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Scharf, J. Thomas. History of Saint Louis City and County, From the Earliest Periods to the Present Day: Including Biographical Sketches of Representative Men. In Two Volumes, Illustrated. Volume II . Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts & Co., 1883. [format: book], [genre: biography; history; proceedings]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
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Chapter XXIX. Railroads.

The most cursory glance at the map of the United States will satisfy any one that St. Louis is the point at which the greater part of the vast internal commerce of the country passes, whether going from the Atlantic to the Pacific, or from the frozen regions to the torrid zone. From the founding of the city, the great river system of the Mississippi valley, as we have seen, has been tributary to her wealth and prosperity; and when the era of railroads came with its rapidity of movement, to satisfy that restless spirit which characterizes the American, she was among the first of the cities to recognize the impending change in commercial transportation, and to take the necessary steps to guard her interests and promote her prosperity.

The first movement in this direction was the action of a large number of the enterprising citizens of St. Louis, calling upon the several counties of the State to send delegates to an "Internal Improvement Convention" which was to assemble in that city on the 20th of April, 1835. At the time appointed the convention met at the court-house and organized by the selection of Dr. Samuel Merry as chairman, and G. K. McGunnegle as secretary. The roll of the convention being called, the following delegates were found to be present:

St. Louis County. — Edward Tracy, Maj. J. B. Brant, Col. John O'Fallon, Dr. Samuel Merry, Archibald Gamble, M. L. Clark, Col. Joseph C. Laveille, Thornton Grimsley, H. S. Geyer, Col. Henry Walton, Lewellyn Brown, Henry Von Phul, George K. McGunnegle, Col. B. W. Ayres, Pierro Chouteau, Jr., and Hamilton R. Gamble.

Lincoln County. — Col. David Bailey, Hans Smith, Emanuel Block, Benjamin W. Dudley, and Dr. Bailey.

Washington County. — Dr. J. H. Relfe, Philip Cole, John S. Brickey, Jesse H. McIlvaine, Myers H. Jones, James Evans, and W. C. Reed.

Cooper County. — Benjamin E. Ferry, N. W. Mack, and William H. Trigg.

Warren County. — Carty Wells, Nathaniel Pendleton, and Irvine S. Pitman.

St. Charles County. — Edward Bates, Moses Bigelow, William M. Campbell, and W. L. Overall.

Galloway County. — William H. McCullough, William H. Russell, D. R. Mullen, Dr. N. Kouns, C. Oxley, Jacob G. Lebo, R. B. Oyerton, and — Moxley.

Montgomery County. — Dr. M. M. Maughas, S. C. Ruby, and Nathaniel Dryden.

Boone County. — Dr. James W. Moss, John B. Gordon, J. W. Keiser, D. M. Hickman, J. S. Rollins, William Hunter, R. W. Morriss, and Granville Branham.

Howard County. — Dr. John Bull, Maj. Alphonso Wetmore, Weston F. Birch, Joseph Davis, Gen. J. B. Clark, T. Y. Stearns, and John Wilson.

Jefferson County. — James S. McCutchen.

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After some debate the convention recommended the construction of two railroads, one from St. Louis to Fayette, and the other from St. Louis to the iron-and lead-mines in the southern part of the State. After the adjournment of the convention the members attended a banquet given in their honor by the merchants of St. Louis at the National Hotel, then situated at the corner of Third and Market Streets. The mayor, John F. Darby, presided, assisted by Charles Keemle, secretary, and the following vice-presidents: Gen. John Ruland, Hon. H. O'Neil, Thomas Cohen, Maj. William Milburn, Beverly Allen, Col. J. W. Johnson, and William G. Pettus.

To defray the expenses attending the survey of the routes of the two railroads recommended by the Internal Improvement Convention, the judges of the St. Louis County court, in May, 1836, appropriated two thousand dollars.

On the 18th of June, 1836, another internal improvement meeting was held in St. Louis, to devise means for the furtherance of the Boston Railroad design, which contemplated a direct communication between Boston and St. Louis, and connections with the improvements leading to the other cities of the Atlantic seaboard. On motion of T. Grimsley, John F. Darby was called to the chair, and on motion of A. B. Chambers, William Milburn was appointed secretary.

