Home Guards, Co. A (independent), organized in June, 1861; captain, Henry Nagel; first lieutenant, August A. Blumenthal, Jr.; second lieutenant, William B. Putnam; aggregate strength, one hundred and twenty-seven.

Sappers and Miners, Home Guards, Co. A (independent), organized in May, 1861; captain, J. D. Voerster; aggregate strength, two hundred and thirty-three. This company, organized by authority of Gen. Lyon, consisted of two classes, mechanics and laborers, and the duty performed was partly in the city of St. Louis and at the arsenal grounds, building batteries, stables, outbuildings, etc. At Boonville it built fortifications, repaired roads, and ferried troops across Grand and Osage Rivers. It also built a masked battery at Ironton, and repaired roads from Rolla to Springfield, and continued in such service until August, 1861.

First Regiment Infantry, Missouri State Militia, organized in the spring of 1862:

FIELD AND STAFF. — John B. Gray, col.; John F. Tyler, col.; John F. Tyler, lieut.-col.; John N. Herder, lieut.-col.; John N. Herder, maj.; Charles Biehle, maj.; William Eylers, adjt.; G. D. O. Kellmann, adjt.; Geo. H. Steward, q.m.; Gustavus R. Spannagel, q.-m.; Thomas McMartin, surg.; Charles H. Hughes, surg.; H. W. Jones, asst. surg.; Frederick R. Phelps, asst. surg.; William A. Wilcox, asst. surg.; Allen M. Lee, asst. surg.

Co. A. — George H. Eversole, capt.; Charles C. Byrne, capt.; Hugh McEnna, 1st lieut.; Andrew J. Hughes, 1st lieut.; William A. Sluder, 2d lieut.; Benjamin E. Fish, 2d lieut.

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Co. B. — Frederick J. Lubbering, capt.; Frederick Kreuter, 1st lieut.; Wolrad Scheurmann, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — David W. Rosenstein, capt.; Albert N. Guisson, 1st lieut.; John Dinsbeer, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — Patrick F. Lonergan, capt.; John F. L. Jacoby, 1st lieut.; Isaac H. Sisson, 1st lieut.; Isaac H. Sisson, 2d lieut.; James C. Booth, 2d lieut.; James H. Dawson, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — Charles A. Meyer, capt.; Gustavus R. Spannagel, 1st lieut.; Henry Kelling, 1st lieut.; Robert Maes, 2d lieut.; Philip Hoehn, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — John Dietrich, capt.; Frank Blucker, 1st lieut.; Henry Dietrich, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — James D. Walters, capt.; Charles Biehle, capt.; Joseph Weber, capt.; Thomas Thomas, 1st lieut.; Joseph Weber, 1st lieut.; John Fessler, 1st lieut.; John W. Garatt, 2d lieut.; John Fessler, 2d lieut.; Lewis Jerger, 2d lieut.

Co. H. — Josiah C. Smith, capt.; John A. Veith, capt.; John F. W. Dette, capt.; William A. Lord, 1st lieut.; John F. W. Dette, 1st lieut.; John G. Broemser, 1st lieut.; Francis M. Avey, 2d lieut.; J. G. Broemser, 2d lieut.; Felix Doutreville, 2d lieut.

Co. I. — George P. Covert, capt.; John R. Compton, capt.; John A. Payne, capt.; John A. Payne, 1st lieut.; William W. Burris, 1st lieut.; John R. Compton, 2d lieut.; William W. Burris, 2d lieut.; Alexander S. Pilcher, 2d lieut.

Co. K. — John Rupp, capt.; Ferdinand Wagenfuehr, 1st lieut.; Alexander Schrader, 1st lieut.; Alexander Schrader, 2d lieut.; August Hoffbauer, 2d lieut.

This regiment was formed by the concentration of the various infantry companies of Missouri State militia which had been raised in St. Louis and other portions of the State on the 13th of May, 1862. It was retained in St. Louis, performing prison-guard, provost-guard, and other duty, until early in October, 1862, when it was sent to Pilot Knob, Mo., with a view to participating in the then expected expedition to Little Rock. Subsequently, however, all but two companies (C and I) were placed upon bridge-guard duty along the line of the Iron Mountain Railroad. The two companies above referred to participated in an expedition into Arkansas which was sent out from Patterson to Pocahontas, Ark., in the month of November, 1862.

The First Regiment of Enrolled Missouri Militia (mainly recruited in St. Louis) was organized in the fall of 1862. Its officers were William P. Fenn, col.; Robert C. Allen, lieut.-col.; Hiram Inman, maj.; Alexander McElhinney, adjt.; John McDonald, q.m.; Leonard B. Holland, q.m.; L. D. Morse, surg.

First St. Louis County Battalion, Enrolled Missouri Militia:

FIELD AND STAFF. — W. J. A. Smith, lieut.-col.; Samuel T. Henley, adjt.; William R. Vaughan, q.m.

Co. A. — Frederick Steudeman, capt.; Charles Castello, 1st lieut.; Peter Nick, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — John B. Aubuchon, capt.; John Belleville, 1st lieut.

Co. C. — Frederick Dedrich, capt.; Joseph G. Aubuchon, 1st lieut.; Alfred Shaw, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — James Willoughby, capt.; Peter Foster, 1st lieut.; William R. Vaughan, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — Nero V. Hall, capt.; Henry Obert, 1st lieut.; Henry O. Sattler, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — William L. Hickman, capt.; John McCarthy, 1st lieut.; Henry J. Kuester, 2d lieut.

St. Louis Police Battalion:

J. E. D. Couzins, maj.

Co. A. — William Lee, capt.; R. P. Banning, 1st lieut.; William Saulsbury, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — John F. Fealy, capt.; Francis Molair, 1st lieut.; Aaron Francis, 2d lieut.

Unattached companies Enrolled Missouri Militia, St. Louis County:

OLD GUARD. — N. H. Clark, capt.; Alfred Mackay, 1st lieut.; James Richardson, 1st lieut.; A. G. Edwards, 2d lieut.; C. G. Wells, 2d lieut.

CITY POST BAND. — Frank Boehm, capt.; Frank Gerks, 1st lieut.; Jacob Stueck, 2d lieut.

INDEPENDENT CAVALRY COMPANY. — Frederick Walters, capt.; Charles Lienberger, 1st lieut.; Charles Jenne, 2d lieut.

CORPS OF DETECTIVES. — George J. Deagle, capt.; R. F. Cardella, 1st lieut.; F. H. Chandler, 2d lieut.

The following statement shows the number of men who up to Dec. 31, 1863, had entered the service of the United States as volunteers from St. Louis County, under the different calls of the President, for the term of three years or during the war:

1st U. S. Reserve Corps, 791; 2d U. S. Reserve Corps, 803; 3d U. S. Reserve Corps, 541; 4th U. S. Reserve Corps, 431; 5th U. S. Reserve Corps, 538; 2d Infantry, 645; 3d Infantry, 681; 6th Infantry, 489; 7th Infantry, 564; 8th Infantry, 576; 10th Infantry, 37; 11th Infantry, 33; 12th Infantry, 562; 13th Infantry, 160; 15th Infantry, 500; 17th Infantry, 658; 18th Infantry, 139; 21st Infantry, 2; 23d Infantry, 40; 24th Infantry, 79; 25th Infantry, 14; 26th Infantry, 203; 27th Infantry, 187; 29th Infantry, 103; 30th Infantry, 574; 31st Infantry, 117; 32d Infantry, 62; 33d Infantry, 145; 35th Infantry, 84; 1st Artillery, 1227; 2d Artillery, 1951; 1st Cavalry, 365; 2d Cavalry, 83; 3d Cavalry, 21; 4th Cavalry, 1062; 6th Cavalry, 12; 7th Cavalry, 93; 8th Cavalry, 1; 10th Cavalry, 247; 11th Cavalry, 246; 12th Cavalry, 95; Engineer Regiment, 149. Total, 15,310.

In addition to these were the following organizations of the Missouri State militia, with the number of men in each:

1st Infantry, 687; 2d Cavalry, 1; 4th Cavalry, 4; 6th Cavalry, 2; 7th Cavalry, 13; 8th Cavalry, 4; 10th Cavalry, 1; 12th Cavalry, 8; 13th Cavalry, afterwards the 5th, 201; 14th Cavalry, 5; 2d Battalion, 4; Westerberg's company, 95; 1st Battery, 1. Total, 1026.

The following is a list of officers of various other military organizations recruited wholly or in part in and near St. Louis:

Ninth Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — John C. Kelton, col.; C. H. Frederick, lieut.-col.; D. McGibbon, maj.; Sydney P. Post, maj.; Sydney P. Post, adjt.; Frederick Brasher, q.m.; J. D. S. Haslett, surg.; H. J. Maynard, asst. surg.; Nathan Shumate, chaplain.

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This regiment, which was completed in September, 1861, performed good service up to the date of its transfer to the State of Illinois by Special Orders No. 43, series 1862.

Eleventh Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Joseph B. Plummer, col.; Joseph A. Mower, col.; A. J. Weber, col.; William L. Barnum, col.; William E. Panabaker, lieut.-col.; A. J. Weber, lieut.-col.; William L. Barnum, lieut.-col.; Benjamin F. Livingston, maj.; A. J. Weber, maj.; Eli Bowyer, maj.; Charles H. Brookings, adjt.; George P. Weber, adjt.; George W. Henry, q.m.; Abel G. Pickrell, q.m.; Thomas Smith, surg.; M. W. Fish, surg.; Eli Bowyer, asst. surg.; Thomas S. Hawley, asst. surg.; Joseph Brooks, chaplain; Samuel C. Balridge, chaplain.

This regiment was raised in the States of Missouri and Illinois, between the middle of June and the 1st of August, 1861, and organized the 1st of August same year, at the United States arsenal at St. Louis, Mo. It was raised as a rifle regiment for and at the request of Capt. Rufus Saxton, of the regular army, who, on being promoted and sent to another department soon after, did not take command. Capt. David Bayles then took command of the regiment as its colonel. On the 18th of October, Col. Plummer succeeded Col. Bayles. Subsequently (in 1863-64) the field and staff officers were: William L. Barnum, colonel; Eli Brower, lieutenant-colonel; M. J. Green, major; George P. Weber, adjutant; Walton H. Finch, adjutant; Abel G. Pickrell, quartermaster; Henry C. Applegate, quartermaster; M. W. Fish, surgeon; Thomas S. Hawley, assistant surgeon; James B. Farrington, assistant surgeon.

Fourteenth Regiment of Missouri Volunteers, Home Guards:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Robert White, col.; R. H. Graham, lieut.-col.; J. F. Tyler, maj.; F. Cooley, surg.

Companies of this regiment were organized in July and August, 1861, and immediately entered upon duty at Lexington, Mo., where they remained until Sept. 20, 1861, when they were captured. The officers and men were subsequently paroled, and were discharged at St. Louis on the 19th day of October, 1861.

Eighteenth Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Madison Miller, col.; J. V. Pratt, lieut- col.; Charles S. Sheldon, lieut.-col.; James A. Price, maj.; William H. Minter, maj.; William A. Edgar, adjt.; Edwin J. Conway, adjt.; D. A. Cudworth, q.m.; D. A. Cudworth, q.m.; Norman S. Hamlin, surg.; S. B. Hauts, surg.; S. B. Hauts, asst. surg.; F. F. Randolph, asst. surg.; J. M. Garner, chap.

This regiment was formed in August, 1861, and lost largely in officers and men, especially at the battle of Shiloh.

Twenty-second Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — John D. Foster, lieut.-col.; Andrew H. Linden, maj.; Hiram B. Foster, adjt.; David S. Hooper, q.m.; Hugh Meredith, asst. surg.; James Linden, chap.

This regiment, which was composed of Foster's battalion and two independent companies, after performing some service, was broken up and distributed to other regiments.

Twenty-fourth Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Sempronius H. Boyd, col.; James K. Mills, col.; James K. Mills, lieut.-col.; William H. Stark, lieut.-col.; Eli N. Weston, maj.; William H. Stark, maj.; Robert W. Fyan, maj.; J. C. S. Colby, adjt.; William H. McAdams, adjt.; Sanford C. Peck, q.m.; J. C. S. Colby, q.m.; Edwin T. Robberson, surg.; Leander H. Baker, surg.; J. Little, asst. surg.; Orson H. Crandall, asst. surg.; Alfred H. Powell, chaplain.

Twenty-fifth Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Everett Peabody, col.; Chester Harding, Jr., col.; Robert T. Vanhorn, lieut.-col.; James E. Powell, maj.; Frederick C. Nichols, maj.; Charles W. Graff, adjt.; Herman Giseke, adjt.; J. D. Henderson, q.m.; John T. Berghoff, surg.; Julius Brey, asst. surg.; John Q. Eggleston, asst. surg.; L. C. Pace, chaplain.

The Twenty-fifth Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers, was first organized in June, 1861, at St. Joseph, Mo., and was then known as the Thirteenth Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers. It was, for the most part, formed from the Home Guard battalions of Maj. Peabody, Maj. Van Horn, and Maj. Berry. The regiment was employed in guarding a portion of the line of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad and upon garrison duty until it was ordered to Lexington, in the latter part of August. Col. Mullikin, who commanded at Lexington, surrendered the post to Gen. Sterling Price on the 20th of September, 1861, who paroled the officers of the Thirteenth, and released the men upon their oaths. Exchanges were subsequently effected, and the regiment was reorganized as the Twenty-fifth, with Everett Peabody as colonel, Robert T. Van Horn as lieutenant-colonel, and James E. Powell as major. In March, 1862, the regiment was sent to Gen. Grant at Pittsburgh Landing, and was brigaded in McKean's brigade, Prentiss' division. It participated in the battle of Shiloh, losing very heavily in killed and wounded. Among the former were the colonel and major.

Capt. Frederick C. Nichols was subsequently promoted to the majority, and Chester Harding, Jr., was appointed colonel.

Twenty-sixth Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

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FIELD AND STAFF. — George B. Boomer, col.; Benjamin D. Dean, col.; John H. Holman, lieut.-col.; John McFall, lieut.-col.; L. E. Koniuszeski, maj.; Charles F. Brown, maj.; Robert C. Crowell, maj.; Abraham Vanbeuren, adjt.; George W. Brown, adjt.; Charles F. Brown, q.m.; James T. Berry, q.m.; Jonathan S. Prout, surg.; Charles P. Barrett, asst. surg.; John L. Bryan, asst. surg.; Joseph Warren, chaplain.

The Twenty-sixth Missouri Infantry was organized in December, 1861, and soon after joined the expedition under Gen. Pope against New Madrid, and on the 26th raised its flag over the lower fort. April 9, 1862, the Twenty-sixth formed a part of the force that captured the Confederate army (6500) at Tiptonville. On April 22d it reached the vicinity of Corinth, participating in the battle of Farmington and the final capture of Corinth. It also served with distinction in the battles of Iuka, Corinth, Vicksburg, and other important engagements.

Twenty-seventh Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Thomas Curley, col.; A. Jacobson, lieut.-col.; James F. How, maj.; Albert A. Morey, adjt.; William H. Hele, adjt.; John Wellmeyer, adjt.; Bryan Foley, q.m.; B. N. Bond, surg.; John S. Murphy, asst. surg.; John Bowman, asst. surg.; Edwin A. Casey, asst. surg.

Recruiting for the Twenty-seventh Regiment, Missouri Volunteers, infantry, was commenced about Aug. 1, 1862. About the 25th of September four companies were mustered into the service under command of Lieut.-Col. Jacobson. During the next six weeks two more companies were filled, and Maj. James F. How was mustered into the regiment. The organization was completed by the assignment to it of three veteran companies, which, in the Fifth and Sixteenth Missouri, had done good service at Donelson, Shiloh, and Pea Ridge, and by the muster in of the tenth company on Jan. 8, 1863, at which time Col. Thomas Curley was placed in command.

Twenty-ninth Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — John S. Cavender, col.; James Peckham, col.; James Peckham, lieut.-col.; Thomas H. McVicar, lieut.-col.; Joseph S. Gage, lieut.-col.; Bowman H. Peterson, maj.; Joseph S. Gage, maj.; Philip H. Murphy, maj.; Eng Voerster, adjt.; David Allen, adjt.; E. M. Joel, q.m.; John C. Morgan, surg.; John H. Stumberg, asst. surg.; Daniel Abbey, asst. surg.

The Twenty-ninth Missouri Infantry was raised during the months of July, August, September, and October, 1862, at diiferent places through the State, the rendezvous being Benton Barracks. Among other conspicuous engagements of the war it participated in the siege of Vicksburg and the storming of Lookout Mountain.

Thirty-second Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — F. H. Manter, col.; H. C. Warmoth, lieut.-col.; Abraham J. Seay, maj.; Joseph P. Newsham, adjt.; Charles A. Single, q.m.; Thomas J. Watson, surg.; W. A. Hyde, asst. surg.; Horace Newell, asst. surg.; James Lester, chap.

This regiment was one of those assigned to Gen. Blair's brigade. It was organized in October, 1862, and entered the field at once, serving in the Army of the Mississippi, and subsequently in the interior.

Thirty-third Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — William A. Pile, col.; William H. Heath, col.; William H. Heath, lieut.-col.; George Vanbeck, maj.; Edward S. Day, adjt.; Lyman B. Ripley, q.m.; Luther Armstrong, q.m.; Aurelius T. Bartlett, surg.; Milton Kile, asst. surg.

Co. A. — Wm. M. Blake, capt.; Stephen J. Burnett, 1st lieut.; James M. Conner, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — James G. Patton, capt.; George H. Rapp, 1st lieut.

Co. C. — Alex. J. Campbell, capt.; Luther P. Eldridge, 1st lieut.

Co. D. — Wm. P. McKee, capt.; Jacob S. Baker, 1st lieut.; Charles L. Draper, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — Thos. M. Gibson, capt.; Charles L. Draper, 1st lieut.; Frank E. Lombar, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — Daniel D. Carr, capt.; Robert M. Reed, 1st lieut.; Edgar L. Allen, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — Stuart Carkner, capt.; Thomas Rudledge, 1st lieut.; Moses Reed, 2d lieut.

Co. H. — Henry Rose, capt.; Henry Cochran, 1st lieut.; Luke O'Reilly, 2d lieut.

Co. I. — George H. Tracy, capt.; Isaac S. Coe, 1st lieut.

Co. K. — Elias S. Schenck, capt.; H. H. Knowlton, 1st lient.

The Thirty-third Missouri Infantry was recruited under the patronage of the Union Merchants' Exchange of St. Louis, and was therefore styled the "Merchants' Regiment." Its original field officers were: Colonel, Clinton B. Fisk, secretary of the Merchants' Exchange; lieutenant-colonel, William A. Pile, captain in First Missouri Artillery; major, William H. Heath, adjutant of the Eighteenth Illinois Infantry.

By the energy of Col. Fisk it was the first regiment mustered into United States service under the President's call of 1862. It was ordered to the field Sept. 22, 1862, under command of Lieut.-Col. Pile, and made several severe marches through Phelps, Dent, Texas, and Wright Counties, Mo. December 19th it returned to St. Louis. December 23d, Col. Fisk was appointed brigadier-general, Lieut.-Col. Pile was made colonel, and Maj. Heath lieutenant-colonel. On the same day the regiment moved by steamer to Columbus, Ky., that place being threatened; Jan. 5, 1863, moved to Helena, Ark., and took part in Gen. Gorman's expedition to Duvall's Bluff, Ark., returning to Helena January 20th, at which place more

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than one hundred men died from exposure within one month; February 24th formed part of Gen. L. F. Ross' expedition to Fort Pemberton, Miss., known as the "Yazoo Pass expedition." The regiment was under fire here for the first time, doing efficient service in constructing field-works, mounting siege-guns, reconnoitering the enemy's position, and capturing his pickets; April 8th returned to Helena, and May 5th the regiment was placed in charge of the fortifications and artillery of that garrison, numbering eighteen pieces of heavy and light calibre. Under the superintendence of Col. Pile, the regiment learned in two weeks to handle artillery with ease and accuracy, and so strengthened and improved the fortifications as to render them very formidable. May 22d, Col. Pile was detailed to superintend the organization of colored regiments and ordered to St. Louis, and Capt. George W. Van Beck appointed major. The command of the regiment thus fell to Lieut.-Col. Heath. July 14, 1863, the regiment, supported by detachments of the Forty-third Indiana, Thirty-third Iowa, and Thirty-fifth Missouri, held their works against the combined forces of Price, Holmes, and Marmaduke, estimated at fifteen to twenty thousand men, repelling numerous heavy assaults, and sustaining a continuous musketry fire for six hours. Battery C, a small work, mounting two brass six-pounders, was captured by Price's division on the second charge, but the enemy were compelled to abandon it by the concentrated fire of all the artillery after suffering terrible losses in killed and wounded. The total loss of the regiment in this fight was 49. Total loss of the garrison, 420. Total losses of the enemy, about 3100; Price's division alone losing 1100 men, as stated in his official report. Although this was the first battle in which the regiment had borne part, their intrepidity is sufficiently attested by the terrible punishment inflicted upon the enemy as compared with the small loss sustained by the regiment. During the entire engagement the guns were worked by but one relief, many of the men fainting at their posts from excessive heat. March 10th, Gen. Joseph A. Mower assumed command of the division, and the regiment moved from Vicksburg with the expedition to Red River, La. March -th, regiment was present in reserve at the capture of Fort De Russey. March 21st, the regiment, in conjunction with the Thirty-fifth Iowa, captured Henderson Hill, La., by a midnight surprise and assault, securing the Second Louisiana Tigers (cavalry) and Edgar's Texas battery, with horses, arms, ammunition, and colors complete, surrounding and disarming the enemy before he had received any alarm. April 9th, regiment took part in the gallant and overwhelming defeat of the enemy at Pleasant Hill, La., capturing a five-gun battery in the final charge and joining in the pursuit for one mile and a half. In this battle Lieut.-Col. Heath received a wound in the head, and the command of the regiment fell to Maj. Van Beck. June 6th, the regiment took part in the attack upon Marmaduke's forces at Old River Lake, Ark., Maj. Van Beck by seniority commanding the Third Brigade, Mower's division, and Capt. A. J. Campbell, Company C, commanding the regiment. This brigade, composed of the Thirty-third Missouri and Thirty-fifth Iowa, was ordered to charge the enemy, who were strongly posted on the opposite side of a bayou, and made the charge in gallant style, passing over the skirmishers of another brigade which had failed to advance, and moving unflinchingly forward to the bank of the bayou, which was then found to be unfordable. Notwithstanding this obstacle they stood up bravely, and at forty paces distance poured in such a galling fire that the enemy broke and ran in confusion. The regiment lost here in a few minutes forty-one men; enemy's loss not great, but the fight compelled the withdrawal of a battery from Columbia, Ark., which had seriously interrupted the navigation of the Mississippi River. June 10th, the regiment arrived at Memphis, Tenn., and immediately joined an expedition against Lee and Forrest in Mississippi, Lieut.-Col. Heath having returned and assumed command.

Thirty-fifth Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Samuel A. Foster, col.; Thos. F. Kimball, lieut.-col.; James A. Greason, lieut.-col.; Horace Fitch, lieut.-col.; Thos. H. Penny, maj.; Thos. H. Penny, adjt.; Jacob T. Child, adjt.; Effingham T. Hyatt, adjt.; Henry C. Murdock, adjt.; A. C. Miller, q.m.; Joseph B. Lamb, surg.; Perry C. H. Rooney, asst. surg.; Henry Schoeniek, asst. surg.; James Schofield, chaplain.

This regiment formed a part of the brigade raised under the direction of Gen. Clinton B. Fisk, and left Benton Barracks, St. Louis, Dec. 22, 1862, serving subsequently at different points in Kentucky and Arkansas.

Fortieth Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Samuel A. Holmes, col.; A. G. Hequembourg, lieut.-col.; George Hoffman, maj.; Truman A. Post, adjt.; John F. Neville, q.m.; Homer Judd, surg.; Homer Judd, asst. surg.; J. F. Sneed, asst. surg.; Charles Ludwig, asst. surg.; R. Ratlinger, asst. surg.

Co. A. — Adam Bax, capt.; George A. Daggett, 1st lieut.; Frank Rhode, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — George W. Gilson, capt.; Charles A. Biggers, 1st lieut.; Julius Nichaus, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — Monroe Harrison, capt.; Emile Thomas, 1st lieut.; G. H. Coffey, 2d lieut.

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Co. D. — Philip Anderson, capt.; Henry B. Kerone, 1st lieut.; John Melville, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — Herman Kullman, capt.; William J. Miller, 1st lieut.; George W. Sweeney, 2d lieut.; W. H. Winkelmaier, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — M. Greene, capt.; Jos. Harrison, Jr., 1st lieut.; Austin Drake, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — Wm. I. Whitwell, capt.; C. C. Coffinbury, 1st lieut.; Philip F. Coghlan, 2d lieut.

Co. H. — D. S. Stillinger, capt.; Charles D. Smith, 1st lieut.; Josiah F. Hinton.

Co. I. — John Ruedi, capt.; Charles Seep, 1st lieut.; Charles F. Knoll, 2d lieut.

Co. K. — Robert C. Allen, capt.; John J. Robertson, 1st lieut.; Winfield S. Smith, 2d lieut.

The regiment was raised in St. Louis, and its organization was completed on the 7th of September, 1864.

Forty-first Regiment. Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Jos. Weydemeyer, col.; Gustav Heinrich, lieut.-col.; Henry F. Dietz, maj.; Henry Huhn, adjt.; Charles A. Snell, q.m.; Ernest Jahn, surg.; Ernest Jahn, asst. surg.; Gustavus Wieland, asst. surg.; Hugo Kluler, asst. surg.

Co. A. — Frederick Crutz, capt.; Frederick Crutz, 1st lieut.; Michael Best, 1st lieut.; William Steuder, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — August Thorwald, capt.; Lambert Mohr, 1st lieut.; William Steuder, 1st lieut.; William Keely, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — Henry J. Bischoff, capt.; Henry J. Bischoff, 1st lieut.; Matthias Barth, 1st lieut.; Dietrich Feldlush, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — Felix Laeis, capt.; Julius Fritsch, 1st lieut.; Otto Vermann, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — Philibert Melinand, capt.; Emanuel Grivaud, 1st lieut.; P. S. Whittaker, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — Christian Elrodt, capt.; Gustavus Clemen, 1st lieut.; F. F. Lebaume, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — Alex. Windmuller, capt.; A. Roetter, 1st lieut.; F. Wagenfenhr, 2d lieut.

Co. H. — Joseph Schubert, capt.; Joseph Schubert, 1st lieut.; Jacob Horn, 1st lieut.; Charles E. Moss, 2d lieut.

Co. I. — John E. Sanders, capt.; John E. Sanders, 1st lieut.; J. C. F. Boyd, 1st lieut.; Randall G. Butter, 2d lieut.

Co. K. — John G. Broemser, capt.; John G. Broemser, 1st lieut.; Charles Moeller, 1st lieut.; Jacob J. Broemser, 2d lieut.

This was one of the regiments raised in St. Louis under the terms of General Orders No. 134, Department of the Missouri, for twelve months' service. Its organization was completed Sept. 12, 1864, and it was employed in performing guard duty in the city of St. Louis.

Forty-third Regiment Infantry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Chester Harding, Jr., col.; John Pinger, lieut.-col.; Berryman R. Davis, maj.; Joseph Thompson, adjt.; Henry R. Mills, adjt.; Francis Rodman, q.m.; Joseph Schmitz, q.m.; J. G. Eggleston, surg.; J. G. Eggleston, asst. surg.; E. W. Dill, asst. surg.; W. T. Drace, asst. surg.

The organization of this regiment as a twelve months' regiment was completed at St. Joseph in September, 1864, and Col. Chester Harding, Jr. (formerly adjutant-general of the State), was commissioned as its colonel.

Forty-ninth Infantry:

FIELD AND STAFF. — D. P. Dyer, lieut.-col.; Edwin Smart, maj.; Wm. R. Hardin, adjt.; T. M. Guerin, q.m.; William D. Bush, q.m.; Oscar Monig, surg.; Thomas L. Ruby, asst. surg.

Second Regiment Cavalry (Merrill Horse), Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Lewis Merrill, col.; William F. Schaffer, lieut.-col.; Charles B. Hunt, lieut.-col.; John Y. Clopper, lieut.-col.; George C. Marshall, maj.; Charles B. Hunt, maj.; John Y. Clopper, maj.; Garrison Harker, maj.; Jabez B. Rogers, maj.; Joshua W. Roher, adjt.; George Merrill, q.m.; R. B. Hughes, comm'y; Andrew S. Phelps, comm'y; S. B. Thayer, surg.; S. B. Thayer, surg.; Henry Douglas, surg.; W. H. Knickerbocker, asst. surg.; Henry Douglas, asst. surg.; A. D. Thomas, asst. surg.; J. W. O. Snider, asst. surg.; Robert W. Landis, chaplain.

In August, 1861, Capt. Lewis Merrill, Second Cavalry, United States army, received authority from Gen. Fremont to organize and concentrate a cavalry regiment at Benton Barracks for immediate service in the field. At this particular juncture recruiting for the United States service was of a slow and tedious nature; other officers had received similar authority, and after a severe effort abandoned the project as impracticable. Capt. Merrill, however, recruited and enlisted over eight hundred men in less than one month, commenced a system of military instruction and drill as soon as he organized the first squadron, and by dint of hard labor succeeded in raising the regiment to a high standard of discipline. In September, 1861, before thoroughly organized and equipped, this regiment received orders from Gen. Fremont to march to Springfield, Mo. It subsequently operated successfully against guerrilla organizations in different portions of the State.

Third Regiment Cavalry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — John M. Glover, col.; Walter C. Gantt, lieut.-col.; Robert Carrick, lieut.-col.; Thomas G. Black, lieut.-col.; Robert Carrick, maj.; Albert D. Glover, maj.; Henry A. Gallup, maj.; John A. Lennon, maj.; James T. Howland, maj.; William S. Grover, adjt.; James C. Agnew, q.m.; William Johnson, comm'y; John L. Taylor, surg.; William W. Granger, asst. surg.; James Lester, chaplain; R. H. McCoy, chaplain.

Sixth Regiment Cavalry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Clark Wright, col.; S. N. Wood, lieut.-col.; T. A. Switzler, lieut.-col.; Henry P. Hawkins, maj.; Samuel Montgomery, maj.; Bacon Montgomery, maj.; Matthew T. Kirk, adjt.; Horatio N. Stinson, q.m.; Stephen M. Wood, q.m.; Jerome B. Jenkins, comm'y; James L. Kiernan, surg.; B. K. Shirtliff, surg.; James K. Bigelow, asst. surg.; Thomas W. Johnson, asst. surg.; William Denly, chaplain.

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Ninth Regiment Cavalry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — William D. Bowen, lieut.-col.; Daniel P. Parsons, adjt.; Albert E. Hull, q.m.; Horace Newell, asst. surg.; D. H. Law, asst. surg.

Eleventh Regiment Cavalry, Missouri Volunteers:

FIELD AND STAFF. — William D. Wood, col.; John W. Stephens, lieut.-col.; John W. Stephens, maj.; L. C. Pace, maj.; John T. Ross, maj.; Lyman W. Brown, maj.; William M. Wherry, maj.; Daniel P. Parsons, adjt.; A. J. Newby, adjt.; Milton Santee, q.m.; Amos N. Currier, comm'y; John W. Slade, surg.; John W. Slade, asst. surg.; Thomas Lawrence, asst. surg.; Jonas M. Starnes, asst. surg.

Third Regiment Enrolled Missouri Militia:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Adolph Hugo, col.; Fred. Vahlkamp, col.; John C. Woerner, lieut.-col.; George Hassfurther, lieut.-col.; Casper Koehler, lieut.-col.; Fred. Vahlkamp, maj.; Leonard Weindel, maj.; William Waldschmidt, adjt.; John P. Mack, q.m.; Leopold Meyer, surg.

Fourth Regiment Enrolled Missouri Militia:

FIELD AND STAFF. — C. D. Wolff, col.; Christian Ploeser, lieut.-col.; Christian Goerisch, maj.; Henry L. Rathjen, adjt.; Benj. F. Gempp, adjt.; Ferdinand Cassel, q.m.; William T. Gempp, surg.

Fifth Regiment Enrolled Missouri Militia:

FIELD AND STAFF. — F. T. L. Boyle, col.; Louis Duestrow, col.; John G. Prather, lieut.-col.; John Ruedi, lieut.-col.; Louis Duestrow, maj.; Robert Jacob, maj.; Theodore Kalb, adjt.; Robert Jacobs, adjt.; Augustus Wetzel, adjt.; Gustave Kohrs, q.m.; Charles Ludwig, surg.

Sixth Regiment Enrolled Missouri Militia:

FIELD AND STAFF. — T. Niederweiser, col.; T. Niederweiser, lieut.-col.; A. D. Sloan, lieut.-col.; A. D. Sloan, maj.; F. A. Durgin, maj.; Louis Lippman, adjt.; Emil Hoester, adjt.; George Seigel, q.m.; Ernst Jahn, surg.; Adolphus Roesch, surg.; Homer Judd, asst. surg.

Seventh Regiment Enrolled Missouri Militia:

FIELD AND STAFF. — George E. Leighton, col.; E. C. Pike, lieut.-col.; Henry Senter, maj.; Edward P. Rice, maj.; Eben Richards, Jr., adjt.; George Hoffman, adjt.; William Groshon, q.m.; Chester H. Krum, q.m.; William S. Dyer, surg.; Mortimer D. Senter, surg.

Co. A. — Henry Senter, capt.; Edward Wilkerson, capt.; George F. Meyers, capt.; Henry Capin, 1st lieut.; William H. Pulsifer, 1st lieut.; George D. Young, 2d lieut.; Frank R. Alexander, 2d lieut.

Original Companies A and C of this regiment were consolidated by attaching the latter company to the former, and the commissions of the then existing officers vacated. In compliance with orders issued from district headquarters, an election for officers of the company thus formed was held June 9, 1863, resulting as follows: For captain, George F. Meyers, formerly captain of Company C; for 1st lieutenant, W. H. Pulsifer, formerly 1st lieutenant of Company A; for 2d lieutenant, F. R. Alexander, formerly sergeant of Company C.

Co. B. — Edward T. Clark, capt.; William B. Pratt, capt.; George H. Morgan, capt.; William B. Pratt, 1st lieut.; John M. Wherry, 1st lieut.; John M. Wherry, 2d lieut.; George H. Morgan, 2d lieut.; Stephen Crowell, 2d lieut.

Co. C. 310 — E. C. Pike, capt.; George F. Meyers, capt.; John Kolley, capt.; George F. Meyers, 1st lieut; William A. Northrop, 1st lieut.; Henry Capin, 1st lieut.; George Born, 1st lieut.; William A. Northrop, 2d lieut.; James W. Rutter, 2d lieut.; Peter Cigrand, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — E. P. Rice, capt.; E. G. Fisher, 2d lieut.; Jacob S. Williams, 1st lieut.; E. S. Biden, 2d lieut; Thatcher G. Conant, 2d lieut.; Frederick B. Howe, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — Ferdinand Meyer, capt; Charles S. Kintzing, 1st lieut.; Richard D. Compton, 1st lieut.; Richard D. Compton, 2d lieut.; Emil Gessler, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — William B. Parker, capt.; J. C. Dubuque, 1st lieut.; E. Mawdsley, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — Henry Kleinschmidt, capt.; William L. Bingham, 1st lieut.; James Martin, 2d lieut.

Co. H. 311 — Constantine Magwire, capt.; Patrick Sullivan, 1st lieut.; David Woods, 2d lieut.

Co. I. — B. Doran Killian, capt; J. P. Cuddy, 1st lieut.

Eighth Regiment Enrolled Missouri Militia:

FIELD AND STAFF. — John Knapp, col.; Asa S. Jones, lieut.-col.; Fred. B. Holmes, maj.; William L. Catherwood, maj.; A. G. Hequembourg, adjt; Charles C. Whittelsey, q.m.; John Lebrecht, surg.

Co. A. — George Knapp, capt.; George W. Gilson, 1st lieut.; George W. Purnell, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — D. Woestendriek, capt.; James Smith, 1st lieut.; Alex. H. Moore, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — Rudolph Wagner, capt.; Herman Sparkle, 1st lieut.; Albert E. Vermann, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — William L. Catherwood, capt; D. S. Stellinger, capt.; Asa S. Jones, 1st lieut.; D. S. Stellinger, 1st lieut.; Charles A. Bohannon, 1st lieut.; D. S. Stellinger, 2d lieut.; John Graham, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — M. P. Hawthorn, capt.; J. R. Boggs, 1st lieut.; James V. Fisher, 2d lieut.; Mosely Green, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — James Mitchell, capt.; John T. Holmes, 1st lieut.; Louis P. Fuller, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — John C. Blech, capt.; F. W. Hirsch, 1st lieut.; H. Lagerman, 2d lieut.

Co. H. 312 — John Kolley, capt; George Born, 1st lieut; Julius Lefold, 2d lieut.; Peter Cigrand, 2d lieut.

Co. I. 313 — Daniel G. Taylor, capt.; B. D. Killian, capt.; Charles W. Horn, 1st lieut.; Edward Bryne, 1st lieut.; J. P. Cuddy, 1st lieut.; B. D. Killian, 2d lieut.

Co. K. 314 — Constantine Magwire, capt.; Patrick Sullivan, 1st lieut.; Daniel Woods, 2d lieut.

Ninth Regiment Enrolled Missouri Militia:

FIELD AND STAFF. — John M. Krum, col.; Henry H. Catherwood, col.; Henry H. Catherwood, lieut.-col.; Oscar F. Lowe, lieut.-col.; Henry H. Catherwood, maj.; Oscar F. Lowe, maj.; Edward Morrison, maj.; Ernest W, Decker, adjt; Oscar F. Lowe, q.m.; Charles H. Bailey, q.m.; Henry C. Marthens, surg.

Co. A. — Henry Cleveland, capt.; John C. Porter, 1st lieut.; Hiram H. Sleeth, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — Edward Morrison, capt.; John D. Ready, 1st lieut.; John O. Mohana, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — John Evill, capt.; Philip C. Taylor, 1st lieut.; S. T. Chapman, 1st lieut.; William G. H. Becker, 1st lieut.; Joseph A. Brown, 2d lieut.

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Co. D. — Daniel M. Grissom, capt.; E. J. Montague, 1st lieut.; George Mck. Luken, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — Charles R. Lyman, capt.; George Lewis, 1st lieut.; William A. Albright, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — Munson Beach, capt.; Charles Klunk, 1st lieut.; George T. Lewis, 1st lieut.; George Scott, 2d lieut.; William R. Babcock, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — William H. Crawford, capt.; John H. Field, 1st lieut.; A. B. Pearson, 2d lieut.

Co. H. — Hugh McDermott, capt.; Timothy McNamara, 1st lieut.; Hammond P. Farber, 2d lieut.

Co. I. — William McKee, capt.; Richard W. Moran, 1st lieut.; Theodore C. Albright, 2d lieut.

Sixteenth Regiment Enrolled Missouri Militia:

FIELD AND STAFF. — M. W. Warne, col.; W. H. Stone, lieut.- col.; O. B. Filley, maj.; B. W. Warne, adjt.; F. H. Hearum, q.m.

Co. A. — William H. Stone, capt.; George W. Fisher, 1st lieut.; William O'Brian, 2d lieut.

Co. B. — Frederick Maurer, capt.; Victor Klatz, 1st lieut.; James Schaeffer, 2d lieut.

Co. C. — Gerard B. Allen, capt.; O. B. Filley, 1st lieut.; Albert D. Wells, 2d lieut.

Co. D. — Elijah Wells, capt.; M. W. Hagaman, 1st lieut.; James R. Dunnivant, 2d lieut.

Co. E. — James H. McCord, capt.; John L. Moon, 1st lieut.; James E. Fox, 2d lieut.

Co. F. — E. A. Corbet, capt.; William J. Tillay, 1st lieut.; G. William Katzung, 2d lieut.; Charles Goedeke, 2d lieut.

Co. G. — Robert Barnett, capt.; D. D. Chandler, 1st lieut.; Charles Deming, 2d lieut.

Co. H. — Stephen Glass, capt.; Charles Hagar, 1st lieut.; Rudolph Jackson, 2d lieut.

Co. I. — Louis Espenschied, capt.; John Cook, 1st lieut.; Justus Spectre, 2d lieut.

Co. K. — E. J. Sterling, capt.; John J. Grimsley, 1st lieut.; Edward Logan, 1st lieut.; P. J. Peters, 2d lieut.; Henry S. Carson, 2d lieut.

Seventeenth Regiment Enrolled Missouri Militia:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Charles L. Tucker, col.; S. G. Sears, lieut.-col.; Jonathan O. Pearce, maj.; William C. Wilson, adjt.; George P. Plant, q.m.; F. W. White, surg.

Twenty-second Regiment Enrolled Missouri Militia:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Thomas Miller, Jr., col.; Joab Lawrence, lieut.-col.; Nathan Cole, maj.; J. F. Parsons, adjt.; D. B. Pearce, q.m.

Twenty-third Regiment, Enrolled Missouri Militia:

FIELD AND STAFF. — George R. Taylor, col.; T. McKissock, lieut. col.; E. W. Wallace, maj.; James W. Way, adjt.

Third Regiment Cavalry (formerly Tenth), Missouri State Militia:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Edwin Smart, col.; Richard G. Woodson, col.; Frederick Morsey, lieut.-col.; James O. Broadhead, lieut.-col.; Richard G. Woodson, maj.; Henry L. McConnell, maj.; James Wilson, maj.; H. M. Mathews, maj.; Henry C. Campbell, adjt.; John F. L. Jacoby, q.m.; H. R. Woodruff, com.; William L. Short, surg.; Wm. L. Short, asst. surg.; H. E. Jones, asst. surg.; James Hollister, asst. surg.

Fifth Regiment Cavalry (formerly Thirteenth), Missouri State Militia:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Albert Sigel, col.; Joseph A. Eppstein, lieut.-col.; Haveland Tompkins, maj.; John B. Kaiser, maj.; Waldemar Fischer, maj.; George E. Leighton, maj.; Oliver P. Newberry, maj.; William C. Kerr, adjt.; Henry W. Werth, adjt.; Louis Bergean, q.m.; Louis Rugen, com.; John Fetzer, surg.; John Fetzer, asst. surg.; Alexander Fekete, asst. surg.; John H. Williams, asst. surg.

Twelfth Regiment Calvary, Missouri State Militia:

FIELD AND STAFF. — Albert Jackson, col.; Samuel P. Simpson, lieut.-col.; Bazel F. Lazear, lieut.-col.; Bazel F. Lazear, maj.; Frederick W. Reeder, maj.; George E. Leighton, maj.; J. A. Greason, adjt.; Philip R. Van Frank, q.m.; H. M. Matthews, surg.; H. M. Matthews, asst. surg.; Henry Douglass, asst. surg.

[The foregoing lists of officers of the Missouri regiments under the different organizations of United States Reserve Corps, or Home Guards, Missouri Volunteers, and Enrolled Missouri Militia, were compiled from official sources, but are necessarily incomplete owing to the defective character of the returns made to the adjutant-general of the State. Owing also to the lack of information in the adjutant-general's reports as to the localities from which the various regiments were recruited, and the fact that officers and men were frequently transferred from one command to another or merged into new organizations, it is impossible to trace out all the officers whose commands were organized in St. Louis, but it is believed that the lists given are as full and accurate as it was possible to make them with the material in our possession.]

The following is a complete roster of the commanders-in-chief and their staffs, major-generals commanding and staffs, and brigadier-generals commanding the Missouri State Militia and Enrolled Missouri Militia and their staffs from 1861 to Dec. 31, 1864:

Date. Name. Rank. Rank from Remarks.
Aug. 12, 1861 Hamilton R. Gamble Commander-in-Chief Aug. 19, 1861 Died Jan. 31, 1864.
Aug. 24, 1861 George R. Smith Brigadier-General and Adjutant-Gener'l Aug. 24, 1861 Resigned Nov. 30, 1861.
Nov. 30, 1861 Chester Harding, Jr Colonel and Adjutant-General Nov. 30, 1861 Resigned April 24, 1862.
Nov. 20, 1862 John B. Gray Colonel and Adjutant-General Nov. 20, 1862 Transferred to staff Governor Hall.
Aug. 17, 1861 Samuel G. Reid Brigadier-General and Q.M.-General Aug. 17, 1861 Resigned Dec. 18, 1861.
Dec. 19, 1861 Cyrus B. Burnham Colonel and Quartermaster-General Dec. 19, 1861 Resigned Aug. 1, 1862
Aug. 1, 1862 E. Anson More Colonel and Quartermaster-General Aug. 1, 1862 Transferred to staff Governor Hall.
Nov. 19, 1861 Alton R. Easton Colonel and Inspector-General Nov. 19, 1861 Transferred to staff Governor Hall.
Dec. 2, 1861 Franklin D. Callender Colonel and Chief Ordnance Dec. 2, 1861 Transferred to staff Governor Hall.
Aug. 20, 1861 Hamilton Gamble Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Aug. 20, 1861 Resigned February, 1864.
Sept. 17, 1861 William D. Wood Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Sept. 17, 1861 Resigned Dec. 14, 1863.
Dec. 15, 1863 Walter M. Smallwood Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Dec. 15, 1863 Resigned Feb. 17, 1864.
Aug. 23, 1861 William T. Mason Colonel and Aid-de-Camp. Military Sec Aug. 23, 1861 Resigned Jan. 10, 1863.
April 1, 1863 C. C. Bailey Major and Aid-de-Camp, Military Sec April 1, 1863 Transferred to staff Governor Hall.

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Date. Name. Rank. Rank from Remarks.
Aug. 23, 1862 C. P. E. Johnson Colonel and Paymaster-General Aug. 23, 1862 Transferred to staff Governor Hall.
June 1, 1863 Melville Sawyer Lieut.-Col and Deputy Paymaster-Gen. June 1, 1863 Transferred to staff Governor Hall.
Jan. 3, 1862 Philip T. Weigel Colonel and Surgeon-General Jan. 3, 1862 Resigned May 10, 1862.
Sept. 1, 1862 John T. Hodgen Colonel and Surgeon-General Sept. 1, 1862 Transferred to staff Governor Hall.
Sept. 22, 1862 James O. Broadhead Colonel and Judge Advocate-General Sept. 22, 1862 Transferred to staff Governor Hall.
Oct. 8, 1862 Daniel G. Taylor. Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 8, 1862 Transferred to staff Governor Hall.
Aug. 23, 1861 William T. Mason Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Aug. 23, 1861 Resigned 10th January, 1863.
Oct. 6, 1862 John Flournoy Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 6, 1862 Transferred to staff Governor Hall.
Jan. 4, 1862 John Riggen, Jr Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Jan. 4, 1862 Transferred to staff Governor Hall.
Dec. 6, 1861 Austin A. King Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Dec. 6, 1861 Transferred to staff Governor Hall.
Dec. 28, 1862 James H. Birch Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Dec. 28, 1862 Resigned Aug. 14, 1863.
Sept. 3, 1862 Cyrus B. Burnham Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Sept. 3, 1862 Transferred to staff Governor Hall.
Feb. 21, 1862 George G. Pride Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Feb. 21, 1862 Transferred to staff Governor Hall.
Sept. 9, 1862 Thomas T. Gantt Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Sept. 9, 1862 Transferred to staff Governor Hall.
Sept. 18, 1862 William S. Moseley Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Sept. 18, 1862 Transferred to staff Governor Hall.
April 14, 1862 William S. Hillyer Colonel and Aid-de-Camp April 14, 1862 Transferred to staff Governor Hall.
June 1, 1862 Michael P. Small Colonel and Aid-de-Camp June 1, 1862 Transferred to staff Governor Hall.
Feb. 26, 1862 Isaac D. Snedeker Major and Aid-de-Camp Feb. 26, 1862 Transferred to staff Governor Hall.
Feb. 1, 1864 Willard P. Hall Commander-in-Chief Feb. 1, 1864  
March 20, 1863 John B. Gray Colonel and Adjutant-General March 20, 1863  
Aug. 1, 1862 E. Anson More Colonel and Quartermaster Aug. 1, 1862  
May 19, 1861 Alton R. Easton Colonel and Inspector-General Nov. 19, 1861 Resigned 15th February, 1864.
Feb. 17, 1864 Silas Woodson Colonel and Inspector-General Feb. 17, 1864 Resigned 4th August, 1864.
Aug. 5, 1864 J. M. Bassett Colonel and Inspector-General Aug. 5, 1864  
Dec. 2, 1861 Franklin D. Callender Colonel and Chief Ordnance Dec. 2, 1861  
Feb. 18, 1864 Allen P. Richardson Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Feb. 18, 1864  
Feb. 18, 1864 William P. Harrison Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Feb. 18, 1864 Resigned 12th May, 1864.
May 18, 1864 Mordecai Oliver Colonel and Aid-de-Camp May 18, 1864  
July 15, 1864 C. C. Bailey Lieut.-Col. and A. D. C., and Military Sec. July 15, 1864  
April 1, 1863 C. C. Bailey Major, Aid-de-Camp, and Military Sec. April 1, 1863 Promoted to Lieut.-Col. and Aid-de-Camp.
Aug. 23, 1862 C. P. E. Johnson Colonel and Paymaster-General Aug. 23, 1862  
June 1, 1863 Melville Sawyer Lieut.-Col. and Deputy Paymaster Gen. June 1, 1863 With pay and emoluments.
Sept. 1, 1862 John T. Hodgen Colonel and Surgeon-General Sept. 1, 1862  
Sept. 22, 1862 James O. Broadhead Colonel and Judge Advocate-General Sept. 22, 1862  
Oct. 8, 1862 Daniel G. Taylor Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 8, 1862  
Oct. 6, 1862 John Flournoy Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 6, 1862  
Jan. 4, 1862 John Riggen, Jr Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Jan. 4, 1862  
Dec. 6, 1861 Austin A King Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Dec. 6, 1861  
Sept. 3, 1862 Cyrus B. Burnham Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Sept. 3, 1862  
Feb. 21, 1862 George G. Pride Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Feb. 21, 1842  
Sept. 9, 1862 Thomas T. Gantt Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Sept. 9, 1862  
Sept. 18, 1862 William S. Moseley Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Sept. 18, 1862  
April 14, 1862 William S. Hillyer Colonel and Aid-de-Camp April 14, 1862  
June 1, 1862 Michael P. Small Colonel and Aid-de-Camp June 1, 1862  
Feb. 23, 1864 Alton R. Easton Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Feb. 23, 1864  
Sept. 29, 1864 George H. Stone Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Sept. 29, 1864  
Sept. 29, 1864 John Knapp Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Sept. 29, 1864  
Sept. 29, 1864 James Peckham Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Sept. 29, 1864  
Sept. 30, 1864 D. T. Kirby Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Sept. 30, 1864  
Oct. 5, 1864 Elwood Miller Lieutenant-Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 5, 1864  
Nov. 23, 1864 William Hoelck Lieutenant-Colonel and Aid-de Camp Nov. 23, 1864  
Feb. 26, 1862 Isaac D. Snedeker Major and Aid-de-Camp Feb. 26, 1862  
Sept. 30, 1864 William M. R. Grebe Major and Aid-de-Camp Sept. 30, 1864  
Oct. 4, 1864 William S. Allen Major and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 4, 1864  
June 1, 1864 Elias P. West Captain and Aid-de-Camp June 1, 1864 Resigned 13th July, 1864.
Nov. 3, 1864 John A. Dolman Captain and Aid-de-Camp Nov. 3, 1864  
Nov. 5, 1864 Jesse G. Newman Captain and Aid-de-Camp Nov. 5, 1864  
May 24, 1864 J. M. Bassett Lieutenant-Colonel and Aid-de-Camp May 24, 1864 Appointed Col., A. D. C., and Inspec.-Gen.
Sept. 29, 1864 F. Wilhelmi Major and Aid-de-Camp Sept. 29, 1864  
Under General Orders No. 96, War Department, Series 1861.
Nov. 19, 1861 H. W. Halleck Major-General Nov. 19, 1861 Relieved by Gen. Curtis, 24th Sept., 1862.
Sept. 27, 1862 Samuel R. Curtis Major-General Sept. 27, 1862 Resigned 28th February, 1863.
May 29, 1863 J. M. Schofield Major-General May 24, 1863 Vacated by appointment of Gen. Rosecrans.
Feb. 1, 1864 W. S. Rosecrans Major-General Feb. 1, 1864 Vacated by appointment of Gen. Dodge.
Dec. 13, 1864 Grenville M. Dodge Major-General Dec. 9, 1864  
Dec. 4, 1861 Calvin W. Marsh Lieut.-Col. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen. Dec. 4, 1861 Resigned Nov. 3, 1864.
Nov. 17, 1864 R. A. Phelan Lieut.-Col. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen. Nov. 17, 1864 Vacated Dec. 7, 1864.
Dec. 9, 1864 James C. Dodge Lieut.-Col. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen. Dec. 9, 1864  
Oct. 7, 1862 C. S. Charlott Lieut.-Col. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen. Oct. 7, 1862 Resigned March 19, 1862.
Dec. 4, 1861 John B. Gray Lieut.-Col. and Aid-de-Camp Dec. 4, 1861 Appointed Colonel 1st Infantry, M. S. M., March 1, 1862.
Oct. 8, 1862 Samuel S. Curtis Lieut.-Col. and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 8, 1862 Resigned Feb. 28, 1863.
Dec. 4, 1862 Bernard G. Farrar Lieut.-Col. and Aid-de-Camp Dec. 4, 1862 Appointed Col. 30th Mo. Vols. Oct. 30, 1862.
March 1, 1864 H. De Wenthern Lieut.-Col. and Aid-de-Camp March 1, 1864 Honorary.
Sept. 28, 1864 L. Ferdinand Fix Major and Aid-de-Camp Sept. 28, 1864 Honorary.

-- 478 --

Under General Orders, No. 96, War Department, Series 1861.
Date. Name. Rank. Rank from Remarks.
Nov. 26, 1861 John M. Schofield Brigadier-General Nov. 26, 1861 Resigned April 11, 1863.
Nov. 28, 1861 Henry Hescox Major and Assistant Adjutant-General Nov. 28, 1861 Resigned Jan. 24, 1862.
Feb. 13, 1862 Frank J. White Major and Assistant Adjutant-General. Feb. 13, 1862 Appointed Maj 2d Battal. 25th May, 1862.
Aug. 2, 1862 Charles S. Sheldon Major and Assistant Adjutant-General. Aug. 2, 1862 Resigned Dec. 4, 1862.
Dec. 4, 1861 John B. Gray Lieut.-Col., A. D. C. and Asst. Insp.-Gen. Dec. 4, 1861 Appointed Col. 1st Inft., March 18, 1862.
Dec. 4, 1861 Bernard G. Farrar Lieut.-Col., A. D. C. and Asst. Insp.-Gen. Dec. 4, 1861 Appointed Col. 30th Mo. Vols., Oct. 30, 1862.
April 18, 1862 Edward Harding Major and Commissary April 18, 1862 Resigned April 11, 1863.
April 18, 1862 E. Wilmot Major and Quartermaster April 18, 1862 Transferred to staff of Gen. Guitar.
Dec. 3, 1861 Henry McConnell Major and Aid-de-Camp Dec. 3, 1861 Appointed Major 10th Reg., June 14, 1862.
Dec. 3, 1861 John F. Tyler Major and Aid-de-Camp Dec. 3, 1861 Appointed Lieut.-Col. 1st Inft., May 13, 1862.
Dec. 4, 1861 Samuel H. Melcher Major and Surgeon Dec. 4, 1861 Mustered out by S. O. No. 81, series 1863.
Under General Orders No. 96, War Department, Series 1861.
Nov. 27, 1861 Ben Loan Brigadier-General   Dismissed by Gen. Ord. No. 112, series 1863.
Feb. 13, 1862 John Severance Major and Assistant Adjutant-General. Feb. 13, 1862 Resigned April 12, 1862.
March 5, 1862 James Rainsford Major and Assistant Adjutant-General. March 5, 1862 Transferred to staff of Gen. Guitar.
April 18, 1862 Henry Bright, Jr Major and Commissary April 18, 1862 Discharged by General Orders No. 127, Department of Missouri, Nov. 2, 1863.
May 17, 1862 Joseph Penny Major and Quartermaster May 17, 1862 Ordered to be mustered out by Special Order No. 81, series 1863.
Sept. 1, 1862 James M. Wilson Major and Aid-de-Camp Sept. 1, 1862 Honorary.
May 20, 1862 Robert P. Richardson Major and Surgeon May 20, 1862 Transferred to staff of Gen. Guitar.
Under General Orders No. 96, War Department, Series 1861.
Feb. 19, 1862 James Totten Brigadier-General Feb. 19, 1862.  
March 25, 1862 Lucien J. Barnes Major and Assistant Adjutant-General. March 25, 1862 Resigned May 20, 1864.
Feb. 18, 1864 Walter M. Smallwood Major and Assistant Adjutant-General Feb. 18, 1864  
April 18, 1862 E. Anson More Major and Commissary April 18, 1862 Promoted to Q.M.-Gen. Aug. 1, 1862.
Aug. 1, 1862 W. Marsh Casson Major and Commissary Aug. 1, 1862 Resigned Sept. 13, 1862.
Oct. 15, 1862 Henry D. Woodsworth Major and Commissary Oct. 15, 1862 Ordered to be mustered out by Special Order No. 81, series 1863.
May 1, 1863 James Corning Major and Commissary May 1, 1863 Resigned Feb. 5, 1864.
March 28, 1864 John R. Moore Major and Commissary March 28, 1864  
Aug. 13, 1862 D. H. Barnes Major and Quartermaster Aug. 13, 1862  
April 18, 1862 Frank J. Porter Major and Surgeon April 18, 1862 Resigned Nov. 25, 1864.
Nov. 25, 1864 Joseph D. Smith Major and Surgeon Nov. 25, 1864  
Under General Orders No. 96, War Department, Series 1861.
May 1, 1862 Egbert B. Brown Brigadier-General May 1, 1862 Resigned May 21, 1863.
May 2, 1862 James H. Steger Major and Assistant Adjutant-General. May 2, 1862 Ordered to be mustered out by Special Order No. 81, series 1863.
May 7, 1862 Richard H. Melton Major and Commissary May 7, 1862 Resigned Nov. 28, 1862.
Nov. 29, 1862 George C. See Major and Commissary Nov. 29, 1862 Ordered to be mustered out by Special Order No. 81, series 1863.
May 7, 1862 James Corning Major and Quartermaster May 7, 1862 Commissioned Major and Brigadier Quartermaster First Brigade.
May 14, 1862 Robert H. Paddock Major and Surgeon May 14, 1862 Ordered to be mustered out by Special Order No. 81, series 1863.
Under General Orders No. 96, War Department, Series 1861.
June 27, 1864 Odon Guitar. Brigadier-General June 27, 1863 Resigned Aug. 31, 1864.
Aug. 31, 1864 George H. Hall Brigadier-General Aug. 31, 1864  
March 5, 1862 James Rainsford Major and Assistant Adjutant-General March 5, 1862  
April 18, 1862 E. Wilmot Major and Quartermaster April 18, 1862  
Oct. 5, 1863 Charles E. Clarke Major and Commissary Oct. 5, 1863 Resigned Dec. 7, 1864.
Dec. 8, 1864 D. K. Stockton Major and Commissary Dec. 8, 1864  
April 28, 1862 Robert P. Richardson Major and Surgeon April 28, 1862  

-- 479 --

Date. Name. Rank. Rank from Remarks.
Aug. 20, 1862 John B. Gray Brigadier-General Aug. 19, 1862 Relieved from command of First Division by Special Order No. 32, 1862.
Aug. 21, 1862 George F. Glazer Major and Assistant Adjutant-General. Aug. 21, 1862  
Aug. 21, 1862 Albert Pearce Major and Quartermaster Aug. 21, 1862 Revoked April 28, 1864.
April 29, 1864 Enno Sander Major and Quartermaster April 29, 1864  
Aug. 21, 1862 Samuel T. Hatch Major and Commissary Aug. 21, 1862  
Aug. 21, 1862 Joseph C. Cabot Major and Aid-de-Camp Aug. 21, 1862  
Aug. 21, 1862 S. H. Laflin Major and Aid-de-Camp Aug. 21, 1862  
Sept. 24, 1862 H. Folson Captain, A. D. C., and Ordnance Officer. Sept. 24, 1862  
Oct. 10, 1862 John H. Blood Captain and Assistant Aid-de Camp Oct. 10, 1862  
Oct. 4, 1864 William Hoffman Captain and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 4, 1864  
Oct. 22, 1864 Edward Schueller Captain and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 22, 1864  
Oct. 22, 1862 A. G. Edwards Brigadier General Oct. 21, 1862 Resigned Oct. 23, 1863.
Oct. 23, 1862 Alfred Mackay Major and Assistant Adjutant-General Oct. 23, 1862 Relieved by Special Order No. 175, Oct. 24, 1863.
Oct. 25, 1862 Carlos S. Greely Major and Quartermaster Oct. 25, 1862 Relieved by Special Order No. 175, Oct. 24, 1863.
Oct. 25, 1862 Philip W. Hermans Major and Commissary Oct. 25, 1862 Relieved by Special Order No. 175, Oct. 24, 1863.
Oct. 25, 1862 George P. Strong Major and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 25, 1862 Relieved by S. O. No. 175, Oct. 24, 1863.
July 1, 1863 A. S. Barnes Major and Surgeon June 26, 1863 Relieved by S. O. No. 175, Oct. 24, 1863.
Oct. 25, 1862 Samuel W. Eager, Jr. Captain and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 25, 1862 Relieved by S. O. No. 175, Oct. 24, 1863.
June 22, 1863 Franklin L. Ridgely, Jr. Captain and Aid-de-Camp June 15, 1863 Relieved by S. O. No. 175, Oct. 24, 1863.
March 29, 1864 E. C. Pike Brigadier-General March 29, 1864  
April 7, 1864 George Hoffman Major and Assistant Adjutant-General April 7, 1864 Resigned Sept. 22, 1864.
Dec. 7, 1864 A. Wilhartitz Major and Assistant Adjutant-General Dec. 7, 1864  
Aug. 22, 1864 D. K. Stockton Major and Quartermaster Aug. 22, 1864  
May 12, 1864 M. P. Hantham Major and Commissary May 12, 1864  
May 4, 1864 H. C. Marthens Major and Surgeon May 4, 1864  
Sept. 27, 1864 Julius Pitzman Major and Aid-de-Camp Sept. 27, 1864  
April 7, 1864 Charles H. Tillson Captain and Aid-de-Camp April 7, 1864  
April 22, 1864 John O'Brien Captain and Aid-de-Camp April 22, 1864  
Oct. 21, 1864 A. Wilkinson Captain and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 21, 1864  
Oct. 23, 1862 H. C. Warmouth Brigadier-General Oct. 23, 1862 Relieved by S. O. No. 49, Dec. 8, 1862.
Nov. 17, 1862 John N. Ethridge Major and Assistant Adjutant-General. Nov. 13, 1862  
Nov. 17, 1864 E. W. Bishop Major and Quartermaster Nov. 13, 1862  
Nov. 29, 1862 Ebenezer G. Morse Major and Commissary Nov. 21, 1862  
Nov. 17, 1862 Charles P. Walker Major and Aid-de-Camp Nov. 13, 1862 Recommissioned.
Jan. 5, 1864 Charles P. Walker Major and Aid-de-Camp Aug. 13, 1862  
Nov. 29, 1862 Hamilton K. Lathum Captain and Aid-de-Camp Nov. 29, 1862  
Oct. 23, 1862 Thomas L. Crawford Brigadier-General Oct. 23, 1862  
June 24, 1863 Walter M. Smallwood Major and Assistant Adjutant-General. Oct. 27, 1862 Commissioned Colonel and Aid-de-Camp Governor's staff, Dec. 25, 1863.
Nov. 29, 1862 Charles E. Clarke Major and Quartermaster Nov. 26, 1862 Comm'd Maj. and Comm'y Second Brigade, Missouri State Militia, Oct. 6, 1863.
Oct. 20, 1863 D. K. Stockton Major and Quartermaster Oct. 20, 1863 Resigned Aug. 2, 1864.
Sept. 26, 1864 Ignatius Hazel Major and Quatermaster Sept. 26, 1864  
Nov. 29, 1862 D. Walker Wear Major and Aid-de-Camp Nov. 26, 1862  
Nov. 29, 1862 R. J. Lackey Major and Aid-de-Camp Nov. 26, 1862  
Nov. 2, 1863 George B. Miller 1st Lieutenant and Aid-de-Camp Nov. 2, 1863  
Commanding Third Military District.
Oct. 24, 1862 Richard G. Stockton Brigadier-General Oct. 20, 1862 Resigned Dec. 8, 1862; relieved by Special Order No. 48, Dec. 5, 1862.
Nov. 15, 1862 David W. Sheppard Major and Assistant Adjutant-General. Nov. 14, 1862  
Dec. 1, 1862 Jacob Burrough Major and Quartermaster Dec. 1, 1862  
Dec. 1, 1862 Daniel S. Butt Major and Commissary Dec. 1, 1862  
Dec. 1, 1862 Patrick Gilroy Major and Surgeon Dec. 1, 1862  
Nov. 15, 1862 John A. Frank Captain and Aid-de-Camp Nov. 14, 1862  
Dec. 1, 1862 John M. Clewley Captain and Aid-de-Camp Dec. 1, 1862  
Commanding Third Military District.
March 25, 1863 James R. McCormick Brigadier-General March 19, 1863  
April 8, 1863 George Huff Major and Assistant Adjutant-General April 3, 1863 Vacated Oct. 8, 1864.
Oct. 8, 1864 T. R. Goulding Major and Assistant Adjutant-General Oct. 8, 1864  
Oct. 7, 1864 John J. Scherrer, Jr Major and Quartermaster Oct. 7, 1864  
April 8 1863 Felix Layton Major and Aid-de-Camp April 3, 1863 Resigned Feb. 20, 1864.

-- 480 --

Commanding Fourth Military District.
Date. Name. Rank. Rank from Remarks.
Oct. 27, 1862 C. B. Holland Brigadier-General Oct. 27, 1862  
Dec. 18, 1862 Charles Sheppard Major and Assistant Adjutant-General Nov. 5, 1862  
May 23, 1863 Thomas J. Bishop Major and Quartermaster Nov. 5, 1862  
Nov. 18, 1862 A. C. Graves Major and Commissary Nov. 5, 1863  
Nov. 21, 1862 Morris M. McCluer Major and Surgeon Nov. 15, 1862  
Jan. 10, 1863 Dabney C. Dade Captain and Aid-de-Camp Dec. 29, 1862  
Jan. 10, 1863 Sampson S. Clark Captain and Aid-de Camp Dec. 29, 1862  
Commanding Fifth Military District.
Sept. 6, 1862 Richard C. Vaughan Brigadier-General Sept. 6, 1862  
Oct. 3, 1862 Moses Chapman Major and Assistant Adjutant-General Sept. 27, 1862  
Oct. 3, 1862 Alexander Mitchell Major and Quartermaster Sept. 27, 1862 Resigned January 29, 1863.
Feb. 2, 1863 William Spratt Major and Quartermaster Feb. 2, 1863  
Oct. 3, 1862 B. H. Wilson Major and Aid-de-Camp Sept. 27, 1862 Resigned April 14, 1863.
Feb. 2, 1863 George M. Vaughan Major and Aid-de-Camp Feb. 2, 1863 Resigned May 20, 1863.
June 13, 1863 Richard B. Vaughan Captain and Aid-de-Camp May 28, 1863  
Commanding Seventh Military District.
Aug. 25, 1862 Willard P. Hall Brigadier-General Aug. 25, 1862 Vacated by accession to Governor's chair.
Aug. 30, 1862 Edward Kirby Major and Assistant Adjutant-General. Aug. 30, 1862  
Aug. 30, 1862 T. J. Chew, Jr Major and Quartermaster Aug. 30, 1862  
Aug. 30, 1862 William Bertram Major and Surgeon Aug. 30, 1862 Recommissioned.
Sept. 16, 1863 William Bertram Major and Surgeon Aug. 13, 1862  
Aug. 30, 1862 John L. Bittinger Major and Aid-de-Camp Aug. 30, 1862  
Oct. 3, 1862 Jonathan M. Bassett Major and additional Aid-de-Camp Oct. 3, 1862 Resigned December 2, 1863.
May 5, 1863 James Hunter Major and Aid-de-Camp May 3, 1863  
June 24, 1863 Peter W. Fredericks Second Lieutenant and Inspector June 19, 1863  
Commanding Seventh Military District.
May 19, 1864 James Craig Brigadier-General May 10, 1864  
Oct. 18, 1864 Isaac B. Halsey Major and Commissary Oct. 17, 1864  
May 13, 1864 Leonidas M. Lawson Major and Aid-de-Camp May 19, 1864  
June 23, 1864 E. S. Castle Major and Aid-de-Camp June 23, 1864  
Commanding Eighth Military District.
Aug. 18, 1862 John McNeil Brigadier-General Aug. 6, 1862 Gen. McNeil relieved by S. O. No. 2, Jan. 3, 1863.
Nov. 10, 1862 Ziba Bennett Major and Assistant Adjutant-General Nov. 7, 1862  
Sept. 26, 1862 B. Ashley Cohen Major and Aid-de-Camp Sept. 21, 1862  
Sept. 26, 1862 John W. Dryden Major and Aid-de-Camp Sept. 21, 1862  
Commanding Eighth Military District.
Dec. 15, 1862 T. J. Bartholow Brigadier-General Dec. 15, 1862 Resigned Aug. 31, 1863.
Dec. 16, 1862 H. Clay Cockerill Major and Assistant Adjutant-General Dec. 16, 1862 Resigned Aug. 31, 1863.
Dec. 16, 1862 John H. Turner Major and Quartermaster Dec. 16, 1862 Resigned Aug. 31, 1863.
Dec. 16, 1862 Isaac P. Vaughn Major and Surgeon Dec. 16, 1862  
Dec. 16, 1862 James W. Lewis Major and Aid-de-Camp Dec. 16, 1862 Resigned May 28, 1863.
Dec. 16, 1862 James O. Swinney Captain and Aid de-Camp Dec. 16, 1862 Resigned March 20, 1863.
Apr. 23, 1863 Benjamin F. Little Captain and Aid-de-Camp April 20, 1863  
June 12, 1863 Norman Bernard Captain and Aid-de-Camp June 1, 1863 Resigned Aug. 31, 1863.
Commanding Eighth Military District.
Sept. 1, 1863 J. B. Douglass Brigadier-General Sept. 1, 1863  
March 26, 1864 Frank D. Evans Major and Assistant Adjutant-General March 26, 1864  
March 26, 1864 R. G. Lyell Major and Quartermaster March 26, 1864  

-- 481 --

Commanding Ninth Military District.
Date. Name. Rank. Rank from Remarks.
Aug. 7, 1862 Lewis Merrill Brigadier-General Aug. 7, 1862 Relieved by Special Orders No. 38, Nov. 7, 1862.
Commanding Ninth Military District.
Aug. 18, 1862 Odon Guitar Brigadier-General Aug. 11, 1862 Relieved by Special Orders No. 54, Dec. 16, 1862.
Nov. 10, 1862 Luther T. Hayman Major and Assistant Adjutant-General. Nov. 10, 1862 Relieved by Special Orders No. 54, Dec. 16, 1862.
Nov. 17, 1862 William B. Kemper Major and Quartermaster Nov. 14, 1862 Relieved by Special Orders No. 54, Dec. 16, 1862.
Sept. 27, 1862 John W. Davidson Brigadier-General Sept. 27, 1862  
Oct. 4, 1862 James A. Greason Major and Assistant Adjutant-General. Oct. 4, 1862  
Oct. 4, 1864 Geo. K. McGunnegle. Jr. Major and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 4, 1862  
April 14, 1864 James R. Gray Major and Aid-de-Camp April 14, 1864  
June 16, 1864 E. Anson More Brigadier-General June 16, 1864  
Oct. 8, 1864 Thomas T. More Major and Assistant Adjutant-General. Oct. 8, 1864  
Oct. 8, 1864 Rudolph Enslin Major and Quartermaster Oct. 8, 1864  
Oct. 8, 1864 Orville A. Ross Captain and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 8, 1864  
Oct. 8, 1864 J. A. Tennett Captain and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 8, 1864  
Oct. 12, 1864 Samuel W. Eager Captain and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 12, 1864  
Oct. 12, 1864 W. B. Edgar Captain and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 12, 1864  
Sept. 28, 1864 Madison Miller Brigadier-General Sept. 28, 1864  
Oct. 3, 1864 V. B. S. Reber Major and Assistant Adjutant-General Oct. 3, 1864 Resigned Oct. 12, 1864.
Oct. 5, 1864 Clarence Brown Major and Assistant Adjutant-General Oct. 5, 1864  
Oct. 3, 1864 A. L. Bergfeld Major and Quartermaster Oct. 3, 1864  
Oct. 4, 1864 Perry E. Noell Major and Surgeon Oct. 4, 1864  
Oct. 3, 1864 Elwood Miller Major and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 3, 1864 Transferred to staff of Commander-in-Chief.
Oct. 24, 1864 John H. Edward Major and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 24, 1864  
Oct. 20, 1864 E. H. E. Jameson Captain and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 20, 1864  
Oct. 18, 1864 A. K. Nesbit Captain and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 18, 1864  
Oct. 3, 1864 A. K. Nesbit Lieutenant and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 3, 1864 Promoted to Captain and Aid-de-Camp.
Oct. 3, 1864 James A. Billings Major and Commissary Oct. 3, 1864  
Sept. 29, 1864 D. C. Coleman Brigadier-General Sept. 29, 1864  
Sept. 29, 1864 E. E. Furber Major and Assistant Adjutant-General Sept. 29, 1864 Resigned Nov. 4, 1864.
Oct. 7, 1864 Thomas Forrester Captain and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 7, 1864  
Sept. 29, 1864 Joseph S. Gage Brigadier-General Sept. 29, 1864  
Sept. 29, 1864 William B. Pratt Major and Assistant Adjutant-General Sept. 29, 1864  
Oct. 1, 1864 George F. Meyers Brigadier-General Oct. 1, 1864  
Oct. 3, 1864 F. R. Alexander Major and Assistant Adjutant-General Oct. 3, 1864  
Oct. 3, 1864 S. Crowell Major and Quartermaster Oct. 3, 1864  
Oct. 3, 1864 Theodore Kleinschmidt Major and Commissary Oct. 3, 1864  
Oct. 3, 1864 M. D. Seuler Major and Surgeon Oct. 3, 1864  
Oct. 3, 1864 T. W. Blackman Captain and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 3, 1864 Resigned Oct. 15, 1864.
Oct. 18, 1864 Pascal P. Child Captain and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 18, 1864  
Oct. 3, 1864 A. Thanberger Captain and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 3, 1864  

-- 482 --

Date. Name. Rank. Rank from Remarks.
Oct. 1, 1864 C. D. Wolf Brigadier-General Oct. 1, 1864  
Oct. 2, 1864 Louis Lipman Major and Assistant Adjutant-General Oct. 2, 1864  
Oct. 3, 1864 E. W. Decker Major and Quartermaster Oct. 3, 1864  
Oct. 3, 1864 P. F. Zeppenfeld Major and Commissary Oct. 3, 1864 Resigned Oct. 22, 1864.
Oct. 3, 1864 W. T. Gempp Major and Surgeon Oct. 3, 1864  
Oct. 3, 1864 W. J. H. Becker Captain and Aid-de-Camp Oct. 3, 1864  
Oct. 3, 1864 Henry H. Wernsee Captain and Aid de-Camp Oct. 3, 1864  
March 18, 1864 James H. Moss Brigadier-General March 18, 1864 Resigned May 12, 1864.
Nov. 23, 1864 Frederick W. Benteen Brigadier-General Nov. 23, 1864  
Nov. 24, 1864 John F. Philips Brigadier-General Nov. 23, 1864  

Confederate Organization in Missouri. — Owing to the fact that no official records have been preserved (if any were ever prepared), it is impossible to present a complete list of those citizens of St. Louis who became officers in the Confederate service. In the following list, however, of the field officers of the Missouri State Guard as published in the Missouri Army Argus (issued at Pineville, McDonald Co., Mo., Nov. 16, 1861), will be found many well-known St. Louis names:

General Staff and Field Officers of the Missouri State Guards, Claiborne F. Jackson, Governor and commander-in-chief; Thomas C. Reynolds, Lieutenant-Governor; Brig.-Gen. Warwick Hough, adjutant-general; Capt. William H. Brand, assistant adjutant-general; Brig.-Gen. James Harding, quartermaster-general; Col. John Ried, commissary-general; Col. Thomas H. Price, chief of ordnance.

Aids to the Governor, Cols. M. C. Goodlet, F. T. Mitchell, William M. Cooke, Richard Gaines, Thomas L. Snead, William Jackson, Edward W. Shands, Robert C. Woods.

Sterling Price, major-general and commander in-chief; Col. Henry Little, adjutant-general; Col. H. H. Brand, inspector-general; Cols. A. W. Jones and Robert Woods, aides-de-camp; Cols. R. H. Dyer, Edward Haren, Jr., and Maj. H. A. Galliher, assistant quartermaster-generals.

First Division, Brig.-Gen. M. Jeff. Thompson.

Second Division, Brig.-Gen. Thomas A. Harris; Col. B. C. Brent, adjutant-general; Lieut.-Col. J. A. Vaughn, quartermaster-general; Lieut -Col. John S. Mellon, commissary; Lieut.-Col. E. H. C. Bailey, division surgeon; Lieut.-Col. Robert Shacklett, division inspector; Lieut.-Col. M. McElhaney, division judge-advocate; Lieut.-Col. E. C. McDonald, paymaster; Lieut.-Cols. William B. Littleman and D. W. Vowels, aides-decamp. Infantry Battalion, Lieut.-Col. S. A. Rawlings commanding; Maj, C. Adams; Capt. John Combs. Infantry Battalion, Maj. J. W. Robinson commanding; Capt. McPheeters, adjutant. Cavalry, Col. Martin E. Green commanding; Lieut,-Col. J. C. Porter; Maj. Robert Shacklett; Capt. W. F. Davis, adjutant. Cavalry, Col. J. Q. Burbridge commanding; Lieut.-Col. E. B. Hull; Maj. R. D. Dwyer; Capt. J. T. Turpin, adjutant. Cavalry, Col. Thomas Bruce commanding; Lieut.-Col. W. C. Splaun; Maj. G. B. Milton; Capt. H. McClure, adjutant. Cavalry, Lieut.-Col. B. W. Hawkins; Maj. John L. Owen; Capt. George F. Hatch, adjutant. Cavalry, B. H. Franklin, colonel; Capt. C. Whaley, adjutant.

Third Division, John B. Clark, brigadier-general commanding; Lieut.-Cols. William O. Burton, Robert Walker, and Joseph Finks, aides-de-camp; Col. Caspar W. Bell, adjutant-general division; Dr. W. C. Boone, division surgeon. Cavalry, Col. J. P. Major; Lieut.-Col. Hoskins; Maj. A. H. Chalmers. First Regiment, Col. John B. Clark, Jr.; Lieut.-Col. S. Farrington; Maj. Thomas Boyce. Second Regiment, Col. Congreve Jackson; Lieut.-Col. J. R. White; Maj. Joseph Vaughn. Third Regiment, Col. Edward Price; Lieut.-Col. Hyde. Fourth Regiment, Col. McKinney; Lieut.-Col. Singleton; Maj. Peacher. Fifth Regiment, Col. R. S. Bevier; Lieut.-Col. X. J. Pindall; Maj. James Lovern; Surgeon Dr. B. G. Dysart. Sixth Regiment, Col. Poindexter; Lieut.-Col. Fort; Maj. Perkins.

Fourth Division, Brig.-Gen. Wm. Y. Slack commanding; Col. A. H. Conrow, adjutant-general; Lieut.-Col. William Hill, quartermaster; Lieut.-Col. D. H. McDonald, commissary; Lieut.-Col. Peter Austin, surgeon; Lieut.-Col. William Keith, division inspector; Lieut.-Col. W. H. Lyday, judge-advocate; Lieut.-Col. William Peery, paymaster; and Lieut.-Cols. William E. Walker and Walter Scott, aides-de-camp. First Infantry, Col. J. T. Hughes commanding; Lieut.-Col. James A. Pritchard; Maj. William Mirick; Capt. S. H. McWilliams, adjutant. Second Infantry, Col. Thomas Patton commanding; Lieut.-Col. Robert A. Hewitt; Maj. William R. Gause; Capt. J. H. Cook, adjutant. Extra battalion infantry attached to Col. Hughes' command, Maj. C. B. Housand; Capt. Churchill Clark's battery, also attached to Col. Hughes' command. First Cavalry, B. A. Rives, colonel; Lewis Bohannan, lieutenant-colonel; John B. Corner, major; and Capt, F. L. Hubbell, adjutant. Extra battalion cavalry, Lieut.-Col. Richard Chiles, Maj- John Patton.

Fifth Division, Brig.-Gen. A. E. Stein commanding; Col. D. W. Flowerree, assistant adjutant-general; Lieut.-Col. S. R. Shrader, quartermaster; Lieut.-Col. B. Roberts, commissary; Lieut.-Col. Charles N. Palmer, surgeon; C. T. Hart and Wm. S. Wright, assistant division surgeons; Lieut.-Col. Thomas W. Shields, inspector; Lieut.-Col. Alexander Harris, judge-advocate; Lieut.-Col. James M. Loughborough, paymaster; Lieut.-Cols. Wright Schaumburg and John W. Gillespie, aides-de-camp. First Regiment Infantry, Col. J. P. Sanders commanding; Lieut.-Col. W. H. Cundiff; Maj. D. Todd Samuel; Adjt. G. D. Shackleford; Asst. Surgs. John S. Teasdale and A. B. Nephler. Second Regiment Infantry, Col. John H. Winston commanding; Lieut.-Col. W. P. Chiles; Maj. J. Murphy; Adjt. John W. Ross; F. M. Johnson, surgeon; B. F. Johnson, assistant surgeon. Third Regiment Infantry, Col. L. M. Lewis commanding; Lieut.-Col. C. C. Thornton; Maj. G. W. Thompson; Adjt. G. B. Howard, Jr.; Surg. C. H. Shotwell; Asst. Surg. A. B. Ralph. First Battalion Infantry, Lieut.-Col. John R. Boyd; Maj. John J. Hash; Adjt. S. Quinan; Surg. O. B. Knode; Asst. Surg. S. T. Gregory. Fifth Regiment Infantry (mounted), Col. A. W. Slayback commanding; Lieut.-Col. Welfrey; Maj. Florence; Adjt. John Kemper; Surg. C. M. France; Assist. Surg. B. S. Howard. First Regiment Cavalry, Col. J. T. Carneal commanding; Lieut.-Col. Elijah Gates; Maj. Nay Bostick; Adjt. J. H. Lawther; Surg. E. McD. Coffey; Asst. Surgs. W. W. S. Kelly and W. F. Stark. First Battalion Artillery, Maj. John Landis; Adjt. Toole.

Sixth Division, Brig.-Gen. M. M. Parsons.

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Seventh Division, Brig.-Gen. J. H. McBride.

Eighth Division, Brig.-Gen. James S. Rains, commanding; Col. L. A. Meacham, adjutant-general; Lieut.-Col. John McMurtry, quartermaster; Lieut.-Col. William M. Dunn, commissary; Lieut-.Col. George W. Taylor, surgeon; Lieut.-Col. William E. Arnold, division inspector; Lieut.-Col. George S. Rathburn, division judge-advocate; Lieut.-Col. Warner Lewis, division paymaster; Lieut.-Cols. B. H. Woodson and William M. Briscoe, aides-de-camp; George W. Haymakeur, sergeant-major. First Infantry, Col. Thomas H. Rosser, commanding; Lieut.-Col. William Martin; Maj. Eugene Erwin; Adjutant, Capt J. E. Harwood. Second Infantry, Col. Benjamin Elliott, commanding; Lieut.-Col. L. W. Councilman; Maj. Samuel F. Taylor; Adjutant, Capt. George W. Lewis. Third Infantry, Col. Edgar V. Hurst, commanding; Lieut.-Col. J. L. Tracy; Maj. Frederick Routh; Adjutant, Capt. Robert Gibson. Fourth Infantry, Lieut.-Col. W. S. O'Kane, commanding; Maj. Elbert Feaster. Fifth Infantry, Col. James Clarkson, commanding; Lieut.-Col. Robert W. Crawford; Maj. Alexander C. Lamar; Adjutant, Capt. M. W. Buster. Second Cavalry, Lieut.-Col. James McCown, commanding; Maj. Moses W. Smith; Capt. William M. King. Third Cavalry, Col. R. L. Y. Peyton, commanding; Lieut.-Col. Martin White; Maj. W. S. Tyler; Adjutant, Capt. D. H. Williams. Fourth Cavalry, Col. B. F. Walker, commanding; Lieut.-Col. H. K. Hartley; Maj. Thomas H. Hartley; Adjutant, Capt. James L. German. Fifth Cavalry, Col. Jesse L. Cravens, commanding; Lieut.-Col. H. Slover; Maj. W. Langston; Adjutant, Capt. J. H. Williams. Sixth Cavalry, Col. John T. Coffee, commanding; Lieut.-Col. John W. Payne; Maj. M. W. Smith; Adjutant, Capt. A. Chilcutt. Seventh Cavalry, Col. Dewitt C. Hunter, commanding; Lieut.-Col. Richard A. Vaughan; Maj. C. W. Bolton; Adjutant, Capt. B. O. Weidemeyer. Eighth Cavalry, Lieut-Col. Owens, commanding; Maj. R. K. Murrell; Adjutant, Capt. N. D. Short. Ninth Cavalry, Lieut.-Col. Cummings, commanding; Maj. J. Alexander Smith; Adjutant, Capt. H. C. Pureell. Tenth Cavalry, Col. Erwin, commanding; Lieut.-Col. Cunningham; Maj. Fleming. Eleventh Cavalry, Col. Talbot, commanding; Lieut.-Col. Pearsey; Adjutant, Capt. A. A. Husley. General Provost Guard, Chief Marshal, Maj. Phineas M. Savory; Deputy Marshals, Capt. Edward Aldrich, and Lieuts. Carroll Wood, Henry C. Kerr, and John E. Brooks; Marshals of Military Commission, Carroll Wood and John Taylor.

The divisions were designated from the congressional districts into which the State was divided.

The Capture of Camp Jackson and the Events of May 11 and June 17, 1861. — The history of St. Louis would not be complete without a record of the exciting events of the year 1861 which preceded and accompanied the outbreak of the civil war. Public opinion is not heated now as it was then; but it is probably as much divided now as then upon the character, propriety, and policy of the several acts which were done during the period from the meeting of the Missouri Legislature, in January, 1861, and the date of the capture of Camp Jackson and the organization of the Missouri State Guard. It is not our province to decide where those chiefly interested have agreed to differ; we will therefore confine ourselves strictly to the task of collecting here and arranging in intelligent chronological order the facts, documents, and all the other authentic and indisputable evidence upon which public opinion is formed in every case, and upon which, in the end, it will rest in this case. Let others argue as much and how they please, we will be content to supply the materials for argument just as they exist, and no matter which side of the controversy they may tend to make or mar.

At the beginning of 1861, while there was great and wide-spread excitement everywhere, it was most intense in Missouri, some parts of which had been literally converted into a camp by the border troubles with Kansas. The city of St. Louis was Republican by the force of the German vote; the State was Democratic, and pro-slavery Democratic by a large majority, though the influence of Sterling Price and men of that stamp had enabled Douglas to carry it for the Presidency. The leader of the supporters of Mr. Lincoln in the exciting struggle of the Presidential election was Frank Blair, Jr., a man of intense views and impulsive, violent energy in enforcing them. The secession movement in the Southern States after the election had the effect of preventing the political armies from disbanding. The "Wide Awakes," who had borne torches and banners and shouted themselves hoarse for Lincoln and Hamlin, now undertook to form Union Clubs, and from this to form Union Companies, and call the muster-roll and drill. In St. Louis Frank Blair and the Germans fraternized and organized with terrible intensity, calling themselves the "Black Jägers," drilling and practicing rifle-shooting. On the other hand, the "Minute-Men" of the Democratic party kept up their organization and their headquarters, and in these places often not only was there drill going on, but recruiting also for the Confederate States army.

Frank Blair, defeated for Congress for the short term, had been elected for the long term by a large majority over the regular Democratic and the Bell and Everett candidates. The mayor of the city of St. Louis, O. D. Filley, was an energetic, advanced Republican, and afterwards a member of the "Committee of Safety" of the organized Unionists, and prominent in the Advisory Committee, to whom Mr. Lincoln left pretty much all the affairs of the city, civil as well as military. In the State elections, on the other hand, Claiborne F. Jackson was elected Governor, and Thomas C. Reynolds, Lieutenant-Governor, by a plurality of nearly eight thousand votes, which yet lacked ten thousand of being a majority over all opponents. The Legislature was strongly Democratic, and McAfee was elected Speaker of the House by a vote of seventy-six to forty-eight for all others. He

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was an avowed Southern sympathizer. Governor Jackson, in his inaugural address, had declared it to be the duty of Missouri and Kentucky to stand by the South, and in the first days of the session a commissioner from the Confederate government at Montgomery, Ala., had been "received" by the Legislature. The military bill, which would probably not have passed but for the Camp Jackson excitement, was introduced the first week of the session, and at the same time a bill was introduced, which speedily became a law, giving St. Louis a metropolitan police system, and creating a board of police commissioners appointed by the Governor. This bill deprived the mayor of appointment and control of the police, and made the commissioners custodians of the public peace. A bill was also passed providing for the election of a State Convention, which was to determine the destinies of the State in the crisis which every one now saw was rapidly approaching.

In the mean time that crisis was coming more rapidly than people wished or expected, in consequence of the precautions each side took to protect itself from the supposed dangers which gathered on every side. Some of the organizations of minute-men, who had their headquarters at the Berthold mansion (where later the Confederate flag was hung out), were received into the State militia as regular bodies of uniformed volunteers, being which they could receive equipments and uniforms from the State. On the other hand, the "Wide Awakes," including many Germans of the Turner and other associations, already quasi-military in their organization, began to form regular companies, to drill, to raise money, to buy arms, and to provide themselves with ammunition. The secret and nightly drill of all these various clubs and companies could not but cause excitement and uneasiness.

St. Louis was a military position of great importance; it was a military station of great value, and in the event of war both parties would naturally seek to control it for the sake of the advantages which they might derive from its possession. The place had been a centre for troops and arms for two generations, and the barracks and the arsenal were treasures to whoever held them. The arsenal was the key to St. Louis. Whoever held that held the city. Besides, it contained military stores, arms, and ordnance of great value and in great quantity. There can be no doubt but that both parties looked with eager and hungry eyes upon the arsenal. The United States government held it, and the Unionists determined it should not be wrested away from them. The States rights party wished possession of it, and would have attempted to seize it, if in their power, upon occasion of the first overt act of violence or the first State act of secession. There is no need to go into the mass of charges and replies which are extant in regard to the possession of the arsenal. It is enough to know that, as was natural, nay, necessary under the circumstances, the arsenal was the main bone of contention between the opposing forces whose antagonism was being so rapidly crystallized, and that every effort made for its capture would intensify the steps and precautions taken for its defense, and vice versa. The evidence for all this is cumulative, and must be taken in connection with the action of the Legislature and the State military. Jan. 5, 1861, the following letter was addressed to ex-President Buchanan:

"ST. LOUIS, Jan. 5, 1861.

"His Excellency James Buchanan:

" DEAR SIR, — In the present excited condition of the country, I cannot help feeling concerned in regard to the safety of the government funds in my hands, its arms and munitions of war, which are at the arsenal, and within the limits of the city.

"I am satisfied that if either the Republicans or the secessionists should seize the arsenal here, war would at once begin in this section, as neither would submit to its possession by the other peacefully.

"I have now over four hundred thousand dollars of government money on hand, which might be seized, and I have thought proper, under all the circumstances, to submit to you whether it is not advisable, without delay, to concentrate troops at the arsenal for the protection of the government property there (which I think is very large), and the treasure in my care, if it should become necessary. I am satisfied that both sides here have their eyes fixed upon these two points, the arsenal and treasury, and that the taking possession of them by either will lead to conflict, and it therefore seems to me that the sooner provision is made to guard them the better. A little later and the excitement may arrive at that point here that any suggestion of bringing a force here for their protection would precipitate the seizure of them.

"I wish very much that the amount at this place, to the credit of disbursing officers, the United States treasurer, and the Post-Office Department, could be placed at a point where there would be less danger of its seizure. There may be none here, but I fear there is; I fear we are arriving at a point in our troubles that at this place there is danger from both sides.

"I should be glad if you would advise me, if there should seem to be imminent danger, what course to pursue, and what officer to apply to for protection.

"I sympathize most deeply with you in the trying and delicate position in which you are placed, and nothing shall be wanting on my part to render you all the aid I can command here or elsewhere.

"I am most respectfully and truly yours,


"Assistant Treasurer U. S., St. Louis, Mo."

In response to this letter the President at once ordered a force to be placed at the disposal of the assistant treasurer in this city, and they were marched to the custom-house and temporarily placed in that building by the military authorities. In the evening,

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after consultation with the officer in command, they were removed to the arsenal, where it was the design at first to have placed them.

After the police bill had become a law, Mr. Sturgeon wrote again to the President and also to Gen. Scott on the subject. When the bill providing for the State Convention became a law and the matter of the convention began to be canvassed and discussed, he wrote a third time (February 9th) to Gen. Scott, urging the necessity of defending the arsenal with every available military force. This last letter had its effect upon the lieutenant-general, who wrote to Gen. W. S. Harney, commanding at St. Louis, as follows:


"WASHINGTON, Feb. 13, 1861.

"BRIG.-GEN. W. S. HARNEY, commanding the Department of the West:

"SIR, — The following dispatch was sent you by telegraph to-day: ‘Have you in the St. Louis arsenal troops enough to defend it? Ought you not to send up all the men from Jefferson Barracks? Winfield Scott.’ The general-in-chief desires to strengthen that dispatch by calling your attention to these considerations: that it is best to move in advance of excitement; that it is possible, when an emergency arises, reinforcements may be cut off, and that all the force may now be usefully employed at work in adding to the defense of the arsenal.

"I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


"Lieut.-Col. and Aide-de-Camp."

This was reiterated to Gen. Harney in other shapes, but he had come to the conclusion that no serious movement against the arsenal was contemplated, and that "the secession party is in a minority in St. Louis, and there is every reason to suppose that in the event of a movement from any quarter upon the arsenal its garrison would be promptly succored by an overwhelming force from the city." It may be added that about this time (February 9th) Maj. (afterwards Gen.) David Hunter was in St. Louis in conference with Mr. Sturgeon. Hunter was known then and later as the most stalwart of radical generals; he was on his way to Washington, and Mr. Sturgeon impressed his views on him of the urgency of the occasion. While they were talking, Gen. (then Capt.) Lyon came in, — also known as an ardent Republican, — and suggested that he would like to be the commander at the arsenal, in order to make sure of its protection and defense. The appointment of Capt. Lyon to the post soon after Hunter's arrival at the capital makes it probable that Gen. Hunter had actively recommended it.