The chairman stated what he understood to be the object of the meeting, and urged its importance to the city of St. Louis, the whole State of Missouri, and the entire valley of the Mississippi.

A. B. Chambers gave his views more at length, and concluded by stating that Mr. Walker, of Boston, who was one of the projectors of the scheme and its warm advocate, was present, and that many were desirous of hearing him on the subject, but, to bring the matter directly before the meeting, he would first ask the reading of a preamble and resolutions which had been prepared for the occasion. They were accordingly read as follows:

"WHEREAS, The citizens of St. Louis have seen with pleasure the proposition in Boston and other portions of the East for the connection of Boston with the Western country by means of an uninterrupted line of railroads;

"AND WHEREAS, The measure is one of advantage to the East and the West, and to no portion of the West more than to St. Louis, which will, if it is ever completed, be the termination of the line;

"AND WHEREAS, the accomplishment of the undertaking appears to be probable and within the means of the States interested, and requiring but a small addition of road to what is already built or in the progress of erection; therefore,

"Resolved, That we cordially approve of the proposition to connect Boston with the Western country by means of a railroad as a work of easy accomplishment, and which deserves the support of all the States through which it may pass.

"2. Resolved, That the citizens of St. Louis will lend their assistance and hearty co-operation, so far as their ability extends, in furtherance of the proposition.

"3. Resolved, That a committee of be appointed, who shall constitute a committee of correspondence, and shall generally have authority to do whatever may be in their power to aid in carrying out the contemplated work."

The preamble and resolutions having been read, there was a unanimous call for Mr. Walker, who delivered a very interesting discourse, in which he demonstrated the practicability of the plan and its great importance to both the East and the West.

The resolutions were then read separately and unanimously adopted, the blank in the third resolution ordered to be filled with the number "five" and the chair authorized to appoint the committee.

The chair accordingly appointed William Carr Lane, mayor of the city, Thornton Grimsley, Andrew J. Davis, William Milburn, and Gustavus A. Bird, and by resolution of the meeting the chairman, John F. Darby, was added to the committee.

The same meeting further resolved that a committee should be appointed "to draft a memorial to the Legislature asking the aid of the State government to the amount of five hundred thousand dollars for the construction of a railroad to the mining region; also to draft a memorial to the mayor and alderman of this city asking their aid in the same amount for the same object; also to draft a memorial to Congress asking a donation of every section and fractional section thereof of public lands over which the road should pass; also to draft a memorial to the Legislature asking for a geological survey of the State."

Under this resolution the following committee was appointed: B. W. Ayres, A. Wetmore, G. Morton, Dr. King, J. C. Abbot, A. J. Davis, Charles Collins, John Kingsland, John Simonds, William Smith, and James Russell.

At the same meeting it was resolved that a committee be appointed "to collect facts relating general subject of internal improvement, and to the particular object embraced in the first-mentioned resolutions." To this committee were appointed J. C. Dinnies, Dr. Englemann, Dr. Merry, Maj. Anderson, Edward Tracy, Réné Paul, and D. D. Page.

In January following two charters were granted by the State, one incorporating the St. Louis and Bellevue Mineral Railroad Company, and the other the Louisiana and Columbia Railroad Company. The charters were similar in their enactments, and were very liberal in their terms. The legislators of that

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day were in doubt whether railroads should be worked by horse- or steam-power, and whether the vehicles and motive-power should be owned by the company or by other parties. They also had very vague conceptions of the profits likely to accrue to the stockholders. The ruling idea, however, seems to have been the construction of improved highways, free to all, and subject only to such restrictions as the public good and the interest of those who had invested capital in them demanded. 122

Both of these projected railroad lines were surveyed, but neither was built. The charter of the Louisiana and Columbia road was incorporated ten years afterwards in that granted to the Hannibal and St. Jo Company, and that of the Bellevue road in the Iron Mountain Railroad charter fourteen years afterwards. 123

Thus ended the first effort at railroad construction in Missouri. 124

Notwithstanding their temporary want of success, however, the citizens of St. Louis continued to manifest a lively interest in railroad development, and looked forward with confidence to the day when their cherished desires should be consummated. 125