In the meanwhile, to show the animus on the other side, the following letter is now in order:

"ST. LOUIS, MO., Jan. 24, 1861.

"HIS EXCELLENCY C. F. JACKSON, Governor of Missouri:

"DEAR SIR, — I have just returned from the arsenal, where I have had an interview with Maj. Bell, the commanding officer of that place. I found the major everything that you or I could desire. He assured me that he considered that Missouri had, whenever the time came, a right to claim it as being upon her soil. He asserted his determination to defend it against any and all irresponsible mobs, come from whence they might, but at the same time gave me to understand that he would not attempt any defense against the proper State authorities.

"He promised me, upon the honor of an officer and a gentleman, that he would not suffer any arms to be removed from the place without first giving me timely information, and I in return promised him that I would use all the force at my command to prevent him being annoyed by irresponsible persons.

"I at the same time gave him notice that if affairs assumed so threatening a character as to render it unsafe to leave the place in its comparatively unprotected condition, that I might come down and quarter a proper force there to protect it from the assaults of any persons whatsoever, to which he assented. In a word, the major is with us, where he ought to be, for all his worldly wealth lies here in St. Louis (and it is very large), and then, again, his sympathies are with us.

"I shall therefore rest perfectly easy, and use all my influence to stop the sensationists from attracting the particular attention of the government to this particular spot.

"The telegraphs you received were the sheerest canards of persons who, without discretion, are extremely anxious to show their zeal. I shall be thoroughly prepared with the proper force to act as emergency may require. The use of force will only be resorted to when nothing else will avail to prevent the shipment or removal of the arms.

"The major informed me that he had arms for forty thousand men, with all the appliances to manufacture munitions of almost every kind.

"This arsenal, if properly looked after, will be everything to our State, and I intend to look after it, very quietly, however. I have every confidence in the word of honor pledged to me by the major, and would as soon think of doubting the oath of the best man in the community.

"His idea is that it would be disgraceful to him as a military man to surrender to a mob, whilst he could do so without compromising his dignity to the State authorities. Of course I did not show him your order, but I informed him that you had authorized me to act as I might think proper to protect the public property.

"He desired that I would not divulge his peculiar views, which I promised not to do, except to yourself. I beg, therefore, that you will say nothing that might compromise him eventually with the general government, for thereby I would be placed in an awkward position, whilst he would probably be removed, which would be unpleasant to our interests.

"Grimsley, as you doubtless know, is an unconscionable jackass, and only desires to make himself notorious. It was through him that McLaren and George made the mistake of telegraphing a falsehood to you.

"I should be pleased to hear whether you approve of the course I have adopted, and if not, I am ready to take any other that you, as my commander, may suggest.

"I am, sir, most truly, your obedient servant,
"D. M. FROST."

What action Governor Jackson took is not known, but the following letter from the President of the

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Southern Confederacy appears to be addressed to him in answer to one on the subject of the arsenal:

"MONTGOMERY, ALA., April 23, 1861.

"HIS EXCELLENCY C. F. JACKSON, Governor of Missouri:

"SIR, — I have the honor to acknowledge yours of the 17th instant, borne by Capts. Green and Duke, and have most cordially welcomed the fraternal assurances it brings.

"A misplaced but generous confidence has for years past prevented the Southern States from making the preparation required by the present emergency, and our power to supply you with ordnance is far short of the will to serve you. After learning as well as I could from the gentlemen accredited to me what was most needful for the attack on the arsenal, I have directed that Capts. Green and Duke should be furnished with two 12-pounder howitzers and two 32-pounder guns, with the proper ammunition for each. These, from the commanding hills, will be effective both against the garrison and to breach the inclosing walls of the place. I concur with you as to the great importance of capturing the arsenal and securing its supplies, rendered doubly important by the means taken to obstruct your commerce and render you unarmed victims to a hostile invasion.

"We look anxiously and hopefully for the day when the star of Missouri shall be added to the constellation of the Confederate States of America.

"With best wishes, I am, respectfully yours,

The Capts. Duke and Green referred to are the gentlemen named in the following report from a St. Louis journal of Feb. 14, 1861, and who afterwards formed part of the force assembled at Camp Jackson. Basil Duke during the war was second in command to Gen. John H. Morgan, the independent partisan:

"The Missouri Minute-Men, who for some weeks have been drilling at their headquarters, corner of Fourth and Pine Streets, to prepare themselves for soldiers in the regular militia, were last evening sworn into the service of the State by Gen. Frost. Our reporter was not permitted to witness the proceedings, nor could the official list of officers be obtained; therefore the names given below, kindly furnished by an outsider, may not be correct.

"Each company is composed of fifty men. The uniform adopted, we learn, will be very simple, similar to that used in the United States army.

"As some inaccuracies appeared in our report of the election of officers in yesterday's paper, we give the following correct list:

"Company A. — Captain, Overton W. Barrett; first lieutenant, Louis E. Kennerly; second lieutenant, Edward Blennerhassett; third lieutenant, T. Sidney Russell.

"Company B. — Captain, Basil Wilson Duke; first lieutenant, James Douglass; second lieutenant, Aubrey C. Howard; third lieutenant, John V. Schmitt.

"Company C. — Captain, James R. Shaler; first lieutenant, W. W. Sanford; second lieutenant, Samuel Farrington; third lieutenant, Robert Duffey.

"Company D. — Captain, Colton Green; first lieutenant, Chas. Throckmorton; second lieutenant, —— Harrington; third lieutenant, Alton Long.

"Company E. — Captain, G. F. Hubbard; first lieutenant, J. Hammersly; second lieutenant, J. R. Champion; third lieutenant, W. C. Polter."

The secret meetings and secret drilling on both sides of citizens of the same community, yet arming palpably to cut one another's throats, and each side profoundly ignorant and profoundly mistrustful of the other's intentions and actions, must have tended greatly to complicate the situation and augment its inherent difficulties. About February 1st the active Union men had a meeting, at which the military form was finally agreed upon for all organizations and the initial company regularly enrolled. Frank Blair was made colonel, provisionally, of the force, and as he expected soon to have to go to Washington, to attend the extra session of Congress, the advisory Committee of Safety was selected, to act in his absence. This committee, which at one time (Frank Blair was a member ex officio) ruled the State of Missouri almost without appeal, with Nathaniel Lyon for its lieutenant and executive officer, consisted of O. D. Filley, John How, Samuel T. Glover, James O. Broadhead, and J. J. Witzig. In two weeks, according to Peckham, fourteen hundred and forty men were enrolled, divided into companies and arranged in battalions. Money was raised to buy arms, and the arms were procured and smuggled in, some from Governor Yates, of Illinois. The money raised for the support of the volunteers by contributions in every part of the country exceeded thirty thousand dollars. Frank Blair wanted the War Department to give him unvouched control of one hundred thousand dollars, and wrote to Governors Morton, of Indiana, and Yates, of Illinois, for control of men, munitions, and movements. But these things the Secretary of War declared to be inadmissible.

March 11, 1861, Frank P. Blair categorically demanded of Secretary Cameron, in the name of "our friends," the appointment of Capt. Lyon to have command of troops at the arsenal, Maj. Hagner (in command at the time) to control only the ordnance department. This appointment was accordingly made March 13th, but Lyon chafed under the restrictions put upon the sphere of duty to which he fancied himself called in some special manner, and in his private talk he did not scruple to inform "our friends" of his intention to resort to summary proceedings, law or no law. In fact, those who urged and insisted upon Lyon's having this command, seem to have gone principally upon the idea that he was the man to do something audacious, something out of the pale of law or precedent, so as to provoke a crisis and relieve the community from its state of unnatural and unpleasant tension. By successive orders Lyon was authorized to fortify the arsenal strongly (besides undermining it), he was largely reinforced, he was given discretionary authority to muster State militia into his

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service, and he became commander-in-chief by the fact of Gen. Harney's being ordered to the East, nominally to be examined upon the merits of the San Juan del Fuca controversy, upon which, as he had agreed with sundry publishers, he was to write a book. The telegram from Adjt.-Gen. Lorenzo Thomas announcing this measure to Gen. Lyon was couched thus:


"WASHINGTON, D. C., April 21, 1861.

"CAPT. N. LYON, Second Infantry, East St. Louis:

"Gen. Harney has this day been relieved from his command. The Secretary of War directs that you immediately execute the order previously given to arm the loyal citizens to protect the public property and execute the laws. Muster four regiments into the service."

On April 30th, by special order of President Lincoln, indorsed by Secretary Cameron and Gen. Scott, this power of enrollment given to Lyon was made to include ten thousand men.

But the local scene must be looked at again. It is charged, in evidence of an old and maintained plot to capture the arsenal, that so early as the 8th of January Gen, Frost issued the following:



"ST. LOUIS, Jan. 8, 1861.

"I. With a view to facilitate a prompt assemblage of the troops in this district, whenever it may be necessary go to do, it is hereby ordered that all officers and soldiers in the command shall assemble at their armories and headquarters, in full dress uniform, as soon as they may hear the bells of the churches sounding a continual peal, interrupted by pauses of five minutes. The troops having thus assembled will await in their quarters orders from their commanding officers.

"II. Commanding officers of corps will be held responsible that this order is communicated and explained to their commands. By order,

"BRIG.-GEN. FROST, Commanding.


and that this was only the revealed part of a plot to be consummated in January, but which fell through in consequence of mistakes of the conspirators, or unconscious precautions taken by the defenders — regular and irregular and self-constituted — of the arsenal.

Lyon had scarcely become acquainted with his position at the arsenal before we find him writing the folding letter to Frank Blair:

"ST. LOUIS ARSENAL, Feb. 25, 1861.

"HON. F. P. BLAIR, Jr., Washington, D. C.:

"DEAR SIR, — I have recently written to Maj. Hunter, who, you must know, accompanied Mr. Lincoln to Washington, upon the wants of the service here, and with the hope that through his energy and zeal the proper measures might be adopted to meet existing emergencies here. The subject-matter, and which I stated to you verbally, I will here repeat, for such consideration and action as you may think it deserves.

"It is obvious that the fine stone wall inclosing our grounds affords us an excellent defense against attack, if we will take advantage of it; and for this purpose platforms should be erected for our men to stand on and fire over; and that artillery should be ready at the gates, to be run out and sweep down a hostile force; and sand-bags should be prepared and at hand to throw up a parapet to protect the parties at these pieces of artillery; inside, pieces should be placed to rake the whole length, and sweep down on each side a party that should get over the walls, traverses being erected to protect parties at these pieces; a pretty strong field-work, with three heavy pieces, should be erected on the side towards the river, to oppose either a floating battery or one that might be established on the island; and, finally, besides works about our houses, every building should be mined, with a train arranged so as to blow them up successively as occupied by the enemy. Maj. Hagner refuses, as I mentioned to you, to do any of these things, and has given his orders not to fly to the walls to repel an approach, but to let the enemy have all the advantages of the wall, to lodge himself behind it, and get possession of all outside buildings overlooking us, and to get inside and under shelter of our outbuildings, which we are not to occupy before we make resistance. This is either imbecility or d--d villany; and in contemplating the risks we run, and the sacrifices we must make in case of an attack, in contrast to the vigorous and effective defense we are capable of, and which, in view of the cause of our country and humanity, the disgrace and degradation to which the government has been subject by pusillanimity and treachery, we are now called upon to make, I get myself into a most unhappy state of solicitude and irritability. With even less force and proper disposition, I am confident we can resist any force which can be brought against us, by which I mean such force as would not be overcome by our sympathizing friends outside. These needful dispositions, with proper industry, can be made in twenty-four hours. There cannot be, as you know, a more important occasion nor a better opportunity to strike an effective blow at this arrogant and domineering infatuation of secessionism than here; and must this all be lost by either false notions of duty or covert disloyalty? As I have said, Maj. Hagner has no right to the command, and under the sixty-second article of war can only have it by a special assignment of the President which I do not believe has been made; but that the announcement of Gen. Scott that the command belongs to Maj. Hagner is his own decision, and done in his usual sordid spirit of partisanship and favoritism to pets and personal associates and toadies; nor can he, even in the present straits of the country, rise above this in earnest devotion to justice and the wants of his country. If Mr. Lincoln chooses to be deceived in this respect, as I fear he will be, he will yet repent of it in misfortune and sorrow, for neither supercilious conceit nor unscrupulous tyranny was ever a veil for patriotism or ability. Maj. Hagner is not accustomed to troops, and manages them here awkwardly; but this is nothing compared to the great matter in hand, and, as I have plainly told him, this is of much more importance than that either he or I should conduct it. You may see in the Missouri Democrat of the 23d an account of our defenses, which sets forth what ought to be our state, but not what it is, and was given to frighten the secessionists. A simple order countermanding that assigning Maj. Hagner to duty, according to brevet rank, would give me command. With a view to defense here, it would be well to add that I should assume control, and avail myself of all means available for the purpose. With respect to those men discharged, either an investigation should be ordered or all who remain be discharged; this latter would be the better plan, and save government an expense for which they are rendering no necessary or compensating service.

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"If I should have command I would have no trouble to arm any assisting party, and perhaps, by becoming responsible for the arms, etc., I might fit out the regiment we saw at the garden the other day; but most I concern myself with a view to sustain the government here, and trust to such measures as may be found available.

"Yours truly,
"N. LYON."

The matter of the State Convention had come to the front as soon as the bill passed, and on February 4th there was a meeting at Washington Hall, in St. Louis, to nominate a Union ticket. After much discussion a degree of unanimity was secured, and an "Unconditional Union ticket," comprising men of all former parties, was put in the field and elected, February 18th, by nearly six thousand majority. The Legislature had appointed peace commissioners to go to Washington, under the provisions of the Crittenden Compromise Act, but there was no abatement of the local political excitement. In April the municipal election came off to choose a successor to Mayor O. D. Filley. Daniel G. Taylor, a moderate man and a compromise candidate, was elected. He acted admirably well under very trying circumstances. A few days after this election Governor Claiborne F. Jackson gave the bill for the new police commissioner his approval and named the commissioners. They were Charles McLaren, Basil W. Duke, James H. Carlisle, and John A. Brownlee, the mayor being ex officio president of the board.

The new board proceeded at once to organize, and elected James McDonough chief of police. The board also issued a variety of orders, of which the following are examples:



"April 23, 1861.

"WHEREAS, In consideration of the great excitement prevailing throughout the country and in this city, and of the danger to be apprehended from mobs of partisans, and the consequent destruction of life and property, and of the fact that these dangers are greatly increased by the variety of rumors and reports that are constantly being circulated by designing partisans and thoughtless persons, and by misrepresentations that are made of the objects and intentions of those in whose charge the protection of the city has been placed, it is thought proper that this board should make to the citizens this


"That all law-abiding and peaceable citizens shall be protected in their persons and property so far as this board has the power; that all mobs or riots shall and will be suppressed; and that in the discharge of these duties no discrimination will be made as against one class of citizens and in favor of another.

"The preservation of the peace of the city should be the paramount object of all good citizens. Our laws, if enforced, will afford ample protection; they can and will be enforced if our citizens will only second the efforts of the proper legal officers. To this end we earnestly and solemnly appeal to the citizens of St. Louis, as they value their lives and their property, to discountenance in every manner the assembling, arming, and drilling of men acting without authority of law, and consequently without restraint or responsibility; that they will obey the laws of the State and the ordinances of the city, and endeavor, so far as in their power lies, to maintain the peace and dignity of our city.

"J. A. BROWNLEE, President." 315

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"April 12, 1861.

"It being of absolute necessity for the peace and quiet of the city that the law in respect to the Sabbath, commonly called the Sunday law, shall be strictly observed, it is hereby ordered that all shows, games, exhibitions, plays, and fights of man and beast, sales of liquor, or other violation of said laws are forbidden and notice given that the penalties against the violation of said laws will be strictly enforced.

"J, A. BROWNLEE, President."


"April 12, 1861.

"Hereafter no permits or authorization of whatever nature or kind of negro parties, or other assemblages of negroes, shall be issued by the chief of police; and all saloons, or public-houses of whatever character, kept or owned by negroes are forbidden, and will be suppressed.

"J. A. BROWNLEE, President."


"April 12, 1861.

"Crowds or assemblages of idlers, loafers, or others on the prominent thoroughfares of the city, interfering with the free and legitimate use of the public streets and sidewalks, and the safety and security of the good and orderly citizens, are positively prohibited; and the Chief of Police is strictly enjoined to see that the spirit of this order is enforced.

"J. A. BROWNLEE, President."


"ST. LOUIS, April 12, 1861.

"Churches for negroes, or churches wherein negroes or mulattoes officiate as preachers, will not be allowed to open unless an officer of the police is present and appointed to be there by the undersigned or the Chief of Police.

"J. A. BROWNLEE, President."


"April 12, 1861.

"The requirements of law in regard to slaves hiring their own time, in violation of law, will be rigidly enforced.

"J. A. BROWNLEE, President."


"April 12, 1861.

"Notice is hereby given that all free negroes found within the limits of this city without license from and after five days from this date will be dealt with according to law.

"The Chief of Police is ordered to arrest all free negroes, mulattoes, or slaves found selling liquor, or keeping any house where liquor of any kind is sold, and to disperse all unlawful assemblages of free negroes, slaves, or mulattoes.

"The Chief of Police is further ordered to arrest all persons keeping public gambling-houses or rooms wherein gambling is allowed, for the purpose of bringing them to trial under the laws of this State and the ordinances of the city."


"ST. LOUIS, MO., April 13, 1861.

"All night assemblages of negroes and mulattoes in this city, either for religious or other purposes, will hereafter be prohibited.

"By order of the Board of Commissioners,

"JAMES MCDONOUGH, Chief of Police."


"By order and direction of the president of the Police Commissioners of the city of St. Louis, I hereby notify all free negroes and mulattoes who have no license, or are not permitted by law to reside within this State, to leave the State forthwith; and all such who may be found in the city of St. Louis after the expiration of five days from the date of this notice will be arrested and dealt with according to law.

"JAMES MCDONOUGH, Chief of Police. "April 12, 1861."


"ST. LOUIS, April 15, 1861.

"All negroes found in the street after the hour of ten o'clock without a proper pass will be arrested and brought before the recorder.

"JAMES MCDONOUGH, Chief of Police."

These various and rather stringent orders in relation to the colored people were as necessary, perhaps, for their protection as for the preservation of order. The "color line" was drawn very closely at that time of excitement and exasperation. But the Republicans naturally made capital out of these things, which they construed to mean fear of a servile outbreak. As Capt. Peckham has said in his highly-colored memorial of Gen. Lyon, "The conspirators must have feared what the Republicans had entirely overlooked. No one of the Unionists thought at that time of

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relying upon the three or four thousand negroes in the city for assistance in case of armed resistance. The idea of allowing Sambo to fight was a later development of the war."

The last of these police orders is as follows:


"April 24, 1861.

"In order that this board may have the means more effectually to suppress mobs or riots, and to protect the lives and property of the people, it has been deemed proper to call upon responsible citizens to form themselves into companies, elect officers, and perfect such an organization as will render them effective when their services may be required. It is recommended that two companies be formed in each ward and sworn into the service, to act under the orders of this board and of the Chief of Police.

"All companies so formed are requested to report at once at this office, where instructions more in detail will be furnished.

"J. A. BROWNLEE, President."

"NOTICE TO CITIZENS. — In consequence of the numerous burglaries which of late have been committed in our city, and which are almost nightly occurring, it is thought advisable to give the following notice in order to prevent crimes, if not detect the offenders.

"The police are instructed to stop all persons found on the streets or highways after the hour of 1 o'clock A.M., and respectfully inquire of them their residence, and if necessary to accompany them home. Persons not giving satisfactory answers, or against whom suspicion may be aroused, will at once be taken to the police-office.

"JAMES MCDONOUGH, Chief of Police."

The conflict had fairly begun now. Every one admitted that it was war when Fort Sumter was fired upon. According to the Republican conception of things there had been war before that, conducted, as Frank Blair said, in his bitter and exasperating way, "by stealing empty forts and full treasuries." But now the appeal to arms had come from both sides. Which one would Missouri answer?

The President called for seventy-five thousand volunteers, and ordered persons in arms against the government to disband and go home. Missouri had her quota assigned to her, four regiments, — between three and four thousand men. Governor Jackson immediately telegraphed to Washington, upon reading the proclamation, that "Missouri would not furnish a single man to subjugate her sister States of the South." This language simply showed that a man may sometimes be a good politician without being a good prophet. The Secretary of War sent to Governor Jackson an estimate of Missouri's quota. He responded at once:


"JEFFERSON CITY, April 17, 1861.

"To Hon. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War, Washington City:

"SIR, — Your dispatch of the 15th inst., making a call on Missouri for four regiments of men for immediate service, has been received. There can be, I apprehend, no doubt but these men are intended to form a part of the present army to make war upon the people of the seceded States. Your requisition, in my judgment, is illegal, unconstitutional, and revolutionary, in its objects inhuman and diabolical, and cannot be complied with. Not one man will the State of Missouri furnish to carry on such an unholy crusade.

"C. F. JACKSON, "Governor of Missouri."

Frank Blair returned to St. Louis on the day this answer was written, and learning its contents (it was published immediately), telegraphed at once to Washington that he would be able to furnish four regiments forthwith for active service, if an officer should be sent to muster them in. On the same day and the next (April 17th and 18th) Maj. Schaeffer and Col. John N. Pritchard, Surgeon Florence M. Cornyn and Adjt. John S Cavender peremptorily resigned from the St. Louis State militia. In his letter of resignation Maj. Schaeffer used the following language:

"I cannot reconcile it with my ideas of military fealty and discipline that a part of your command has hoisted another flag than the only true flag of these United States."

This was pronounced by Gen. Frost to be "conduct unworthy of an officer and a gentleman," and that officer, in command of the First Military District of Missouri, ordered a court-martial to try the major. It may be interesting to know the names of the persons constituting the court. They were Col. Alton R. Easton, president of the court; Lieut.-Col. John Knapp, Lieut.-Col. John S. Bowen, Maj. James R. Shaler, Capt. Joseph Kelly, Capt. George W. West, Capt. William Wade, Capt. Martin Burke, Capt, Charles S. Rogers, Capt. William B. Hazeltine, Capt. Charles H. Frederick, Capt. Henry W. Williams, judge-advocate.

Maj. Schaeffer refused to acknowledge the order of arrest, and entering the army afterwards, was killed in command of a brigade at Murfreesboro'.

The letter of Surgeon Cornyn was couched in similar language. These resignations were followed by a general stampede of the active Union men of the rank and file; but there were still more, however, who continued in the State militia and paraded at Camp Jackson who afterwards did gallant service under the Federal colors.

The following correspondence shows that Governor Jackson did not treat overtures from the Confederates as curtly as he did the directions of the Federal government. The documents are official:

"MONTGOMERY, April 26, 1861.

"GOVERNOR C. F. JACKSON, Jefferson City, Mo.:

"Can you arm and equip one regiment of infantry for service in Virginia, to rendezvous at Richmond? Transportation

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will be provided by this government. The regiment to elect its own officers, and must enlist for not less than twelve months, unless sooner discharged.



"JEFFERSON CITY, MO., May 6, 1861.

"HON. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, Montgomery:

"SIR, — Yours of 26th ultimo via Louisville is received. I have no legal authority to furnish the men you desire. Missouri, you know, is yet under the tyranny of Lincoln's government, so far at least as forms go. We are wofully deficient here in arms, and cannot furnish them at present; but so far as men are concerned, we have plenty of them ready, willing, and anxious to march at any moment to the defense of the South.

"Our Legislature has just met, and, I doubt not, will give me all necessary authority over the matter. If you can arm the men, they will go whenever wanted to any point where they may be most needed. I send this to Memphis by private hand, being afraid to trust our mails or telegraphs. Let me hear from you by the same means. Missouri can and will put one hundred thousand men in the field, if required. We are using every means to arm our people, and until we are better prepared must move cautiously. I write this in confusion. With my prayers for your success, I remain,

"Very respectfully,
"Your obedient servant,

"Governor of Missouri."

On April 20th the arsenal at Liberty, Mo., was entered and plundered of the arms and ammunition gathered there, and it was supposed that an attempt would be made upon the St. Louis arsenal the next night. Every precaution was taken for its safety, and the Union volunteers in the city slept on their arms. Arrangements were made for mustering these volunteers into the regular service and arming them, and a part of them were admitted into the arsenal to provide for its defense. For the next few days there was such an intense state of excitement and so many apprehensions of violence on every side that even so fearless a man as Frank Blair sent his family out of town. He was at this time engaged in officering, arming, and equipping his four regiments and having them mustered into the service. The excitement was further increased by the shipment of arms from the St. Louis arsenal to Kentucky, which was bitterly opposed by the Southern element.

On April 22d, Governor Jackson issued a proclamation summoning the Legislature to meet in the State Capitol on May 2d. At the same time an order was issued by him for the State militia to assemble in their respective military districts on May 3d and go into encampment for the period of six days, as allowed by law. The Governor also borrowed fifty thousand dollars of the banks to arm and equip the militia.

It is claimed, on the one hand, that this annual drill was ordered at that inopportune time for the purpose of forcing the secession of Missouri and capturing the arsenal; that it was an overt act, to which the capture of the camp was a proper retort in the sense of a defensive measure.

It is argued, on the other hand, that there was no occasion for interference with Camp Jackson; that the muster expired by limitation two days after the seizure of the camp; that the act, not warranted by the President's proclamation (under which Gen. Lyon claimed to act), was the wanton, illicit act of an ambitious man, and its effect was to plunge Missouri into the civil war which all good citizens hoped might be kept beyond her borders.

We will simply state these two propositions. Nor will we argue the question of the policy or expediency of a military encampment of holiday soldiery at such a time. As to the legality of Camp Jackson there can be no doubt at all. There has never been any pretense even that it was an unlawful assemblage or an illegitimate muster. On this point the statement of Gen. Frost, prepared with great care and published in 1882 in the Missouri Republican, is accepted on all hands as substantially accurate and complete. He says, —

"Camp Jackson was formed under and in accordance with the requirements of a bill framed in 1855, with the assistance of the Hon. B. Gratz Brown, by the person who commanded the camp, and which became a law, after many vicissitudes, in 1858.

"The measure was urged upon the Legislature during the years which intervened between its introduction and passage as one which, in view of the threatening relations between the North and South, the conservative views of the people seemed to demand.

"Missouri, being a border State, would, in the event of hostilities between the sections, be among the first, as well as the greatest sufferer.

"Her people were also made up, in nearly equal proportions, from the North and the South, and for both these reasons an internecine strife threatened her with peculiar horrors.

"The law, then, was intended and regarded from its inception by its movers as a peace measure, — a measure which it was hoped and believed would be adopted by the other Border States, and thus enable them each to raise, organize, and discipline, under the Constitution of the United States, a militia force sufficient to command and enforce the peace between the hostile sections. But its power in Missouri for the main object had in view, viz., a large force, was destroyed by the refusal of pecuniary aid from the State, and all that remained of its value was that it gave to the patriotic citizen-volunteer the poor privilege of regarding himself as a soldier of the State, with a State law to govern him, whilst he gave his own time to instruction, and his own money to his equipment.

"Such, then, was the origin and truly patriotic intention of the law under which Camp Jackson was held."

And Gen. Frost adds, —

"In order to a better comprehension of the Camp Jackson question, it is considered necessary to say something of its precursor, Camp Lewis. By a provision of the law of 1858 an

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encampment was required to be held annually in each military district, whenever there should be a certain number of uniformed companies mustered into service in that district.

"Under the stimulus given by the new act to military enterprise, a sufficient number of companies had been organized and mustered into the service of the State in the First Military District (embracing the city and county of St. Louis) to call for a brigade formation within a few months after its enactment. A brigadier-general was accordingly chosen by those companies, and commissioned as such by Governor Robert M. Stewart on the 23d day of August of that year. During the next year means were found to purchase the requisite camp equipage, and the advent of 1860 found the militia of the district ready and anxious to enter upon the varied and pleasant duties of camp life.

"The ‘St. Louis Agricultural and Mechanical Fair Association’ tendered the use of their beautiful grounds in the suburbs of the city, and there the first encampment of Missouri militia was pitched, and was named Camp Lewis, in honor of the great explorer of the West, and there its varied duties were performed for the period limited by law. Many of the citizens of St. Louis will doubtless still remember the pleasure they enjoyed in witnessing its guard mountings, parades, and reviews. The elements of Camp Lewis were as varied as the nationalities and occupations of the citizens of the country.

"An event of some interest may be mentioned in connection with the German element. It was found that some of them could not comprehend the word of command and the method of execution as given in the tactics, and to cure that difficulty it was proposed by Capt. Chris. Stifel, commander of a cavalry company, that a synopsis of them should be prepared and printed in the German language, and at the same time he suggested Mr. Franz Sigel (then a school-teacher) as a person quite competent for the work. He was accordingly employed upon it, and gave full satisfaction.

"Thus did that subsequently distinguished general render his first service to his adopted country by facilitating the instruction of the troops of Camp Lewis, the precursor of Camp Jackson.

"The existence of Camp Lewis having left none but pleasant memories to the inhabitants of the city, its successor of the following year was looked forward to as a desirable event."

Gen. Frost further claims that

"the Missouri Convention had been elected, and a majority of eighty thousand for the Union candidates showed that at least three fourths of the people were in favor of preserving their relations with the Federal Union. The convention had met, and by its first resolution declared with but a single dissenting vote against secession."

But he is in error in contending that in consequence of this there was "a benignant calm" prevailing at the time of the issuance of the order for this encampment. We have shown the contrary.

The encampment was ordered under General Orders No. 7 of the adjutant-general of the State. There was a large and cheerful turnout. The tents were pitched in Lindell Grove, now the Fair Grounds, a wooded valley near the intersection of Olive Street with Grand Avenue. Gen. Frost's narative says, —

"This point was chosen in preference because of the existence of a street railway leading towards it, which afforded facilities for citizens to visit the camp, and the denizens of the camp to visit their homes from time to time and give at least occasional attention to their various professions, business, and trades.

"It was named Camp Jackson, in honor of the Governor of the State, who, though he afterwards died in exile, was then probably the most popular Governor the State had had.

"The first duty performed in the camp was the hoisting of the United States flag to the tall centre-pole of the commanding officer's tent, from which it continued to wave its graceful folds until it was captured, pulled down, and carried off in triumph by the captors of the camp.

"Having thus installed the flag of the United States in the place of honor, and the flag of Missouri in a subordinate position, the military duties of the camp were entered upon with the regularity, routine, and precision that had characterized those of its predecessor, ‘Camp Lewis,’ and, like its predecessor, it at once became a pleasant and fashionable resort of all sexes, ages, classes, and conditions of citizens, who thronged its shady avenues all the day and into the night, until the drums beating the ‘tattoo’ warned them to depart.

"Thus happily passed the hours and the days of that ill-fated camp. The good feeling hoped for and expected as a desirable incident of its existence was fast developing into maturity between its members, and continued to increase until its premature and violent closing on Friday, the 10th of May."

The camp, in fact, was begun on May 3d, Friday, when the lines were traced. It was laid out according to military rules, and some of the avenues were named by the soldiers after men prominent in the cause of the Southern Confederacy, as Beauregard, Jefferson Davis, Lee, etc. The following is the organization of the camp, as given in Peckham's "Memorial of Gen. Lyon":

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"Brig.-Gen. D. M. Frost, commanding; Lieut.-Col. R. S. Voorhies, adjutant-general; Maj. N. Wall, commissary; Maj. Henry W. Williams, quartermaster; Joseph Scott, M.D., surgeon; Maj. William D. Wood, aide-de-camp.

"First Regiment. — Lieut.-Col. John Knapp, commanding; Capt. N. Hatch, A. Q. M. and A. C. S.; Capt. John B. Drew, paymaster; Lieut. W. C. Buchanan, adjutant; A. J. P. Garesche, judge-advocate; Louis T. Pimm, M.D., surgeon.

"Company A, St. Louis Grays. — Martin Burke, captain; Stephen O. Colman, first lieutenant; H. B. Belt, second lieutenant; R. N. Leonori, third lieutenant. Fifty-one rank and file.

"Company B, Sarsfield Guards. — Charles W. Rodgers, captain; Thomas Curley, first lieutenant (absent on Southwestern expedition); Hugh McDermott, second lieutenant. Forty-six rank and file.

"Company C, Washington Guards. — Robert Tucker, first lieutenant (commanding); Thomas Moylan, second lieutenant; Cornelius Heffernan, third lieutenant. Forty-eight rank and file.

"Company D, Emmet Guards. — Philip W. Coyne, captain.

"Company E, Washington Blues. — Joseph Kelly, captain; T. M. Furbar, second lieutenant. Forty-five rank and file.

"Company F, Laclede Guards. — Fraser, captain.

"Company G, Missouri Guards. — George W. West, captain.

"Company H, Jackson Guards. — George W. Fletcher, captain; J. M. Henning, first lieutenant; William Morony, second lieutenant; John Bullock, third lieutenant. Forty-six rank and file.

"Company I, Grimsley Guards (organized Thursday night, May 2, 1861). — R. N. Hart, captain; Thomas Keith, first lieutenant; R. C. Finney, second lieutenant; John Gross, third lieutenant. Forty-eight rank and file.

"Company K, Davis Guard. — James Longuemare, captain; L. Kretschmar, first lieutenant; A. Hopton, second lieutenant; Julius Ladue, third lieutenant. Sixty-five rank and file.

"Squadron of Dragoons. — Emmet McDonald, Captain.

"SECOND REGIMENT. — John S. Bowen, colonel; A. E. Steen, lieutenant-colonel; J. R, Shaler, major.

"Engineer Corps of National Guards (former two companies of National Guards merged in one). — William H. Finney, first lieutenant; Charles Perrine, second lieutenant; John M. Gilkerson, third lieutenant. On the ground May 6th forty rank and file.

"Company A, Independent Guards. — Charles Fredericks, captain; Oliver Collins, second lieutenant; Charles McDonald, third lieutenant.

"Company B, Missouri Vedettes. — O. H. Barrett, captain. Forty-five rank and file.

"Company C (Minute-Men). — Basil W. Duke, captain (the Morgan raider).

"Company D, McLaren Guards (Minute-Men). — Sandford, captain. Sixty-one rank and file.

"Company E (Minute-Men). — Colton Greene, captain.

"Company F, Jackson Grays (Minute-Men). — Garland, captain. Sixty-five rank and file.

"Company G, Dixie Guards (Minute-Men). — Campbell, captain. Forty-eight rank and file.

"Company H, Southern Guards (Minute-Men). — J. H. Shackelford, captain. Forty-five rank and file.

"Company I, Carondelet Rangers. — James M. Loughborough, captain. Fifty rank and file."

Col. Peckham says, —

"The State law, under the old militia bill, authorized the annual existence of such a camp as this in each military district for six days. Since Jackson had issued his order for this gathering of the militia the Legislature had organized, and every indication pointed to a speedy adoption of the new military bill. It was expected to continue the camp under the provisions of the latter. The design of the conspirators was to fill Camp Jackson with secessionists from the interior of the State, and such were constantly arriving after the formation of the camp. By Thursday and Friday, so numerous were the arrivals, that it was contemplated forming a third regiment."

Several of these statements do not appear to have any authority, and some of them seem to have proceeded principally from the writer's imagination.

But this which follows from the same source can be corroborated:

"On Wednesday night, May 8th, the steamer ‘J. C. Swon,’ just from New Orleans, loaded with arms, cannon, and ammunition from the arsenal at Baton Rouge, La. (which the traitors had surprised and captured from the United States government), discharged her freight at the Levee at St. Louis. The material above described, which had been obtained through the agency of Colton Greene, acting as an agent of Claib Jackson, from the rebel authorities of the seceded States, was that same night removed to Camp Jackson. It is stated that from fifty to one hundred dray-loads were included in this murderous freight. Greene saw the goods safely lodged inside the camp, and on the morning of the 10th of May, accompanied by a company from the camp, he proceeded on the cars to Jefferson City with some of the stolen munitions of war.

"Lyon was cognizant of the whole proceeding, and had a strong notion to seize the boat at the Levee before she could unload; but after conversing with Mr. Blair, he agreed with the latter, and concluded to allow the material to be received in the camp, thus furnishing additional evidence of the treasonable nature of the camp. The Safety Committee met at the same time, and were strongly urged to seize the property before it could be taken to Lindell Grove, but they also agreed with the plan adopted by Lyon. The latter had already designed capturing the whole camp, but the opposition of a majority of the Safety Committee, upon a merely legal point, caused him to delay the movement. He now felt it his duty to act."

The Committee of Safety, and especially those agreeing with Mr. Glover, took a legal view of the case: The camp would end soon. It was a lawful assembly. It did not constitute a real menace to the arsenal. It would cause great excitement to attack it. But Lyon resolved that he would not take the lawyer's but the military man's view of it. He thought compulsion should be used to make the Southern sympathizers acknowledge the authority of the Federal government. He looked upon the camp's existence as an intimidation of Union men. He was therefore very eager to get Col. Blair to use his influence with the Safety Committee, without whose sanction he could accomplish nothing. This was effected by informing the committee that Gen. Harney would arrive and resume his command on Sunday. When he heard that even Mr. Glover consented to act, and Lyon began his preparations forthwith.

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Gen. Frost knew or feared that his camp would be attacked by the forces under Gen. Lyon, which also he knew he had no means of effectively resisting. Lyon had arranged to capture the camp on the morning of the 10th. On that morning Frost wrote to Lyon. As he says in his narrative, —

"Having known Capt. Lyon from the period of his cadetship at West Point in 1840, the commander of the camp believed him to be possessed of a fair proportion of good sense, and of that conservative patriotism that long military service begets, and as neither good sense nor patriotism could prompt an attack upon his camp, he did not believe he would make it, and it was not until early on the morning of the 10th that a private communication from a friend in the councils of the conspirators undeceived him, and he was forced to the conclusion that Lyon, too, had been stricken by the more than midsummer madness that seemed to afflict the whole community. Nevertheless he determined to make a last effort to avert from his State the horrors of anarchy and civil war, which he foresaw the capture of his camp would necessarily invoke. Therefore he hastily penned the following letter:



"'CAPT. N. LYON, commanding U. S. Troops in and about St. Louis Arsenal:

"'SIR, — I am constantly in receipt of information that you contemplate an attack upon my camp. Whilst I understand that you are impressed with the idea that an attack upon the arsenal and United States troops is intended on the part of the militia of Missouri, I am greatly at a loss to know what could justify you in attacking citizens of the United States who are in the lawful performance of duties devolving upon them under the Constitution in organizing and instructing the militia of the State, in obedience to her laws, and therefore have been disposed to doubt the correctness of the information I have received.

"'I would be glad to know from you personally whether there is any truth in the statements that are constantly pouring into my ears. So far as regards any hostility being intended towards the United States or its property or representatives by any portion of my command, or, as far as I can learn (and I think I am fully informed), of any other part of the State forces, I can positively say that the idea has never been entertained. On the contrary, prior to your taking command of the arsenal I proffered to Maj. Bell, then in command of the very few troops constituting its guard, the services of myself and all my command, and if necessary the whole power of the State to protect the United States in the full possession of all their property. Upon Gen. Harney taking command of this department I made the same proffer of services to him, and authorized his adjutant-general, Capt. Williams, to communicate the fact that such had been done to the War Department. I have had no occasion since to change any of the views I entertained at that time, neither of my own volition nor through orders of my constitutional commander.

"'I trust that, after this explicit statement, we may be able by fully understanding each other to keep far from our borders the misfortunes which so unhappily afflict our common country. This communication will be handed to you by Col. Bowen, my chief of staff, who will be able to explain anything not set forth in the foregoing. I am, sir,

"'Very respectfully,
"Your obedient servant,
"'D. M. Frost,

"'Brigadier-General Commanding Camp Jackson.’

"This letter was dispatched by the hands of Col. John S. Bowen, at about eleven o'clock a.m. Soon after midday he returned with it, and reported that he had proffered it to Capt. Lyon, who had refused to receive it. He also reported that he had found Lyon mustering his forces, with the evident intention of at once leaving the arsenal. There could no longer be any doubt as to his intention of marching upon the camp, and the question of how he was to be met was considered. The encampment having been formed for instruction alone and not for war, no more than five rounds of ammunition had been supplied, and that only for the uses of the guard. Resistance, therefore, being out of the question, nothing remained but to calmly await events. In the mean time the same gentleman who had a few hours before given the first authentic information of Lyon's intentions returned in haste to say that he was on the march, but that he intended no act of immediate hostility, that he was advancing merely as a posse comitatus to the United States marshal, who was coming to make a formal demand for a lot of arms believed to belong to the United States, and which had been deposited on the evening of the 8th in the camp."

Lyon, in fact, had resolved to capture the camp, as well as the contraband material in it, the soldiers as well as the equipments. His force was ample. He had five regiments of Missouri volunteers and five regiments of "Home Guards," then called the "United States Reserve Corps." He had several companies of the old "Citizen's Guard," organized in January, and five or six companies (nearly four hundred men) of United States regular troops, with abundant supplies of artillery, arms, and ammunition.

For the capture of Camp Jackson Gen. Lyon had made elaborate preparations. All the orders were given out, every colonel instructed, and every detail arranged.

In order to secure his "mounts," says Col. Peckham, "on the 9th of May, some time previous to his visit to Camp Jackson, Capt. Lyon dispatched Lieut. Thurneck with a note to Giles F. Filley, requesting that gentleman to procure and send to him at the arsenal by four o'clock P.M. thirty-six horses. Mr. Filley called at once upon Mr. James Harkness (Glasgow & Harkness) for assistance in purchasing the horses. Twenty-two were purchased at the stables of Messrs. Glasgow & Harkness and forwarded by Lieut. Thurneck to the arsenal, while Messrs. Filley and Harkness visited other places in order to secure the balance of the desired number. Enough were bought to make up, with some few which were loaned by Union citizens, to fill the order; and Giles F. Filley and O. D. Filley signed their names as securities to Mr. Harkness for their payment." Lyon in this matter disregarded army regulations because of his personal distrust of Maj. McKinstry, the department chief quartermaster.

The regiments selected by Lyon for the march and assault were the First, Second, Third, and Fourth

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Missouri Volunteers and the Third and Fourth Home Guards. The other troops, with the regulars, were left at the arsenal to do guard duty. A few of the regulars, under Maj. Sweeney, acting as brigade commander, marched at the front of Col. Blair's regiment, which approached Camp Jackson by way of Laclede Avenue; Col. Boernstein's regiment marched up Pine Street, Col. Schüttner's up Market Street, Col. Sigel's up Olive Street, Col. Brown's up Morgan Street and Col. McNeil's up Clark Avenue. In this way the camp would be surrounded, while six field-pieces were planted on adjacent heights so as to command the camp. Lyon marched at the head of the battalion of regulars. The marching was timed so that the heads of the different columns converged at their destination almost simultaneously. As was naturally to be expected, great excitement was the result of these unusual military movements.

In a contemporary account, written fresh from the scene for use in a newspaper the following morning and thus not biased by any after-thoughts, we read:

"Unusual, and to some extent alarming, activity prevailed early yesterday morning at each rendezvous of the "Home Guard" and in the vicinity of the arsenal. The men recently provided with arms from the arsenal to the number of several thousand were ordered, we understand, to be at their different posts at twelve o'clock, in readiness to march as they might be commanded. A report gained some currency that Gen. Harney was expected on the afternoon train, and that the troops were to cross the river to receive him and escort him to the city. Very little reliance, however, was placed in this explanation of the military movements, and at about two o'clock P.M. the whole town became greatly agitated upon the circulation of the intelligence that some five or six thousand men were marching up Market Street, under arms, in the direction of Camp Jackson. The news proved to be correct, except as to the number, and in this case the report rather underestimated the extent of the force. According to our best information there were probably not less than seven thousand men, under Capt. Lyon (commanding the United States troops at this post), with about twenty pieces of artillery.

"The troops, as stated above, marched at quick time up Market Street, and on arriving near Camp Jackson rapidly surrounded it, planting batteries upon all the heights overlooking the camp. Long files of men were stationed in platoons at various points on every side, and a picket-guard established covering an area of say two hundred yards. The guards, with fixed bayonets and muskets at half cock, were instructed to allow none to pass or repass within the limits thus taken up.

"By this time an immense crowd of people had assembled in the vicinity, having gone thither in carriages, buggies, rail-cars, baggage-wagons, on horseback, and on foot. Numbers of men seized rifles, shot-guns, or whatever other weapons they could lay hands upon and rushed pell-mell to the assistance of the State troops, but were, of course, obstructed in their designs. The hills, of which there are a number in the neighborhood, were literally black with people, hundreds of ladies and children stationing themselves with the throng, but, as they thought, out of harm's way."

When his dispositions were fully made, Gen. Lyon sent Maj. B. G. Farrar to Gen. Frost with the note which follows:


"ST. LOUIS, MO., MAY 10, 1861.

"GEN. D. M. FROST, commanding Camp Jackson:

"SIR, — Your command is regarded as evidently hostile to the government of the United States.

"It is for the most part made up of those secessionists who have openly avowed their hostility to the general government, and have been plotting at the seizure of its property and the overthrow of its authority. You are openly in communication with the so-called Southern Confederacy, which is now at war with the United States; and you are receiving at your camp from said Confederacy and under its flag large supplies of the material of war, most of which is known to be the property of the United States. These extraordinary preparations plainly indicate none other than the well-known purpose of the Governor of this State, under whose orders you are acting, and whose purpose, recently communicated to the Legislature, has just been responded to in the most unparalleled legislation, having in direct view hostilities to the general government and co-operation with its enemies.

"In view of these considerations, and of your failure to disperse in obedience to the proclamation of the President, and of the eminent necessities of State policy and welfare, and the obligations imposed upon me by instructions from Washington, it is my duty to demand, and I do hereby demand of you, an immediate surrender of your command, with no other conditions than that all persons surrendering under this demand shall be humanely and kindly treated. Believing myself prepared to enforce this demand, one-half hour's time before doing so will be allowed for your compliance therewith.

"Very respectfully,
"Your obedient servant,
"N. Lyon,

"Captain Second United States Infantry, Commanding Troops."

Gen. Frost then had, he says, six hundred and thirty-five militia on duty in the camp. The newspaper account goes on to say that "immediately upon the receipt of Gen. Lyon's letter, Gen. Frost called a hasty consultation of the officers of his staff. The conclusion arrived at was about as follows: The brigade was in no condition to make resistance to a force so numerically superior; with but a few field-pieces

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of small calibre, and with less than a dozen rounds of cartridges for his command, a battle must necessarily be of short duration and of but one result, — the total rout and defeat of the State troops; to have withstood an attack would have been sheer recklessness and cruelty to the men of Gen. Frost's command; in short, the brigade was not by any means in a war condition. Gen. Frost stated, moreover, that he had no war to wage upon the United States or its troops; that he was only acting in cheerful obedience to the orders of his superior officer, and in compliance with the laws of the State; that he had anticipated no conflict, and would not willingly jeopardize the lives of his men in anything that might be construed into hostility to the United States government. Only one course was to be pursued, and that was quickly agreed upon, viz., a surrender."

Gen. Frost, in his narrative, says, —

"The events following the demand above recited may be briefly stated as follows: A hasty council of the chief officers was called, the demand read to them, and their opinion asked for. A moment's consideration of our hopelessly defenseless condition was sufficient to elicit a unanimous vote to surrender, and reply was made accordingly in the following words, to wit:

"‘CAMP JACKSON, MO., MAY 10, 1861.

"'CAPT. N. LYON, Commanding U. S. Troops.

"'SIR, — I never for a moment conceived the idea that so illegal and unconstitutional a demand as I have just received from you would be made by an officer of the United States army.

"'I am wholly unprepared to defend my command from this unwarranted attack, and shall therefore be forced to comply with your demand. I am, sir, very respectfully,

"'Your obedient servant,

"'D. M. FROST,

"'Brig.-Gen. Comdg. Camp Jackson, M.V.M.’"

The contemporary account proceeds: "The demand of Capt. Lyon was accordingly agreed to. The State troops were therefore made prisoners of war, but an offer was made to release them on condition that they would take an oath to support the Constitution of the United States, and would swear not to take up arms against the government. These terms were made known to the several commands, and the opportunity given to all who might feel disposed to accede to them to do so. Some eight or ten men signified their willingness, but the remainder, about eight hundred, preferred, under the circumstances, to become prisoners. (A number of the troops were absent from the camp in the city on leave.) Those who declined to take the prescribed oath said that they had already sworn allegiance to the United States and to defend the government, and to repeat it now would be to admit that they had been in rebellion, which they would not concede.

"The preparations for the surrender and for marching as prisoners, under the escort of the arsenal troops occupied an hour or two. The brigade was then formed in line, headed by Gen. Frost and his staff on horseback, and with colors flying and drums beating marched through the wood skirting the road up to an opening that had been made in the fence near the turnpike. Here a halt was ordered for some reason, and the opportunity was improved by a large crowd of excited citizens to draw near the officers of the staff and salute them with cheers. The men appeared dejected and rather sad, but evidently were not conscious of having done anything cowardly. One of the officers achieved a volley of deafening huzzas by riding up to a fence and hacking away at it with his sword, breaking and bending it so as to render it useless. It was a very handsome sword, costing one hundred dollars, and was a recent present from some military friends. This example was followed by others amidst shouts of applause."

Gen. Frost's narrative is clearer and more graphic. He says, —

"Orders were at once sent to the companies (still engaged at their military exercises) to march to their camp-grounds, stack their arms, and form into line by battalions. These orders having been executed, Capt. Thos. W. Sweeny, with his regulars, was sent forward by Capt. Lyon to take possession of the camp and its property, public and private, whilst Lieut. John M. Schofield, of the regulars, was delegated to conduct the prisoners out of the camp on their way to imprisonment in the arsenal. Preparatory to departure from the camp, the prisoners had been formed into line, facing to the right flank, with the First Regiment leading, closely followed by the Second, and in this order they were closed up, so that the leading files had passed out the northeast corner of the camp-ground, at which point the fence had been torn down to admit of egress upon the road, and proceeded about a block and a half along Olive Street towards the city. Then a halt was ordered, and the prisoners kept standing in their ranks, unarmed of course, and in a line nearly parallel with the Olive Street road, and at a distance varying from a few feet to perhaps seventy yards therefrom. The road itself was occupied by a portion of Lyon's command, drawn up in line of battle facing the line of prisoners, and extending both east and west far beyond the extremities of that line. Lieut. Schofield, a thorough soldier and polished gentleman, having fulfilled his orders in thus placing the prisoners, remained beside the late camp commander, who, surrounded by his mounted staff, formed a small cavalcade at the head of the column. In this position the troops and prisoners were held stationary for a long time, probably two or three hours, whilst an anxious consultation seemed to be in progress between the leading captors.

"By the terms of the surrender officers were permitted to retain their side-arms, — i.e., their swords; but whilst the prisoners were held at a halt in front of Lyon's troops, a German officer came down the line demanding the swords of all officers, and claiming to act by order of Capt. Lyon. When he made this demand, Col. Knapp, of the First Regiment, — that officer wore at his side a valuable weapon that had been presented to him by his command, — finding remonstance against its seizure of no avail, determined to break rather than surrender it into the

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hands of captors who, by even making the demand, violated their honor. He accordingly broke the blade over a fence-post, thus preventing the weapon, especially valued as a memento, from being seized as a trophy in violation of the assurance previously given not to take their swords from the officers of the command. This act directed attention to what the German officer was doing, and immediately after it all swords that almost had been taken were restored to their owners by the orders of Lieut. Schofield, who had been reminded of the terms of surrender by the camp commander.

"In the mean time hordes of men, women, and children, hearing of the movement of Lyon's force, came flocking after it and filled all the avenues of the camp, crowding around the prisoners and filling the narrow space that separated them from the troops occupying the Olive Street road. As all St. Louis was excited to madness that day, the natural result of so long a halt in the midst of a furious multitude soon showed itself. Injurious and insulting remarks were hurled from the crowd against Lyon's troops. Their military appearance was criticised and ridiculed. Still the fatal halt (which has never been explained) was maintained, whilst the wild excitement of the unthinking crowd and the animosity of the raw, undisciplined troops were rapidly increasing."

Col. Peckham says that "Capt. C. Blandowski, of Company F (Third Missouri Volunteers), had been ordered with his company to guard the western gateway leading into the camp. The surrendered troops had passed out and were standing passively between the inclosing lines on the road, when a crowd of disunionists began hostile demonstrations against Company F. At first these demonstrations consisted only of vulgar epithets and the most abusive language; but the crowd, encouraged by the forbearance and the silence of the Federal soldiers, began hurling rocks, brickbats, and other missiles at the faithful company. Notwithstanding several of the company were seriously hurt by these missiles, each man remained in line, which so emboldened the crowd that they discharged pistols at the soldiers, at the same time yelling and daring the latter to fight."

Then ensued a dreadful scene. The troops fired with fatal effect. Many were killed and wounded, and a feeling of bitter hostility engendered which before it could be allayed desolated half the State of Missouri with fire and sword, and deluged it in the blood of its best and bravest citizens. 316

Col. Peckham says, "Not until one of his men was shot dead, several severely wounded, and himself shot in the leg did the captain (Blandowski) feel it his duty to retaliate, and as he fell he commanded his men to fire. The order was obeyed, and the multitude fell back, leaving upon the grass-covered mound some twenty of their number dead or dying. Some fifteen were instantly killed, and several others died within an hour. Several of Sigel's men were wounded and two killed."

Among the wounded were Dr. Roepke, Thomas Meek, John J. Weigart, Michael Davy, Mr. Chapman, Jerome Downey, W. L. Carroll, John Rice, C. Wilson, John Scherer, Fred. D. Allen, Mr. Bradford, John Matthews. Numbers of the wounded were not officially reported. Capt. Lyon, in his own report of the disturbance, says, —

"The first firing was some half-dozen shots near the head of the column, composed of the First Regiment, which was guarding the prisoners. It occurred in this wise: The artillery were stationed upon the bluff northeast of Camp Jackson, with their pieces bearing on the camp. The men of this command were most insultingly treated by the mob with the foulest epithets, were pushed, struck, and pelted with stones and dirt. All this was patiently borne until one of the mob discharged a revolver at the men. At this they fired, but not more than six shots, which were sufficient to disperse that portion of the mob. None of the First Regiment (Col. Blair's) fired, although continually and shamefully abused by both prisoners and the mob. The second and most destructive firing was from the rear of the column guarding the prisoners. The mob at the point intervening between Camp Jackson and the rear of the column, and in fact on all sides, were very abusive; and one of them, on being

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expostulated with, became very belligerent, drew his revolver and fired at Lieut. Saxton. The man who commenced the firing, preparatory to a fourth shot, laid his pistol across his arm, and was taking deliberate aim at Lieut. Saxton, when he was thrust through with a bayonet, and fired upon at the same time, being killed instantly.

"Here, the column of troops having received the order to march, Lieut. Saxton's command passed on, and a company in his rear became the object of a furious attack from the mob. After several of them were shot they came to a halt and fired with fatal effect. The mob in retreating from both sides of the line returned the fire, and the troops replied again.

"The sad results are much to be lamented. The killing of innocent men, women, and children is deplorable. There was no intention to fire upon peaceable citizens. The regular troops were over in the camp, beyond the mob, and in range of the firing. The troops manifested every forbearance, and at last discharged their guns, simply obeying the impulse, natural to us all, of self-defense.

"If innocent men, women, and children, whose curiosity placed them in a dangerous position, suffered with the guilty, it is no fault of the troops."

Gen. Frost's narrative of the occurrence is as follows:

"Suddenly, and without warning, some shots of musketry were delivered at the head of the column of prisoners of Col. Knapp's regiment, followed almost immediately by volley after volley, extending in regular succession down the line of Lyon's troops from east to west, until apparently a full regiment had thus ‘fired by company.’ The regularity and precision of the firing indicated beyond question that it was done by order, each captain repeating the command of his predecessor.

"In an official statement of this affair, authorized by N. Lyon (Peckham, page 154), will be found these words: ‘After several of them were shot they came to a halt and fired with fatal effect. The mob in retreating from both sides of the lines returned the fire, and the troops replied again. The command was then given by Gen. Lyon to cease firing, and the order was promptly obeyed,’ etc. . . . As the technical command to ‘cease firing’ was so promptly obeyed, the order to ‘commence firing’ may very properly be assumed to have preceded it.

"But again in the paper above referred to will be found these words, ‘There was no intention to fire upon peaceable citizens.’ The intention to fire upon the prisoners of war is therefore to be inferred from Capt. Lyon's own statement. Certainly he does not deny the intention nor its execution.

"The observations of the commander of the camp led him to believe at the time, and he still believes, that the firing was stopped by Lieut. Schofield, who, being reproached for allowing unarmed prisoners of war to be murdered, galloped rapidly in the direction of the firing, which ceased only when he reached the scene of it.

"The reputed sins of Camp Jackson having now been avenged in the blood of fifteen citizens and prisoners dead upon the ground, including a babe in its mother's arms, and (at the usual computation of five to one) at least seventy-five more wounded, many of whom afterward died, the extraordinary halt before referred to was quickly broken and the prisoners were rapidly marched between two regiments to their prison in the arsenal, where they arrived at dusk. The rank and file were all huddled together in a single empty store-room, capable only of holding them when standing close together, and exit from which for any purpose whatever was prevented by armed guards. A movement was inaugurated by Lyon, as soon as the prisoners were safely secured, looking towards getting happily rid of captives whom he had no law, civil or military, to hold as such.

"To that end a proposition was made that they should give their parole not to bear arms against the United States, and upon that be released. In reply to this it was asserted that to give such parole would leave the inference that there was some justification for their capture, and it was at once refused to a man.

"They were accordingly rigidly confined to their prison and kept standing all night (because there was not room to sit down, even if the filth which covered the floor had permitted it). Thus were the rank and file of the prisoners held for twenty-six hours almost, without food or water or light, in order to overcome their obstinate determination to refuse to be paroled, — i.e., to promise not to serve against a government which they had already sworn to support.

"At the end of that time the persuasive eloquence of their prison-house had removed all hesitancy as to the manner of getting out of it, which to most of them had become a matter of life or death, and so on the evening of the 11th the parole was given and they were discharged.

"The commissioned officers, thanks to Capts. Totten, Saxton, Sweeny, Schofield, and others of the regulars, were as well treated as the circumstances of their captors permitted. They shared with them their rooms, their provisions, and their beds, as far as they would go, and but for the armed sentinels at the doors they might have fancied themselves, although rather numerous, still honored guests." 317

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The list of killed and wounded was large, including three of the disarmed prisoners. In addition to the names of the wounded given above there were killed the following (some of them dying not immediately, but from the effect of their wounds): Philip Leister, John Sweikhardt, Casper H. Glencoe, William Eisenhardt, P. Doane, Henry Jungle, Walter McDowell, Nicholas Knoblock, Jacob Carter, Emma Somers,

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John Roepke (or Koeper), William Juenhower, William Sheffield, William Patton Summers, 318 Patrick Enright, Capt. Blandowski, Armand Latour, John Waters, Thomas A. Hahren, J. J. Jones, Erie Wright, James McDonald, Francis Wheelan, Charles Bodsen, Mrs. Elisa McAuliff, Christopher Dean, John Underwood, 319 John English, Jacques Yerdi, Benjamin Dunn, Frank D. Allen, and a private soldier.

Intense excitement very naturally followed this bloody event. Popular feelings had been worked up already to a very high pitch, and now St. Louis seethed like a volcano in eruption. The mob filled the streets, and practically usurped the functions of government. Business was suspended everywhere; stores and even the fronts of dwellings were closed. There were numerous collisions, bloody assaults, and more than one murder, and Col. Peckham says that on that Friday night and the ensuing Saturday "it was a bold act for any known Union man to show his face on the street north of Walnut, south of Cass Avenue, and east of Twelfth Street." He adds, and with apparent justice, that,

"fortunate, indeed, was it for the city of St. Louis in general, and the proprietors of the Missouri Democrat in particular, that the police force were under the control, during those troublous times, of such a chief as James McDonough. Whatever may have been his sympathies or predilections in the great political issues of that day, he did not allow them to interfere with his official duties. Regarding himself as a conservator of the peace, he struggled to prevent violence and enforce order. On the night in question he was exceedingly vigilant, and with admirable foresight had so arranged his force that he could furnish assistance to any of the newspapers which might be threatened by a mob. As the crowd rushed down Locust Street and across Second Street, they were greeted by a platoon of thirty policemen, who, with bayonets fixed, were in line extending across the street and facing the mob. The chief soon gave them to understand that his duty was to keep the peace, and he intended faithfully to discharge that duty. The crowd reflected, and hearing orders given, in case of resistance, to use both ball and bayonet, set up a shout of derision, but did not advance. Finally, convinced they were wasting time in that locality, they turned around, and shouting ‘Anzeiger!’ ‘Anzeiger!’ moved off to attack that office. McDonough had some of his men there also, but they were strongly backed by a company or two of Sigel's soldiers. The mob then moved off towards the Planters' House and the Berthold mansion, and until after midnight groups were standing in many places throughout that portion of the city, engaged in boisterous conversation upon the events of the day and cursing the ‘d--d Dutch.’"

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There was very little congregating on the street corners. Everybody was on the move, and rapid pedestrianism was turned to account. Thousands upon thousands of restless human beings could be seen from almost every point of Fourth Street, all in search of the latest news. Imprecations loud and long were hurled into the darkening air, and the most unanimous resentment was expressed on all sides at the manner of firing into the crowds near Camp Jackson. Hon. J. R. Barret, Maj. Uriel Wright, and other speakers addressed a large and intensely excited crowd in front of the Planters' House, and other well-known citizens were similarly engaged at various other points in the city. All the drinking saloons, restaurants, and other public resorts of similar character were closed by their proprietors almost simultaneously at dark, and the windows of private dwellings were fastened, in fear of a general riot. Theatres and other public places of amusement were entirely out of the question, and nobody went near them.

Crowds of men rushed through the principal thoroughfares, bearing banners and devices suited to their several fancies, and by turns cheering and groaning. Some were armed, and others were not armed, and all seemed anxious to be at work. A charge was made on the gun-store of H. E. Dimick, on Main Street; the door was broken open, and the crowd secured fifteen or twenty guns before a sufficient number of police could be collected to arrest the proceedings. Chief McDonough marched down with about twenty policemen armed with muskets, and succeeded in dispersing the mob and protecting the premises from further molestation. Squads of armed policemen were stationed at several of the most public corners, and the offices of the Missouri Democrat and Anzeiger des Westerns were placed under guard for protection. A great deal of excitement was exhibited in the neighborhood of the Health Office, where the bodies of some of the killed were brought. Others who were wounded and dying were also deposited there for whatever relief could be administered by surgical aid.

The family from which Gen. Daniel M. Frost, the commander of Camp Jackson, descended, emigrated to this country and settled near Jamaica Plains, Long Island, while that region was yet a wilderness, and became one of the best-known and most influential families of that portion of New York. One of his grandfathers served in the Revolutionary war, and his (Gen. Frost's) father was a man of fine attainments. He was a member of the Legislature, and was the referee of his neighbors in all matters requiring for their settlement a clear judgment and sound common sense. Mr. Frost was one of the most accomplished surveyors and civil engineers of his day, and was employed by the State to survey the upper part of the Hudson River, and made the first complete survey, soundings, and map of that stream. He was also engaged by the State to survey its wild lands in the northern counties, and located the railroad from Albany to Schenectady. He raised a company for the war of 1812, and was very active in his services to the government during that conflict.

Gen. D. M. Frost, was born in Schenectady County, N. Y., Aug. 9, 1823. He received an excellent common-school education, and enjoyed a course of instruction at the Albany Academy, then presided over by Dr. T. Romeyn Beck, a noted teacher and author, upon whose recommendation he was admitted, when sixteen years of age, to the Military Academy at West Point. Here he graduated in 1844 with high honors, being the first up to that time in the institution who had been "among the first five" in every branch he had studied. He was also conspicuously proficient in fencing, wrestling, and the other athletic accomplishments which form part of a soldier's training.

Among his fellow-graduates and intimate acquaintances at West Point were many young men who became famous subsequently in the civil war and otherwise. Among the best known may be mentioned Gens. Grant, McClellan, Rosecrans, Franklin, Beauregard, and Lyon. Stone Pasha, the Egyptian celebrity of recent years, was a member of his class.

Upon graduating young Frost was assigned to the First Regiment of artillery as brevet second lieutenant, and passed two years in uneventful service, at the expiration of which, learning that his regiment was expected to guard sea-coast points, and desiring a more active career, he was at his own request transferred in 1846 to a regiment of mounted riflemen, which he joined at Jefferson Barracks, St. Louis, and in the same year went to Mexico, and fought under Gen. Scott. Upon entering West Point he had presented a letter to this great soldier, who had received him kindly. Scott always took a more than common interest in the young cadet, often encouraged him by friendly commendation, and paid him numerous little attentions, naturally very flattering and cheering to the young soldier. Frost had the good fortune to be near Scott in the bloody battle of Churubusco, and even now cannot recall without emotion the demeanor of the old hero on that critical occasion. Lieut. Frost participated in all the engagements from Vera Cruz to Mexico, and at Cerro Gordo was, on Gen. Harney's

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recommendation, breveted first lieutenant for gallant and meritorious conduct.

Peace having been declared he returned in the fall of 1848 to St. Louis, and in the spring of 1849 was ordered with his regiment across the plains to Oregon, being charged as regimental quartermaster with the conduct of the immense train which accompanied the expedition, — a most arduous and important service, which he performed to the entire satisfaction of the commanding officer. The next year he returned to St. Louis, and in April, 1851, married Miss Graham, granddaughter of John Mullanphy, and daughter of the late Maj. Graham, a brave soldier, and one of Gen. Harrison's aides-de-camp in the war of 1812.

Lieut. Frost's judgment and ability had always been held in the highest regard by his superior officers, and on the recommendation of Gen. Scott he was dispatched to Europe to gather information concerning cavalry drill and discipline. In 1852 he returned and joined his regiment in Texas, where in pursuit of a band of marauding Indians he was seriously wounded and nearly lost the sight of one eye.

In 1853 he returned to St. Louis, and considerations of a domestic character induced him to resign his commission; but his interest in military matters still continued, and he was soon after elected and for five years was commander of the Washington Guards, an organization then forming which afterwards became locally famous.

From this time for some years he engaged largely in business, first in the lumber trade, and later, under the title of D. M. Frost & Co., in immense fur operations on the upper Missouri, having numerous large trading stations throughout that region.

In 1854 he was elected to the State Senate as a Benton Democrat, serving four years. He was active in shaping the legislation of that period, but took especial interest in two measures. The first was a bill to secure the closing of all beer gardens and saloons in St. Louis on Sunday. Being then, as he is now, a strong opponent of sumptuary legislation, Mr. Frost energetically combated this measure and succeeded in defeating it.

The other measure was the military bill under which the famous "Camp Jackson" was organized in May, 1861. As a student of the political history of his country, and particularly of the exciting controversies on the slavery question, Mr. Frost had become convinced that war between the North and South was sooner or later inevitable; and at an early period of his career in the Senate he delivered a speech predicting that in 1856, or at the latest in 1860, the differences between the two sections would culminate in bloodshed unparalleled in history. He argued that in the event of such a catastrophe Missouri, being a Border State, would be among the first and the greatest sufferers, and that civil war would visit her with peculiar horrors. In order to avert the war, or at least to lessen the chances of its precipitation, Gen. Frost conceived that the Border States should organize a militia sufficient to command and enforce the peace between the hostile sections. At one time there was reason to think that Kentucky and Maryland would fall in with this view. The bill was framed by Gen. Frost and B. Gratz Brown, solely, as this explanation shows, as a sort of police measure between the States; but Frost's Cassandra prophecies fell on deaf ears and his warnings were unheeded, and it was not until 1858 that, after many vicissitudes, the bill became a law, and then only after having been shorn of that which would have made it effective, namely, the provision appropriating sufficient money to raise an effective force. But the patriotic intention of the law was none the less clear, and should not be forgotten when the incidents of the capture of Camp Jackson come to be considered.

Upon the passage of this measure Mr. Frost was elected brigadier-general commanding the First Military District of Missouri, embracing the city and county of St. Louis. While acting in this capacity he was in charge of Camp Jackson, in May, 1861, when it was captured by Gen. Lyon. "Probably no single event of the war," says a friend of Gen. Frost from whom we received the material facts of this sketch, "has ever been discussed as this has been, and although more than twenty years have elapsed, the affair is yet misunderstood by many, who persist in declaring that the camp was established to aid Governor Jackson's secession designs, that Gen. Frost and his command sympathized with the South, and had treasonable designs upon the arsenal, and that, consequently, it became Gen. Lyon's patriotic duty to break it up. The latter conclusion would follow legitimately, perhaps, if the facts were as alleged, but Gen. Frost denies the premises as stated above.

"The camp was established by virtue of a law passed in 1858, in the hope that all the Border States would unite in raising a body of militia strong enough to keep the peace between the North and South. Whether that result would have been accomplished by such means may be questioned; but there is no doubt that such or similar united action on the part of those States would have exerted an incalculable moral influence on the two sections, and would, beyond dispute, have compelled an adjustment of the difficulties; for had it been well understood that Missouri,

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Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland would not secede, the South assuredly would not have taken the fatal plunge into secession, and the war would, for a season at least, have been stayed. At any rate, the object of the law was patriotic; and who can now say that the result would not have been what Gen. Frost anticipated had the other Border States joined in such action?

"Under this law encampments had been held in previous years, and the assembling of troops at Camp Jackson in 1861 was, therefore, in pursuance of well-known law and established custom. The camp was named in compliment to probably the most popular Governor Missouri ever had. It was organized May 6, 1861, and was composed mainly of citizens of St. Louis, many of whom had long served in the militia, and who had thus assembled, as they had done before, as a matter of military obligation, and without the slightest reference to the existing agitation. While no doubt some of them sympathized with the South, there is no proof that the great body of them did so to a greater extent than might have been predicated of men gathered from a city so closely bound to the South as St. Louis had always been. However, its members were serving under an oath to support the Constitution of the United States, and they were presumably ‘loyal;’ the Stars and Stripes waved commandingly above the flag of Missouri, and to all external appearances the camp was a loyal gathering, assembled, as it had a right to assemble, under the laws of Missouri.

"It was, however, reported in Union circles that the Confederate flag was displayed over the camp; that recruits in large numbers were being mustered in for service in the Confederate armies. It was also charged that even the streets of the camp were named after Davis, Beauregard, and other Confederate leaders. Gen. Frost explicitly denies that there was ever to his knowledge a Confederate flag in the camp, that troops were ever enrolled for the Southern service, or that the streets were named as alleged, except as may have been done through the whim or caprice of some humorous soldier. In any proper encampment the streets are never named, and in Camp Jackson they were not named by any authority. Supposing ‘the boys,’ either playfully or in earnest, to have designated any of the streets after Southern leaders, Gen. Frost would have regarded it as a matter quite unworthy of his notice, and would not have paid any attention to it subsequently, but that it was prominently assigned by Gen. Harney as one of the reasons why the camp was broken up.

"As to the graver allegation that he had designs upon the arsenal, Gen. Frost submits the following: He had no force for that purpose, the troops under his command numbering only six hundred or seven hundred men. The camp having been formed for instruction and not for war, it was practically without ammunition, there being but five rounds, and that, which was exclusively for the guards, had been nearly exhausted. Now, had he actually entertained designs against the arsenal, he submits whether an officer of his experience would have contemplated so grave a step against a place so well guarded as the arsenal then notoriously was with such an inadequate force, and with one so inadequately equipped for such an undertaking?

"But it is further charged that the camp, even though conceded to have been lawfully convened, was still intended as a nucleus for hostile demonstrations upon the government property at St. Louis, and that its capture by Lyon was a strategic necessity. Had it been designed as a centre for offensive operations, however, would it, Gen. Frost asks, have been located in a valley, where, as was shown when the capture took place, it was easily commanded by cannon on the hills on every side? Such a location seems to have been singularly chosen if the design was to mass a large body of troops at Camp Jackson, either to proceed against the arsenal or overawe the loyal sentiment of St. Louis.

"Furthermore, Gen. Frost asserts that the camp was easy of access to all who chose to visit it; that it was daily thronged with people from St. Louis, and that Gen. Lyon or any of his subalterns had the amplest opportunity of learning the condition of affairs there. He could easily have convinced himself that no such alleged hostile preparations were being made, and if he believed such to be the case, he came to the conclusion only through blindness to well-known and notorious facts.

"When, on the 10th of May, Lyon proceeded against Camp Jackson with eight thousand men, planted cannon on all the neighboring heights, and demanded its surrender, Gen. Frost could only submit; but he made a manly and energetic protest against the illegality and unconstitutionality of Lyon's action, who, without the color of authority or excuse, as he (Frost) viewed it, had undertaken to make war upon the State of Missouri by attacking an encampment of her militia, assembled not in hostile array but for purposes of instruction, as had been done annually under a law of many years' standing.

"Gen. Frost was a witness of the deplorable slaughter which took place later on that memorable day, accompanied his men as prisoners to the arsenal, and joined in the parole that Lyon exacted of them as the readiest

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way out of the existing difficulty, although he protested against it as falsely assuming that he had borne arms against the United States. His parole lasted until the latter part of 1861, when he was exchanged for Col. Mulligan."

He then entered the Confederate army, serving until the latter part of 1863, and was in the battles of Pea Ridge and Prairie Grove. His services in the field were without marked distinction, but by the introduction of a system of drill and discipline in the Army of the Trans-Mississippi he rendered the Confederacy essential service. As commander at Little Rock he had charge of the Federal prisoners, and discharged the delicate and responsible duties of his position in accordance with the instincts of a humane and generous gentleman.

During the war his wife (who had remained on the plantation near St. Louis) was "banished," her only offense being that she had a husband in the Confederate army, and the fact that she and her five little children were homeless and uncared for induced Gen. Frost to tender his resignation, in the fall of 1863, to Gen. E. Kirby Smith. It was accepted, and Gen. Frost went to Montreal, where he was joined by his family. He remained in Montreal until the latter part of 1865, when he returned to his farm near St. Louis. He was actively engaged in the management of this property until 1876, when he retired, and since then his chief care has been to look after the estates of his children.

Gen. Frost's first marriage has been mentioned. His second wife was the daughter of Jules Chenier, the granddaughter of Antoine Chenier and the niece of Henry Gustave Soulard. His third wife was (like the first) a granddaughter of John Mullanphy.

Gen. Frost has eleven children living. Public interest attaches to one of them, the son, who when the war broke out was a mere boy, and who is now the Hon. R. Graham Frost, member of Congress from one of the St. Louis districts.

Nathaniel Lyon, who commanded the forces that captured Camp Jackson, was born at Ashford, Windham Co., Conn., on the 14th of July, 1819, and was the son of Amasa Lyon and Keziah Knowlton. Two members of his mother's family, Thomas and Daniel Knowlton, were distinguished in the Revolutionary war, and his father was a respectable farmer and a leading member of the community in which he lived. Nathaniel worked on a farm and attended the village school until his eighteenth year, when (July 1, 1837) he entered the Military Academy at West Point, from which he graduated in 1841, being the eleventh in order of merit of his class. On leaving the academy he was appointed second lieutenant in the Second Regiment of infantry, and was ordered to Florida, where he served in the latter part of the Seminole war. He afterwards served at various posts in the western country, and behaved with conspicuous gallantry during the Mexican war. He took part in the bombardment and capture of Vera Cruz, and at the battle of Cerro Gordo his company was the only one to reach the crest of the hill in time to engage the Mexicans before their retreat. At Contreras his regiment performed important service in repelling a cavalry charge, and his own company, held in reserve in the centre of the hollow square, acted with great coolness and courage. On the following day, at the head of his men, he pursued the fleeing Mexicans and captured several pieces of artillery. He also distinguished himself at Churubusco, and the commander of his regiment in his report on the action recommended him to the special notice of the colonel commanding the brigade. He was promoted to the rank of brevet captain for his behavior in this action, and in the assault upon the City of Mexico again distinguished himself, being wounded while fighting near the Belen Gate. After the war with Mexico Capt. Lyon was ordered to Jefferson Barracks, St. Louis, and in 1847 was dispatched with his regiment to California, by way of Cape Horn. He remained in California until 1853, his time being chiefly employed in fighting Indians in California and Oregon, and was afterwards employed in similar service in Kansas and Nebraska.

During the slavery agitation in Kansas he took an active part in favor of abolition principles, and in the summer of 1860, while stationed at Camp Riley, Kan., contributed a series of articles to a local paper, the Manhattan Express, advocating the election of Abraham Lincoln, which were afterwards collected and printed in a volume entitled "The Last Political Writings of Gen. Nathaniel Lyon." In the spring of 1861, Capt. Lyon was in command of the United States arsenal at St. Louis. On the 7th of May the police commissioners of the city demanded the removal of United States troops from all places occupied by them outside the arsenal grounds. The demand was refused by Capt. Lyon, and the matter was referred by the commissioners to the Governor and the Legislature, the position taken by the commissioners being that "Missouri had sovereign and exclusive jurisdiction of her whole territory," and "had delegated a portion of her sovereignty to the United States over certain tracts of land for military purposes, such as arsenals, parks, etc." The conclusion was that the United States government had no right

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to occupy any portion of the soil of the government except that which had been ceded to it, and that the presence of troops should therefore be restricted to the arsenal. Capt. Lyon, anticipating that an attempt might be made on the part of the State troops assembled at Camp Jackson to seize the arsenal, collected a large force of Home Guards, and, as already stated, took possession of Camp Jackson, and made the State troops prisoners. On the 14th of May the first four regiments of United States volunteers were formed into a brigade as the First Brigade Missouri Volunteers, and Capt. Lyon was elected brigadier-general. The next day he sent an expedition against the secessionists at Potosi, and the troops routed a Confederate cavalry company, captured fifty prisoners and a Confederate flag, and destroyed a lead manufactory. In the latter part of May, Gen. Lyon ordered the steamer "J. C. Swon" to be seized at Harlow's Landing, below St. Louis, and taken to the arsenal, his reason for this action being the allegation that the vessel had transported arms from Baton Rouge, La., to the Missouri troops under Gen. Frost at Camp Jackson. About five thousand pounds of lead, said to be on its way to the South, was also seized, in accordance with Gen. Lyon's orders, at Ironton, on the Iron Mountain Railroad.

On the 31st of May, Gen. Harney, in command at St. Louis, was relieved, and Gen. Lyon was left free to prosecute his vigorous policy. An interview with him was sought by Governor Jackson, Gen. Sterling Price, and other secession leaders, and was granted. In the course of the conversation which ensued and which lasted four hours, the Governor and his associates demanded that no United States troops should march through or quarter in Missouri. Gen. Lyon refused to accede to this demand, asserting that the government possessed the right to send its troops wherever it pleased, and announced his intention to protect all loyal citizens and to attack all disloyal ones wherever he found them. Governor Jackson returned to Jefferson City, and learning that Gen. Lyon was on his way with a strong force to take possession of the capital, withdrew on the morning of the 14th, together with the members of the Legislature and the State troops, to Boonville. Gen. Lyon followed in pursuit, and in a sharp skirmish defeated and dispersed the Confederate troops under Gen. J. S. Marmaduke on the 17th of June. On the 3d of July he left Boonville with a force of about two thousand men for the southwestern portion of the State, where the Confederate forces, under Gens. Sterling Price and McCullough, were rapidly augmenting. Gen. Lyon's little army, however, received large accessions as he advanced, until on the 20th it numbered about ten thousand men. After his arrival at Springfield his force decreased, owing to the expiration of the time for which many of the men had enlisted, and on the 1st of August it had diminished to six thousand. Anticipating an attack by Gen. McCullough, who was reported to have an army of fifteen thousand men, Gen. Lyon moved to Crane Creek, ten miles south of Springfield. On the morning of the 2d the column reached Dug Springs, where the Confederates were found drawn up in line of battle. After a short engagement the Confederate force retreated, but on the 6th, Gen. Lyon, being confronted by a large force, determined, after consultation with his officers, to retire towards Springfield. His position was now critical, and he applied to Gen. Fremont for reinforcements, but they were not forthcoming. On the evening of the 6th, the Confederate forces under Gen. McCullough and Gen. Sterling Price having effected a junction, established a camp on Wilson's Creek, about ten miles from Springfield, on the Fayetteville road. Gen. Lyon formed a project of surprising them by night, but afterwards abandoned it. On the 9th he determined to attack them simultaneously at either end of the camp, which extended about three miles along the banks of the creek. Gen. Sigel was

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instructed to make the attack on the extreme left, and Gen. Lyon led the main assault on the right.

The whole army left Springfield about sunset of the 9th, the left column taking the Fayetteville road, and the right the road leading to Mount Vernon. Early on the morning of the 10th they came upon the enemy strongly posted on Wilson's Creek. A desperate and stubbornly-contested engagement followed, and at a critical juncture Gen. Lyon, who had already been twice wounded, placed himself at the head of an Iowa regiment, whose colonel had fallen, and led it to the charge, crying, "Forward, men! I will lead you!" While thus advancing he was struck in the breast, just above the heart, by a rifle-ball, and fell dead from his horse. Maj. Sturgis then took command, and after the conflict had waged fiercely for some time with disastrous results to the Union forces, ordered a retreat to Springfield. Sigel's column was also badly routed and compelled to fall back. It is said that for several days before the battle of Wilson's Creek, Gen. Lyon appeared much depressed, and that on one occasion he said to a member of his staff, "I am a man believing in presentiments, and ever since this night surprise was planned I have had a feeling I cannot get rid of that it would result disastrously. Through the refusal of the government to properly reinforce me I am compelled to abandon the country. If I leave it without engaging the enemy the public will call me a coward. If I engage him I may be defeated, and my command cut to pieces. I am too weak to hold Springfield, and yet the people will demand that I bring about a battle with the very enemy I cannot keep a town against. How can this result otherwise than against us?"

The body of Gen. Lyon was temporarily interred on the farm of Hon. John S. Phelps, near the battlefield, on the afternoon of the 13th, and on the 26th it was taken to St. Louis on a special train. It was met at the Fourteenth Street depot by a detachment of Col. McNeil's Home Guards, and conveyed to an undertaker's establishment. On the 25th the following orders in relation to the battle of Wilson's Creek and the death of Gen. Lyon were issued by Gen. Fremont:



"ST. LOUIS, MO., Aug. 25, 1861.

"1. The official reports of the commanding officer of the forces engaged in the battle near Springfield, Mo., having been received, the major-general commanding announces to the troops embraced in his command with pride and the highest commendation the extraordinary services to their country and flag rendered by the division of the brave and lamented Gen. Lyon.

"For thus nobly battling for the honor of their flag he now publicly desires to express to the officers and soldiers his cordial thanks, and commends their conduct as an example to their comrades whenever engaged against the enemies of the Union.

"Opposed by overwhelming masses of the enemy in a numerical superiority of upwards of twenty thousand against four thousand three hundred, or nearly five to one, the successes of our troops were nevertheless sufficiently marked to give to their exploits the moral effect of a victory.

"2. The general commanding laments, in sympathy with the country, the loss of the indomitable Gen. Nathaniel Lyon. His fame cannot be better eulogized than in these words from the official report of his gallant successor, Maj. Sturgis, United States Cavalry, ‘Thus gallantly fell as true a soldier as ever drew a sword; a man whose honesty of purpose was proverbial; a noble patriot, and one who held his life as nothing when his country demanded it of him.’ Let all emulate his prowess and undenying devotion to his duty.

"3. The regiments and corps engaged in this battle will be permitted to have ‘Springfield’ emblazoned on their colors as a distinguishing memorial of their services to the nation.

"4. The names of the officers and soldiers mentioned in the official reports as most distinguished for important services and marked gallantry will be communicated to the War Department for the consideration of the government.

"5. This order will be read at the head of every company in this department.

"By order of Maj.-Gen. Fremont.


"Assistant Adjutant-General."

Gen. Lyon's remains were removed from the undertaker's to Gen. Fremont's headquarters on the 27th, escorted by Company K of Col. McNeil's regiment, and on the following day the following orders were issued by Gen. Fremont:



"ST. LOUIS, MO., Aug. 28, 1861.

"The remains of the late Brig.-Gen. Nathaniel Lyon, United States army, having arrived in this city on the way East, will be escorted with proper ceremonies, at one o'clock this afternoon, from the quarters of Maj.-Gen. Fremont to the depot of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad, where they will be delivered to the Adams Express Company, to be conveyed East under escort of officers.

"The escort, commanded by Brig.-Gen. Sigel, will consist of Capt. Tielman's and Capt. Zagony's companies of cavalry, a section of Capt. Carlin's battery of artillery, and the First Regiment Missouri Volunteers.

"The following-named officers will act as pall-bearers:
"Col. Blair,
Col. Albert,
Col. Osterhaus,
Col. Wolf,
Maj. Sturgis,
Maj. Schofield,
Maj. Conant,
Maj. Shepherd.

"As many officers now present in this city as can be spared from their duties will join the procession in uniform with side-arms.

"The city judges, the mayor, Common Council, city officers, and citizens are invited to attend.

"The rear of the procession will be closed by a section of Capt. Carlin's battery and the Third Regiment United States Reserve Corps, Col. McNeil.

"By order of Gen. Fremont.


"Assistant Adjutant-General."

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In accordance with these orders, the remains were escorted to the railroad depot and forwarded thence to Eastford, Conn., where they were interred in the family burial-ground. At St. Louis, Cincinnati, Pittsburgh, New York, and Hartford (Conn.) the remains lay in state, and were visited by thousands of people. At Eastford the funeral obsequies were of the most imposing character, and addresses were delivered by Hon. Galusha A. Grow, (Speaker of the United States House of Representatives), Governor Buckingham (of Connecticut), Governor Sprague (of Rhode Island), and others. On reading his will it was discovered that Gen. Lyon had bequeathed thirty thousand dollars (nearly the whole of his estate) to the United States government for the prosecution of the war. To Nathaniel Lyon must be ascribed the chief share of credit for the preservation of Missouri to the Union, his energetic measures having contributed immensely to inspire the Union party in the State with confidence and courage, and to baffle and dishearten the secession leaders. He was an ardent patriot, a man of rare energy and decision of character, and an able and intrepid soldier.

In 1868 a public meeting of the admirers of Gen. Lyon was held at the St. Louis court-house, and an association was formed for the purpose of erecting a monument to his memory. About fifteen thousand dollars was raised by private subscription and by a grant from the county court. In 1870, I. Wilson Macdonald was selected as the artist and intrusted with the execution of the work. Congress, by the act of July 25, 1868, amended March 3, 1869, and July 11, 1870, granted that portion of the grounds of the St. Louis arsenal lying between Carondelet Avenue and Fourth Street to the city of St. Louis as a public ground, on condition that the city should within three years complete the erection of a monument thereon to the late Brig.-Gen. Nathaniel Lyon. These facts were communicated to the mayor by Isaac T. Shepard, secretary of the Lyon Monument Association, as the Secretary of War, William W. Belknap, had requested to be informed whether it was "the intention of the city authorities to accept the grant, and, if so, whether steps are being taken to comply with the conditions thereof within the time fixed by Congress." Mr. Shepard showed that all payments and subscriptions had been made, but for the completion of the statue, with its pedestal, more funds were needed, and added that as fast as they were received the work would be pushed to completion.

The day following the capture of Camp Jackson (May 11th) there was, if possible, greater excitement and more bloodshed, as must always happen if troops raw and undisciplined are permitted to march indiscriminately through crowds of excited citizens. In this case, as in that of Camp Jackson, there are conflicting accounts. Col. Peckham says that the troops were assaulted, stoned, and fired at, and became bewildered. We can well believe it, but this does not explain why they should be marching at will through the streets, a regiment just mustered in, of whom some had never handled a musket in their lives. A contemporary account of this terrible affair is as follows:

"At about half-past five o'clock on Saturday evening, May 11th, a large body of the German Home Guards entered the city through Third Street from the arsenal, where they had been enlisted during the day and furnished with arms. Large crowds collected to witness their march, and they passed unmolested along until they reached Walnut, when they turned up that street and proceeded westward. Large crowds were collected on these corners, who hooted and hissed as the companies passed, and one man standing on the steps of the church fired a revolver into the ranks. A soldier fell dead, when two more shots were fired from the windows of a house near by. At this time the head of the column, which reached as far as Seventh, suddenly turned and, leveling their rifles, fired down the street, and promiscuously among the spectators who lined the pavements. Shooting as they did, directly towards their own rear ranks, they killed some of their men as well as those composing the crowd. The shower of bullets was for a moment terrible, and the only wonder is that more lives were not lost. The missiles of lead entered the windows and perforated the doors of private residences, tearing the ceilings and throwing splinters in every direction. The house of Mr. Mathews was entered by three bullets, and Mr. Mathews' daughter was struck slightly by a spent ball. On the street the scene presented as the soldiers moved off was sad indeed. Six men lay dead at different points, and several were wounded and shrieking with pain upon the pavements. The dead-carts, which have become familiar vehicles since the scenes of the last two days, were soon engaged in removing the corpses from the ground. The wounded were carried to the Health Office. Four of the men killed were members of the regiment, and two were citizens. Last night the former had not been recognized. Jerry Switzelan, an engineer on the river, was passing by the door of Mr. H. Glover's residence, on Seventh Street, next to Walnut, when a ball struck him in the head, and scattered his brains over the door and walls. A pool of blood marked the spot where he fell after his body had been removed. Jeremiah Godfrey, a hired man of Mr. Cozzens, county surveyor, was working in the yard of Mr. Cozzens at the time of the occurrence. While stooping over in the act of fastening some flowers to a frame, three soldiers entered the gate, and approaching within the yard fired three shots into his body. Fortunately none of them were fatal, being all flesh wounds. The family witnessed the affair, and says that the man had not been out of the yard, and was unaware of the approach of his assailants until stricken down by their bullets. Charles H. Woodward, a clerk in Pomeroy & Benton's store, was shot in the shoulder, and will have to have his entire arm amputated. He was carried into the residence of Mr. Mathews and kindly cared for. James F. Welsh, living at No. 189 Wash Street, between Fourteenth and Fifteenth Streets, was shot through the foot. Michael Davy, residing

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between O'Fallon and Cass Avenue and Sixth and Seventh, received a ball through the ankle, and amputation will be necessary, John Nelus was wounded in the cheek. Several others were injured slightly. The houses on the right side of Walnut from Fifth to Seventh were considerably injured by bullets, and the inmates in several cases had very narrow escapes. At a late hour in the night the bodies of John Garvin, whose brother keeps a livery-stable on Market Street, William Cody, a book-peddler from New Orleans, and John Dick were recognized among the dead. Immense crowds of people filled the streets after the occurrence, and the whole city presented a scene of excitement seldom witnessed.

"Mayor Taylor made an address to the people from the steps of the church on Fifth and Walnut Streets, exhorting them to disperse peaceably, and promising that they should be fully protected from violence. The address evidently had a good effect, and the streets became more quiet. The action of the soldiers in retaliating upon two or three individuals by firing recklessly among the crowd and into houses excited universal indignation."

A newspaper correspondent the next day visited the scene of conflict on Walnut Street, and described it as follows:

"The scene of Saturday's fatalities, on Walnut and on Seventh Streets, was visited during the day by multitudes of people. The appearance of the residences on the north side of Walnut and west side of Seventh was the subject of a great deal of animated conversation. The sides of the houses were scarred in dozens of places by niches in the brick or stone and mortar, made by the Minié-bullets, whilst shutters, doors, windows, and casements were shattered by the same terrible instruments of destruction. The force of these leaden messengers was truly astonishing. Notches large enough to hold a man's fist were made in solid stone. In many spots whole bricks were crumbled to fragments. Shutters and window sashes were riddled into splinters. Panes of glass were perforated by balls, leaving holes as nicely cut as if done with a diamond. Some forty or fifty marks of this kind, by as many bullets, upon the walls and sides of dwellings showed what fearful work powder and lead are capable of doing; and the universal wonder on surveying these mute testimonials was that there had not been a much greater amount of fatality.

"On the corner of Seventh and Market Streets lay the carcass of a noble-looking gray horse, which, having received a terrific shot in the forehead, had fallen dead beneath his rider. The latter escaped by lying down, with great presence of mind, behind the prostrate animal." 320

The mayor issued a proclamation on this momentous Saturday morning which was calculated to promote quiet and tend to reduce the multitudes thronging the streets. It was in the terms here set forth:

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"May 11, 1861.

"In view of the prevailing excitement, and for the purpose of removing, as far as practicable, all causes of additional irritation, and of maintaining the public peace, I, Daniel G. Taylor, mayor of the city of St. Louis, hereby respectfully request all owners and keepers of bars, drinking-shops, beer-houses, and other places where intoxicating liquors are sold to close the same forthwith, and keep them closed during the continuance of the present excitement.

"I also, by virtue of the power in me vested by act of the Legislature, require all minors to keep within doors three days next succeeding the issuing of this proclamation. I also request of all good citizens to remain within doors after nightfall, as far as practicable, and to avoid all tumultuous gatherings or meetings.

"Relying upon the loyalty and good judgment of his fellow-citizens the undersigned confidently expects a cordial compliance with these requests.


"Attest: WM. S. CUDDY, City Register."

But, besides the rioting, there was much to disquiet and disturb the people. Troops were marching and countermarching in the city, and the danger of a general collision between them and the citizens was terribly imminent. They seized upon what seemed to be strategic points, and it was feared that in a moment of exasperation a general conflagration and massacre would result. The depot of the Pacific Railroad was seized by them, as the following correspondence shows:


"ST. LOUIS, May 12, 1861.


"SIR, — I have the honor to address you as the president of the Pacific Railroad Company, having been referred to you by one of the officers under your command. I learn that armed troops under your command have taken possession of and are quartered in the depot and freight buildings of this company, situated on Fourteenth Street, and the purpose of this note is to respectfully inquire the object and purposes of those men in possessing themselves of private property. You will greatly oblige, by allaying the excitement of the traveling public and the anxiety of the officers of this road, by an early reply.

"I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

(Signed) "G. R. TAYLOR, President."


"May 12, 1861.

"SIR, — In response to your note of this morning, I will state that the only object which was aimed at in occupying the Fourteenth Street depot of your railroad company was to aid in preserving the peace of the city.

"The ordinary business of the road was left to be conducted as heretofore, and no interference therewith will take place.

"Very respectfully, etc.,


"Acting Ass't Adj't.-Gen. U. S. Reserve Corps.