In June, 1839, another town-meeting was held at the court-house for the purpose of devising means to connect St. Louis with Boston by railroad. Nothing resulted from a discussion of the subject, as the people still relied too confidently upon the splendid geographical position of St. Louis to, sooner or later, attract the needed capital and enterprise for the construction of railroads. At this period (1839) a railroad had been completed to Buffalo, and the route from the West to the East by way of the lakes had begun to attract attention. 126

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Aboard of improvements was created by the State in 1840, but nothing was done further than to make a survey for a railroad from St. Louis to the Iron Mountain by the way of Big River, and some surveys of the Osage River with a view of improving its navigation.

Missouri Pacific Railway. — As already indicated, the commercial sagacity of the people of St. Louis recognized the fact that the capital of the eastern section of the country would ultimately come to their city in order to construct the railroads which her expanding trade demanded; that the self-interest of the East would seek the mart where were collected the vast productions of the West; and that being the most distant city from the East, she was the nearest to the West, the greatest producing as well as the greatest consuming section of the country.

These considerations induced her merchants to pivot, as it were, their great Pacific Railroad on the Mississippi River, with that already great feeder and carrier as the base and eastern terminus, and to "go west" for greater conquests and grander results. 127

The successful termination of the Mexican war had added large areas to the territory of the Union and expanded its boundaries to the Pacific, and it was soon seen that the discovery of gold in California (in 1848) would in a few years open up that country to a trade more valuable even than the gold of her mines, and people the Pacific slope with an energetic and enterprising race. 128

From time to time, previous to the year 1849, various propositions were suggested by Whitney, Maury, Degrand, and others for the construction of a railroad from St. Louis to some point on the Pacific coast, and in December, 1848, the Western Journal commenced the publication of a series of articles on Eastern commerce, by J. Loughborough, which were designed to direct attention to the importance of a railroad from the Mississippi valley to the Pacific; the route favored being that by the mouth of the Kansas and the South Pass. In January of 1849 the editor of the Western Journal advocated the same project.

About this time, in February of 1849, Col. Benton brought before the United States Senate his project for a Pacific railroad, advocating it in a powerful speech, that seemed to have the effect of giving to the movement, which the public mind had already been prepared for. 129

On the 20th of February following a large meeting of the citizens of St. Louis was held, upon a call of the mayor, to take action upon the subject. Judge Krum, then mayor of the city, presided, and a committee, of which Thomas Allen was chairman, reported a series of resolutions, strongly in favor the construction of a "national central highway" to the Pacific. These resolutions were unanimously adopted by the meeting. The Legislature was then in session, and a successful attempt was made to procure a charter for the Pacific Railroad, commencing at St. Louis, and running to the western line of Van Buren (afterwards Cass) County. It was approved on

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the 12th of March, 1849. The line of the proposed road is thus defined in the seventh section of the charter:

"Said company shall have power to survey, make, locate, and construct a railroad from the city of St. Louis to the city of Jefferson, and thence to some point on the western line of Van Buren (now Cass) County, in this State, with a view that the same may be continued hereafter westwardly to the Pacific Ocean." The act vested its powers in twenty-one corporators, of whom nine formed a quorum and might proceed to act.

The corporators were John O'Fallon, Lewis V. Bogy, James H. Lucas, Edward Walsh, George Collier, Thomas B. Hudson, Daniel D. Page, Henry M. Shreve, James E. Yeatman, John B. Sarpy, Wayman Joshua B. Brant, Thomas Allen, Robert Campbell, Pierre Chouteau, Jr., Henry Shaw, Bernard Pratte, Ernst Angelrodt, Adolphus Meier, Louis A. Benoist and Adam L. Mills.

The capital stock of the company as fixed by the charter was ten million dollars.