"To GEORGE R. TAYLOR, President Pacific Railroad."

There was an ulterior object in this, of course, viz., to prevent militia from the country from coming in to add to the excitement and perhaps attack the arsenal. Troops were also busily engaged all day in removing the captured military stores from Camp Jackson to the arsenal, a proceeding which did not tend to promote the public quiet. 321

That night at Jefferson City the military bill was passed, and the whole State was thrown into an uproar, the enrollment of State troops beginning at once, and attended with musterings, bridge-burnings, seizure of railroads, arsenals, etc. But that night Gen. Harney returned to St. Louis, and a measure of quiet and confidence returned with him. None too soon, for many of the best citizens of St. Louis were preparing for flight and contemplating the necessity of expatriation. 322

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Gen. Harney's first efforts upon his return to St. Louis were directed to arresting panic and allaying excitement. He was fortunate in possessing the confidence of the majority of the citizens, especially among the thinking and influential classes. He brought the four companies of regular soldiers from the arsenal into the heart of the city, and expressed his determination to put down all rioting and bloodshed with the strong hand. 323 At the same time he avowed himself a firm upholder of the government

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and its measures, but willing to employ, in extraordinary times, unusual means for accomplishing his object and aim. In fact, his mere presence restored quiet by bringing back confidence, and people returned at once to their ordinary avocations as soon as they appreciated the fact that the reign of terror was over. As the press said, "A confident belief is expressed that his government of the department will be productive of the greatest good to the greatest number. A service of forty years in the regular army, and the high character for energy and impartiality which this gentleman so justly bears, may well inspire confidence that his best efforts will be used for preserving the peace of the city and protecting old friends and neighbors. Let our citizens continue to put a proper value upon his experience and qualifications, and second his plans to the best of their abilities. Such a course will immediately restore quiet and safety to all."

On the second day after his resumption of command Gen. Harney issued the following proclamation:


"ST. LOUIS, May 14, 1861.


"On my return to the duties of the command of this department, I find, greatly to my astonishment and mortification, a most extraordinary state of things existing in this State, deeply affecting the stability of the government of the United States, as well as the governmental and other interests of Missouri itself.

"As a citizen of Missouri, owing allegiance to the United States, and having interests in common with you, I feel it my duty, as well as privilege, to extend a warning voice to my fellow-citizens against the common dangers that threaten us, and to appeal to your patriotism and sense of justice to exert all your moral power to avert them.

"It is with regret that I feel it my duty to call your attention to the recent act of the General Assembly of Missouri, known as the military bill, which is the result, no doubt, of the temporary excitement that now pervades the public mind. This bill cannot be regarded in any other light than an indirect secession ordinance, ignoring even the forms resorted to by other States. Manifestly its most material provisions are in conflict with the Constitution and laws of the United States. To this extent it is a nullity, and cannot and ought not to be upheld or regarded by the good citizens of Missouri. There are obligations and duties resting upon the business people of Missouri, under the Constitution and laws of the United States, which are paramount, and which I trust you will carefully consider and weigh well before you will allow yourselves to be carried out of the Union, under the form of yielding obedience to this military bill, which is clearly in violation of your duties as citizens of the United States.

"It must be apparent to every one who has taken a proper and unbiased view of the subject, that whatever may be the termination of the unfortunate condition of things in respect to the so-called ‘Cotton States,’ Missouri must share the destiny of the Union. Her geographical position, her soil, and, in short, all her material interests point to this result. We cannot shut our eyes against this controlling fact. It is seen, and its force is felt throughout the nation. So important is this regarded to the great interests of the country, that I venture to express the opinion that the whole power of the government of the United States, if necessary, will be exerted to maintain Missouri in her present position in the Union. I express to you, in all frankness and sincerity, my own deliberate convictions, without assuming to speak for the government of the United States, whose authority, here and elsewhere, I shall at all times, and under all circumstances, endeavor faithfully to uphold.

"I desire, above all things, most earnestly to invite my fellow-citizens dispassionately to consider their true interests, as well as their true relation to the government under which we live, and to which we owe so much.

"In this connection I desire to direct attention to one subject, which, no doubt, will be made the pretext for more or less popular excitement. I allude to the recent transactions at Camp Jackson, near St. Louis. It is not proper for me to comment upon the official conduct of my predecessor in command of this department, but it is right and proper for the people of Missouri to know that the main avenue of Camp Jackson, recently under command of Gen. Frost, had the name of Davis, and a principal street of the same camp that of Beauregard, and that a body of men had been received into that camp by its commander which had been notoriously organized in the interests of the secessionists, the men openly wearing the dress and badge distinguishing the army of the so-called Southern Confederacy. It is also a notorious fact that a quantity of arms had been received into the camp which were unlawfully taken from the United States arsenal at Baton Rouge, and surreptitiously passed up the river in boxes marked ‘marble.’

"Upon facts like these, and having in view what occurred at Liberty, the people can draw their own inferences, and it cannot be difficult for any one to arrive at a correct conclusion as to the character and ultimate purpose of that encampment. No government in the world would be entitled to respect that would tolerate for a moment such openly treasonable preparations.

"It is but simple justice, however, that I should state the fact that there were many good and loyal men in the camp, who were in no manner responsible for its treasonable character.

"Disclaiming, as I do, all desire or intention to interfere in any way with the prerogatives of the State of Missouri, or with the functions of its executive or other authorities, yet I regard it as my plain path of duty to express to the people in respectful, but at the same time decided, language that within the field and scope of my command and authority the ‘supreme law’ of the land must and shall be maintained, and no subterfuges, whether in the forms of legislative acts or otherwise, can be permitted to harass or oppress the good and law-abiding people of Missouri. I shall exert my authority to protect their persons and property from violations of every kind, and I shall deem it my duty to suppress all unlawful combinations of men, whether formed under pretext of military organizations or otherwise.


"Brig.-Gen. U. S. Army, Commanding."

The next day the following significant papers appeared in the newspapers:


"ST. LOUIS, May 15, 1861.

"My attention has been called to publications in several of the city papers to the effect that the volunteers under my command at this post were disorderly, and that they were acting, to some extent, in defiance to the discipline of the army.

"I deem it my duty, and it affords me great pleasure to say

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that these publications are wholly unfounded and do great injustice to the volunteers. These troops have submitted cheerfully and with alacrity to the discipline of the service, and nothing has come under my observation or been reported to me that should subject them to the injurious publications to which I have alluded.

"I beg to express my entire disapproval of such unfounded publications, as they are only calculated to injure the public service, and create disquiet and ill-feeling in the community.


"Brig.-Gen. U. S. Army, Commanding."


"BELOVED BRETHREN, — The deplorable events which have lately occurred admonish me to renew the exhortation I addressed you on a former occasion, and recall to your minds the great principles of our holy religion, as the only effectual means of calming the excitement that prevails. In no case is the Christian justified in forgetting the precept of universal charity inculcated in the teaching and exhibited in the practice of the Son of God. Listen not to the suggestions of anger, but banish from your thoughts, as well as from your hearts, every feeling incompatible with the duty of subjecting it to the dictates of reason and religion. It is not in the excitement of the moment that you can hope to find the remedy of the evils from which the community is suffering, and which have brought so much bereavement and distress to individuals.

"Remember that any aggression by individuals or bodies not recognized by the laws, from which the loss of life may follow, is an act of murder, of which every one engaged in such aggression is guilty, no matter how great and galling the provocation may have been; and bear in mind that under the influence of such unholy feelings as lead to such acts the innocent are confounded with the guilty, or those who are presumed to be such.

"A firm reliance on the superintending care of Providence, an humble submission to His will, which has permitted the present trial to befall us, doubtless for our correction, and to remind us of our dependence on Him, and a generous sacrifice of every feeling incompatible with that spirit of brotherhood with which all men, and especially the inhabitants of the same city, should be animated, are dispositions which will be more efficacious in restoring public tranquillity and maintaining order than the promptings of vindictiveness, which would surely increase and aggravate our evils. ‘Dearly beloved, let us love one another; for charity is of God. And every one that loveth is born of God, and knoweth God. He that loveth not knoweth not God; for God is charity.’ (1 John, iv. 7, 8.)


"Archbishop of St. Louis."

Mean time, however, State affairs were approaching a crisis. The new military law began to be put in force with vigor. It was first promulgated, and next the following general order was published:


"JEFFERSON CITY, May 16, 1861.

"General Orders No. 2.

"1st. For the purpose of carrying into effect the militia laws of the State, the brigadier-generals in their respective districts will, with the least possible delay, proceed to organize the militia according to law, and hold them in readiness for active service should the emergency arise to require it.

"2d. The brigadier-generals will, as soon as possible, forward to the adjutant-general of the State full returns of the strength of their respective districts, and will appoint for temporary service such staff officers as may be necessary to aid them in carrying into effect the foregoing orders.

"3d. The militia, when organized, will, until further orders, remain in their respective neighborhoods.

"4th. All officers and soldiers of the militia are enjoined to use every lawful authority and means in their power to protect the persons and property of the citizens of the State, without reference to political opinions.

"5th. The object of organizing the militia being simply to protect the people in their rights under the Constitution of this State and of the United States, all officers and soldiers of the militia will be careful to avoid collision with any armed bodies, unless in an emergency it should be necessary to protect the lives, liberty, and property of the people.

"6th. The only flag to be used by the militia will be the flag of the State of Missouri, which will be furnished to the respective districts from these headquarters.



This was speedily succeeded by another general order, officering the army which Governor Jackson intended to call out. These appointments were as set forth below:


"JEFFERSON CITY, MO., May 21, 1861.

"General Orders No. 16.

"The following appointments by the Governor of the State in the ‘Missouri State Guard’ are announced for general information. The officers appointed will take rank in order and from the date set opposite their respective names:


"To be Major-General Commanding.

"Sterling Price, May 18, 1861.

"To be Brigadier-Generals, Commanding Districts.
"5th District, A. W. Doniphan, May 14, 1861.
"6th District, M. M. Parsons, May 15, 1861.
"8th District, James S. Rains, May 16, 1861.
"9th District, M. L. Clark, May 16, 1861.
"3d District, John B. Clark, May 16, 1861.
"1st District, N. W. Watkins, May 17, 1861.
"2d District, Bev. Randolph, May 17, 1861.
"4th District, W. Y. Slack, May 18, 1861.
"7th District, J. H. McBride, May 18, 1861.

"To be Assistant Adjutant-General, with the Rank of Colonel.
"Henry Little, May 18, 1861.

"To be Aides-de-Camp to the Major-General Commanding, with the Rank of Lieutenant-Colonel.
"Alfred W. Jones, May 18, 1861.
"Richard T. Morrison, May 18, 1861.

"To be Surgeon, with the Rank of Lieutenant-Colonel.
"W. N. Snodgrass, May 18, 1861.

"To be Assistant Surgeon, with the Rank of Captain.
"Henry W. Cross, May 18, 1861.


"Adjutant-General M. S. G."

The same day on which this order was promulgated, Gens. Harney and Price had a conference in St. Louis, at which a modus vivendi was happily established between them, as the contemporary account of the interview shows: "An important interview took place yesterday in this city between Gen.

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S. Price of the Missouri State Guard, and Gen. Harney of the United States army, for which purpose Gen. Price left Jefferson City the day previous. The interview was a long one, and resulted in the adoption of a declaration which, if seconded by the people of the State, and faithfully adhered to by the people of the United States, as we have no doubt it will be, must end in restoring peaceful relations throughout our borders. Of course a friendly and full interchange of sentiments and opinions was indulged in; and being thus possessed of each other's views, little danger need be apprehended, while they have the direction of military affairs, of any real disturbance of the public peace. The arrangement thus entered into has, as will be observed, the sanction of Governor Jackson; and we take it for granted that the State troops now encamped at Jefferson City, as well as in any other encampments, will be disbanded, and that no incursions of the United States forces into any section of the State will be necessary or authorized:


"'ST. LOUIS, May 21, 1861.

"'The undersigned, officers of the United States government and of the government of the State of Missouri, for the purpose of removing misapprehensions and allaying public excitement, deem it proper to declare publicly that they have this day had a personal interview in this city, in which it has been mutually understood, without the semblance of dissent on either part, that each of them has no other than a common object, equally interesting and important to every citizen of Missouri, that of restoring peace and good order to the people of the State in subordination to the laws of the general and the State governments.

"'It being thus understood, there seems no reason why every citizen should not confide in the proper officers of the general and State governments to restore quiet; and, as the best means of offering no counter-influence, we mutually recommend to all persons to respect each other's rights throughout the State, making no attempt to exercise unauthorized powers, as it is the determination of the proper authorities to suppress all unlawful proceedings, which can only disturb the public peace.

"'Gen. Price, having by commission full authority over the militia of the State of Missouri, undertakes, with the sanction of the Governor of the State, already declared, to direct the whole power of the State officers to maintain order within the State among the people thereof; and Gen. Harney publicly declares that, this object being thus assured, he can have no occasion, as he has no wish, to make military movements which might otherwise create excitements and jealousies, which he most earnestly desires to avoid.

"'We, the undersigned, do therefore mutually enjoin upon the people of the State to attend to their civil business, of whatsoever sort it may be; and it is to be hoped that the unquiet elements which have threatened so seriously to disturb the public peace may soon subside, and be remembered only to be deplored.

"'Brig.-Gen. Commanding,
"'Maj.-Gen. Missouri State Guard.’

"As one immediate effect of the arrangement between Gen. Harney and Gen. Price, we hear that the prisoners taken by the United States troops at Potosi, and since confined at the arsenal, will be discharged.


"'I take great pleasure in submitting to you the above paper, signed by Gen. Price, commanding the forces of the State, and by myself on the part of the government of the United States. It will be seen that the united forces of both governments are pledged to the maintenance of the peace of the State and the defense of the rights and property of all persons, without distinction of party. This pledge, which both parties are fully authorized and empowered to give by the governments which they represent, will be by both most religiously and sacredly kept, and, if necessary to put down evil-disposed persons, the military power of both governments will be called out to enforce the terms of the honorable and amicable agreement which has been made. I therefore ask of all persons in this State to observe good order and respect the rights of their fellow-citizens, and give them the assurance of protection and security in the most ample manner.


"'Brig.-Gen. Commanding.’"

Maj.-Gen. Sterling Price was a native of Virginia, born in Prince Edward County, Sept. 14, 1809. After a school and academy course he was sent to Hampden-Sidney College, and there graduated at the age of nineteen. For two years after this he acted as deputy in the clerk's office of his native county, getting thus a knowledge of business and of legal forms. Having attained his majority, he obeyed the impulses of an enterprising and energetic disposition and went West, arriving in Missouri in 1830, and settling in the Boon's Lick country, his permanent residence being made in Chariton County. Soon after he became known to his fellow-citizens he was appointed brigadier-general of the State militia, and having passed the bar, entered into politics. He was an ardent and active Democrat, and as early as 1836 was elected to represent his county in the General Assembly of the State. He made a useful, practical member, not given to declamation, but knowing and helping to promote the public interests. In 1840, and again two years later, he was member of the Legislature and Speaker of the Assembly.

In 1844 he was elected to Congress from the then Third District of Missouri, entering the House of Representatives in time to support the administration of President Polk. The Mexican war breaking out, he was authorized by President Polk to raise a regiment of cavalry for service in Mexico, was mustered in Aug. 12, 1846, and early in the war marched to Santa Fé with one of the best volunteer cavalry regiments raised during the war. It was known as the Second Missouri Mounted Volunteers. Col. Price soon distinguished himself by the prompt manner in

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which he suppressed the insurrection of the New Mexicans and Pueblo Indians in his district of Gen. Kearney's Department of New Mexico. The insurrection began on Jan. 14, 1847, with the murder of Governor Charles Bent, at San Fernando de Taos. The news of this and other outrages reached Santa Fé on January 20th, and Col. Price, with three hundred and fifty men and four twelve-pounder guns, marched to punish the organized insurgents. He came up with their main force, mumbering fifteen hundred, on January 24th, near the small village of Canada. Price at once opened upon them and their village, and after a brief struggle the rebels were dispersed with a loss of thirty-six killed and a large number wounded. Price's loss was only two killed and six wounded. The pursuit was continued up the valley of the Rio del Norte, and on January 29th, at Lafaya, another serious blow was inflicted upon the insurgents by Price, adding largely to the number killed and wounded, and to the demoralization of the enemy. On the 3d of February Price had reached San Fernando de Taos, the scene of Governor Bent's murder. He found the insurgents in possession, strongly fortified, and awaiting an attack. Price assaulted the position on the 4th, and succeeded during the night in occupying some abandoned houses commanding the rebel position. The enemy sued for terms next day. Price demanded and received the persons of the chief insurgents, and hung them a few days subsequently. This brief campaign, which would to-day be considered so insignificant as to hardly deserve recital, made Price a brigadier-general of volunteers, his commission dating July 20, 1847. His second battle in Mexico is known as that of Santa Cruz de Rosales, and was properly a siege. The principal battle of the siege was fought March 16, 1848, against a very superior force of Mexicans under Don Angel Freas, Governor of Chihuahua, and resulted in the capture of the place and the entire garrison. Price was wounded in the engagement at Canada, Jan. 24, 1847.

At the next general election after his return from Mexico, Price was elected Governor of Missouri, with a majority over his opponent of fifteen thousand votes. He was the compromise candidate, the one man on whom the factions in the party originating in Benton's course on the slavery question were capable of uniting. He filled the executive chair during four years, from 1853 to 1857, with great credit to himself and to the State. He was afterwards bank commissioner. During the excitement in the early part of the year 1861, Gen. Price was a stanch, earnest, and devoted Union man, using the whole of his powerful influence in opposition to the secession of this State from the Union. He was elected a delegate from the Chariton district (where he lived) to the Constitutional Convention, and such was the pronounced character of his Unionism that he was elected president of that body by a vote of seventy-five to fifteen. This convention, after refusing by a most decided and almost unanimous vote to adopt resolutions setting forth that there was adequate cause for the secession of Missouri from the Union, adjourned on the 21st day of March, 1861, to the third Monday of the following December.

A military bill had been pending in the Legislature of Missouri since the beginning of the session. In the whirlwind of excitement which followed the capture of Camp Jackson and the bloodshed attendant upon that movement this bill became a law. It conferred upon Governor Jackson very large and, indeed, almost sweeping powers, and he proceeded at once to exercise them by appointing Sterling Price major-general commanding the State Guards of Missouri. Price was well fitted for a military career, though he never had the West Point education which was by many deemed essential. He had the warrior presence and the warrior tact, the soldier's pleasure in campaigning, and the born commander's careful and tender solicitude for the health and comfort of his men, besides which he was as brave a man as ever walked. He had strong native powers, remarkable coolness and presence of mind, and he had learned much while in Mexico, where he was often thrown entirely upon his

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own resources. In the language of the late E. A. Pollard, "He had a commanding presence; his plain, hearty manner endeared him to the populace, and the strength and virtue of his personal character, the Cato-like purity of his life, gave him influence over all classes of men. He was over six feet in height, with a frame to match, full, but not portly, and as straight as a son of the forest. His carriage was marked with dignity, grace, and gentleness, and every motion bespoke the attitude and presence of the well-bred gentleman. He had a large head, covered with a growth of thick white hair, a high, broad, intellectual forehead, florid face, no beard, and a mouth in whose latent smiles lurked the good humor of the man, while its straight and clear-cut line bespoke the precise mind and the exacting will."

Price was very anxious to preserve the peace, though his mind was filled with forebodings after the Camp Jackson affair, and after the failure of his armistice with Gen. Harney, in consequence of the removal of that officer and the commissioning of Capt. Lyon as brigadier-general. But he sought to make an accommodation of some sort with Lyon also. On the 11th of June, 1861, a conference was held at the Planters' House, in St. Louis, between Governor Jackson and Gen. Price on the one hand, and Gen. Lyon and others on the other, with the ostensible view to the preservation of the peace. Its result was unsatisfactory to the State authorities, who at once returned to Jefferson City and made preparations to resist what were called the encroachments of the national power. Gathering many of the archives of the government and collecting as many men, horses, equipments, etc., as possible, Governor Jackson, accompanied by Gen. Price, fled the capital, the latter issuing a proclamation calling upon the men of Missouri to fly to the standard of the State. Gen. Lyon quickly pursued with his troops, and overtook the State militia at Boonville, where (June 18th) the first battle of the war occurred. Gen. Price was not present in person, he having proceeded to the neighborhood of Fayette, and only joining his forces after the defeat. He was pursued by Col. Franz Sigel, whom he encountered at Carthage, July 5th, and after an engagement of two hours succeeded in opening his obstructed route, and continuing his flight towards the southern counties of the State. Here he collected a large force, which was soon after so strengthened by Gen. Ben McCullough's forces that Gen. Price was enabled to offer Lyon battle at Springfield, and succeeded in defeating him. He advanced farther north into Missouri, gaining strength daily, and on September 16th began the siege of Lexington by a brisk bombardment of that city. This place and its garrison of three thousand five hundred men were, after three days' fighting, captured on September 20th. This was the last triumph of Gen. Price's Missouri campaign of 1861, as soon after he was forced to retreat by Gen. Fremont, and was subsequently driven out of the State by Curtis and Halleck.

During this time Price was not regularly in the Confederate service. On his expulsion from Missouri he was entered on the list as major-general and placed in command of a division of troops. This division, with that of Van Dorn, was transferred in April, 1862, from Arkansas to Corinth, Miss., and participated, May 9, 1862, in the battle of Farmington. He retreated with the rest of Beauregard's forces from Corinth, and remained at Tupello, Miss., until the following September, when his division and that of Van Dorn were moved to Iuka. Here a portion of Gen. Grant's forces, under Rosecrans, attacked and defeated them after a hard fight, the Southern loss left on the field being one thousand four hundred and thirty-three men. Oct. 4, 1862, Price and Van Dorn attacked Rosecrans in Corinth and met with a signal repulse. Price labored under this trouble for many months, being idle for the greater part of 1863. Feb. 6, 1864, he again assumed command of the Department of Arkansas, relieving Gen. Holmes. In the following month (April 19th) he attacked and captured a foraging train of two hundred wagons belonging to Gen. Steele's command near Camden, Ark.

In August, Price was relieved by Gen. Magruder of the command of the District of Arkansas, and began his last and most memorable invasion of Missouri. Of this campaign, which was the last attempt made by the Confederate forces west of the Alleghanies to carry the war into the Border States, Price himself said, in his official report:

"In conclusion, permit me to say that in my opinion the results flowing from my operations in Missouri are of the most gratifying character. I marched fourteen hundred and thirty-four miles, fought forty-three battles and skirmishes, captured and paroled over three thousand officers and men, captured eighteen pieces of artillery, three thousand stand of small-arms, sixteen stand of colors (brought out by me, besides others destroyed by our troops who took them), at least three thousand overcoats, large quantities of blankets, shoes, and clothing, many wagons and teams, numbers of horses, and great quantities of subsistence and ordnance stores. I destroyed miles upon miles of railroad, burning depots and bridges. Taking this into the calculation, I do not think I go beyond the truth in saying that I destroyed in the late expedition

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to Missouri ten million dollars worth of property. On the other hand, I lost ten pieces of artillery, two stand of colors, one thousand stand of small-arms, whilst I don't think I lost over one thousand prisoners, including the wounded left in their hands."

The invasion was ended by a single blow dealt Price at Newtonia by Gens. Blunt and Sanborn, and Price was glad to retreat. Gens. Marmaduke and Cabell were captured, and the Confederate army badly dispersed. Price retired to Arkansas, where he collected the remnants of his corps together, but there was nothing afterwards at all brilliant in his career, and the above, we believe, includes the main features of his military history. That he was a general of great ability no one can doubt, yet it does not appear that he was properly appreciated at Richmond.

Price was an especial and prime favorite with his soldiers, who loved him devotedly and had the most unlimited confidence in his ability and generalship. They used to say they would rather die under his command than fight under any other, and they nicknamed him with all sorts of whimsical but endearing epithets, such as "Old Dad Price," "Old Pap," the "Old Tycoon," etc. He was always accessible, always just, and he was kind-hearted to all.

After the war, feeling like a man whose heart was broken and his home lost, Gen. Price retreated into Mexico and entered the service of the Emperor Maximilian, attempting, but unsuccessfully, to organize a wholesale scheme of colonization. His people invited him back to Missouri, and finally he returned, but with broken and debilitated health. He dwelt, after coming back to his old State, in St. Louis, where he died on Sunday morning, Sept. 29, 1867, at two o'clock A.M.

Not many men in public life have had fewer enemies than Sterling Price. Few have had so many warm and devoted friends. His generous, benevolent, impulsive nature had a magnetism about it which attracted every one, and none were repelled by anything discordant between his noble, dignified presence and his character and abilities.

The arrangements entered into between Generals Harney and Price on May 21, 1861, gave great offense to the Union people of St. Louis, especially to the more exiguous class who preferred the "thorough" policy of Gen. Lyon and Col. Frank Blair. Lyon had now been duly commissioned as brigadier-general of the Missouri Volunteers, and an active intrigue had begun in Washington between the men who wished Harney retained in command in Missouri and those who sought to have him superseded by Gen. Lyon. In the Federal city, indeed, this contest assumed the character of a struggle for influence between Attorney-General Bates and Postmaster-General Blair. Bates had Scott on his side and much conservative influence from St. Louis; but the Blairs were active and indefatigable, and they were supported by every radical influence in and out of the army, as well as by the Secretary of War himself. They stood to win, of course. The same envelope which covered Lyon's commission as brigadier-general of volunteers contained a special order of the War Department, dated May 16th, and signed by the adjutant-general, to the effect that "Brig.-Gen. W. S. Harney is relieved from command of the Department of the West, and is granted leave of absence until further orders." This order in effect relieved Harney from the prospect of further service upon the field of action. It was, however, not delivered forthwith, for it was accompanied by a letter to Frank Blair, as follows:

"WASHINGTON, D. C., May 18, 1861.


"MY DEAR SIR, — We have a good deal of anxiety here about St. Louis. I understand an order has gone from the War Department to you, to be delivered or withheld in your discretion, relieving Gen. Harney from his command. I was not quite satisfied with the order when it was made, though on the whole I thought it best to make it; but since then I have become more doubtful of its propriety. I do not write now to countermand it, but to say I wish you would withhold it, unless in your judgment the necessity to the contrary is very urgent. There are several reasons for this. We better have him a friend than an enemy. It will dissatisfy a good many who otherwise would be quiet. More than all, we first relieve him, then restore him; and now if we relieve him again the public will ask, ‘Why all this vacillation?’

"Still, if in your judgment it is indispensable, let it be so.

"Yours very truly,



But this letter only caused a delay of a few days. Disquieting rumors came to St. Louis of invasion of Missouri from Arkansas, and on May 30th Blair sent the special order to Harney. The next day, having to appear in court in connection with the McDonald habeas corpus case (according to the report of a St. Louis newspaper at the time), "Gen. Harney's amended answer to the writ in the case of Capt. McDonald was read, in which he stated that on the previous evening he had been relieved from the command of this department by an order dated at headquarters on the 16th of May, but which was not made known to him until the time stated. Where it has been, or how delayed, are matters about which the public can know nothing, and we have not inquired. Gen. Harney assumed command of his department on the 12th of May, immediately following the occurrences on the 10th and 11th at Camp Jackson and on Walnut Street.

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On Sunday he issued a proclamation tending to quiet the excitement which pervaded the public mind, lest other excesses should be committed in St. Louis. Each day thereafter witnessed some action which served to restore confidence, and on the 21st he and Gen Price had the interview which resulted in the arrangement that gave peace to the State. Since that time a better and more secure feeling has prevailed, and no one doubted the ability of the two generals, by the understanding and confidence reposed in each other, to maintain perfect quiet. The reason for this order for relieving him of the command here, without assigning him to duty elsewhere, at a time, too, when the government is sadly in want of experienced officers, is now known, and, of course, comment is precluded; but this we will say for Gen. Harney, that his eighteen days' service was of infinite benefit to St. Louis in reinstating the peace of the city, and that he has the thanks of the people for his judicious and unwearied efforts to secure that end."

It is not compatible with the scope of this work to give more than a rapid sketch of the long, adventurous, and highly honorable career of Gen. William Selby Harney. He was born in Davidson County, Tenn., Aug. 22, 1800, and was the youngest of eight children. His father was a man of great resolution, as was shown in a controversy with Andrew Jackson, then a judge, in which he won Jackson's respect, and which, no doubt, was the cause of the friendliness which Jackson showed for Gen. Harney throughout his whole career.

Young Harney's elder brother was a surgeon in the army, and the boy was early thrown into the companionship of men of arms, and made the acquaintance of such courtly members of the profession as Scott, Macomb, Wool, Gaines, and Brady, then fresh from the war of 1812. His youthful imagination became fired by an ardent longing for a career such as theirs, and in 1818 his wish was gratified, he having been appointed by President Monroe a lieutenant in the First Regiment of infantry. His command was then stationed in Louisiana, and Harney's first military experience was gained on an expedition against the notorious pirate Lafitte.

Several years of rather uneventful service followed, extending from the lakes to the Gulf, and from Maine to Florida. In 1823 he visited St. Louis, on his way to Council Bluffs, where an Indian outbreak was anticipated; but the war not taking place, he wintered at Bellefontaine, near St. Louis, and the next year accompanied a peace commission, composed of Gen. Atkinson and Maj. O'Fallon, to the upper Missouri, where treaties were made. Upon this expedition he met Gen. Ashley, the great fur-trader of St. Louis, and Ashley, who was greatly pleased with the young soldier, proposed to Harney to fit out a trading expedition to the Yellowstone, Harney to have charge of it and to receive half the profits. The young lieutenant, who possessed no fortune except his pay, no doubt found it hard to decline the tempting offer, but ultimately did so, preferring to remain in the profession of his choice, which he was destined so conspicuously to adorn.

From this expedition Harney returned to Council Bluffs, where (in 1824) he was made a captain. In 1827 he was ordered to Jefferson Barracks, and in 1828 participated in an excursion against the Winnebagoes in Wisconsin. In the fall of that year he was ordered to Fort Winnebago, Wis., where he spent two monotonous years.

At this time Capt. Harney was one of the handsomest men in the army, six feet three inches tall, of a slim and graceful figure, with dark red hair, expressive eyes, and a clear, ruddy complexion. Jefferson Davis, who was stationed at Fort Winnebago in 1829, wrote of him in 1878 as follows:

"MISSISSIPPI CITY, MISS., January, 1878.

"L. U. Reavis, Esq., St. Louis, Mo.:

"SIR, — It gives me pleasure to comply with your request of the 30th ult. for some reminiscence in connection with my old friend, Gen. W. S. Harney. In the spring of 1829 I reported as brevet second lieutenant to the commanding officer at Fort Winnebago. Gen. Harney was then stationed at that post, and captain of Company K, First United States Infantry. At that period of his life he was, physically, the finest man I ever saw. Tall, straight, muscular, broad-chested and gaunt-waisted, he was one of the class which Trelawney describes as ‘nature's noblemen,’ against whom the plague in the East ‘never made an attack.’ Had he lived in the time of Homer he would have robbed Achilles of his sobriquet of the ‘swift-footed,’ for he would run faster than a white man, farther than an Indian, and in both showed that man was organized to be master of the beast. To elucidate the last clause of the preceding paragraph requires the recital of an anecdote. Capt. Harney carefully attended to his company's garden, which, on the frontier, was necessary for the comfort as well as the health of the men. The beds had been carefully spaded and roped, when one of his numerous dogs, a half-grown mongrel hound, came walking across the carefully-prepared ground, and the captain, storming at him in tones and language not suited to the pupil, frightened the dog so that, instead of going out by the walk, he ran across the bed towards the gap in the fence. The captain started in full run after the dog, which had to jump on the fence and then off it, fatal disparity to the dog! for the captain cleared the fence at a bound, which brought him a jump nearer to the dog, and then began an even run up the long slope which led to the fort, before reaching which Harney mastered the dog, and ‘Rover’ suffered in proportion to the length of the chase. Capt. Harney was also a bold horseman, fond of the chase, a good boatman, and skillful in the use of the spear as a fisherman Neither drinking nor gaming, he was clear of those rocks and shoals of life in a frontier garrison, and is no doubt indebted to this abstinence for much of the vigor he has possessed to his

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present advanced age. By long service on the Indian frontier, together with the practice since which tests all theory by actual observation, he has acquired that knowledge of Indian character which is often conspicuously exhibited in his military career.

"Of the incidents thus generally referred to you have so many other sources of information that it would be needless for me to enter into detail, but I should do injustice to the subject of this letter if I did not call your attention to the project of the Indian treaty he made with the Sioux in 1855 or 1856. I think it constituted the best basis for an arrangement between the United States government and an Indian tribe that has ever been devised, and if carried out would impress the Indians with their responsibility, and bind them to more faithful observance of it than ever did any of those verbose, miscalled treaties which are to be found spread over the records of the United States.

"Very respectfully,

Capt. Harney's next conspicuous service was in the Black Hawk war, in which he conducted himself with great distinction. This being over, he obtained leave of absence, which he spent at St. Louis. The handsome young captain always greatly enjoyed the elegant and polite society of St. Louis, and his gallantry and graces of person and manner made him an especial favorite with the ladies. During one of his visits to the town he made the acquaintance of Mary Mullanphy, daughter of Hon. John Mullanphy, the distinguished citizen and philanthropist, and in January, 1833, he married her.

From this union resulted John M. Harney, still a citizen of St. Louis; Eliza Harney, Countess de Noüe, whose husband is a general in the French army; and Anna B., married to the Viscount de Thury, an officer in the French navy, who served under Maximilian in the invasion of Mexico in 1864. Mrs. Harney died in Paris in 1864.

In 1832, Capt. Harney was appointed a paymaster with the rank of major, and soon after President Jackson promoted him to a lieutenant-colonelcy. When the Seminole war in Florida broke out, Harney was dispatched thither, and served in several campaigns with conspicuous energy and courage. On more than one occasion movements of great responsibility were entrusted to him, and he always acquitted himself with prudence and credit. His previous service on the Northwestern frontier had given him a knowledge of the Indian character that was utilized to great advantage in this emergency. The Seminole war was one of the least satisfactory and least glorious wars ever waged by United States troops. The ablest generals of the country, who had successfully fought Wellington's veterans, and who later covered themselves with glory in Mexico, were baffled and humiliated by the adroit and able leaders of the savages, but there seems to be no doubt that Col. Harney's services were more efficient than those of almost any other officer in the field. In April, 1841, he was breveted colonel for "gallant and meritorious conduct in several successive engagements with hostile Indians in Florida."

Years of peace followed until the Mexican war gave the soldiery something more to do. In this struggle Col. Harney's exploits were of the most brilliant character. At the outbreak of hostilities he was promoted to the colonelcy of the Second Dragoons. Gen. Taylor at first placed him in command of the troops protecting the Texan frontier, but his position was unendurable, as he was separated from his regiment, and had no share in the engagements which marked the advance of the United States forces into Mexico. He demanded permission to rejoin his regiment, and having received instructions to do so reported to Gen. Scott, by whom he was ordered to return to Taylor. For refusing to obey this order he was court-martialed and sentenced to six months' suspension and a reprimand, but the sentence was never executed, and Gen. Scott finally directed him to join his regiment. He subsequently participated in all the leading engagements on the memorable march to the City of Mexico. His dragoons were ever in front and on the flank of the main army, constantly making reconnoissances and feeling for the enemy and pricking him up. At Madeline, contrary to Gen. Scott's commands not to engage the enemy, he turned a reconnoissance in force into a fight, routed the enemy, and gained an important advantage. Gen. Scott forgave this brilliant act of disobedience in consideration of the results achieved. Gen. Frost, of St. Louis, who was much with Harney in that campaign, asserts that the world never saw such fighting as occurred in that war. Col. Harney's participation throughout was characteristically impetuous and dashing. His storming Cerro Gordo was one of the most desperate of his many deeds of daring, and stands out in bold relief as one of the conspicuous events of the war. For his conduct in this engagement he was breveted brigadier-general in July, 1848.

The capture of the City of Mexico terminated the war, and from 1848 to 1852 Gen. Harney was stationed at Austin, Texas, where he organized several expeditions against hostile Indians. He was then granted leave of absence to spend some time with his family abroad; but soon after a general Indian war was threatened, and he, being regarded as the man of

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all others to bring it to a successful conclusion, was recalled. On his arrival in Washington President Pierce said to him, "Gen. Harney, you have done so much that I will not order you to the frontier, but I do wish you would assume the command and whip the Indians for us." In two campaigns he brought the Indians to terms, and although he had no authority to treat with them, he ventured to make a treaty, which was ratified by the United States Senate, and was warmly approved in all quarters. It was based on the fact that the character of the Indian was being greatly modified by the increasing scarcity of his game supply of food, and that, therefore, he would ultimately have to betake himself to labor, but that in order to make a beginning it was necessary that he should have help. This Gen. Harney agreed, on behalf of the government, to supply by furnishing the Indians with tools, seed, etc., and instructing them in the art of agriculture. The Sioux, on their part, granted Harney's demands for past grievances, and promised to keep the peace in future. Jefferson Davis, the Secretary of War, subsequently described it as the "model treaty;" but unfortunately for its permanence, the government was lax in fulfilling the obligations which it had voluntarily imposed upon itself.

Gen. Harney's next important service was in Kansas, then seething with excitement over the slavery question. He acted with such sagacity and prudence that he succeeded in preserving peace between the two factions, and the danger of a bloody outbreak was averted.

During President Buchanan's administration he was ordered to proceed to Oregon to put down Indian troubles there, and with Father de Smet, a noted missionary, started thither, but on arriving at San Francisco he learned that the dread of his name had induced the Indians to make peace as soon as they heard that he was coming. He, however, proceeded northward to Fort Vancouver, where trouble had for some time been brewing with the British over the ownership of San Juan. Being appealed to by the American residents for protection, he took possession of the island, just in season, no doubt, to prevent like action on the part of the British commander, who had a large fleet in the harbor. This bold coup threatened for a time to cause a war between the United States and England, but peace was maintained, and years later, when, under the treaty of Washington, the question as to the ownership of the island was submitted to the arbitration of the Emperor of Germany, the claim of the United States was sustained, and Gen. Harney's judgment was thus conspicuously vindicated.

During the period preceding the outbreak of the civil war Gen. Harney was at Washington, and conferred with President Buchanan daily on the situation. Buchanan's vacillation dismayed him, and it becoming apparent that the President was giving ear to other counselors, Gen. Harney lost patience, and remarked to Mr. Buchanan one day, "Some one has your ear who is neither a friend of the Union nor of yours."

When the war began Gen. Harney was stationed at St. Louis, and was a keenly interested and anxious observer of affairs. His own loyalty to the Union was not disguised, but his Southern birth and associations caused some who little knew his patriotism to affect to distrust him. On his way to Washington, in April, 1861, he was arrested by the Confederates at Harper's Ferry, but was soon released, and it was represented in the press that he was a willing prisoner of the State of Virginia, and intended to throw up his commission in the United States army and follow Lee and Beauregard into the Confederate service. In order to disprove these assertions Gen. Harney addressed a letter to Col. John O'Fallon, in which he eloquently proclaimed his devotion to the flag under which he had fought for forty years, and warmly implored his fellow-citizens "not to be seduced by designing men to become the instruments of their mad ambition by plunging the State into the vortex of secession." Many Southern officers had left the United States service for that of the Confederacy on the plea that their first allegiance was due to their States, but in his letter to Col. O'Fallon, Gen. Harney combated this doctrine, and declared that "the soldier's and citizen's primary duty is due to the United States government, and not to the government of his State."

On the 10th of May, 1861, he was appointed to the command of the Department of the West, and on the following day arrived in St. Louis. He found the city, as we have before stated, in an indescribable state of excitement over the capture of Camp Jackson and the scenes which followed. Gen. Harney's arrival inspired confidence, and he received the cordial support of the intelligent and prudent. The situation was critical in the extreme, but Gen. Harney was thoroughly convinced that there was no need of firing a gun in Missouri, and that a policy of firmness tempered with prudence and moderation would suffice to allay the agitation. Governor Jackson was undeniably in favor of secession, and was reported to be preparing to use the State militia to force Missouri out of the Union; but the improbability of his having a strong following was shown in the fact that the State by eighty thousand majority had declared against secession. In view of such an overwhelming sentiment in favor of

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the Union, and in the absence of any overt act on the part of Governor Jackson, it seemed to Gen. Harney sufficient for the present simply to keep the peace; therefore on the 14th of May he issued his famous proclamation. This document denounced the "military hill" just passed by the Legislature as in effect a secession ordinance in disguise, and unworthy, therefore, of obedience by the people. The capture of Camp Jackson was approved, because in Gen. Harney's opinion the treasonable nature of the encampment could not be doubted. He urged the people, however, to use prudence, in order to avert the danger which threatened the State, and showed them how their interests were indissolubly bound to the Union. In addition, he resolutely affirmed it to be his purpose to maintain the authority of the supreme law of the land, and to suppress all unlawful and treasonable combinations of men.

Gen. Harney then addressed himself to the work of pacification, but a party which he then thought and now charges was led by Col. Francis P. Blair was dissatisfied with his policy, and sought to secure his removal. His course, however, was approved by many of the leading citizens, who sent two of their number, Messrs. Gamble and Yeatman, to Washington to impress on the President the probability that Harney's policy would effect a peaceful solution of the difficulty.

The next stage in this controversy was the celebrated agreement of Gen. Harney with Gen. Price, commanding the Missouri State Guard, which is to be found in full elsewhere. This compact began by reciting that the two had met and agreed that they had only a common object, namely, to restore peace and order under the laws of the national and State governments. To effect this Gen. Price undertook, with the sanction of the Governor, to direct the whole power of the State officers to maintaining order within the State, and this being assured Gen. Harney declared that he had neither occasion nor wish to make military movements that might create excitement and jealousy, which he most earnestly desired to avoid.

This agreement was hailed with general approval, and the Missouri Democrat, the organ of the administration, said the terms of the negotiation would give satisfaction to all but traitors. It congratulated Harney on having concluded a peace which would keep Missouri in the Union and guaranteed ample protection to every Union citizen, and invoked a curse on the hand that should first be raised to violate the compact.

On the 31st of May, Gen. Harney received a special order relieving him from the command of the Department of the West. "Johnson's Encyclopedia" says he was relieved for making an unauthorized truce with Gen. Price, but this is an error, for the agreement with Price was published May 21st, while the order of removal was dated May 16th. It is asserted that the removal was the work of the Blairs, and that Montgomery Blair prepared the memorandum on which the order was issued. President Lincoln signed the order, but evidence goes to show that he did so with great reluctance. It arrived in St. Louis May 20th, among dispatches for Francis P. Blair, who withheld it until the 31st. Among the literature on the subject is a letter from Mr. Lincoln to Mr. Blair, expressing the hope that events would not render it necessary to serve the order upon Gen. Harney, and presenting reasons why his removal would be unwise. Reading this remarkable letter "between the lines," it is apparent how averse he must have been to the action urged upon him by Montgomery Blair, and how conscious he was of the character of the indignity to which he had been persuaded into subjecting the trusty soldier and patriot, Harney. When Gen. Scott heard of Harney's removal he said it would cost the government immense treasure and thousands of lives. President Lincoln is reported to have admitted that it was one of the greatest blunders of his administration.

Why, then, was he removed? This reason is assigned: His policy was yielding golden fruit; confidence and tranquillity were rapidly resuming sway, and those who were anxious for war in Missouri saw the opportunity fast slipping away. They are said to have filled the President's ear with doubts of Harney's loyalty, and to have carried to him curdling tales of the outrages to Union people which his policy was bringing forth. Among the desperate means resorted to by his enemies, as Gen. Harney charged, were manufactured reports of indignities heaped upon Unionists by secessionists, the manifest intent being to prove that Missouri was a disloyal State, and should be treated as such, and that Harney's policy of conciliation was simply strengthening the secession designs of Governor Jackson. On the other hand, there seems to be no doubt whatever that Gen. Harney was fully prepared to fight the secessionists if a conflict became unavoidable, but he strove to postpone bloodshed as long as possible. In fact, he was "between two fires." Governor Jackson was endeavoring to take Missouri out of the Union, and seemed to be anxiously waiting for some act of Federal aggression (like that of the capture of Camp Jackson) as an excuse for a hostile movement, while the radical Unionists were equally anxious to precipitate a conflict, suspecting Governor Jackson of an intention to proceed to extremities. A

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collision probably could not have been prevented but for the prudent and patriotic course of Gen. Harney. In the interval, under the beneficent operation of his policy, the sentiment of loyalty to the Union continued to grow and strengthen, and every day served to render more and more apparent the hopelessness of the designs of the secession leaders. But the extremists among the pronounced anti-Southern men could not wait, and Mr. Lincoln deputed Col. Frank Blair to remove Harney, if necessary, with the result already stated. Under the circumstances Gen. Harney was justified in feeling that he had been made the foot-ball of designing politicians, but he gave no sign of impatience, having learned the soldier's duty of silent obedience. He might have erred in the trying period under consideration, but his motives were unquestioned, and he never doubted that his fellow-citizens of Missouri would one day do him justice.

This episode ended Gen. Harney's military career, and soon after the war he was retired on half-pay. After laying down the command of the department to which Missouri belonged he retired to a farm which he had purchased in Jefferson County, Mo., and engaged actively in agricultural life. During the years which followed he simply waited for orders from his military superiors that never came, although the President was strongly importuned to place him in command of the Department of the Pacific. The general remained in Jefferson County for two or three years, and then established himself on a large farm which he had bought near Mount Olive, Mo., and the "hero of a hundred fights" might have been seen cutting his way through the brush and building new roads, etc. He next purchased a farm of eighteen hundred acres in Crawford and Franklin Counties, where he built a large castle-like house with twenty rooms and costing many thousand dollars. He lived there until about 1879-80, when his great age and the state of his health impelled him to seek a more southern climate, and he settled at Pass Christian, La., on the Gulf of Mexico, where he has one of the handsomest villas in the South, which he makes his winter home, spending the summer in visits to St. Louis and the North and East.

Gen. Harney's closing public service was rendered in 1865, when he served as a member of the Indian Peace Commission which established the Sioux reservation. He brought to this task the rich stores of forty years of intimate acquaintance with the savages, and such was the confidence of the government in his honesty and judgment that warrants were drawn for one million dollars of supplies for the Indians on his bare requisition without examination.

Gen. Harney inherited from his wife large estates, located chiefly in St. Louis, and he himself has purchased property at various times in Texas, Florida, and Mississippi. The appreciation of most of this property has added largely to his wealth, the care and management of which form the chief occupation of his declining years. The storms and toils of eighty-two years have dealt lightly with him. His tall form is but slightly bent with age, and his bearing is still as gallant as ever. Only failing eyesight and a treacherous memory warn him that he is growing old. The nation has never sheltered a nobler or more unselfish heart than that of William S. Harney. A born leader, he is one of nature's captains, whose tall plume was always in the forefront of battle, and of him it has been eloquently written that he possessed all those elements of manhood which in earlier times produced the patriarch who combined the functions of the warrior, the legislator, and the judge. He has made laws for savage tribes, and has governed them with justice and moderation. Vexed questions of diplomacy have come before him for settlement, and he has found for them a ready solution. He has been the valued companion and associate of chieftains, explorers, travelers, scholars, statesmen, and divines, and was the friend and adviser of every President from Monroe down to Gen. Grant. In his green old age there is no man in the whole country who enjoys a larger measure of well earned and thoroughly merited popular respect.

In a few days after the removal of Gen. Harney from the command of the Department of the West, followed Governor Jackson's proclamation calling out the militia and plunging Missouri into the civil war:


"A series of unprovoked and unparalleled outrages have been inflicted upon the peace and dignity of this Commonwealth, and upon the rights and liberties of its people, by wicked and unprincipled men professing to act under the authority of the United States government. The solemn enactments of your Legislature have been nullified; your volunteer soldiers have been taken prisoners; your commerce with your sister States has been suspended; your trade with your own fellow-citizens has been, and is, subjected to the harassing control of an armed soldiery; peaceful citizens have been imprisoned without warrant of law; unoffending and defenseless men, women, and children have been ruthlessly shot down and murdered; and other unbearable indignities have been heaped upon your State and yourselves.

"To all these outrages and indignities you have submitted with a patriotic forbearance which has only encouraged the perpetrators of these grievous wrongs to attempt still bolder and more daring usurpations.

"It has been my earnest endeavor under all these embarrassing circumstances to maintain the peace of the State, and to avert, if possible, from our borders the desolating effects of a civil war. With that object in view I authorized Maj.-Gen.

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Price several weeks ago to arrange with Gen. Harney, commanding the Federal forces in this State, the terms of an agreement by which the peace of the State might be preserved. They came, on the 21st of May, to an understanding which was made public. The State authorities have faithfully labored to carry out the terms of that agreement. The Federal government, on the other hand, not only manifested its strong disapprobation of it by the instant dismissal of the distinguished officer who, on its part, entered into it, but it at once began, and has unintermittingly carried out, a system of hostile operations in utter contempt of that agreement and in reckless disregard of its own plighted faith. These acts have latterly portended revolution and civil war so unmistakably that I resolved to make one further effort to avert these dangers from you. I therefore solicited an interview with Brig.-Gen. Lyon, commanding the Federal army in Missouri. It was granted, and on the 10th inst., waiving all questions of personal and official dignity, I went to St. Louis, accompanied by Maj.-Gen. Price.

"We had an interview on the 11th inst. with Gen. Lyon and Col. F. P. Blair, Jr., at which I submitted to them this proposition: that I would disband the State Guard and break up its organization; that I would disarm all the companies which had been armed by the State; that I would pledge myself not to attempt to organize the militia under the military bill; that no arms or munitions of war should be brought into the State; that I would protect all citizens equally in all their rights regardless of their political opinions; that I would repress all insurrectionary movements within the State; that I would repel all attempts to invade it from whatever quarter, and by whomsoever made; and that I would thus maintain a strict neutrality in the present unhappy contest, and preserve the peace of the State. And I further proposed that I would, if necessary, invoke the assistance of the United States troops to carry out these pledges. All this I proposed to do upon condition that the Federal government would undertake to disarm the Home Guards, which it has illegally organized and armed throughout the State, and pledge itself not to occupy with its troops any localities in the State not occupied by them at this time.

"Nothing but the most earnest desire to avert the horrors of civil war from our beloved State could have tempted me to propose these humiliating terms. They were rejected by the Federal officers.

"They demanded not only the disorganization and disarming of the State militia and the nullification of the military bill, but they refused to disarm their own Home Guards, and insisted that the Federal government should enjoy an unrestricted right to move and station its troops throughout the State whenever and wherever they might, in the opinion of its officers, be necessary, either for the protection of the ‘loyal subjects’ of the Federal government or for the repelling of invasion; and they plainly announced that it was the intention of the administration to take military occupation, under these pretexts, of the whole State, and to reduce it, as avowed by Gen. Lyon himself, to the ‘exact condition of Maryland.’

"The acceptance by me of these degrading terms would not only have sullied the honor of Missouri, but would have aroused the indignation of every brave citizen, and precipitated the very conflict which it has been my aim to prevent. We refused to accede to them, and the conference was broken up.

"Fellow-citizens, all our efforts towards conciliation have failed. We can hope nothing from the justice or moderation of the agents of the Federal government in this State. They are energetically hastening the execution of their bloody and revolutionary schemes for the inauguration of a civil war in your midst, for the military occupation of your State by the armed bands of lawless invaders, for the overthrow of your State government, and for the subversion of those liberties which that government has always sought to protect; and they intend to exert their whole power to subjugate you, if possible, to the military despotism which has usurped the powers of the Federal government.

"Now, therefore, I, C. F. Jackson, Governor of the State of Missouri, do, in view of the foregoing facts, and by virtue of the powers vested in me by the Constitution and law of this Commonwealth, issue this my proclamation, calling the militia of the State, to the number of fifty thousand, into the active service of the State, for the purpose of repelling said invasion, and for the protection of the lives, liberty, and property of the citizens of this State. And I earnestly exhort all good citizens of Missouri to rally under the flag of their State for the protection of their endangered homes and firesides, and for the defense of their most sacred rights and dearest liberties.

"In issuing this proclamation, I hold it to be my solemn duty to remind you that Missouri is still one of the United States; that the Executive Department of the State government does not arrogate to itself the power to disturb that relation; that that power has been wisely vested in a convention, which will, at the proper time, express your sovereign will; and that meanwhile it is your duty to obey all the constitutional requirements of the Federal government. But it is equally my duty to advise you that your first allegiance is one to your own State; and that you are under no obligation whatever to obey the unconstitutional edicts of the military despotism which has enthroned itself at Washington, nor to submit to the infamous and degrading sway of its wicked minions in this State. No brave and true-hearted Missourian will obey the one or submit to the other. Rise, then, and drive out ignominiously the invaders who have dared to desecrate the soil which your labors have made fruitful, and which is consecrated by your homes!

"Given under my hand as Governor, and under the great seal of the State of Missouri, at Jefferson City, this 12th day of June, 1861.

"By the Governor,



"Secretary of State."

June 17th was another day of excitement and bloodshed in St. Louis, caused by the undisciplined "Home Guards." As the Missouri Republican said in its comments on this affair, "The vital principle of all military bodies is discipline. What kind of soldiers are those who pay no regard to the orders of their superiors, but who are seized with a panic the moment an explosion of fire-arms takes place, like so many timid women? If a battalion of four or five companies can be thrown into such utter confusion and anarchy as were witnessed on Monday by the accidental discharge of a gun, or even say a premeditated pistol-shot from a window, what would be their conduct on the field of battle, amidst the continuous rattling of bullets and the thunders of hoarse cannon? If our troops cannot learn to behave themselves like soldiers, let them doff the garb of soldiers. At all events they should see to it as Home Guards, organized to protect the hearths and family circles of our

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citizens, they do not, on every pretext, send grief and poignant affliction into the hearts of parents and wives and children by taking away precious and innocent lives."

The occurrence happened in this wise, to follow once more a contemporary narration: "An unprovoked and wanton outrage, involving the lives of several peaceful citizens, was yesterday committed on our streets by a battalion of Col. Kallmann's ‘Home Guards.’ We shall not attempt to find any excuse or palliation for it in the character of the cause in devotion whereto these men became possessed of the means to commit it. We can never sanction such brutal and murderous acts, nor shelter them under any apology whatever. Their conduct was ill advised, rash, and culpable to the last degree, and we feel that in so denouncing it we are but performing a duty which would be almost criminal to be left undone. When we shall have stated the facts without bias or prejudice, every fair reader will, we think, agree with us in this.

"About ten o'clock yesterday morning, a detachment of Col. Kallmann's regiment, returning from a trip up the North Missouri Railroad, whither they had been under orders to guard the bridges, passed down Seventh Street to their rendezvous in the lower part of the city. As usual in cases of military movements in the city, curiosity prompted large numbers of people to assemble on the sidewalks and at the doors and windows of residences to survey the manoeuvres of the troops. Their passage was in no way interrupted, and, as far as we can learn, there were no exhibitions of any kind calculated to arouse the least feeling of hostility. There was no hooting or abusive language on the part of the spectators. On the contrary, while many cheered the men as they marched along, those who did not feel disposed to join in these demonstrations remained silent and passive observers.

"On reaching a point midway between Olive and Pine Streets, the centre of the column showed signs of extraordinary commotion, consequent upon an explosion of fire-arms. Immediately afterwards the troops in advance wheeled, and almost simultaneously a volley of bullets was showered upon the houses on the east side of Seventh Street, extending the whole length of the block, from Pine to Olive. The greater part of the fire seems to have been directed towards the balcony of the recorder's court, situated in the second story of the building known as the Missouri Engine House, where a number of persons, officers of the court, policemen, and others, were standing. The marks of seventy-two bullets were counted upon the walls, doors, shutters, and windows in the neighborhood, but it is supposed, from the indiscriminate and awkward character of the firing, that a much larger number of guns were discharged, the balls passing above the houses. The disaster from this volley was, under the circumstances, comparatively small, and almost miraculous. Four persons were instantly killed, two mortally wounded, and a few others slightly hurt. The crowd was of course seized with a panic, and fled in every direction. Preparations, we believe, were made for a second fire, but this was withheld, as by that time there was no enemy in sight.

"Meantime, Capt. J. W. Bissell, who had assumed command of the battalion, made himself busy by warning persons in the neighborhood to remove their valuables, etc. He told a young man in attendance at Armfield's drug-store, corner of Seventh and Olive, to take out all the books, money, and papers, for they would blow up the engine-house adjoining in less than five minutes. The same warning, we are informed, was extended to the proprietors of a grocery and provision store next door. For some reason, however, the threat was not carried into effect.

"It was reported that the first shot previous to the wheeling of the head of the column was fired upon the troops from the balcony of the recorder's court, and this would seem to explain the attentions of the Home Guards in that direction. But we have the most positive and convincing statements of trustworthy witnesses that such was not the case.

"The scene in the recorder's court was frightful. Dead men lay on the floor, and pieces of the iron balcony in front of the windows and splinters of wood covered their bodies, and were stained in the blood that had flowed from their wounds. Pools of gore were collected around the recorder's desk and near the witness-stand, and the whole interior of the room looked as if a mob had been wreaking their fury upon it. Those who were in the court at the time state the scene as frightful when the terrible Minié missiles came whizzing through the windows, striking down people on every side.

"The number of those killed are four, and wounded two. The names of the former are N. M. Pratt, a policeman, whose home was on Eleventh Street, between Cass Avenue and O'Fallon. Mr. Pratt had been on the police force since 1850, and was one of the most skillful officers in the city. Keren Tracy, an Irishman by birth, was also killed; residence on Gay Street, between Fifteenth and Sixteenth. Charles Cella, an Italian fruit dealer on the corner of Seventh and Pine, and a man named Burns completed the

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victims. Officer Pratt was killed by a ball entering his side and passing through his heart as he stood at the window. Keren Tracy received a ball in his left side, from thence it passed over to his right, and lodged in his shoulder. Cella was killed by a ball in his breast, and Burns received one in his head, which passed completely through it, tearing the skull to pieces. Deputy Marshal Frenzel was mortally wounded, receiving three balls in his left and one in his right leg. There were one or two others slightly wounded." 325

Jefferson Barracks. 326 — Under the Spanish régime the troops stationed at St. Louis occupied the barracks erected for their accommodation in the inclosure known as the "Fort on the Hill," which was bounded by what are now Fourth, Fifth, Elm, and Market Streets. The barracks were located near the line of Fifth Street, and parallel with it. After the transfer of the country to the United States, in 1804, the barracks were occupied for about two years, when the

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troops were removed to the cantonment at Bellefontaine established by Gen. Wilkinson. Subsequently the commandant's house and the stone tower situated in the inclosure were used by the courts. The barracks at Bellefontaine were the buildings which had belonged to the old Spanish fort of "St. Charles the Prince," and, as elsewhere stated, from six hundred to a thousand American troops were usually quartered there. These barracks continued to be used until the completion of Jefferson Barracks. The latter, famous in the traditions of the United States army and cherished in the affections of the older army officers, are situated on the west bank of the Mississippi River, on the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad, about three miles south of the limits of the city of St. Louis, on a tract of land containing seventeen hundred and two acres, belonging to the United States government. The buildings were erected in 1826 and 1827, and are of limestone, which is readily obtained here, the whole barracks resting on extensive ledges that extend nearly to the river-bank, several of these ledges having been worked down so as to admit the building or construction of roadways and laying of railroad tracks. The grounds are most eligibly situated, being high, airy, and well drained on all sides, and commanding a fine view of the river. Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, who was stationed at the barracks for a number of years, once wrote in a letter to a friend, "The position is a good one, and particularly excellent in a military point of view because of the facility of transporting troops to any other position in the West. The celerity of the recent (1827) movement of the First and Sixth Regiments up the Mississippi and Wisconsin sufficiently attests that. . . . The site of the barracks rises gradually from the river and swells to a beautiful bluff covered with oak- and hickory-trees, almost far enough apart to permit military manoeuvres, and with no undergrowth to interrupt a ride on horseback in any direction."

The War Department having determined to establish an extensive cantonment in the West for a corps de reserve, from which detachments could be sent to reinforce or relieve the garrisons stationed on the lakes, the Missouri, Mississippi, Arkansas, Red, and Sabine Rivers, and at New Orleans, Maj.-Gen. Jacob Brown, the commander-in-chief of the American army, selected the site of Jefferson Barracks for that purpose.

The ground being a portion of the extensive commons belonging to the unincorporated village of Vide-Poche, now known as Carondelet, application was made to the authorities of the town for the lease to the government of the tract now occupied by Jefferson Barracks. Accordingly, in 1824, the village of Vide-Poche leased to the United States that portion of its commons known as Jefferson Barracks, embracing over seventeen hundred acres. The object of the Vide-Pochers in effecting the lease was to secure the market for their products which would result from the location of a military post at this point. 327

The buildings were planned and their erection was commenced in 1826, under the superintendence of

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Brevet Brig.-Gen. Henry Atkinson, and they were so far completed in the following year as to admit of their occupation by the soldiers.

The first regular troops sent here were those belonging to the First Regiment of infantry, who were followed by the Sixth Regiment of infantry in the summer of 1827, under Col. and Brevet Brig.-Gen. Henry Atkinson, Sixth Infantry, who had been stationed far to the westward at Council Bluffs (now Fort Calhoun), Nebraska. It must be understood that the original Council Bluffs, named by Lewis and Clark, belongs in Nebraska, and not in Iowa. Gen. Atkinson immediately commenced work with the men of his regiment, and did a great deal towards beautifying the grounds and rendering the barracks comfortable dwellings for the men. Most of the older officers with Gen. Atkinson had served in the war of 1812, and had been retained in the army on account of their superior military qualities and attainments. The main buildings of the barracks were constructed chiefly of limestone, and a considerable portion of the masonry was erected by the soldiers. The parade-ground at that time was six hundred and eighty-four feet long and two hundred and eighty feet wide. The quarters of the officers and soldiers were built on the north, south, and west sides of the parade-ground, the east side or front being left open to the river. There were four blocks of officers' quarters, one of which was situated on each eastern extremity of the range of buildings, and the other two formed the western boundary of the parade-ground, with a sally-port between them. They were all two stories high, with garrets and basements, and with porticos in front. The first two were each one hundred and ten feet by thirty-six, with sixteen rooms in each; the others were each one hundred and twenty feet by thirty-six, with twenty rooms in each. The quarters of the soldiers extended east and west between the quarters of the officers, and were one story high with basements in the rear. The barracks were originally intended to accommodate twenty-two companies, but during the civil war several thousand men were quartered in them very comfortably. About five or six hundred yards from the barracks to the north, on a ridge parallel with the one on which the barracks were built, was situated the hospital, a fine building of brick, one hundred and twenty feet by twenty-four, surrounded with porticos. It stood in a large yard, inclosed and shaded by trees, and was divided into four large wards and two smaller ones, a dispensary, store-rooms, mess-rooms, etc. It was capable of accommodating eighty or ninety patients. On the same ridge with the hospital were two large houses occupied by the chaplain and sutler. The commanding officer's quarters were near the river and north of the barracks, in a handsome house built in cottage style. A little to the south of the barracks, on the river-bank, was a substantial building ninety by thirty feet and two stories high, affording ample room for the storage of subsistence and quartermaster's stores. There was also at the post stabling for a large number of horses. There had been expended on the buildings prior to 1840 about seventy thousand dollars.

On the 1st of January, 1827, a ball was given at the barracks, to which many of the prominent families of St. Louis were invited, and in return a ball was given to the officers by the citizens at the residence of Governor Clark, which is described as having been a very brilliant affair.

Before the Mexican war Jefferson Barracks was a grand rendezvous for the troops in the West, and soldiers and munitions of war were generally distributed from this point to the frontier garrisons. Many of the most important military and exploring expeditions made the post their starting-point, and when unemployed the reserve of the Western army was usually quartered at this salubrious and attractive place, where, in the midst of a country abundantly supplied with provisions, the troops were supported at very little expense.

The wife of Gen. Atkinson, the commander of the post for many years, was a daughter of Alexander Bullitt, one of the original settlers of Louisville, Ky., and the eldest of a family celebrated for beauty, wit, and charm of manner. Mrs. Atkinson, aided, after the lapse of some years, by her brilliant and beautiful sisters, made Jefferson Barracks something more than a mere military post, and transformed it into a delightful and elegant home for the gay and gallant young soldiers serving here their apprenticeship in arms. The barracks were near enough to St. Louis to allow the officers to mingle freely in its gay and hospitable society, in which the influence of the old French element was still predominant. The descendants of the first settlers had preserved in their colonial isolation some of the best features of the old régime, lost even in France itself through the Revolution. To innocent sprightliness was joined decorum, and the inherent grace and polish of the French race were united with the cordiality and generous freedom of intercourse which mark a young and prosperous community. The Chouteaus, Cabannés, Prattes, Soulards, Menards, Gratiots, Sarpys, Vallés, Cerrés, and many other French families among the descendants of the early settlers were erudite, accomplished people, who would have felt at ease and whose society would have

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been coveted in the gay saloons of Paris. The benefits and enjoyment of such a society were thoroughly appreciated and keenly relished by the officers, whose commissions in that happy day of the republic accredited them to the best society everywhere. Many of the young officers, without allowing themselves to fall into fashionable dissipation, indulged freely in the pleasures and amusements of the city, and found in St. Louis attachments which lasted during life. The O'Fallons, the Clarks, the Bentons, the Chouteaus, the Gratiots, the Mullanphys, the Lucases, and other noted and estimable families were among the chosen and remembered friends of the accomplished and dashing officers stationed at Jefferson Barracks from 1826 to 1860.

At a ball at Mr. Chouteau's, Lieut. Albert Sidney Johnston met for the first time Miss Henrietta Preston, who afterwards became his wife. She was the eldest child of Maj. William Preston, a member of the Virginia family of that name, and an officer of Wayne's army, who had resigned and settled at Louisville, Ky. Maj. Preston's wife, Mrs. Caroline Hancock Preston, was the daughter of Col. George Hancock, of Fincastle, Va. (an aide to Pulaski, a colonel in the Revolutionary war, and a member of the Fourth Congress), and belonged to a family distinguished for beauty and talents. Mrs. Preston's youngest sister had married Governor William Clark, of Missouri, and her husband's niece was the wife of Hon. Thomas H. Benton. Governor Clark was one of the foremost men of the West. A younger brother of the great George Rogers Clark, he possessed the latter's boldness and sagacity without his infirmities, and reaped the legitimate rewards of energy and intellect from which unthrift debarred the hero. He had early in life obtained great celebrity by his explorations, in conjunction with Lewis, of the sources of the Columbia River and in the far West. He was Governor of Missouri for many years, and, as Indian agent, justly enjoyed the confidence both of his government and of the Indian tribes. With wealth, intelligence, an elevated character, and popular manners, he was well fitted for his place as a leader in a young republic. His first wife, Miss Julia Hancock, was a woman of eminent graces and singular beauty. After her death he married her cousin, Mrs. Radford. Governor Clark's descendants and collateral relations are prominent citizens of St. Louis and Louisville. Thomas H. Benton's wife was a daughter of Col. James McDowell, of Rockbridge County, Va., and sister of the eloquent Governor of Virginia. She was the niece and favorite kinswoman of Maj. Preston, and spent four or five years in his house, devoting herself for the most part, as a matter of choice, to the education of his daughter Henrietta, then a little girl. Miss Preston was visiting these relations in St. Louis when she met Lieut. Johnston, and the interest which she at once inspired was reciprocated. Their mutual attachment continued unbroken; and Lieut. Johnston, having been sent on recruiting service to Louisville, Ky., where Miss Preston resided, and where he remained for a great portion of the year 1828, became engaged to her. They were married Jan. 20, 1829.

On the 1st of April, 1832, Brig.-Gen. Atkinson, then commanding the right wing of the Western Department, received an order, dated March 17th, from the headquarters of the army, announcing that the Sacs and Foxes, in violation of the treaty of Prairie du Chien of 1830, had attacked the Menomonees, near Fort Crawford, and killed twenty-five of that tribe, and that the Menomonees meditated a retaliation. To preserve the pledged faith of the government unbroken, and keep peace and amity among those tribes, he was instructed to prevent any movement on the part of the Menomonees against the Sacs and Foxes, and to demand of the Sac and Fox nation eight or ten of the party engaged in the murder of the Menomonees, including some of the principal men. For these purposes he was empowered to employ the regular force on the Mississippi, or so much as could be dispensed with after providing for the security of the several posts. The remote position of Fort Snelling, at the Falls of St. Anthony, surrounded as it was by powerful bands of Indians, precluded the possibility of withdrawing any portion of the garrison at that point. The expeditionary force therefore would have to be made up of such of the troops as could be spared from the slender garrison at Prairie du Chien, the troops at Fort Winnebago, at the portage of the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, and at Fort Armstrong, at Rock Island, and the companies of the Sixth Regiment at Jefferson Barracks, amounting in all to about four hundred and twenty men. In compliance with his orders, Gen. Atkinson set off for the upper Mississippi with six companies of the Sixth Infantry (two hundred and twenty men), which were embarked at the barracks on April 8, 1832, in the steamboats "Enterprise" and "Chieftain." 328 The troops arrived at their destination in due time, and in

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an engagement with the Indians under Black Hawk, near Bad Axe River, on Aug. 2, 1832, the savages were subdued, and their principal chiefs, including Black Hawk, were captured and detained as prisoners of war in Jefferson Barracks to await the orders of the government.

Upon the cessation of hostilities the Sixth Infantry returned to the barracks. While stationed here some of the younger officers were somewhat hot-blooded, and Second Lieut. Charles O. May was killed in a duel on the 19th of January, 1830.

After the close of the Black Hawk war Congress deemed it necessary to add a regiment of dragoons to the military establishment for service against the Indians on the plains and in the Rocky Mountains, and in the spring of 1833 the First Regiment of dragoons, now First Cavalry, was organized at this point under Col. Henry Dodge, Lieut.-Col. Stephen Watts Kearney, and Maj. Richard B. Mason. Among the captains were David Hunter and Edwin V. Sumner, afterwards colonels of cavalry, and Nathan Boone, a son of the famous Daniel Boone, of Kentucky. Jefferson Davis, afterwards President of the Southern Confederacy, was a first lieutenant, as was Philip St. George Cooke, subsequently colonel of cavalry and brigadier-general. A portion of the Second Dragoons, now Second Cavalry, under Col. David E. Twiggs, was organized here in 1836, and in the following summer marched hence to participate in the Florida war, where it rendered excellent service. William S. Harney, well known in St. Louis, was lieutenant-colonel of this regiment.

In the autumn of 1842 the headquarters and all of the companies of the Fourth Infantry were at Jefferson Barracks, where the regiment remained until May, 1844, when it went to Louisiana. The regiment had been serving in Florida against the Seminole Indians, and was sent to the barracks for a brief rest.

Gen. Atkinson, who was from North Carolina, died at Jefferson Barracks on June 14, 1842. He entered the army as captain of the Third Infantry, July 1, 1809, and was appointed assistant inspector-general with the rank of major, and inspector-general with the rank of colonel, April 25, 1813. On April 15, 1814, he was appointed colonel of the Forty-fifth Regiment of infantry, and in the same month was transferred to the Thirty-seventh Infantry. Upon the reorganization of the army he was retained as colonel of the Sixth Infantry. On May 13, 1820, he was promoted to the rank of brigadier general, and declined June 1, 1821, the position of adjutant-general with the rank of colonel. In August, 1821, he was retained as colonel of the Sixth Infantry, with the brevet of brigadier-general commanding the Western army.

Another distinguished officer died at Jefferson Barracks, — Brevet Brig.-Gen. Richard B. Mason, colonel of the First Regiment of United States dragoons, who expired at his headquarters at the barracks on July 25, 1850, of cholera, leaving a wife and two daughters. Gen. Mason was a native of Stafford County, Va., and was descended from a family eminent for their services in the war of the Revolution. On the 2d of September, 1817, he was appointed from civil life to a second lieutenancy in the old Eighth Regiment of infantry, and in the same month was made first lieutenant. In July, 1819, he was made captain, and in May, 1821, upon the breaking up of the Eighth Regiment, he was transferred to the First. In 1825 and 1826 he was with the forces that ascended the Missouri to the mouth of the Yellowstone. In fact, his whole service in the army was spent on the Northern and Western frontiers. Upon his return from the expedition he was engaged in the erection of Jefferson Barracks. In May, 1832, during the Black Hawk war, he was appointed captain of ordnance, which position he declined. On the organization of the dragoons he was appointed, March 4, 1833, major of the First Regiment. He served through the Black Hawk war, and subsequently was for several years stationed at Fort Gibson. On the 4th of July, 1836, he was made lieutenant-colonel of the First Dragoons, and colonel June 30, 1846. For two years previous to the Mexican war he was stationed in the East on recruiting service. When that war broke out he joined Gen. Kearney in California, where he was made, in 1847-48, military commander and civil Governor of the Tenth (California) Department. He was breveted brigadier-general "for meritorious conduct" in March, 1849, to date from May 30, 1848. He was relieved from his command in 1849, and enjoyed but a short respite from duty with his family before he died.

During the Mexican war many troops were fitted out at Jefferson Barracks and departed for the scene of hostilities. The regiment of mounted riflemen, now Third Cavalry, originally intended for the protection of emigrants on the way to Oregon, was organized here in the summer of 1846, and after being carefully trained by Maj. Sumner, started for the battle-fields of Mexico. Maj. Sumner did not belong to the regiment, but had been specially detailed to give it the preliminary training, as the colonel and lieutenant-colonel were both absent in the field. The companies were recruited in different portions of the Union, and

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the men were sent here to be embodied and properly drilled. At the same time the place was used as a depot for recruits, and was kept well filled. The regiment of mounted riflemen became famous in the Mexican war, and participated in several hard-fought battles. Several of the infantry regiments, or portions of them at least, were here from time to time and many of the older officers remained here for longer or shorter periods. After the close of the Mexican war the Seventh was at the barracks, succeeded for a few years after by the Sixth. The Fifth and Eighth were here also, for a brief season, as also was the Third, all of which had done excellent service in Mexico.

Shortly after the war Brevet Col. Braxton Bragg, who afterwards became a distinguished general in the Confederate army, was ordered to Jefferson Barracks, where he organized his famous flying artillery company, which practiced firing at a target on the other side of the river. His lieutenants were Loeser and Ayres, the latter of whom is now a distinguished general in the United States army.

The gun-sheds used by the battery are now standing, though not in good condition, time having worked considerable change in their appearance. There was not a very good drill-ground near by, the surface being broken by ravines and covered with a thick growth of bushes and trees. Underneath there was a tangled mass of vines and weeds, forming in some places an impenetrable jungle.

In 1853, Brevet Brig.-Gen. Newman S. Clarke, colonel Sixth Infantry, commanding the Sixth Military Department, had his headquarters at Jefferson Barracks, and with him was his adjutant, Winfield S. Hancock, who has since become so famous throughout the republic. This military department then comprised a considerable portion of the West.

On the 22d of August, 1853, occurred the death at Jefferson Barracks of Brevet Capt. Hachaliah Brown, first lieutenant of the Third Begiment of artillery, in the thirty-first year of his age. Capt. Brown graduated at the Military Academy in 1842, and entered the service as a brevet second lieutenant in the Fourth Regiment of artillery, in which he continued to serve until March, 1845, when he was transferred by promotion to the Third Artillery. He remained on duty on the Atlantic sea-board for some time after the commencement of hostilities between the United States and Mexico, and received orders for the field shortly after the administration had determined upon a new line of operations, beginning with Vera Cruz. He joined at Tampico the battalion of light infantry under the command of Col. Steptoe, and served with it until the evacuation of the country by the army. During the siege of Vera Cruz he was detached with a body of troops under Gen. Harney, and participated in the affair of Medelin, "for gallant and meritorious" conduct in which he received the brevet of captain. He was also distinguished in the battle of Cerro Gordo; and in the valley of Mexico, while attached with his company to Gen. Quitman's division, served in the battle of Chapultepec and the attack upon the Belen Gate. Soon after he returned from Mexico he was appointed adjutant of his regiment, in which capacity he served until 1851, when, after a brief sojourn in Boston Harbor, he was ordered to duty with Col. Bragg's battery, and died near the close of his period of service with it.

In 1853 and 1856, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, the eminent soldier and statesman, commanded the post. He was then lieutenant-colonel of the First Cavalry, which was stationed at Fort Leavenworth, commanded by Col. Edwin V. Sumner. It is said that a little bad feeling sprang up between Sumner and Johnston at Fort Leavenworth, which was the cause of Johnston being put in command at Jefferson Barracks. This ill feeling is thought to have existed to the day of Sumner's death, and was especially vented in the battles of Fair Oaks and Malvern Hill.

While Gen. Johnston was enjoying the emoluments of shoulder-straps at the barracks in 1857, there was an humble farmer who sometimes visited the post with a wagon-load of "garden sass," or perhaps now and then a cord of wood, who has somewhat out-figured the military individuals noted above. That farmer was no less a personage than Ulysses S. Grant, who actually sold wood by the load at the barracks during the command of Col. Joseph E. Johnston. Jefferson Davis, the late President of the Confederate States, has also been an inmate of the barracks. Before the Mexican war, while Davis was a lieutenant in the regular army, his company remained for a considerable time at these barracks; and visitors are now shown where the chief of the great Rebellion knelt in prayer in the chapel. In the same chapel the Johnstons and Lee attended divine worship. There are those still remaining at the barracks who well recollect the appearance and manner of Gen. Lee, and he is remembered as a mild, affable, and elegant gentleman of the old school.

Visitors are also shown a large locust-tree, which is much stooped and bent, though still growing, and are told that when quite a sapling it was prostrated by Gen. Mansfield Lovell (of New Orleans surrender memory), who, attempting a display in artillery

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practice before some ladies who were present, drove a caisson over it.

Col. Francis Lee was another of the distinguished officers who were stationed at Jefferson Barracks. At the time of his death in St. Louis, on the 19th of January, 1859, he was colonel of the Second Regiment of United States Infantry. His funeral services were held at the Second Presbyterian Church, corner of Walnut and Fifth Streets, and the remains were escorted by his regiment to the barracks, accompanied by the general, regimental, and battalion staffs and a large number of citizens.

Col. Lee was born in Pennsylvania, April 13, 1802. At the age of sixteen he entered the Military Academy at West Point as a cadet, and four years afterwards, July 1, 1822, received his commission as second lieutenant of the Seventh Infantry. Two years later, in September, 1824, he was promoted to a first lieutenancy, and from May, 1826, to May, 1834, was assistant quartermaster. Upon the reorganization of the army in September, 1836, he was made first lieutenant, and captain in July, 1838. Upon the breaking out of the war with Mexico, in 1846, he was appointed chief engineer of the army commanded by Brig.-Gen. Wool, and on April 18, 1847, while in command of the Fourth Regiment, was breveted major "for gallant and meritorious conduct" in the battle of Cerro Gordo. On August 27th he was breveted lieutenant-colonel "for gallant and meritorious conduct in the battles of Contreras and Churubusco," and colonel on September 13th of the same year for similar conduct in the battle of Chapultepec, in which he was wounded. He had previously distinguished himself at the siege of Fort Brown, and his conduct on the occasion of the taking of the City of Mexico Was also highly meritorious. He was made superintendent of the West Point Military Academy Sept. 1, 1852, and succeeded to the colonelcy of the Second Regiment of infantry, Oct. 18, 1855, which rank he held at the time of his death. He was commander of the Department of the West, stationed in St. Louis, until the fall of 1858, when he was relieved by Col. E. V. Sumner. His services in the war with Mexico, wherein he earned such deserved renown, were not without their sacrifices. Like many others, he contracted a disease which undermined his constitution and eventually brought him to his death-bed.

Col. Lee, besides being a gallant officer, was in all respects an upright and honorable man. His many amiable traits, his sociable disposition, and his frank, punctilious integrity won the regard of all with whom he was brought in contact.

One of the most interesting events connected with Jefferson Barracks was the organization there of the famous Second Regiment of cavalry, which was intended for immediate service in Texas. It was formed in 1855 by Jefferson Davis, then Secretary of War, and was known as "Davis' pet regiment." It is doubtful whether any other regiment furnished an equal number of distinguished officers to the two contending armies during the great civil war. Albert Sidney Johnston, a brave and skillful soldier, was appointed colonel of the regiment, with rank from March 3, 1855. Johnston was a native of Kentucky, and after graduating at West Point, and serving some time in the Sixth Infantry Regiment, resigned and offered his services to the republic of Texas. They were accepted, and he passed through the various grades of brigadier-general, general, commander-in-chief, and secretary of war of the republic. On account of some misunderstanding in relation to the command of the army, he fought a duel with Gen. Felix Houston, was wounded, and always afterward walked a little lame. He became a planter in Texas, but upon the breaking out of the Mexican war he was chosen colonel of a Texas infantry regiment, and served some time. This regiment was disbanded, and he continued in service on Maj.-Gen. William O. Butler's staff as acting inspector-general. While thus serving he participated in the battle of Monterey, and shortly after was appointed a paymaster in the regular army, with the rank of major. In 1855, as we have stated, he was appointed colonel of the Second Regiment Cavalry, and although afterward breveted brigadier-general for his services in Utah, was in fact the head of that regiment when the civil war broke out, and when he resigned. He was killed while in command of the Confederate army at Shiloh. Gen. Johnston was a very gentlemanly man, and a chaste and fluent writer. He had a fine military presence and carriage, with the most gentle and winning manners.

Brevet Col. Robert E. Lee was the lieutenant-colonel of this regiment, and afterwards became the commander-in-chief of the Confederate army. He was a Virginian by birth, and a graduate of the West Point Military Academy. He was first in the engineers, and for some time was engaged in deepening the channel in the harbor of St. Louis. He gained a fine reputation during the Mexican war, at the close of which, although but a captain, he had the brevet rank of colonel. For some years he was superintendent at West Point, and in 1855 was promoted lieutenant-colonel of the Second Cavalry. He served some time in Texas with the regiment, and for a time had command of that department. This great soldier died Oct. 12, 1870.

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Lee was a refined American gentleman, courteous and affable in his deportment, and kindly in his feelings. His personal appearance was striking, and impressed one with the idea that he was a great soldier, as he proved himself to be. He was wounded at Chapultepec, in Mexico.

Maj. and Brevet Lieut.-Col. William J. Hardee, of this regiment, became afterwards a lieutenant-general in the Confederate army. He was a Georgian by birth, and a graduate of West Point. "Hardee's Tactics," so called, is a translation from the French.

George H. Thomas, the major of the regiment, was afterwards a distinguished general in the Union army. He was born in Southampton County, Va., July 31, 1816, and died in San Francisco, Cal., March 28, 1870. He graduated at West Point, and won great distinction in the army during the war with Mexico, and during the civil war of 1861-65. At the close of the latter war he was made major-general of the United States army from Dec. 15, 1864. On March 3, 1865, he received the thanks of Congress for his eminent services during the war, and from the Legislature of Tennessee, Nov. 2, 1865, a vote of thanks and a gold medal. In February, 1868, President Johnson having offered him the brevet of lieutenant-general, he declined the compliment, saying he had done nothing since the war to merit such promotion. Gen.-Thomas was remarkable for simplicity of character, modesty, stability, and discretion.

The next in rank in the Second Regiment of cavalry was Capt. and Brevet Maj. Earl Van Dorn. He was born in Mississippi in 1821, graduated at West Point, and was killed by Dr. Peters at Spring Hill, Tenn., May 8, 1863. He served with distinguished gallantry in the Mexican war, and in the Confederate army as a major-general.

Edmund Kirby Smith, another captain in the regiment, was born in Florida about 1825, graduated at West Point, and served with distinction in the war with Mexico. He resigned his commission April 6, 1861, and joined the Confederacy. He received various promotions in the Confederate army until in October, 1862, he was appointed lieutenant-general. Early in 1863 he took command of the Trans-Mississippi army, which he surrendered to Gen. Canby May 26, 1865.

The other captains in the regiment were the following distinguished officers: George Stoneman, born in New York, Aug. 8, 1822, graduated at West Point in 1846, and served throughout the civil war in the Union army. He was chief of cavalry of Gen. Hooker's army, and at the close of the war was made brevet major-general United States army, and retired in 1871. He is now (1883) Governor of California.

James Oakes, a thorough Union man during the war, was from Pennsylvania. He served with distinction in Mexico, and was wounded in an Indian fight in Texas. On account of this wound, which disabled him, he was obliged to decline a brigadier-generalship tendered him by the President.

Innis N. Palmer, of New York, was a brigadier-general of volunteers in the Union army. He served in Mexico as lieutenant of rifles, and was severely wounded at Chapultepec.

Theodore O'Hara and Charles E. Travis were originally appointed in the regiment, but served with it only a short time. The former was from Kentucky and the latter from Texas. Travis was the son of Col. Travis, the hero of the Alamo, and died in 1860. O'Hara served in the Cuban expedition under Lopez, and was severely wounded. He was aide-de-camp to Gen. A. Sidney Johnston at the battle of Shiloh. William R. Bradfute, of Tennessee, left the Federal service and joined the Confederates. He served in Mexico, and was considered a very brave man.

Albert G. Brackett, of Indiana, is a colonel in the regular army. He served in the Mexican war, and was wounded by the Confederates in Arkansas. Charles J. Whiting, of California, served faithfully during the war on the Union side, and was major in the Second Cavalry, formerly the Second Dragoons. Richard W. Johnson, of Kentucky, was a distinguished Union officer during the late civil war, and retired with full rank on Oct. 12, 1867, as brevet major-general of the United States army. Nathan G. Evans, of South Carolina, was a major-general in the Confederate service, and fought at Bull's Run, Ball's Bluff, and Hatcher's Run. He died Nov. 30, 1868.

Among the first lieutenants were McArthur, Charles W. Field, Garrard, Jenifer, William B. Royall (who became a colonel in the regular army), Chambliss, Eagle, Swert, Shaaf, Cosby, W. W. Lowe, and John B. Hood; and second lieutenants, Witherell, Minter, Gibbs, Major, Phifer, Harrison, Porter, Owens, Fitzhugh Lee, Kimmel, and Cunningham.

Kenner Garrard, who was born in Kentucky, subsequently distinguished himself in the Union army, being at its close a brevet major-general, United States army. He resigned Nov. 9, 1866. W. W. Lowe graduated at West Point July 1, 1853, and was assigned to duty in the Second Dragoons. He was afterwards transferred to the Second Cavalry, and took an active part in recruiting and organizing the regiment. During the civil war he commanded the Fifth Iowa Cavalry, and the posts of Forts Henry,

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Hindman, and Donelson. He was a brevet brigadier-general. McArthur, Harrison, Owens, Arnold, and Swert remained true to the Union. Lieut. John J. Swert was killed at the battle of Gaines' Mill, Va., June 27, 1862. Lieuts. Chambliss and Phifer were generals in the Confederate army, and Cosby, Jenifer, Shaaf, Field, Gibbs, Major, Minter, and Kimmel served in the same army. John B. Hood was born in Bath County, Ky., about 1830, and graduated at West Point in 1853. He resigned his commission April 16, 1861, and entered the Confederate service, in which he soon rose to the rank of lieutenant-general. He died in New Orleans after the war. Fitzhugh Lee was born in Virginia, and graduated at West Point. On the breaking out of the civil war he resigned his commission and entered the Confederate service, where he acquired the rank of major-general of cavalry.

The Second Regiment of cavalry was rapidly recruited, and was composed of farmers' sons and other daring young men. Its complement (eight hundred and fifty men) was made up about the middle of August, 1855, and the recruits were rendezvoused at Jefferson Barracks, under the command of Maj. Hardee, with orders to march to the frontiers of Texas in October. Cols. Johnston and Lee had been directed to proceed to Fort Leavenworth to sit on a general court-martial, to be held September 24th. They were relieved early in October, and joined their regiment, which started for Texas on the 27th. Its route of march from Jefferson Barracks lay through the Ozark Mountains, in Southwestern Missouri, and passed by way of Springfield and Neosho into the Indian Territory. It reached Tahlequah November 28th, and, proceeding by way of Fort Gibson and Fort Washita, entered Texas at Preston on the 15th of December. From Preston the column moved to Belknap, and thence to Fort Mason, its destination, where it arrived Jan. 14, 1856. Four companies were left on the Clear Fork of the Brazos, under Maj. Hardee.

The regiment fought the Comanche, Lipan, Apache, and Kiowa Indians over forty times between the years 1856 and 1860, and in nearly every fight was successful.

While the regiment was at Green Lake, Texas, after the ordinance of secession had passed, and prior to starting for the North, Van Dorn, then a colonel in the Confederate service, visited it and tried to induce some of the officers and men to join the Confederates. It is said that not a man left the regiment.

During the civil war the regiment did excellent service for the Union cause, and shed its blood on many a well-fought field. When the Union army crossed the Potomac, in May, 1861, the only cavalry force with it was three companies of this regiment, and at the battle of Bull Run four out of the seven cavalry companies on the field belonged to it. It is a noteworthy fact that in that terrible battle the Union cavalry force did not number much over three hundred men.

Lieut.-Col. Edwin V. Sumner, who was superintendent of the mounted recruiting service, was stationed at the barracks in 1855, and upon being promoted to the colonelcy of the First (now Fourth) Cavalry, in that year, went to Fort Leavenworth, where he formed his regiment. He was succeeded as superintendent by Brevet Col. Charles A. May.

The barracks continued to be used as a cavalry depot for several years, during which time many recruits were sent from it for service in the far West. It remained an important military post until the great civil war broke out in 1861, when it was transformed into a general military hospital. The site was thought to be particularly adapted for the treatment of diseases as well as wounds, and some remarkable recoveries certainly were made. The quiet no doubt added to its sanitary condition, and steamboat after steamboat loaded with men who had been broken down in the South were landed here, and received medical treatment. In those days many steamboats were regularly fitted up as hospital boats.

In the fall of 1862, by order of the government, the work of erecting additional buildings for hospital wards was commenced, and by the following spring they were completed, and many other buildings and quarters arranged and adapted to the purposes of a hospital. The most elaborate improvements were made. The new buildings comprised nine one-story houses, six hundred and ten feet in length, in their position forming nearly a half circle of about half a mile in diameter. These buildings comprised wards, surgeons' quarters, nurses' rooms, secondary dispensaries, cook-houses, etc., and were kept in a state of most perfect neatness and order.

About the centre of the grounds was the waterworks building, containing four iron tanks, which held one thousand gallons of water each, which was pumped from the river by a steam-engine. This reservoir distributed water to every building on the grounds, and was an admirable convenience. The works cost twenty-seven thousand dollars.

The capacity of the entire institution was for three thousand patients; but in February, 1864, there were but few patients there, though quite a number of convalescents. Among the most noteworthy conveniences at the barracks at this time was a printing office,

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which was kept going by the convalescent soldiers, where all the printing of the hospital was done. This, which was formerly no mean item of expense, was in 1864 an entire saving, with the exception of the cost of paper and ink. The printers also commenced the issue of a small weekly paper called the Convalescent, a very neat little sheet, the first number of which was published Feb. 14, 1864.

There was on the grounds a hotel for the accommodation of persons visiting sick friends, with a ten-pin alley and billiard-room attached. Near this was the post-office, which sent off twenty-three thousand letters during the month of January, 1864.

Near the centre of the grounds was a neat and commodious chapel, where religious services were held. Attached to this, and occupying the vestibule, were a library and reading-room, the latter containing all the principal newspapers and periodicals of the country. There was also a branch library in each ward.

The Rev. Mr. Fish was at this time (February, 1864) the post chaplain, and had served in this capacity for more than ten years.

Surgeon John F. Randolph, United States army, took charge of the hospital in February, 1863, and commanded the post. He was a native of Virginia, and was one of the few army officers from that State who remained true to the Union. He had been attached to the army for more than ten years, and in 1861 returned from a long period of service in Oregon and California. The following assistant surgeons and officers of the post were all men of the highest qualifications, and manifested the deepest interest in the operations of the hospital:

Asst. Surg. H. R. Tilton, U.S.A., executive officer.
Capt. A. R. Smith, U.S.V., commissary of subsistence.
Capt. J. H. Corns, U.S.V., commanding Company K, Eighth Regiment Invalid Corps, and assistant provost-marshal.
Second Lieut. S. C. Wildman, Second Illinois Cavalry, commanding Sixty-second
Company, Second Battalion Invalid Corps.
Rev. J. W. Fish, U.S.A., post chaplain.
Rev. Samuel Pettigrew, U.S.A., hospital chaplain.
Acting assistant surgeons, H. Latham, U.S.A.; W. H. Martin, U.S.A.; A. L. Allen, U.S.A.; T. F. Humbold, U.S.A.; T. W. McArthur, U.S.A.; S. Leslie, U.S.A.; J. A. Rolls, U.S.A.; W. M. Welch, U.S.A.; J. J. Marston, U.S.A.; P. C. McLane, U.S.A.; P. C. H. Rooney, U.S.A.
Hospital stewards, S. Ravenburg, U.S.A.; H. J. Thompson, U.S.A.; E. W. Klipstein, U.S.A.; R. H. Dawson, U.S.A.

For a short time after the close of the war the barracks were again used as a garrison for troops, were soon thereafter abandoned, and finally, in the autumn of 1867, were transferred to the engineer corps of the army, to be used as an engineer depot, and garrisoned by one company of the engineer battalion, commanded by Brevet Lieut.-Col. P. C. Hains. The instruction of the engineer soldiers was similar to that of the infantry, and in addition they were taught something in regard to siege operations. Earthworks were thrown up, and the siege of a place imitated on a small scale, and drill taught on pontoon-boats.

In the mean time a great deal of ground had been set aside for the Ordnance Department, and a large depot for storing gunpowder formed, which was for a time under command of Col. Franklin D. Callender, brevet brigadier-general.

A large national cemetery is also located on a portion of the ground close to the barracks, and the cemetery itself, carefully kept, is a beautiful place in summer. The remains of more than ten thousand soldiers who have fallen in our wars here find a resting-place on a gentle elevation overlooking the Mississippi River. There are several handsome monuments that have been erected by relatives of deceased individuals, and regulation headstones have been provided by the government for others.

The engineers retained possession for a limited period of time, when the whole place and reservation with the exception of the national cemetery passed into the hands of the ordnance corps, and so remained until July, 1878. For a time Capt. James H. Rollins had command, who was succeeded by Capt. Lawrence S. Babbitt, who was followed by Maj. John W. Todd.

Maj. Todd was thrown from his buggy on May 7, 1879, and received fatal injuries, from which he died on the 10th. He was born in 1830, at Bowling Green, Ky., and graduated at the West Point Military Academy in 1852. As second lieutenant in the Ordnance Department, he was first assigned to duty at the St. Louis arsenal, whither he repaired in company with a classmate, S. V. Benét, afterwards Gen. Benét, chief ordnance officer of the United States army at Washington. He had been on duty at Augusta arsenal, at Columbus, Ohio, Watervliet arsenal, near Troy, N. Y., Detroit, Mich., Baton Rouge, and other points.