On the 24th of May, 1849, the City Council of St. Louis passed the following preamble and resolutions:

"WHEREAS, Recent events have directed public attention to the necessity and importance of early railroad and telegraph connection with California and Oregon, and the general desire seems to be to make St. Louis the starting point for those great national work; and

"WHEREAS, This community is especially interested in the accomplishment of so vast and beneficent an enterprise, and is properly expected to lead in the essential preliminary action for concentrating and enlightening public opinion in reference thereto; and

"WHEREAS, It is peculiarly desirable that measures should be promptly adopted in furtherance of the most feasible plan for making such a connection between St. Louis and the Bay of San Francisco or the Pacific coast; therefore,

"Be it resolved by the Board of Aldermen, the Board of Delegates concurring, That the mayor be requested to call a mass-meeting of the citizens of St. Louis and surrounding country, to be holden on the first Monday in June next, at four o'clock P. M., in order to appoint the necessary committees, and to make suitable arrangements for a convention of delegates from all the towns, cities, counties, and States which will join in such a movement, said convention to be holden in the city of St. Louis on the third Monday of October next.

And be it further resolved, That the hospitalities of this city be tendered to all of the delegates to said convention, and that it be recommended to the mass-meeting on the first Monday of June next to take all suitable action to procure attendance at the October convention from as many States as possible, together with such information to be laid before said convention as may show the value and importance of the route indicative merits of the various plans which have been submitted to public consideration in reference to this subject."

In accordance with the request contained in the resolutions, the mayor caused to be published in the several newspapers of the city the following notice, dated May 28, 1849, viz.:

"WHEREAS, The Honorable City Council haye passed resolutions authorizing and requesting the mayor to call a meeting of the citizens of the city of St. Louis and the surrounding country, to be held on the first Monday in June next, in order to appoint the necessary committees and to make suitable arrangements for a convention of delegates from all the towns, cities, counties, and States which will join in such a movement, for the purpose of taking into consideration the best and speediest plan of railroad and telegraphic connection with California and Oregon and the Pacific coast, said convention to be held in the city of St. Louis on the third Monday of October next: Now, therefore, in compliance with said resolutions, I do hereby respectfully request the inhabitants of the city of St. Louis and the surrounding country to meet at the rotunda of the courthouse on Monday, the 1st day of June next, at four o'clock, to take into consideration the above-mentioned subject, and such other matters in relation thereto as may come before the meeting. JAMES G. BARRY, Mayor."

A meeting of persons interested was held at the court-house, in accordance with the above notice, at which the Hon. J. G. Barry, mayor, was called to the chair, and Col. John O'Fallon, David Chambers, and A. B. McNair appointed vice-presidents, Capt. Richard Phillips and A. B. Chambers secretaries.

The chairman explained the object of the meeting, and alluded to the vast importance of the subject, its extent and influence upon the political and commercial prosperity of the country, and the necessity and duty of the citizens of St. Louis to take an active part in furtherance of the enterprise.

On motion of Mr. Blennerhassett, it was ordered that a committee of ten be appointed by the chair to report a preamble and resolutions for the action of the meeting.

The chair selected the following to compose the committee: R. S. Blennerhassett, Thomas Cohen, Robert Campbell, Pierce C. Grace, George L. Lackland, Sr., Matthias Steitz, William Ennis, Mann Butler, L. V. Bogy, and William Milburn, who, by their chairman, reported the following preamble and resolutions:

"WHEREAS, The idea of establishing a thoroughfare of travel and of commerce between Europe and Asia, across the continent of America, has ever been cherished by the statesman and philanthropist since the days of Columbus; and whereas, the discovery and application of steam as a motive-power, the rapid extension of the means of electric communication, the recent events in our history which have extended our domain to the Pacific Ocean, the extraordinary discoveries of gold in California, and the peaceable and prosperous condition of our beloved country, all conspire to place the consummation of this long-cherished project in the power of the American people; and whereas, the great number of projects for a railway across the continent which have been presented to Congress and canvassed before the country, as also the debate with regard to the pracversity of opinion in respect to the location and manner of proticability of a telegraphic line, are calculated to produce a dividing

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the necessary means of construction in the case of both projects, and consequently to embarrass the action of the national legislature upon such subjects; and considering it of vital importance in the adoption of measures purely national in all their bearings, and calculated to affect the condition of the whole race of man, whether civilized or savage, that the heart of the nation should be united in the great work, and believing that this favorable condition of the public mind can best be promoted through the agency of a convention that shall be purely national in all respects, be it, therefore,

"Resolved, That this meeting cordially approve of the recommendation made by the city authorities of holding a great national convention in St. Louis, on the third Monday of October next, for the purpose of taking into consideration the expediency and practicability of establishing a line of electric telegraph, and of constructing a railway from St. Louis to the Bay of San Francisco.