In 1859-60 he went on leave of absence to Europe, and visited the principal establishments, acquiring information of service to the profession. He was in command of Baton Rouge arsenal at the time it was surrendered to the Louisiana State troops, sent from New Orleans. His mother was with him at the time, and was taken prisoner. The conditions of the surrender allowed the major to march out with his colors and his men, and he reported at the St. Louis arsenal. During the civil war he was also on duty at the Dry Tortugas during the bombardment.

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He removed to St. Louis from Indianapolis in 1876, relieving Capt. L. S. Babbitt, in command of Jefferson Barracks. Maj. Todd was a man of superb figure, being six feet one inch in stature. He was a man of extensive reading, and well posted by study and a wide experience in his profession. By his suavity and kind-hearted, generous hospitality he became endeared to a host of friends while in St. Louis, both among the military and civilians. The major was a relative of the Underwoods in Kentucky, and of numerous members of the Todd family in that State and Missouri, but he was not a relative of Mrs. Lincoln, who also was a Todd, as has been erroneously stated.

After the death of Maj. Todd, Maj. James R. McGinness took command of that portion of the reservation known as the powder depot, where there is a detachment of ordnance soldiers. There are several large buildings on the ground, in which gunpowder is stored.

From what has already been said it will be seen that the barracks have at different times been garrisoned by men of the ordnance corps, engineer corps, cavalry, artillery, and infantry, and, as has been shown, many of our most famous officers have served at the barracks and have kindly recollections of the place. Gen. Grant was here as a subaltern for some time, besides others who have achieved great fame. In fact, in old times it was considered a most desirable station on account of its proximity to St. Louis and the comfortable quarters provided for officers and men. The fine roads near by render carriage-driving a pleasure, and there are many points of interest within easy access of the place. The stone houses built by Gen. Atkinson over fifty years ago are in as good condition as they ever were, probably better, as the ordnance corps when in possession of the place put in many modern improvements. In summer the eastern portion of the parade-ground is really beautiful, being adorned with trees and rare flowers. Here, too, is a band-stand, and an excellent band performs every afternoon when the weather is good, excepting Saturdays, and there is dress-parade of the troops three times a week. The greatest care is taken to keep the place in good order in summer and winter, and it always presents a handsome appearance.

On the 1st of July, 1878, Brevet Brig.-Gen. John I. Gregg, colonel of the Eighth Cavalry, who was at that time superintendent of the mounted recruiting service, moved the cavalry depot down to Jefferson Barracks from the old St. Louis arsenal. The arsenal was altogether too small, and was almost surrounded by dwellings and shops. In fact, it was totally unfitted for the purposes for which it was used, and a more roomy place became absolutely necessary. The War Department wisely moved the depot to the barracks, where it had been in former years, and where there was ample shelter for the recruits that are found in different places throughout the Union. Brevet Maj.-Gen. Cuvier Grover, colonel of the First Cavalry, succeeded Gen. Gregg in command of the depot on the 1st of October, 1878, and Grover was succeeded by Brevet Brig.-Gen. Thomas H. Neill, colonel of the Eighth Cavalry, on the 1st of October, 1880. Gen. Neill remained here two years, and was relieved by Col. Albert G. Brackett, of the Third Cavalry (who is still in charge), on the 1st of October, 1882.

The ordnance grounds are separate and distinct from those of the barracks, although on the same reservation. The recruits are embodied in a battalion of four companies, and receive such drilling as can be imparted in three or four months before they are sent to the regiments on the frontier. This keeps everybody busy, and as there are usually from six to seven hundred recruits at the place, no one need complain of its being dull, especially in good weather, when the men can be drilled on the parade.

Decoration Day is the great event of the year at the barracks, when people from all portions of the country flock there to decorate the graves of the soldiers in the cemetery. The exercises are of the most touching character, and after it is over the whole ground looks like a garden of rare and exquisite flowers. Thus is kept green the memory of those brave men who sacrificed their lives in the defense of the republic.

The United States Arsenal is situated on the west bank of the Mississippi, in the southern portion of St. Louis, and within sight of Jefferson Barracks. The establishment of the arsenal at St. Louis was determined upon in accordance with the recommendations of the following report, which was rendered to the War Department in the spring of 1826:

"I have the honor to state that an arsenal at St. Louis or its vicinity is considered to be very necessary at this time.

"All the military posts on the Missouri and the Upper Mississippi Rivers must be supplied from the depot in that section of the country. Many of these posts are so remote that the supplies annually sent to them are forwarded from St. Louis early in the spring, commonly in the month of March. For this reason it is necessary that the supplies should be placed in depot at St. Louis the previous autumn.

"It was found necessary immediately after the close of the late war, in 1815, to establish a military depot in that section of the country for the supply of the new posts then about to be established in that quarter. An old cantonment, consisting

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entirely of log buildings, at Bellefontaine, on the Missouri, five miles from its junction with the Mississippi, was made use of for that purpose. This position was soon found to be be very unsuitable and inconvenient. The town of St. Louis, which is twenty-three miles distant, had of necessity to be resorted to whenever boats were required to transport supplies to any of the upper posts; and the approach to Bellefontaine by water is very difficult, if not dangerous.

"It was proposed as early as 1816 to erect a permanent establishment nearer to St. Louis, but as the stores were already deposited at Bellefontaine, and as that place could be made to answer for a time, nothing further appears to have been done than to explore the country with a view to select a suitable site.

"The inconvenience of Bellefontaine has proved so manifest that store-houses have been rented in the town of St. Louis, for several years past, for the storage of all such military supplies as were destined for an early shipment to the upper posts.

"The reason, however, why a new establishment is called for by the exigencies of the service at the present time is that the log buildings at Bellefontaine have become so much decayed that a part of them have recently fallen down, and the remainder are so rotten that they can be kept up but a little longer. There is a considerable quantity of arms and other military stores now at Bellefontaine, which are so insecurely sheltered in these log buildings that it is feared they will suffer material injury if not soon better provided for.

"A position in the immediate vicinity of St. Louis is preferred, because it is the only principal place of business between the Ohio and Missouri Rivers. It is the place of deposit and of departure of all supplies destined for the remote regions of the Upper Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, whether military stores or articles of merchandise and trade. It is the place, therefore, which possesses the most abundant means of transporting supplies, and would be resorted to for that purpose even if the arsenal should be established at a distance from it.

"An extensive establishment is not considered necessary at St. Louis. One suitable for the exigencies of the service in that section of country, it is conceived, would consist of the following, viz.:

"One building for an arsenal, to be about thirty by eighty feet, to contain small-arms, accoutrements, and artillery equipments; a magazine for gunpowder and ammunition; a dwelling-house for an officer and a military store-keeper; two small workshops for repairing arms, fixing ammunition, etc.; a small building for a few artificers and laborers; a shed for artillery-carriages; and a store-house about twenty-six by sixty feet, with a wharf adjoining. The latter will be required more particularly for the subsistence and the quartermaster's departments, and will be used for the reception and storage of packages in bulk received from the interior, and designed for transmission in the same state to the frontier posts. An establishment upon this scale, it is believed, would be found sufficient for the present exigencies of the service. It would, however, be advisable to secure a site of sufficient extent, and to arrange the buildings in such manner as to admit of any future extension of the works which the exigencies of the service may hereafter render necessary."

On the 2d of August, 1827, it was announced that "the commissioners appointed to select a site whereon to locate an arsenal have purchased the beautiful place of Mr. A. Rutgers, situated on the river-bank, about three miles below the city. The proximity of this situation to the new military position, Jefferson Barracks, gives it a decided superiority over any that could have been obtained above the city."

The erection of the buildings was commenced in the autumn of 1827, and was continued from time to time until about 1840, when they were finished and ready for use. 329

They are constructed in the most substantial manner, and, except the laboratories and sheds, are of stone with slate roofs. The arsenal proper is one hundred and twenty feet in length, and forty feet in width, and is three stories high, besides a cellar and attic. In addition to the arsenal there is an armory or workshop for repairing small-arms, including smiths' forges, etc., a smith's shop, shop for preparing the iron and wood of artillery-carriages, and a large steam-engine for the heavier work. There are also a storehouse for quartermaster's stores, three laboratories for manufacturing fixed ammunition and pyrotechnic preparations, a magazine of the same, barracks for the workmen and officers' quarters, office, etc., a gun-carriage house, timber sheds or houses, and a large powder magazine about half a mile from the arsenal. The arsenal commands a beautiful view, and is kept in the very best order. It was in its day by long odds the largest and finest arsenal in the United States. The walls of massive limestone inclosing the grounds are ten feet high and three feet thick, and surround some thirty-eight or forty acres of beautiful sloping land, extending from Carondelet Avenue to the Mississippi. The trees, lawns, paths, and walks are neatly kept, and equal those of any gentleman's park. The foundries and storehouses, soldiers' barracks, hospital and prison-house, powder magazine, dragoon stables and officers' dwellings, with their handsome yards and gardens, make up a perfect village in size. These buildings are of elegant architectural designs and proportions, and even the sentry-boxes are constructed in a tasteful and ornamental manner. The grounds are drained by sewers running to the river, and abound in wells of clear, pure water. The whole arsenal property is worth to the government a large sum of money.

During the late civil war all the arms, etc., were removed for greater safety to Jefferson Barracks. The work of removing the muskets, cannon, and cartridges

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was done wholly by the officers in garrison, aided by the volunteer regiments which encamped in April, 1861, within the arsenal walls. During the exciting times in St. Louis in April and May, 1861, earthworks were thrown up at nearly all available points, and mounted with columbiads and mortars. A huge new building, erected just outside of the main gate on Carondelet Avenue, was occupied by two companies of regulars, who constructed a strong earthwork, topped with sand-bags, and mounted with formidable pieces of ordnance. Other elevated positions, some of them a quarter of a mile from the arsenal, were occupied by volunteers as outposts, and afterwards were intrenched and mounted with cannon.

In 1860, Hon. J. R. Barret, member of Congress from St. Louis, succeeded in procuring the passage by the House of Representatives of a bill authorizing the location of the arsenal at Jefferson Barracks, and providing for the sale of the arsenal grounds, some thirty-five or forty acres. In announcing the fact the Republican said, "There is not, we apprehend, a man in St. Louis who will not rejoice at the success of this measure. At the time of the location of these public buildings, no one supposed, we imagine, that for many years yet to come the arsenal would be within the precincts of the city, and therefore not so agreeable to the citizens. But it has so turned out, and it is not surprising that many thousands of persons signed petitions to Congress, praying for the removal of the establishment to Jefferson Barracks." The measure failed to become a law, but in the summer of 1868 an act authorizing the sale of the arsenal grounds was passed by Congress and became a law. This law, however, was never carried into effect.

The arsenal is now used as a military recruiting rendezvous and clothing depot, and is occupied by a small garrison of soldiers under the command of Capt. W. P. Martin, U.S.A.

Naval Operations at St. Louis in the War of 1861-65. — Among the successful operations of the civil war, none were more gallant or more skillfully conducted, and none contributed more substantial results for the restoration of the Union, than those executed by the gunboats of the Mississippi squadron. Immediately upon the breaking out of the war the government became convinced of the military importance of the Western rivers and waters, and in April, 1861, Attorney-General Bates wrote to the distinguished civil engineer, James B. Eads, of St. Louis, who had been engaged in removing obstructions from the Mississippi and its great tributaries, respecting the use of steam gunboats upon those rivers. Mr. Eads immediately responded, and his plan was referred to Commodore Paulding, who reported favorably upon it, and Capt. John Rodgers, a distinguished officer of the United States navy, was detailed to go to St. Louis and consult with Mr. Eads. The result of this conference was that in the latter part of May and in June the steamers "Conestoga," "Taylor," and "Lexington" were secured, and altered at Cincinnati, Ohio, and fitted out as gunboats. These steamboats were not plated, but were protected by oak bulwarks against musket-balls. 330

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In July following, Quartermaster-General M. C. Meigs advertised for proposals to construct a number of entirely new ironclad gunboats for service on the Mississippi River. The contract was awarded on August 7th to Mr. Eads, who agreed to construct the seven vessels decided upon by the department according to the plans and specifications furnished by Capt. Rodgers, who was to superintend the building of the flotilla. The contract specified that the boats were to be completed and delivered at Cairo by the 5th of October, 1861, under a forfeiture of two hundred dollars per day on each boat until the contract was fulfilled. 331

The utmost dispatch was required on the part of Mr. Eads to finish the gunboats within the time specified in his contract, and to insure success three of the boats were built for him by Messrs. Hambleton & Collier, at Mound City, and the remaining four were constructed at his marine railways at Carondelet, South St. Louis. The energy and perseverance of Eads, Rogers, Foote, and others at this trying period (like that of Chauncey, Perry, and McDonough on the lakes in the war of 1812) can only be estimated by those whose experience has enabled them to form some idea of the magnitude of the undertaking which these men had to execute. With the exception of a few naval officers, all those to whom was intrusted the construction of the flotilla were ignorant of naval affairs, and they encountered also the additional disadvantage of having to contend against sectional disaffection on the one hand and vacillation on the part of the army and navy authorities on the other. Thus the difficulty of procuring outfits, armaments, and ammunition at a point so remote from the navy-yards and arsenals was very greatly increased. Notwithstanding all this, however, the building of the seven gunboats was begun and carried forward by Mr. Eads with immense energy, and the vessels were finished and ready for armament within one hundred days after the signing of the contract. The gunboats thus constructed were about one hundred and seventy-five feet long, fifty-one feet beam, six feet depth of hold in the clear, and when ready for service drew about five feet of water, and made nine miles per hour. They had five five-flued boilers twenty-four feet long and thirty-six inches in diameter, and two cylinders, each twenty-two inches in diameter, with seven feet stroke. The shaft was made of wrought iron, worked by both engines. A casemate inclosed the wheel, which was placed in a recess near the stern of the vessel. The hulls were made of wood, the bottoms of five-inch plank, and the sides of four-inch, and the vessel was sealed all over with two-inch plank. The sides projected from the bottom of the boat to the water-line at an angle of about forty-five degrees, and from the water-line the sides fell back at about the same angle to form a casemate about twelve feet high. This slanting casemate extended across the hull near the bow and stern, forming a quadrilateral gun-deck. The casemates were made of three-inch plank, and well fastened. The knuckles of the main deck, at the base of the casemates, were made of solid timber, about four feet in thickness. The boats were calked all over, both inside and outside, and sheathed on the outside with two-and-a-half-inch iron, thirteen inches wide, and rabbited on the edges to make a more perfect joint. The plating covered the casemates above and below the water-line. The boats were bulkheaded into compartments to prevent their sinking in case of damage to any particular part. The gun-deck was about one foot above water, and the vessels were pierced to carry thirteen heavy guns. Three 9- or 10-inch guns were placed in the bow, four smaller ones on each side, and two smaller ones astern.

The first of these gunboats, and, indeed, the first United States ironclad, with her boilers and engines on board, was launched from Mr. Eads' ship-yard at Carondelet on the 12th of October, 1861. She was named the "St. Louis" by Admiral Foote, but when the fleet was transferred from the control of the War Department to that of the Navy Department, this

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name was changed to the "De Kalb," there being another commissioned vessel at that time named the "St. Louis." Then followed the "Carondelet," "Cincinnati," "Louisville," "Mound City," "Cairo," and "Pittsburgh."

Shortly after, in December, 1861, the most powerful vessel of them all, and one which played an important part in the war as the flag-ship of Admiral Foote, the "Benton," was altered and plated. The "Benton" was at first the United States snag-boat "Tom Benton," and afterwards Messrs. Eads & Nelson's submarine wrecking-boat "No. 7." She was sold by Messes. Eads & Nelson to the government for the sum of twenty-six thousand dollars, and Gen. Fremont then ordered her to be changed into a gunboat by Messrs. Morse & Daggett, of the St. Louis Dry Dock Company, the work to be done under the superintendence of James B. Eads.

The "Benton" was one hundred and eighty-six feet long on deck, and seventy-five feet wide at the beam; her hold was eight and one-half feet in depth, and she drew about five feet of water. She had a double hull, with the wheels working in the recess near the stern. Her hull was of four-inch plank and timbers eight by ten inches, and was divided by five fore-and-aft bulkheads and thirteen cross bulkheads, making forty-five water-tight compartments. The deck-frame beams were ten inches square, and the main deck was planked with four-and-one-half-inch plank. The forward casemate ran down to the two feet water-line, and was of twenty-four-inch timber, all sheathed with two-and-one-third-inch iron plating. The entire boat was sealed with three and four-inch oak plank, calked, and made perfectly tight. Casemates extended around the whole vessel, and was made of twelve-inch timber. At the knuckle on the main deck the timber was from three to four feet in thickness.

The "Benton" was pierced for and carried eighteen heavy guns, from 32-pounders to 42-pounders calibre, some rifled and some smooth-bore. There were also two nine inch Dahlgren guns in the forward part of the boat, and two smaller ones at the stern.

The machinery, boilers, etc., were all under the deck. The cylinders were twenty inches in diameter, with seven feet stroke. There were four boilers twenty-four feet long and forty inches in diameter, double-flued. The wheels were twenty feet in diameter, with nine-and-one-half-feet bucket, the wheel-house being protected by timber from six to eight inches in thickness and sheathed with heavy iron. The pilot-house was protected by twelve-inch oak timber placed at an angle of about thirty degrees with the upper deck, and was conical in shape, and sheathed with heavy iron.

Her crew consisted of about two hundred and fifty men in all, and Capt. John Scott, a well-known pilot, acted as sailing-master.

Capt. Andrew H. Foote, of the United States navy, was appointed on the 30th of August, 1861, to the command of the naval operations in the Western waters, and was ordered to proceed to St. Louis with all practicable dispatch, and place himself in communication with Maj.-Gen. John C. Fremont, U.S.A., who commanded the Army of the West.

Upon his arrival at St. Louis, Capt. Foote, on Sept. 6, 1861, assumed command of his flotilla, which consisted of three wooden vessels in service, purchased, equipped, and armed as gunboats by Commodore Rodgers. There were also nine ironclad gunboats and thirty-eight mortar-boats in process of building. Seven of these gunboats, as we have seen, had been contracted for with James B. Eads by Quartermaster-Gen. Meigs, under authority of the War Department, and the two remaining boats were purchased and converted into gunboats by order of Maj.-Gen. Fremont. The thirty-eight mortar-boats were also built by order of Gen. Fremont. They were constructed of solid timber, without motive-power, and were each designed to carry a single mortar. Capt. Foote at once infused new vigor into the work of organizing his squadron. Material improvements were made in the plating and armament of the vessels, the casting of the guns at Pittsburgh was hastened, mortars and shells were contracted for to a large extent, and many other things were done to expedite the work of preparation. Finally the flotilla was completed, under the successive commands of Rodgers and Foote, especially the latter, who brought the original idea to perfection and carried it into operation. The fleet consisted of twelve gunboats, seven of them ironclad, and able to resist all except the heaviest solid shot, and costing, on an average, eighty-nine thousand dollars. The

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vessels were built very wide in proportion to their length, so that on the smooth river waters they might have almost the steadiness of stationary land batteries when discharging their heavy guns. This flotilla, carrying one hundred and forty-three guns, was as follows:

"Benton," 16 guns; "St. Louis," 13 guns; "Essex" (built at Carondelet), 9 guns; "Mound City," 13 guns; "Cincinnati," 13 guns; "Louisville," 13 guns; "Carondelet," 13 guns; "Cairo," 13 guns; "Pittsburgh" (built at Carondelet), 13 guns; "Lexington," 9 guns; "Conestoga," 9 guns; and "Taylor" 9 guns. Some of these guns were 64-pounders, some 7-inch rifled guns carrying a shell weighing eighty pounds, and none were less than 32-pounders. Each boat also carried a Dahlgren 10-inch shell-gun, the "Benton," Foote's flag-ship, having two of these in her forward battery.

"Foote's flotilla" rendezvoused at Cairo, and the "Benton" and "Essex," formerly called the "New Era," left St. Louis for that port on the 3d of December, 1861. In the fight at Fort Henry a 32-pound shot struck the "Essex" just above one of her bow guns, killing a young officer, Samuel B. Brittain, master's mate, then passing into the flue of the centre boiler, occasioning an escape of the steam and hot water which dreadfully scalded all on the forward gun-deck and the two pilots, who were almost immediately over the front of the boilers. Twenty men and officers were instantly killed or scalded by this explosion. Among the injured was the commander of the vessel, the gallant Capt. W. D. Porter. The "Essex" was completely disabled and was obliged at once to withdraw from the combat.

After the capture of Fort Henry the "Essex" returned to St. Louis, on the 23d of February, for repairs. She was lengthened forty feet, her boilers and machinery were placed below the water-line, and her casemates were raised from six and a half to seven and a half feet in height. She received entirely new boilers and was generally reconstructed. This was the third reconstruction the boat had undergone, and altogether her cost to the government at this time amounted to ninety-one thousand dollars, which was twenty thousand dollars less than that of any other of the gunboats built in the West.

The officers of the "Essex" were Capt. W. D. Porter, commander; Robert K. Riley, first master and executive officer; G. W. Walker, second master; D. P. Rosenmiller, third master; Spencer Kellogg, fourth master; Joseph H. Lewis, paymaster; Thomas Rice, surgeon; Joseph Heep, chief engineer; — Sterns, first assistant engineer; J. Wetzell, second assistant engineer; Thomas Fletcher, third assistant engineer; Matthew Snyder, gunner; J. H. Mammon, boatswain; E. H. Eagle, boatswain's mate; Thomas Steele, carpenter. Officers and crew numbered one hundred and fifty men.

Her armament was as follows: three 9-inch Dahlgren shell-guns, one 10 inch Dahlgren shell-gun, two 50-pound rifled Dahlgren guns, one long 32-pounder, and one 24-pound boat howitzer.

The defenses were specified as follows: "Her forward casement, of wood thirty inches thick, is plated with India-rubber one inch thick and one and three-fourths inch iron; side casemates, of wood sixteen inches thick, plated with one inch India-rubber and three-fourths inch iron. The roof is bomb-proof. The pilot-house is of wood, eighteen inches thick, plated with one inch India-rubber and one and three-fourths inch iron. She has false sides, which render it impossible for anything like a steam ram to attack her effectively. Her hull cannot be reached by any such contrivance, and even if it could, the water-tight compartments into which the hold is divided by bulkheads, being forty in number, would render the sinking or otherwise disabling of the boat by collision an impossibility. If one or more of the compartments should be broken into, the disadvantage to the craft from taking water would be comparatively slight.

"The ‘Essex’ is two hundred and five feet in length and sixty feet in width. Her hold is five and a half feet in depth. She is provided with two engines, with cylinders twenty-three inches in diameter and six feet stroke. She has three boilers twenty-six feet long and forty-two inches in diameter, working two wheels twenty-six feet in diameter and eight feet bucket. She has much more power than any of the other Western gunboats, will be proportionately faster than any of them, and having two wheels adds greatly to the precision of her movements."

The gunboat and ram "Fort Henry" was launched from the Marine Railway Company's yard at Carondelet on Sept. 22, 1862. The "Fort Henry" was two hundred and eighty feet in length and about forty feet in width. She was designed by Capt. Porter, formerly of the "Essex," and carried six or eight guns. She was constructed more especially to be used as a ram. The "Choctaw," another gunboat, was designed by Capt. Porter and launched a few days before the "Fort Henry." The "Choctaw" was two hundred and twenty-five feet in length, and was originally designed for a turret and two heavy guns. She was afterwards altered so that she could be used either as a ram or gunboat. The rams on both vessels were two feet in length, made of bell metal.

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The proprietors of the Union Marine Works at Carondelet, Messrs. James B. Eads & Co., having a contract with the government to build five new gunboats for the Western rivers, launched another gunboat on the 13th of January, 1863. This vessel was named the "Osage," and was the smallest of her class. She was one hundred and eighty feet long by forty-five feet wide, with four feet depth of hold, and had an iron hull divided into six compartments. When fully completed and armed she had a draft of only three and a half feet of water. She was of the monitor pattern, and carried two long-range eleven-inch guns placed in a turret on the forward deck. Her hull was strengthened on the outside and two feet below the water-line by a plating of four-inch iron. Her deck, the outer edges of which extended but twelve inches above the water, was slightly oval, instead of being flat, as was the case with the other gunboats built on the Mississippi.

The other four boats then building at the Union Works, Carondelet, were named the "Neosho," "Milwaukee," "Chickasaw," and "Winnebago." The three last named were propellers. The "Winnebago" was launched July 5, 1863, and the "Chickasaw" Feb. 10, 1864. The launching of the "Chickasaw" was attended with a distressing calamity, which is thus described by an eye-witness:

"At half-past ten o'clock the stays were let loose and the immense iron structure slid from the ways and plunged into the river, rising again and floating like a cork. Nearly all eyes were turned toward the river to see the effect of the awful plunge, and only those forming the immediate party around Miss Stewart witnessed the ceremony of breaking the wine-bottle and naming the boat, which was nevertheless done, and the ‘Chickasaw’ was baptized, being named with a beautiful name by a beautiful lady. But the launch was no sooner fairly afloat than a cry of alarm was heard from the bow, and a confused movement noticeable among those stationed there. The excitement created by the launch was now increased. The anchor was jerked overboard, and the immense rope was being paid out with fearful rapidity. The huge coils swept everything before them. Miss Jenny Eads, daughter of J. B. Eads; Miss Mary Maguire, daughter of Mr. John Maguire; Mr. O. B. Filley, son of Mr. O. D. Filley, and Mr. and Mrs. Wm. P. Bradley were carried overboard almost instantly; others were knocked down and saved by the merest chance. The chair on which Miss Stewart sat was pulled into the river, and she herself thrown on the coil of ropes, where she was grasped by two gentlemen and literally dragged away from the rope. The unfortunate persons supported themselves in the water by getting hold of pieces of timber, until two skiffs pushed out into the river and picked them up, all save Mrs. Bradley, who was supposed to have been stunned by striking one of the timbers, and drowned."

In 1863 the government decided to build at St. Louis two light-draft ironclad monitors of the Ericsson pattern. The contract was awarded to Messrs. McCord & Steel, of the "National Iron-Works," and the construction of the monitors "Etlah" and "Shiloh" was immediately begun, under the supervision of D. G. Wells, government engineer. These vessels were of the class then known as "light-draft monitors," for twenty of which the Navy Department contracted in 1863. The keel of the "Etlah" was laid in August of that year, but owing to alterations found necessary, from actual experiments with monitors of this class, the completion of the vessel was delayed beyond the original contract time. The "Etlah" was the largest vessel ever built on the Mississippi up to that time, and when she was launched, on July 2, 1865, a vast concourse assembled to witness the trial.

The "Etlah's" weight was about eighteen hundred tons. The two vessels carried two guns, one 11-inch Dahlgren and one 150-pounder rifled Parrott. Their extreme length was two hundred and twenty-five feet; breadth of beam, forty-five feet; depth of hold, eleven feet; thickness of side armor, three inches; thickness of deck armor, one inch; internal diameter of turret, twenty feet; thickness of turret, eight inches; internal diameter of pilot-house, six feet; thickness of pilot-house, ten inches; number of motive-engines, two; diameter of cylinders, twenty-two inches; length of stroke, thirty inches; propellers, two; diameter of propellers, nine feet.

Messrs. McCord & Steel had considerable difficulty in launching the "Shiloh," but she was finally gotten into the water. This vessel was built in three separate divisions or compartments. Her turret was composed of one hundred and sixty plates of iron one inch in thickness by forty inches in width and nine feet high, each plate weighing about twelve hundred pounds. The plates were riveted together by bolts of one and a half inches in thickness, which, with the arrangement of the planed joints of the plates, rendered it one solid mass of iron weighing over one hundred tons. The turret, when occasion required it, was revolved by two turret engines, and moved upon a stationary ring.

The services performed by the gunboats built at St. Louis in the military and naval operations against Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, Island No. 10, Lucas' Bend, Fort Pillow, Pittsburgh, Tenn., Vicksburg, New Orleans, and Mobile, and the expeditions and reconnoissances on the Ohio, Cumberland, and Tennessee Rivers, belong more properly to the history of the country, but we cannot refrain from alluding to the gallant and meritorious services performed by many of the Mississippi pilots from St. Louis during the civil war.

Immediately upon the breaking out of the war the services of the Mississippi pilots were brought into

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requisition, and the very efficient aid rendered by these men — often under circumstances of the greatest difficulty and hardship, and always with a high degree of patriotic disinterestedness — entitles the pilots of the Western flotilla to honorable mention in every work professing to relate the gallant deeds and self-denying bravery of that eventful era in the civil war. Barton Able, in the capacity of master of transportation under Gen. John C. Fremont, was engaged in the preparatory organization of an auxiliary force of armed steamers designed for the work of keeping open the navigation of Western waters, and rendered effective assistance to the government.

A writer upon this subject says, —

"It has been alleged that the pilots of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers were disloyal to the government in the time of the late Rebellion. In the dark hours of 1861, when a call was made for pilots to go in the wooden gunboats ‘Tyler,’ ‘Lexington,’ and ‘Conestoga’ (these vessels were mere wooden shells, hastily gotten up, and were pronounced by even ‘loyal’ editors to be nothing move than slaughter-pens), everything that could be brought to bear to prevent or deter pilots or engineers from risking their lives in them was brought forward by the opposing element in our midst. Yet more than double the number required to pilot those vessels came forward, offered their services, and went in these gunboats, well knowing that they would be a special mark for the enemy's sharpest practice, for to kill the pilot would be equivalent to disabling the vessel. The pilot-house, being a target for the enemy, was truly named the slaughter-pen of these gunboats. In the fall of 1861 a call was made for fifteen pilots to go in the (so-called) ironclads, and in a few days the flag-officer received over fifty applications for the position. In the battle of Fort Henry two pilots were killed, Marsh Ford and James McBride; in the battle of Fort Donelson two more, Frank Riley and William Hinton, and others were wounded, two of our gunboats dropping out of the action partially on that account. Another pilot was killed just above Fort Donelson. Many distinguished names might be added to those mentioned who were killed or wounded in these pilot-houses. Among the killed were Capt. G. W. Rodgers and Paymaster Woodburry, and the wounded, Commodores Foote and Kilty, of our own navy, and Capts. Buchanan and J. N. Brown, of the Confederate navy, with their pilots in each case. It was, therefore, sufficiently proved that the pilot-house was always the most dangerous part of the vessel, while it was at the same time the only place from whence the pilot or captain could see how to manage the gunboat. Notwithstanding pilots came forward voluntarily to fill the places of the gallant men who had sealed their loyalty with their lives, and numbers were clamorous for appointment as pilots in the Mississippi flotilla."

The Western Sanitary Commission was the outgrowth of the military operations in Missouri during the civil war. In the summer of 1861 the battles of Boonville, Dug Spring, Carthage, and Wilson's Creek were fought in this State. The battle of Wilson's Creek was one of the most desperately contested engagements of the war, and the number of killed and wounded was very large. The wounded, numbering seven hundred and twenty-one, were transported all the way from the battle-field (about twelve miles south of Springfield, near the Fayetteville road) to Rolla in ambulances and army-wagons, and thence by cars to St. Louis. The first hundred arrived at night, and were placed in furniture-wagons and carried to the "New House of Refuge Hospital," which had been established and opened by the government on the 1st of August, 1861, under the supervision of Medical Director De Camp, with Dr. Bailey in charge. This hospital, situated about two miles south of St. Louis, was soon filled beyond its capacity with sick and wounded soldiers, and as the arrivals continued it was necessary that other accommodations should be obtained without delay. All the available wards of the St. Louis Hospital, which was under the charge of the Sisters of Charity, and of the City Hospital were immediately taken and filled, but there was still a pressing need of additional facilities.

The sad and neglected condition of the soldiers who had been brought from Springfield and the interior of Missouri excited the benevolent and patriotic sympathies of the Union citizens of St. Louis, and they resolved to form the Western Sanitary Commission, for the purpose of ministering to the physical and spiritual wants of the Union soldiers. At the suggestion of Miss D. L. Dix, the philanthropist, who was then in St. Louis, Mrs. Jessie Benton Fremont, and other persons of humane and patriotic motives, Maj.-Gen. Fremont was requested to give his approval of the Sanitary Commission, which was to act in aid of the Medical Department. Gen. Fremont immediately approved the suggestion, and on the 5th of September issued the following order, appointing the Western Sanitary Commission and defining its duties and sphere of action:

"Its general object shall be to carry out, under the properly constituted military authorities, and in compliance with their orders, such sanitary regulations and reforms as the well-being of the soldiers demand.

"This commission shall have authority, under the directions of the medical director, to select, fit up, and furnish suitable buildings for army and brigade hospitals, in such places and in such manner as circumstances require. It will attend to the selection and appointment of women nurses, under the authority and by the direction of Miss D. L. Dix, general superintendent of the nurses of military hospitals in the United States. It will co-operate with the surgeons of the several hospitals in providing male nurses, and in whatever manner practicable, and by their consent. It shall have authority to visit the different camps, to consult with the commanding officers and the colonels and other officers of the several regiments with regard to the sanitary and general condition of the troops, and aid them in providing proper means for the preservation of health and prevention of sickness by supply of wholesome and well-cooked food, by good systems of drainage, and other practicable methods. It will obtain from the community at large

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such additional means of increasing the comfort and promoting the moral and social welfare of the men in camp and hospital as may be needed and cannot be furnished by government regulations. It will, from time to time, report directly to the commander-in-chief of the department the condition of the camps and hospitals, with such suggestions as can properly be made by a sanitary board.

"This commission is not intended in any way to interfere with the medical staff or other officers of the army, but to cooperate with them and aid them in the discharge of their present arduous and extraordinary duties. It will be treated by all officers of the army, both regular and volunteer, in this department with the respect due to the humane and patriotic motives of the members and to the authority of the commander-in-chief.

"This Sanitary Commission will for the present consist of James E. Yeatman, Esq., C. S. Greeley, Esq., J. B. Johnson, M. D., George Partridge, Esq., and the Rev. William G. Eliot, D.D."

As soon as this order was issued the gentlemen named in it, acting as a Sanitary Commission, commenced their labors in connection with the Medical Department. Their first important work was the fitting up of a new hospital sufficiently large to accommodate at least five hundred patients, and negotiations were opened for renting the large five-story marble-fronted building corner of Fifth and Chestnut Streets, which was secured at a reasonable rent. Necessary alterations were made, arrangements for bathing introduced, special diet kitchens were fitted up, and the whole building furnished with beds and bedding. On the 10th of September it was opened for the reception of patients, under the charge of Surgeon John T. Hodgen, United States volunteers, with a competent corps of assistant surgeons, apothecary, steward, ward-masters, nurses, etc., under the title of the "City General Hospital."

It was rapidly filled with patients, and continued as a military hospital until the autumn of 1863, under the charge of Dr. Hodgen, whose able and faithful services and great surgical skill were fully recognized and appreciated by the Medical Department and by the Western Sanitary Commission.

Being located in a central part of the city, convenient to the railroad depots and the river, it was the place of reception of nearly all the severely wounded and the hopelessly sick on their arrival.

It was in this building that the Western Sanitary Commission commenced its useful and arduous labors, having its office in a small room at the left of the entrance, in the second story, and a store-room for sanitary goods in the basement, its members meeting every day for consultation and action; its president, James E. Yeatman, giving his whole time to the work, and having only one man to act as store-keeper, porter, and clerk; each member of the commission lending a helping hand, boxes of sanitary stores arriving from New England, and from the various towns and cities of the West, prepared and forwarded by the willing hands of the wives and mothers and daughters of the land, and being distributed as needed to the hospitals and camps and regiments in and around St. Louis, and at more distant posts in the interior of the State.

From September 12th to September 21st occurred the siege, the battle, and surrender of Lexington, Mo., which threw some three hundred more wounded men upon the hospitals of St. Louis. During the two months in which these events happened, besides the hospitals already named, several more were added. On the 13th of September the hospital near Camp Benton was opened, and on the 15th the Good Samaritan, located at the corner of O'Fallon Street and Pratte Avenue. On the 24th of October the new hotel building on Fourth Street, between Morgan and Franklin Avenue, was converted into a hospital. The Receiving House, on Spruce Street between Seventh and Eighth, was used by the Sanitary Commission for receiving and giving temporary shelter to the sick and wounded soldiers arriving at night by the respective railroads, but was taken possession of November 4th by the medical director and converted into a hospital, and named the Pacific Hospital. The Western Sanitary Commission also fitted up a number of hospital cars, furnished them with beds, cooking-stoves, and nurses, and supplied all necessary stores, to render the transit of the patients over the railroads as comfortable as possible.

In the same month extensive additions were made to the Smallpox Hospital on Duncan's Island; and the Hickory Street Hospital was opened for the especial use of the Reserve Corps of State troops.

During the months of December and January, 1862, the number of sick and wounded in all the hospitals of St. Louis and vicinity had reached over two thousand, and the labors of the Sanitary Commission were greatly increased. Meetings were held every few days; frequent inspections were made of all the hospitals and camps; reports were prepared and submitted to the commanding general; improvements were introduced; and supplies were forwarded wherever needed.

In the enlargement of its work it became necessary for the Sanitary Commission to procure additional store-room for goods, and to employ a secretary. For a period of three months this position was filled by Rev. J. G. Forman, of Alton, Ill., who resigned it to enter upon his duties as chaplain of the Third Missouri Volunteers, and L. B. Ripley succeeded him for several months, when he also resigned and became the quartermaster of the Thirty-third Missouri Volunteers.

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In May, 1863, Rev. Mr. Forman again became permanently secretary of the commission. In February, 1862, the small room in the Fifth Street Hospital was vacated for the larger rooms, No. 10 North Fifth Street.

In December, the Medical Director, Surgeon De Camp, with whom the commission had labored in establishing and fitting up the new military hospitals, was superseded by Dr. J. J. B. Wright, U.S.A. The commission undertook the laborious task of hiring suitable nurses for the hospitals, and was especially instrumental in introducing female nurses in them, a system not recognized in the army and hospital regulations of the United States, but which, through the advocacy and influence of Miss Dix, found favor with the then Secretary of War, Mr. Cameron, and was approved by the President.

On the 13th of March, 1862, a Soldiers' Home for discharged and furloughed soldiers passing through the city was established by the Western Commission at 29 South Fourth Street, St. Louis, capable of accommodating from fifty to one hundred soldiers daily. It was placed in charge of Rev. Charles Peabody as superintendent, with Miss A. L. Ostram as matron. During the first two years of its existence the Soldiers' Home at St. Louis furnished meals and lodgings to twenty thousand eight hundred and forty-six soldiers, most of them invalids partially restored to health, passing on furlough to their homes or returning to their regiments.

The number of meals furnished to soldiers for the two years ending March 12, 1864, was eighty-five thousand nine hundred and ninety-two, and the number of lodgings for the same period was twenty-four thousand two hundred and ninety. In no case was any charge made to any of the guests. Besides these, many near relatives, fathers, mothers, and wives, of sick or furloughed soldiers, accompanying them, received the hospitality of the home, of which no account was made.

The expense incurred by the commission in maintaining this institution was about three thousand dollars a year, and the value of the rations and fuel furnished by the government was about two thousand dollars more.

During the year 1862 three military hospitals were added to those already established in St. Louis, — the Marine, the Jefferson Barracks, and the Lawson Hospitals. The necessity for this arose from the large number of sick brought by the hospital steamers from the armies of the frontier, the Southwest, the Tennessee, and the Mississippi.

The Marine Hospital was a government institution, originally intended for persons engaged in the navigation of the Mississippi River. It was a four-story stone and brick edifice, surrounded by extensive and well-shaded grounds, and a garden in which the convalescent patients performed a part of the labor, and had every convenience of a model hospital.

It was opened as a military hospital May 4, 1862, and then had accommodations for one hundred and fifty patients. From that date till May 1, 1864, it had received fifteen hundred and seventy-four patients, and its percentage of deaths was nine. During the summer of 1863 its accommodations were enlarged for one hundred more patients by the addition of wooden barracks.

The officers at the hospital were Assistant Surgeon James H. Peabody, U.S.V., in charge, L. H. Calloway, M.D., acting assistant surgeon, and Rev. James A. Page, chaplain.

In April, 1862, Jefferson Barracks was converted into a hospital. Besides the old buildings, the government, during the summer of 1862, erected others on the ample grounds belonging to it on the west side, so as to afford accommodations for two thousand five hundred patients. These new buildings were one story high, in triple rows six hundred feet long, divided into wards of three hundred feet each. There were three groups or sets of these new hospitals, some distance apart, the entire grounds in every direction being beautifully shaded by large oak-trees. They were so arranged that each group had the central row appropriated to a dining-room and surgeons', nurses', and stewards' quarters, the outside rows being for sick wards. Besides these improvements, a system of water-works was introduced, with reservoir and pipes, by which the water of the Mississippi was carried through all the buildings.

The institution was in charge of Surgeon J. F. Randolph, U.S.A., assisted by Dr. H. R. Tilton, U.S.A., and P. C. McLane, M.D., A. L. Allen, M.D., T. F. Rumbold, M.D., Hiram Latham, M.D., S. Leslie, M.D., and J. J. Marston, M.D. The post chaplain, Rev. J. F. Fish, had been stationed here many years, and continued his services, in connection with Rev. S. Pettigrew, hospital chaplain.

The number of patients received and treated in this hospital in two years, ending April 30, 1864, was eleven thousand four hundred and thirty-four.

The Lawson Hospital was situated on the corner of Broadway and Carr Streets, and was fitted up during the latter part of the fall of 1862. The edifice was originally intended for a hotel, was seven stories high, and was divided into eight wards, besides office-rooms, nurses' quarters, linen-room, kitchen, dining-hall, and

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store-rooms. It was opened Jan. 17, 1863, and was in charge of Surgeon C. T. Alexander, U. S. Army, assisted by W. H. Bradley, M.D., L. H. Bottomley, M.D., and William Fritz, M.D. Rev. Philip McKim was hospital chaplain.

About the latter part of December, 1862, the large amphitheatre building in the old Fair Grounds at Benton Barracks, a few miles northwest from St. Louis, and north of the St. Charles road, was taken possession of by the government for hospital purposes. It was inclosed, provided with windows, floored, partitioned, divided into wards, thoroughly whitewashed, furnished with iron bedsteads and good beds, and converted into one of the largest, most thoroughly ventilated, and best hospitals in the United States, capable of accommodating two thousand five hundred patients. Numerous other buildings near the main edifice, on the same grounds, formerly used by the Agricultural Society for its exhibitions, were used for officers' quarters, medical dispensary, commissary rooms, special diet kitchens, etc., and the fine walks and splendid shade added much to the beauty and attractiveness of the place.

The institution was at first placed in charge of Surgeon Ira Russell, U.S.V., under whose administration it was conducted with entire success. It was opened March 1, 1863, and during the following three months received two thousand and forty-two patients. From June 1, 1863, to May 1, 1864, there were four thousand eight hundred and ninety-eight patients received.

For a few months of the autumn of 1863, Surgeon Russell was relieved by Surgeon J. H. Grove, U.S.V. In the winter of 1863-64, Benton Barracks became a recruiting station for colored troops, and hospital accommodations being needed for the sick of the colored regiments, several of the wards were appropriated for their use. Dr. Grove having been assigned to another position, Dr. Russell was again placed in charge.

Besides the general hospital, there was also a post hospital at Benton Barracks, likewise in charge of Surgeon Russell. During the fall of 1863 and winter of 1864 many of the sick of the new colored regiments were treated there. The whole number of patients received was six thousand one hundred and forty. Female nurses were provided for this hospital by the Western Sanitary Commission, the government only allowing them to the general hospitals.

Notwithstanding these extensive arrangements, the accommodations for sick and wounded soldiers proved insufficient, and several new hospitals were established, — one on Hickory Street and one at Benton Barracks, the Gratiot Prison Hospital and the Smallpox Hospital on Duncan's Island. The first of these was originally a general hospital, and there was formerly a post hospital at Schofield Barracks, in the immediate vicinity, on Chouteau Avenue, which was consolidated with it Nov. 1, 1863. The whole number of patients received at Hickory Street to that date was one thousand eight hundred and twenty-six, and at Schofield Barracks the number of patients received was two hundred and six. At the Military Prison Hospital in McDowell's College, Gratiot Street, the number of patients received up to May 1, 1864, was three thousand five hundred and fourteen, and the percentage of deaths eleven and four-tenths. The surgeon in charge was B. B. Breed, U.S.V. The number of patients received at the Smallpox Hospital to June 1, 1863, was eight hundred and seventy-one, and the percentage of deaths twenty-two and nine-tenths. The number of prisoners received at the same institution for the same period was one hundred and sixty-two, and the percentage of deaths thirty-four and one-half.

The number of patients treated at the post hospital on Hickory Street from Nov. 1, 1863, to May 1, 1864, was one thousand four hundred and twelve. The institution was in charge of Frank W. White, M.D., A. A. Surgeon, U. S. A.

The Good Samaritan, the Fifth Street, the Eliot, and the New House of Refuge Hospitals were discontinued.

The whole number of patients treated in the hospitals of St. Louis, including those at Jefferson and Benton Barracks, up to May 1, 1864, was 61,744; the number that died was 5684, and the percentage of deaths 9.1.

The military prisons of St. Louis from the beginning of the war received the constant attention of the Western Sanitary Commission, and sanitary stores were issued to them in all cases of urgent need upon the requisitions of the surgeon in charge.

The following general, post, and regimental hospitals were among the number that were supplied by this commission: New House of Refuge, St. Louis and City Hospitals, General Hospital (corner of Fifth and Chestnut Streets), Good Samaritan, Eliot (Fourth Street), Pacific, Hickory Street, Jefferson Barracks, Marine, Benton Barracks, Lawson, and Smallpox Hospitals, hospitals in Arnot's and Thornton & Pierce's buildings, Schofield Barracks and Military Prison; hospitals in Cairo and Mound City, Ill.; at Paducah and Columbus, Ky.; Pittsburgh Landing, Union City, Jackson, Lagrange, Memphis, Nashville, and Murfreesboro', Tenn.; Corinth and Vicksburg, Miss.; Huntsville, Ala.; Helena, Clarendon, Brownsville, Duval's Bluff, Fayetteville, Salem, and Little Rock, Ark.; Fort Blunt, Cherokee Nation; Young's Point, Milliken's Bend, Goodrich's Landing, and Duckport, La.; hospitals of the Sixth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth Army Corps; and of Quimby's, Hovey's, Steele's, Logan's, McPherson's,

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Herron's, Kimball's, McArthur's, and Blair's divisions; and of Thayer's, Irving's, Wilder's, and the marine brigade; hospitals at Otterville, Pacific City, Rolla, St. Joseph, Sulphur Springs, Sedalia, Tipton, Commerce, St. Charles, Ironton, Pilot Knob, Cape Girardeau, Lebanon, Patterson, Jefferson City, Kansas City, Springfield, Mo.; Fort Scott, Fort Leavenworth, Kan.; Fort Halleck, Idaho; Evansville, Ind.; Quincy, Ill.; and Keokuk, Iowa.

Many stores were also issued to convalescent camps, and personally to large numbers of convalescent soldiers.

The hospital steamers supplied by the Western Sanitary Commission were the "City of Louisiana," fitted out March 20, 1862, but afterwards refitted and named the "R. C. Wood," the "D. A. January," the "Empress," the "Imperial," the "Crescent City," the "Red Rover," the "City of Alton," the "City of Memphis," the "Nashville," and of the transports conveying the sick and wounded, the "Ruth," the "Glasgow," the "Diana," the "Nebraska," the "Champion," and the "Baltic."

Of the gunboats of the Mississippi naval squadron, supplies were sent to nearly all, among which the following may be named: The "Louisville," "Mound City," "Carondelet," "Chillicothe," "Judge Torrence," "Lafayette," "Naumkeag," "Ratler," "Autocrat," "Black Hawk," "Petrel," "General Price," "Romeo," "Choctaw," "Benton," "Avenger," "Tyler," "Monarch," "Switzerland," "Pawpaw," "Tawha," "Key West," and "No. 11."

In this connection it may be appropriate to mention the names of those female nurses who, by long and faithful service and special devotion to the care of the sick and wounded soldiers in the St. Louis hospitals, earned the gratitude of those who were the objects of their kind solicitude and self-sacrificing labors. The list is as follows:

Mrs. M. I. Ballard, Mrs. E. O. Gibson, Mrs. L. D. Aldrich, Mrs. Houghton, Mrs. S. A. Plummer, Miss Carrie C. McNair, Mrs. Harriet Colfax, Mrs. Sarah A. Barton, Miss Ida Johnson, Miss Clark, Mrs. A. L. Ostram, Mrs. Lucy E. Starr, Mrs. Olive Freeman, Mrs. Anne M. Shattuck, Mrs. E. C. Brendell, Mrs. E. J. Morris, Mrs. Dorothea Ogden, Mrs. E. C. Witherell, Miss N. A. Shepherd, the Sisters of Charity at the New House of Refuge Hospital, Miss Emma. L. Ingalls, Miss Emily E. Parsons, Miss Fanny Marshall, Miss Louisa Maertz, Miss Harriet N. Phillips, Mrs. Elizabeth A. Nichols, Miss Rebecca Craighead, Mrs. H. A. Haines, Mrs. H. A. Reid, Miss Hattie Wiswall, Mrs. Reese, Mrs. Maria Brooks, Mrs. Mary Allen, Mrs. Bickerdike, Miss Cornelia M. Tompkins, Mrs. M. A. Steller, Mrs. Carrie Gray, Mrs. M. J. Dykman, Misses Marian and Clara McClintock, Mrs. Otis, Mrs. Sager, Mrs. Peabody, Mrs. Rebecca S. Smith, Miss Melcenia Elliott, Mrs. C. C. Hagar, Mrs. J. E. Hickox, Mrs. Lucy L. Campbell, Miss C. A. Harwood, Miss Deborah Daugherty, Miss Phebe Allen, Mrs. Wells, Mrs. Ferris, and Miss Lucy J. Bissell.

The Union refugees also received a share in the labors of the Western Sanitary Commission. During the full and winter of 1861-62 many refugees were driven by the Confederates from the interior and southwest parts of Missouri to St. Louis, and were in a condition of want and suffering. A home on Elm Street was opened for the most helpless and destitute, and others were assisted according to their necessities. John Cavender, an old and respectable citizen, eminent for his integrity and Christian character, devoted his whole time to their care. A fund was raised at first by a call of the Western Sanitary Commission, amounting to about three thousand eight hundred dollars, besides a large amount of clothing. A further sum of fifteen thousand dollars was raised by an order of Maj.-Gen. Halleck, by assessing the wealthy class of Southern sympathizers in St. Louis for this object, and from this resource Mr. Cavender was able to render very important aid to these destitute people. For two years he took almost the entire charge of this work, in which he had the counsel of the members of the commission, and was sometimes aided with funds for the purpose when other sources failed. During the winter of 1863, Mr. Cavender, whose health had been failing, was taken sick and died.

In August, 1863, there began to be further arrivals of destitute refugees from Arkansas, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas. Many of them were women with small children, poorly clad, often barefooted, brought up the river on government steamers, and landed in St. Louis without the means of procuring a place of shelter for a single night. There was no alternative but to open another refugee home. The president of the commission rented the house 39 Walnut Street for the purpose on the 1st of September, and from that date to May, 1864, not less than fifteen hundred refugees were sheltered, provided for, or sent on their way to friends or places of employment in the free States. By an arrangement with Gens. Schofield and Rosecrans, rations and fuel were allowed from the government, and the rent was paid by the quartermaster, but the incidental expenses of the home and the charities in clothing, money, etc., were provided by the commission. The home was under the superintendence of Rev. Mr. Forman, the secretary of the commission, and its domestic arrangements were conducted by Miss M. Elliott as matron, who, in a spirit of true self-sacrifice, devoted her time and strength to the service of the poor outcasts. The expenses and charities of the home and for destitute refugee families in the city, and to those going beyond St. Louis, were about one thousand dollars in six months, beyond the aid received from the government in rations, fuel, rent, and transportation.

The resources of the Western Sanitary Commission were made up of voluntary contributions from

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the people of the loyal States. Men and women in the leading towns and cities of New England, in the Northwest, and in the cities of Boston, Providence, New York, and Philadelphia gave liberally of their means to support the commission in its noble work. Besides all this, the city and county of St. Louis and the Legislature of Missouri acted with great generosity. In addition to the liberal contributions of the citizens, the Convention of Missouri appropriated fifty thousand dollars, and in the winter of 1864 the Legislature of Missouri made another appropriation of twenty-five thousand dollars to the commission to be used in the same way, and the county court of the county of St. Louis made a donation of two thousand dollars. Besides these gifts there was raised at the Merchants' Exchange, St. Louis, a liberal subscription of money and goods to the commission for the army of Gen. Grant during the siege of Vicksburg, amounting in value to about five thousand dollars, and Dec. 25, 1863, a committee of merchants, of which Joseph C. Cabot was chairman, raised another subscription of twenty-five thousand dollars additional for the general purposes of the commission.

Besides a constant flow of contributions from Boston and neighboring towns and cities of Massachusetts, that city at one time, through a committee, of which R. C. Greenleaf was treasurer, in response to an appeal from Rev. Dr. Eliot, on behalf of the commission, contributed fifty thousand dollars; and the distant State of California, stimulated by the eloquence and patriotism of the lamented Thomas Starr King, subscribed fifty thousand dollars, being part of a donation of two hundred thousand dollars, the balance of which went to the United States Sanitary Commission. These contributions of money, with the gifts of friends in New York City, through James A. Roosevelt, and from other towns and cities of the loyal States, amounted in the aggregate to two hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars, while the stores contributed from the same sources, and from the Ladies' Union Aid Societies of almost every village and city from Maine to Minnesota, and from Boston to St. Louis, consisting of blankets, comforts, sheets, pillows, pillow-slips, socks, slippers, mittens, bandages, lint, salves, cotton and woolen shirts and drawers, hospital garments, dressing gowns, dried and canned fruits, tomatoes, jellies, domestic wines, blackberry cordial, butter, vegetables, etc., amounted in value up to May 9, 1864, to more than a million and a quarter of dollars.

The great success which had attended the fairs held in the large cities of the East and in Chicago and Cincinnati in aid of the United States Sanitary Commission, as we have seen elsewhere, suggested the idea of a Mississippi Valley Sanitary Fair at St. Louis, for the benefit of the Western Sanitary Commission. The net proceeds of this fair amounted to over five hundred and fifty thousand dollars, which was used in the sanitary work of the army, and in furnishing supplementary supplies to the hospitals and to the troops.

A generous contribution was made to the fair by the St. Louis County court of the Smizer farm, the proceeds of which, as a part of the combination sales, amounted to forty thousand dollars. Considering the source of this gift, and the large amounts received from St. Louis in other ways, it was thought proper by the Western Sanitary Commission to establish a soldiers' orphans' home near the city. Accordingly, the building and grounds previously known as Webster College, near the Webster Station, on the Pacific Railroad, in St. Louis County, ten miles west of the city, were secured at a cost of twelve thousand and sixty-one dollars. The property consisted of a large stone edifice and twenty acres of land, admirably suited to this purpose. The sum of five thousand dollars was also appropriated towards the expenses of furnishing the institution and providing its first supplies, and the property and the management of the home were placed in the hands of a committee of the Ladies' "National League" of St. Louis, and an advisory committee of gentlemen associated with them, with the offer from the commission that the whole should be conveyed to a board of trustees of their own selection, on condition of their raising an endowment of fifty thousand dollars and assuming the responsibilities of the trust. A public meeting was held soon after; an organization was effected, and the undertaking commenced. A portion of the money was soon raised, and the State Legislature appropriated five thousand dollars a year for ten years towards the support of the institution. Subsequently the commission expended an additional sum of twenty thousand dollars in new buildings, so as to enlarge the accommodations of the home for one hundred and fifty orphans, and offered an appropriation of ten thousand dollars additional funds, provided the trustees would complete the fifty thousand dollars endowment fund by the 22d of February, 1866, making a sum more than equal to the amount received from the gift of St. Louis County in the Smizer farm.

On the 7th of January, 1865, the Legislature of Missouri passed an act incorporating the institution, by the title of "The Soldiers' Orphans' Home of St. Louis," and on the 31st of the same month made the yearly appropriation already mentioned. The following

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incorporators were named in the act as the board of trustees, and the following members of the Ladies' "National League" as a board of lady managers:

"Board of Trustees. — E. W. Fox, N. C. Chapman, A. S. W. Goodwin, D. B. Gale, Dwight Durkee, T. B. Edgar, John H. Fisse, Henry Kennedy, M. L. Linton, John H. Lightner, S. H. Laflin, James Richardson, Henry S. Reed, Henry A. Homeyer, and their successors.

"Lady Managers. — Mrs. Mary A. Ranlett, Mrs. Rebecca Webb, Mrs. Evelina C. Dickinson, Mrs. Mary E. Allen. Mrs. Clara C. Partridge, Mrs. Anna E. Filley, Mrs. Susanna Ware, Mrs. Elizabeth W. Clarke, Mrs. Mary L. Woodruff, Mrs. Sophia C. Goodwin, Mrs. Catharine R. Springer, Mrs. Melinda J. How, Mrs. Henrietta E. Cunningham, Mrs. Sophronia Barth, Mrs. J. O. Pierce, Mrs. Mary Gempp, Mrs. Charity Barnard, and Mrs. Sarah R. Avery."

The Soldiers' Orphans' Home thus provided for and organized was opened in the winter of 1865 with sixty orphans, under the care of Mrs. S. A. Plummer as matron, and Miss S. F. McCracken as teacher. In the following spring it was dedicated with appropriate ceremonies, consisting of prayer and addresses, by Rev. W. G. Eliot, D.D., and Rev. H. A. Nelson, D.D., of St. Louis, on which occasion a large company of friends of the institution were present.

In consequence of the invasion of Missouri by the Confederate forces under Gen. Price, there was a great increase in the number of destitute Union refugees in the fall of 1864, who came from all parts of the State to St. Louis. For a while it was necessary to transport them in wagons (on one day fifteen government wagons were thus employed) from St. Louis to Benton Barracks for shelter, but in the winter of 1865 the Lawson Hospital building in the city was procured as a temporary home for them, and retained for their use until the following July.

In the summer of 1864 the Soldiers' Home of St. Louis was removed from No. 29 South Fourth Street to the building formerly known as the Pacific Hotel, on Spruce Street, between Seventh and Eighth Streets.

The whole number of soldiers entertained at this home from its establishment, March 13, 1862, to Dec. 31, 1865, was seventy-one thousand and seventy-seven. The whole number of meals furnished was three hundred thousand nine hundred and seventy-two, and the whole number of lodgings, eighty-five thousand and fifteen.

On the 4th of October, 1864, Rev. Charles Peabody, who had conducted the home from the beginning, having resigned, was succeeded by Rev. William Bradley, whose wife became the matron.

The accommodations at Benton Barracks being unsuited to their purpose, the Western Sanitary Commission addressed a communication to the military authorities on the subject in November, 1864, and the building formerly known as the Lawson Hospital, on Broadway, fitted up for this purpose by the government, being empty, was secured for a refugee and freedmen's home, and made capable of receiving six hundred persons. It was entirely furnished by the commission, and placed under the superintendence of the secretary, Rev. J. G. Forman, who, as a chaplain, was also assigned to the same duties by the department commander.

The Ladies' Union Aid Society and Ladies' Freedmen's Relief Association also gave their co operation in the management of the institution. Mrs. H. M. Weed was appointed matron, and Miss Jones and Miss Catharine Dunning for a time were in charge of the freedmen's department of the home. Miss Richardson was afterwards assistant matron. Miss Samantha Monroe, Miss Peduzzi, and Miss Esther Orton fulfilled the duties of teachers to the white and colored refugee schools in the building; Mrs. Mary A. Whittaker kept the registry of the home, and detached soldiers took charge of the commissary department of the building, and filled the stations of steward, guards, watchmen, etc. The hospital department of the home was in charge of surgeons employed for the purpose by the medical director, and was frequently visited by Surgeon William Carpenter, M.S.V., medical director of the district.

For nearly six months, from Feb. 1, 1865, to July 10, 1865, this institution gave shelter, food, medical care, clothing, and instruction to several thousand refugees, freed people, and their children, commencing with six hundred, continuing so for the greater part of the winter, and gradually diminishing to three hundred by the next July, with hospital treatment to two hundred sick refugees and freedmen at one time. The whole number taken into the home and discharged or furnished with transportation either to the free States or to their homes in the South was not less than three thousand. On the 10th of July, 1865, between two and three hundred remaining, either sick or helpless, were admitted by the city authorities and the county court to the city hospital and the poor farm, and the institution was closed.

In the management of the internal affairs of the home, the furnishing of material for clothing, and the making of it into garments to supply the destitute inmates, most valuable aid was rendered by Mrs. Alfred Clapp, president of the Ladies' Union Aid Society, and a committee of ladies of the same society (of whom Mrs. Joseph Crawshaw specially devoted herself to this work), and by Mrs. Lucien

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Eaton, president of the Ladies' Freedmen Association, and Mrs. N. Stevens, and other ladies of this society, who, in conjunction with Mr. Yeatman and Mr. Forman. the superintendent of refugees and freedmen for St. Louis, devised the plan of the institution. A portion of the time the superintendent was assisted in his duties by Lieut. Charles E. Moss, of the Thirty-first Missouri Infantry, and by his clerk, the venerable Henry C. Weatherby, of the Thirtieth Iowa Infantry.

Among the organizations of ladies in St. Louis engaged in ministering to the sick and wounded and to destitute refugees, the Ladies' National League was conspicuous for its energy and zeal. About the time of the battle of Wilson's Creek the Ladies' Union Aid Society was formed, and through efficient management attained an influence for good which was felt not only in St. Louis but in the camps and hospitals throughout the South and West. Its membership, however, did not embrace all the loyal women of St. Louis, and with a view of ascertaining their strength and extending their influence, it was proposed that an organization called the Ladies' National League should be formed. For this purpose a meeting was held in the hall of the Mercantile Library on the 2d of May, 1863. Twelve hundred names were enrolled as friends of the government, pledging their sympathies and labor in behalf of those who were struggling for its defense. At a subsequent meeting officers and managers were chosen, and a star was adopted as a badge of loyalty. Although the league was not originally designed as an active organization, its members were ever ready to aid the cause to which they had pledged themselves. By various means the sum of two thousand and eighty-four dollars and ten cents was raised during the first year, a portion of which was appropriated to the Union Aid, Freedmen's, and Refugees' Societies. When the sanitary fair was inaugurated it was proposed by the Rev. Dr. Eliot that the league should assume its management, but as a society it declined the responsibility, and with the desire that it should be more catholic in its character a new association was formed for the purpose of conducting the work, in which the members of the league labored with untiring zeal.

At the first annual meeting of the Ladies' National League, held on the 1st of July, 1864, the following officers and managers were elected: President, Mrs. T. M. Post; Vice-Presidents, Mrs. George Partridge, Mrs. F. P. Blair, Mrs. R. P. Clark, Mrs. Wyllys King, Mrs. Charles D. Drake, Mrs. Charles W. Stevens; Treasurer, Mrs. R. H. Morton; Secretary, Mrs. A. M. Debenham; Managers, Mrs. A. W. Dean, Mrs. Henry Stagg, Mrs. S. M. Breckenridge, Mrs. F. H. Fletcher, Miss Ellen Filley, Miss Olive Partridge, Mrs. E. Cheever, Mrs. J. Van Norstrand, Mrs. E. M. Weber, Mrs. Adolphus Meier, Miss Belle Holmes, and Miss Ella Drake.

During the winter of 1865, Congress passed the act creating a Refugee and Freedmen's National Bureau. The position of commissioner of this bureau was tendered to Mr. Yeatman by President Lincoln, through the Secretary of War, but declined. Maj.-Gen. O. O. Howard was afterwards appointed, and in answer to his request for information from all associations and individuals who had been in any way engaged in aiding the refugees and freedmen, Mr. Yeatman addressed him a communication, giving many facts of interest to the bureau concerning these people in the valley of the Mississippi.

Among the great labors of the Western Sanitary Commission on behalf of the freedmen was the purchase of suitable property for a Freedmen's Orphans' Home in St. Louis, on Twelfth Street between Cass Avenue and O'Fallon Street, at a cost of seven thousand dollars, and the appropriation of four thousand dollars additional to furnish the home and assist in sustaining it the first year. This purchase was made in June, 1864, and on the breaking up of the Refugee and Freedmen's Home on Broadway the colored orphan children of the institution, numbering twenty-four, were removed to this new institution. In August eighty other colored orphans were brought from Helena by order of Brig.-Gen. Sprague, and received into this home.

The management of the home was placed in the hands of an association of ladies called the Freedmen's Orphans' Home Association, of which Mrs. Alfred Clapp was the first directress. The matron of the home was Mrs. H. M. Weed.

The home had a school in connection with it, in which the teacher, Miss Hess, was sustained by the commission.

Besides this school, the commission during the school year ending in September, 1865, appropriated one hundred dollars per month to aid the colored people of St. Louis to sustain schools for their children. An excellent high school, in the basement of the church on the corner of Locust and Eighth Streets, was taught through the same year by Miss Anna E. Wall and Miss Ida M. Eliot, of New Bedford, the latter a daughter of the Hon. T. D. Eliot, member of Congress from Massachusetts. The school, which was for the advanced scholars among the colored people, numbered from fifty to sixty pupils, and was equal to the same grade of schools in any city of the Union. It was sustained by funds

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contributed from friends in Massachusetts, through Rev. Dr. Eliot, of the Western Sanitary Commission.

At the close of the war there were five schools for colored children in the city, taught by colored teachers, and supported by tuition fees. These schools contained about four hundred pupils. Although the colored people were taxed for the support of the public schools of St. Louis, there had been up to that time provision made for the education of their children.

Soon after the death of President Lincoln, a remarkable and spontaneous movement commenced with a colored woman, named Charlotte Scott, at Marietta, Ohio, and was taken up by the colored soldiers, to erect a monument at Washington to the memory of Abraham Lincoln, to be called "The Freedmen's National Monument." The contributions for this object were placed in the hands of the Western Sanitary Commission at St. Louis.

On the 1st of January, 1873, the whole amount received and in the hands of the treasurer of the commission, C. S. Greeley, was nineteen thousand six hundred and thirty-four dollars and thirty-four cents.

After the war closed the Soldiers' Orphans' Home, at Webster, reverted to the Western Sanitary Commission, owing to the resignation of the first board of trustees and board of lady managers, and in consequence of an act of the Legislature. A new board of trustees was then created, consisting of the members of the commission with the addition of two other gentlemen, and was as follows: James E. Yeatman, C. S. Greeley, J. B. Johnson, M.D., George Partridge, William G. Eliot, D.D., E. W. Fox, and T. B. Edgar. On the organization of this board James E. Yeatman was elected president, and T. B. Edgar secretary and treasurer.

After this organization was effected the commission appropriated $25,000 for the future maintenance of the home, which, added to the $5000 a year for ten years ($50,000) appropriated by the State Legislature, and to the $20,000 subscribed by individuals as an endowment, and placed at interest, secured the future usefulness of the institution for the destitute orphans of deceased soldiers. The new buildings were completed in April, 1865, and were occupied on the 1st or May, 1865, making the entire accommodations of the home sufficient for one hundred and sixty orphans.

The Soldiers' Home of St. Louis was continued during the winter of 1866, but was closed on the 1st of May. Arrangements were made to continue the care beyond that date of some twenty-five disabled indigent, discharged soldiers, for whom the military authorities set apart quarters at Jefferson Barracks, at the request of the commission; leaving it, however, to meet the other expenses of their support until the general government made further provision for such cases.

The commission also employed Mrs. S. A. Plummer and Miss N. A. Shepard as relief visitors to the families of invalid and disabled soldiers, through whom it continued to extend relief to this class of sufferers by the war. The labors of these noble women proved very useful in this work, and they carried not only physical aid, but often spiritual comfort (of an unsectarian kind) to many sad homes.

Such were some of the ways in which this noble, self-sacrificing, and patriotic commission expended the balance of funds left on hand after the close of the war.

The whole amount of cash received by the commission for sanitary purposes during the war was $770,998.55, and the estimated value of sanitary stores received was $3,500,000, making a total of $4,270,998.55 contributed to this commission from private benevolence for sanitary and humane objects, and, except the balance on hand, reserved for the completion of its humane work, distributed by this commission as stated above.

Much of the success with which the labors of the commission were crowned was due to the fidelity and skill with which its finances were managed by the treasurer, Carlos S. Greeley, who also devoted a large share of his time and labor to assisting the general work of the organization. Mr. Greeley, as we have seen, was one of the original members of the Commission, and served as its treasurer from the date of its appointment by Gen. Fremont, in September, 1861, until it disbanded in 1866.

Of the heavy, harassing, and exhausting work which devolved upon this body Mr. Greeley cheerfully performed his share, as a duty from which a loyal citizen with time and means could not shrink; and he feels a just pride at having had the inestimable privilege of laboring with such noble and self-sacrificing men in such a cause, and of having his name associated with theirs on the page of history. As treasurer there passed through his hands seven hundred and seventy-one thousand dollars; and of this amount five hundred and fifty-four thousand five hundred and ninety-one dollars was turned over to him at one time, being the net receipts of the Mississippi Valley Sanitary Fair in May, 1864; and such was the confidence reposed in Carlos S. Greeley that nobody thought of asking a bond of him. In its final report the commission, while averse to speaking of the

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individual labors of its own members, could not forbear remarking that "its funds have been kept, and its finances managed with great care, faithfulness, and good judgment by its treasurer, Carlos S. Greeley, Esq."

After the war Mr. Greeley was one of the trustees of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home at Webster, and of several similar institutions established by the commission. He is yet prominently interested in several benevolent enterprises founded by funds appropriated by the Sanitary Commission, or assisted by moneys which the commission had on hand when it ceased its labors as a sanitary commission. For years, in common with his colleagues on the commission, Mr. Greeley left his business and gave his whole time to the work in hand, serving, as they all did, without compensation other than the consciousness of having faithfully tried to serve his country in a tremendous crisis.

Carlos S. Greeley also enjoys the distinction of being at the present time at the head of one of the largest wholesale grocery houses in the United States, and his long and highly successful career presents many points of interest. He was born at Salisbury, N. H., of a family descended from the English pioneers, and his ancestors on both sides were well-known and influential people of that region. His uncle, Moses Greeley, was prominent as a politician, and was a man of influence, while his mother's family were noted for their enterprising and energetic qualities.

His father, Benjamin Greeley, was a farmer, and the boy's life was that of a farmer's son of that period, — working on the farm in the summer and attending school in the winter. He received, however, an academic education at Salisbury in addition to that afforded by the common country school.

In the spring of 1832, when twenty years old, he started for the West, having become satisfied that no money was to be made at farming in New Hampshire, and that, as the saying went, "New Hampshire was a good State to emigrate from." Besides, his tastes inclined to mercantile life; he had a Yankee boy's passion for "swapping," and when he left home all the money he possessed (less than one hundred dollars) had been made by trading steers and other stock that had come into his possession.

He began his business career at Brockport, N. Y., as clerk in the retail grocery-store of Pettingill & Sanborn. Mr. Pettingill is now a prominent resident of Peoria, Ill.; Mr. Sanborn will appear again later in this sketch. One peculiarity of this establishment was that it would sell no liquor, — an unusual course in those days when the use of liquor was much more common in that section than at present, and when the legitimacy of its sale was questioned by very few. Young Greeley remained in this capacity for two years, and then an opportunity occurring of buying out Pettingill's interest, — a quarter-share in the business, — he borrowed the money from his father and made the purchase.

This connection proved a prosperous one and lasted until 1836, when Sanborn sold out and removed to St. Louis. Greeley remained behind at Brockport for a few years to close up the business, and then in the fall of 1837 he was induced by Sanborn to follow him to St. Louis. During the winter he visited his father, who had removed to Tazewell County, Illinois; and in March, 1838, having returned to St. Louis and spent some time in looking over the situation, he commenced the wholesale grocery business with Mr. Sanborn. Soon after, Mr. Gale, an old acquaintance from Salisbury, N. H., came on and bought Mr. Sanborn's interest, and Greeley & Gale continued the business. Mr. Sanborn engaged in speculation, became a well-known stock dealer, and died some years later, greatly respected.

Greeley & Sanborn began business on the Levee on a very moderate scale, Mr. Greeley's contribution to the business being less than five thousand dollars. They repeated the Brockport experiment of selling no liquor, a conclusion they reached from a firm belief that the use of liquor was destructive of health and morals, and its sale was therefore wrong. Their convictions were laughed at by their rivals, and abundant predictions of their failure were made; nevertheless, although the only house in this city that did not sell liquor, their business prospered beyond precedent, and by close attention, economy, and perseverance they made money every year, and soon occupied a very commanding position.

The partnership of Greeley & Gale lasted until about 1858, when C. B. Burnham (now president of the Bank of Commerce) was given an interest in the firm, and the house continued under the name of C. B. Burnham & Co. until 1876, conducting the same business and on the same temperance principles as before mentioned. In 1876 the title was changed to Greeley, Burnham & Co., and in 1879 the firm was incorporated as the Greeley-Burnham Grocer Company, with C. S. Greeley, president; C. B. Burnham, vice-president; Dwight Tredway, secretary; C. B. Greeley, treasurer; A. H. Gale, assistant secretary; and this is the existing organization.

Although the house has passed through several panics and through a period of social and political agitation unmatched in history, its career has been

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one of uninterrupted and remarkable prosperity. The only incident of an unfortunate character was the destruction of its store by fire in February, 1881, entailing a heavy loss, but not in the slightest degree affecting the soundness of the establishment. Mr. Greeley immediately rebuilt the store at a cost of seventy-five thousand dollars for building and ground, and now boasts of occupying not only the largest wholesale grocery establishment in the United States, but probably the most perfectly equipped and conveniently arranged of any in the world. The building, which is situated at the corner of Christy Avenue and Second Street, is a five-story brick structure seventy-three and a half by one hundred and fifty feet in area, with a deep cellar, and has a floor-room of over six acres. The foundations were laid with proper regard to solidity, stability, and the storage of the heaviest stocks, while the arrangements are designed to allow of the receipt, handling, and shipment of goods in the most economical and the speediest manner. Two large engines supply power to two elevators that are constantly employed in shifting goods where occasion may demand. In the arrangement of wardrobe, lunch-rooms, etc., a proper and philanthropic thoughtfulness for the comfort of the employés has been observed.

An idea of the magnitude of the business of the firm may be obtained from the fact that the house continually carries from two hundred and seventy-five thousand to three hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars in stock. The financial standing of the establishment is not excelled by that of any house in the country, and it is as well known in foreign markets almost as in St. Louis as one of irreproachable honor and unimpeachable strength. This grand result has been accomplished by close attention to business on the part of Mr. Greeley and his able associates and the management of its affairs in the most economical manner. Speculation has been avoided; there has been no gambling in "futures" or anything of that sort; no partner has ever lived beyond his means. In short, there has been only a steady and faithful application of the ordinary and honest principles of business by men who believe that "honesty is the best policy," but who practice honesty for its own sake, and not merely because it is the best policy.

Mr. Greeley is a public-spirited citizen, and has been engaged in many important public enterprises. He was a prominent subscriber to the Kansas Pacific Railway, and in 1878 sold to Jay Gould the controlling interest that made him owner thereof. As is well known, this road extends from Kansas City to Denver. Mr. Greeley's connection with it lasted from 1865 to 1878, and for much of the time he was treasurer of the company and had charge of its financial affairs. In this capacity he was largely instrumental in lifting it out of its pecuniary embarrassments and finishing it and putting it in successful operation. His connection with the line involved the building of several important "feeders" to develop the western country. Mr. Greeley also assisted in building the railroad from Sedalia to Warsaw, and for some years retained a considerable interest therein. He is now a director and largely interested in the St. Louis and Illinois Railroad and Coal Company, and more recently has purchased an interest in the Madison County Ferry Company. He is now president of the Washington Land and Mining Company, and president of the Union Mining and Smelting Company, the two representing thirteen thousand acres of mineral and agricultural lands in Washington County, Mo. He is also largely interested in banks and bank stocks; is the largest stockholder but one in the Bank of Commerce; is president of the Provident Savings Institution, a director in the Boatmen's Savings-Bank, and a trustee in the State Savings Association. He is also a director in the Belcher Sugar Refinery Company, the St. Louis Cotton-Factory, and the Crystal City Plate-Glass Company, and is president of the National Land Company of Kansas, a concern that originally held two hundred thousand acres of land, and which yet has fifty thousand acres unsold. In addition to these he is a director in many other companies, among which may be mentioned the State Mutual Insurance Company, the Mutual Insurance Company, the St. Louis Gold-Mining Company of Colorado, and the Greeley Mining Company of Colorado. These business associations, so varied and embracing so many important interests, indicate that he is a man not only of unusual activity, but one thoroughly awake to whatever has seemed likely to conduce to the prosperity and advancement of St. Louis. For nine years he was a member of the board of education, being president the last year; and for many years he has been a director of Washington University, St. Mary's Institute, etc.

Mr. Greeley has been for many years a member of the Second Presbyterian Church, and is chairman of its board of trustees. He is also a trustee in the Drury College, at Springfield, Mo., and the Lindenwood Seminary, at St. Charles, Mo.

In 1841 he married Miss Robbins, of Hartford, Conn. Two children resulted from this union, — C. B. Greeley, who is a member of the firm, and a daughter, who married Dwight Tredway, the secretary and managing partner of the Greeley-Burnham Grocer Company.

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Mr. Greeley is a gentleman of quiet and unassuming manners, and his career is an illustration of the fact that quiet and persistent work, honestly and faithfully applied, is sure of its reward.

In self-sacrificing devotion to duty James E. Yeatman, C. S. Greeley, J. B. Johnson, George Partridge, and William G. Eliot, the members of the Western Sanitary Commission, were not in the least behind the bravest heroes on the battle-field. With hearts full of sympathy for their fellow-man, they answered every call for aid and assistance, and never hesitated to sacrifice themselves when they could alleviate suffering or minister to the comfort of others.

James E. Yeatman, whose distinguished services as president of the Sanitary Commission have been narrated, was born in Bedford County, Tenn., Aug. 27, 1818. His father was a merchant, manufacturer, and banker in Nashville, and the son, who was reared amid the surroundings of affluence, enjoyed the advantages of a liberal education. His studies were shaped with a view to engaging in commercial life, and immediately after leaving school he began his business career in the manufacture of iron at Cumberland, Tenn., and in 1842 removed to St. Louis and opened an iron house as a branch of the Nashville establishment.

From 1850 to 1861 he engaged successfully in the commission business, and in 1850 assisted in organizing the Merchants' Bank (now the Merchants' National Bank), of which he was one of the first directors. In 1861 he devoted himself exclusively to the bank, and for many years has been its president.

Meanwhile other public enterprises had engaged his attention. He served as member of a commission appointed to obtain from the Legislature the passage of an act authorizing the city to subscribe five hundred thousand dollars to the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad, was one of the incorporators of Bellefontaine Cemetery, assisted in the establishment of Washington University, and for many years has been a trustee of that institution, and was the first president of the Mercantile Library. He has also been active and prominent in promoting various public charities, among them the Blind Asylum, much of whose usefulness (if not its very existence) is due to him. He was the first president of that institution, which for nearly thirty years has been the object of his watchful solicitude and care, and to hundreds of its hapless wards he has proved a kind and bountiful protector.

Throughout the trying period preceding and during the civil war, Mr. Yeatman was a strenuous supporter of the Union, but labored earnestly for peace and reconciliation. His mother's second husband was John Bell, of Tennessee, the candidate for President of the United States on the Union ticket in 1860, and Mr. Yeatman belonged to the Union school in politics. When war could no longer be avoided he strove to avert its horrors from Missouri, and was deputed by some of the most loyal and honored citizens of St. Louis to accompany Hon. H. R. Gamble to Washington to lay the situation in Missouri before President Lincoln. Gen. Harney was then in command of the Department of the West, and his policy was the subject of much contention before the President. Messrs. Yeatman and Gamble were firmly persuaded that it was the only one that would lead to a peaceful solution of the problem, but they failed to impress Mr. Lincoln with this view, and Gen. Harney was soon removed, and the vigorous counsels of Francis P. Blair's party adopted by the government. Mr. Gamble subsequently, as Provisional Governor, served the State and the country through a period of unexampled difficulty with great ability, while Mr. Yeatman performed the most arduous and self-sacrificing labor in connection with the Western Sanitary Commission, which was called into existence by Gen. Fremont in September, 1861, in order to mitigate the horrors of the war then actually in progress in Missouri, as well as in the more Southern States. As previously stated, Mr. Yeatman was president of the commission, and is universally conceded to have been its guiding spirit throughout the war. Indeed, from the very moment of his acceptance of this delicate and sacred trust he put business and home and friends behind him and consecrated himself, in the true sacrificial spirit, entirely to the noble work of relieving distress and misery. His task was dual in its character, for he was called upon to systematize the impulsive, disorderly, and uninformed sympathies and efforts of the loyal people of the West, and then to make effective with the least waste of time, labor, and money the agencies employed for the relief and care of sick and wounded soldiers. In this great emergency Mr. Yeatman exhibited a capacity and aptitude for organization on a large scale scarcely equaled and certainly never excelled in the history of the country. His duties led him all over the war stricken regions of the Southwest, wherever men were suffering or were likely to suffer and to need relief. Like Howard, he must look with his own eyes on the misery he was charged to relieve, and it has been well said that "the hostile armies were filled with a new feeling — that of tenderness — as they beheld his unselfish efforts."

In fact, a reference to the preceding pages will show that the narrative of Mr. Yeatman's labors in

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this connection is identical with the history of the commission itself. In the West the work of the Sanitary Commission assumed an eminently practical character. The commission established hospital steamers, founded soldiers' homes and homes for their children, and took the earliest steps to relieve the freedmen, whom they promptly recognized as the "wards of the nation." They sent them teachers, nurses, and physicians, and the labors of the commission in connection with the freedmen during 1864-65 were quite as arduous to Mr. Yeatman and his associates as were those during some of the periods in which the great battles of the war had been fought. The Freed men's Bureau was organized on the plan devised by Mr. Yeatman, who, once a holder of slaves, now became a benefactor of the negro race. His report to the Western Sanitary Commission favoring the leasing of abandoned plantations to freedrnen was declared by the North American Review (April, 1864) to contain in a single page "the final and absolute solution of the cotton and negro questions." Mr. Yeatman's report was so favorably received that he was sent to Washington to lay his views before the government. The President was greatly impressed, and urged him to accompany a government officer to Vicksburg to put them into effect. This Mr. Yeatman did, although he declined an official appointment in that connection. When the Freedmen's Bureau was instituted President Lincoln offered him the commissionership, but he declined, disliking, possibly, the semi-military features of the establishment. Its main features, however, he heartily approved.

The Sanitary Commission disbursed seven hundred and seventy-one thousand dollars, and distributed over three and a half million dollars worth of goods. It was brought into very close relations with the military authorities, yet its affairs were managed so discreetly that all the generals in the field — Grant, Sherman, Fremont, Halleck, Curtis, Schofield, and Rosecrans — were on the most friendly and confidential terms with its agents, and did their utmost, by means of military orders and the exercise of their personal influence, to advance their humane work. When it is considered that the history of war afforded no precedent for sanitary work among the soldiers on so large a scale, the magnitude of the labor of the commission and the splendor of its success are the more conspicuous.

When the war closed, Mr. Yeatman returned to his business and his charities. There is hardly an institution in the city that has not been blessed by his benefactions, which have always been bestowed in a truly catholic spirit, yet guided by a discriminating and business-like judgment that never squanders. Among the more recent objects of his benevolent interest is the "Memorial Home" for aged and infirm people, lately established in St. Louis. But the good which he has performed will never be fully known, as much of it has been done in so quiet and unostentatious a manner as not to be apparent to the outside world. His long and stainless life is illuminated with an active benevolence that is unmatched in the history of St. Louis, and his charities throw a golden lustre on the city of his adoption.

The Mississippi Valley Sanitary Fair. — The great success attending the sanitary fairs which had been held in several of the large cities of the country suggested a similar enterprise in the city of St. Louis, with the view of replenishing the funds of the Western Sanitary Commission, and of the kindred and co-operative associations, so that they might prosecute their noble and philanthropic labors during the continuance of the war. The great fairs held in the large Eastern cities and in Chicago in aid of the United States Sanitary Commission had contributed nothing to the funds of the Western Commission. Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, neighboring States, transmitted their great and generous contributions chiefly through that channel and their own agencies, while the reports of the Western Sanitary Commission show that the regiments of those States were the constant care of the Commission, both in the field and in its soldiers' homes at St. Louis, Columbus, Ky., Memphis, Tenn., Helena, Ark., Vicksburg, Miss., and Duvall's Bluff, in Arkansas. 332

With large and increasing demands upon its treasury and supplies, the resources of the commission had begun to fail, and on the 1st of February, 1864, a large preliminary meeting of "the loyal men and women of St. Louis" was held at Mercantile Library Hall for the purpose of effecting an organization for holding a grand Mississippi Valley Sanitary Fair in St. Louis. George Partridge called the meeting to order, and on his motion Chauncey I. Filley, mayor

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of the city, was unanimously chosen to preside. On motion of C. S. Greeley, Samuel Copp, Jr., was appointed secretary. Rev. J, J. Porter opened the proceedings with prayer, and Rev. Dr. William G. Eliot, at the request of the chairman, explained the objects of the meeting. On motion of Edward Wyman, a committee on organization was appointed, which soon after made a report, which was adopted. The purpose in holding the fair was to raise a sufficient fund for the sanitary uses of the armies of the Mississippi valley, and for the relief of the sick and wounded under the general direction of the Western Sanitary Commission, whose headquarters were in St. Louis. Speeches were made by the mayor, and by Rev. William G. Eliot, D.D., Brig.-Gen. C. B. Fisk, Maj.-Gen. W. S. Rosecrans, Maj. McKee Dunn, and Professor Amasa McCoy. A letter was read from Gen. Grant, in which he said, —

"The gratuitous offerings of our loyal citizens at home to our brave soldiers in the field, through the agency of sanitary commissions, have been to them the most encouraging and gratifying evidence that whilst they are risking life and health for the suppression of this most wicked rebellion, friends, who cannot assist with musket and sword, are with them in sympathy and heart.

"The Western Sanitary Commission has distributed tons of stores (amounting to thousands) to the armies under my command. Its voluntary offerings have made glad the hearts of many thousands of wounded and sick soldiers, who otherwise would have been subjected to severe privations. Knowing the benefits already conferred on the army by the Western Sanitary Commission, I hope for a full and enthusiastic meeting to-morrow night, and a ‘fair’ to follow which will bring together many old friends who have been kept apart for the last three years and unite them again in one common cause, — that of their country and peace."

The following officers and committees were then elected to organize and conduct this great enterprise:

Maj.-Gen. W. S. Rosecrans, president; Governor Willard P. Hall, first vice-president; Mayor Chauncey I. Filley, second vice-president; Brig.-Gen. Clinton B. Fisk, third vice-president (afterwards Mayor James S. Thomas was made fourth vice-president, and Brig.-Gen. J. W. Davidson fifth vice-president); Samuel Copp, Jr., treasurer; Maj. Alfred Mackay, corresponding secretary.

Honorary Members. — His Excellency Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States; Hon. Hannibal Hamlin, Vice-President of the United States; the Governors of the several loyal States; Maj.-Gen. U. S. Grant, commanding, etc.

Standing Committee (members of the Western Sanitary Commission). — James E. Yeatman, William G. Eliot, George Partridge, Carlos S. Greeley, John B. Johnson.

Executive Committee of Gentlemen. — James F. Yeatman (chairman), J. H. Lightner, E. W. Fox, Samuel Copp, Jr., George D. Hall, S. R. Filley, Charles B. Hubbell, Jr., James Blackman, William D'Oench, William Patrick, J. O. Pierce, Gustavus W. Dreyer, H. C. Homever, B. R. Bonner, Adolphus Meier, Charles Speck, William Mitchell, William Adriance, George E. Leighton, M. L. Linton, William H. Benton, Dwight Durkee, Amadee Vallé, Wyllys King, George P. Plant, Morris Collins, J. C. Cabot, N. C. Chapman, John D. Perry, S. H. Laflin, James Ward.

Executive Committee of Ladies. — Mrs. Chauncey I. Filley (president), Mrs. Anna M. Debenham (recording secretary), Mrs, Gen. V. P. Van Antwerp (corresponding secretary), Mrs. Phebe W. Couzins (corresponding secretary), Mrs. Robert Anderson, Mrs. George Partridge, Mrs. J. E. D. Couzins, Mrs. E. M. Weber, Mrs. Truman Woodruff, Mrs. Clinton B. Fisk, Mrs. F. A. Dick, Mrs. Alfred Clapp, Mrs. Dr. E. Hale, Mrs. A. S. W. Goodwin, Mrs. H. T. Blow, Mrs. Amelia Reihl, Mrs. N. C. Chapman, Mrs. Washington King, Mrs. S. A. Ranlett, Mrs. T. B. Edgar, Mrs. C. S. Greeley, Mrs. W. T. Hazard, Mrs. Charles D. Drake, Mrs. Dr. Haeusler, Mrs. Samuel C. Davis, Mrs. McKee Dunn, Mrs. B Gratz Brown, Mrs. William McKee, Mrs. Gen. William S. Rosecrans, Mrs. Dr. O'Reilly, Mrs. S. B. Kellogg, Mrs. S. A. Collier, Mrs. W. A. Doan, Mrs. Isaac Rosenfeld, Mrs. Samuel Copp, Jr., Mrs. F. P. Blair, Mrs. Elizabeth W. Clark, Mrs. H. Dreyer, Mrs. Ulrich Busch, Mrs. John Wolff, Mrs. Waltenburg, Mrs. John J. Hoppe, Mrs. Adolphus Abells, Mrs. C. Piper, Mrs. R. H. Morton, Mrs. William D'Oench, Mrs. J. C. Rust, Mrs. Adolphus Meier, Mrs. Bernard Poepping, Mrs. John C. Vogel, Mrs. R. Barth, Mrs. H. C. Gempp, Mrs. O. D. Filley, Mrs. Henry Stagg, Mrs. E. W. Fox, Mrs. Charles Eggers, Mrs. A. S. Dean, Mrs. Rombauer.

Various subordinate committees were afterwards appointed, representing all the trades and branches of business in St. Louis, and a committee was appointed to conduct a department in the fair for the benefit of freedmen and Union refugees, so that contributions might be made for this charity by itself, and kept separate from the general sanitary work of the army.

Appeals were immediately sent out to the people of the Mississippi valley and to the whole country; the newspaper press of St. Louis lent its columns with great generosity to the promotion of the enterprise and published largely in its interests, and friendly papers abroad gave it all the publicity that could be desired.

The merchants and private citizens, the noble men and women of St. Louis, took hold of the enterprise with generous zeal, and determined to make it a decided success. Sympathizing friends in Boston, New Bedford, Providence, Salem, Worcester, New York, Brooklyn, Philadelphia, and many smaller cities and towns made handsome donations, and some of them sent representatives to aid in the work. Many valuable trophies of the war and donations in money were received from the army. Fifteen gold and silver bars, amounting to over forty-five thousand dollars, were received from Nevada Territory, and several shipments of goods were sent also from England and Germany by generous sympathizers in the cause. Besides these contributions in goods, two hundred thousand dollars in money was given towards the object, of which much the largest portion came from the citizens of St. Louis, a city that probably suffered more from the war than any other city of the Union.

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While these labors were being performed, a splendid building was erected on Twelfth Street, from Olive Street to St. Charles Street, five hundred feet long and one hundred and fourteen feet wide, with wings on Locust Street one hundred feet each in length beyond the main building and fifty-four feet wide, with an octagon centre seventy-five feet in diameter and fifty feet high. The whole was arranged, decorated, divided into apartments, and filled with contributions from art and nature of the most valuable kinds.

On the 17th of May, 1864, this immense building, filled with its splendid contributions of merchandise, art, and manufactures, ornamented with flags, trophies, mottoes, arbors of evergreens and flowers, and superintended by fair ladies and noble men, was opened to the public with appropriate ceremonies, on which occasion speeches were made by Gen. Rosecrans, Governor Hall, and Gen. Fisk. The attendance was very large from the start, and for three weeks the influx of people from St. Louis and the neighboring country, and from the towns and cities of the adjoining States, continued in a steady stream.

The building in all its departments — its refreshment saloons, its gallery of fine arts, its counters for the sale of merchandise, its floral park, its room for the exhibition of trophies of the war, and its display of agricultural implements, of sewing-machines, of works of art, and of the gold and silver bars from Nevada — was filled with multitudes, who passed along the various walks and avenues, purchasing and admiring what they saw, from morning till evening. up to the close of the fair in the early part of June.

No written description can begin to do justice to the grand exhibition, but it will long be remembered by those who participated in its labors, and by the hundreds of thousands of visitors who gave their presence, their sympathy, and their money to aid the noble object for which the fair was held. Among these were many of the leading merchants and bankers of St. Louis, who were the main strength and support of the undertaking; the commanding general of the department and other officers of the army, stationed at St. Louis, or co-operating from their distant posts; the members of the Western Sanitary Commission; the Union ladies of St. Louis, including the members of the Ladies' Union Aid Society, the Freedmen's Aid Association, the Ladies' Loyal League, and the teachers and pupils of the universities, the colleges, the female academies, and the public schools of the city, all of whom, in their several spheres, contributed to the grand results of the fair.

The net receipts from the fair amounted to five hundred and fifty-four thousand five hundred and ninety-one dollars, being, it is believed, greater than those of any sanitary fair that has ever been held in the United States. 333

St. Louis had occasion to be proud of this result, and Mr. Yeatman, chairman of the executive committee, in his official report of the fair said, — "The city of St. Louis, situated comparatively upon the frontier of loyalty, has raised about three dollars and fifty cents for each inhabitant, while the cities of New York and Philadelphia, at their fairs, raised about one dollar and sixty-seven cents for each inhabitant."

The generous support extended by the Union citizens of St. Louis to the armies of the Union during the civil war, their sympathy and aid in sanitary and religious work for the sick and wounded soldiers, and the relief afforded by them to the freedmen and homeless Union refugees, are without a parallel in history. Besides the liberal contributions from the people of St. Louis to the Mississippi Valley Sanitary Fair, the Western Sanitary Commission was the recipient of hundreds of thousands of dollars in money and sanitary goods from the same patriotic sources contributed from time to time during the whole progress of the war.

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Scharf, J. Thomas. History of Saint Louis City and County, From the Earliest Periods to the Present Day: Including Biographical Sketches of Representative Men. Vol. I . Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts and Co, 1883. [format: book], [genre: history]. Permission: St. Louis Mercantile Library
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