"Resolved, That the project of a great line of railway across the American continent is in all its aspects a national project, that as such it is due to every State and section of the Union that their opinions and views shall be heard, and their interest fairly considered, and that we deprecate any attempt to excite sectional jealousy, party rivalry, or personal feelings in reference to this important subject.

"Resolved, That the chairman of this meeting appoint a committee of twenty-five, whose duty it shall be to prepare an address to the people of the United States, urging them to take into their serious consideration these interesting subjects; to open and conduct a correspondence with every portion of the Union, in such manner as to further the objects of this meeting; to collect, prepare, and publish all the facts calculated to recommend these subjects to public consideration, and to suggest when and how they ought to be accomplished; and, finally, to prepare and classify, and have printed for the use of the members of the October convention, every fact within their power calculated to shed light upon these subjects, together with a map and profile sections, made up from the best authorities.

"Resolved, That we feel deeply gratified in witnessing that many portions of the Union are awakening to the importance of this great subject, and feel satisfied that our fellow-citizens generally will cordially co-operate in bringing into successful operation the great national measures which are contemplated by the convention of October next.

"Resolved, That the mayor and Council of the city of St. Louis and the county court be hereby requested to appropriate out of their treasury such sum or sums as in their judgment, upon consultation with said committee, shall be requisite to carry into effect the foregoing resolutions.

"Resolved, That the whole people of the United States be and they are hereby invited to send delegates to the contemplated convention, and that the hospitalities of this city are hereby cordially proffered to all such as may honor us by their attendance."

The preamble and resolutions were unanimously adopted.

On the 11th of June the chairman announced the following as the committee of twenty-five under the resolution:

Messrs. L. M. Kennett, Thomas Allen, Thomas B. Hudson, M. Tarver, Henry Kayser, A. B. Chambers, R. Phillips, John O'Fallon, Edward Walsh, John F. Darby, J. M. Field, L. V. Bogy, G. K. Budd, N. R. Cormany, Joseph Loughborough, Charles G. Ramsey, Joseph C. Meyer, John Withnell, George L. Lackland, J. B. Brant, Thomas D. Yeats, Samuel Gaty, O. D. Filley, A. Olshausen, and V. Staley.

At a meeting of the committee held on June 14th the following sub-committees were appointed:

Committee on address to the people of the "United States, Thomas Allen, Thomas B. Hudson, M. Tarver, Henry Kayser, V. Staley; committee on invitation and correspondence, A. B. Chambers, R. Phillips, John O'Fallon, Edward Walsh, John F. Darby; committee on publication, M. Tarver, J. M. Field, L. V. Bogy, George K. Budd, N. R. Cormany; committee on statistics of convention, John Loughborough, Charles G. Ramsey, J. C. Meyer, John Withnell, George L. Lackland; committee on finance, J. B. Brant, Thomas D. Yates, Samuel Gaty, O. D. Filley, A. Olshausen.

The prevalence of the cholera as an epidemic for a time interrupted the action of the committee, but at an adjourned meeting of the citizens, held in September, 1849, it was reported by the chairman of the committee that two thousand copies of the address from the pen of Thomas Allen had been printed and freely circulated, and all proper steps taken for calling together a convention to be held on the 15th of October, 1849.

The address was an able presentation of the arguments in favor of the enterprise, and one of the striking theories advanced was that which advocated the national character of the work.

"But, on the other hand," wrote Mr. Allen, "if we fail to make this road, and California and Oregon remain without any practicable or convenient connection with the old States of the Union, who can doubt that a new republic will grow up on the shores of the Pacific which would perhaps become independent of the Union, and obtain a supremacy of their own upon an ocean favorable to steam navigation, and the very home of the trade with Asia? The whale fishery, the present American trade with China, the Pacific Islands, and the northwest coast, would be shared, if not monopolized, by the new republic. The central authority would find their power over a people so remote to be feeble and insufficient. With great mineral wealth in their possession with a trade before them which has been the cynosure of commercial nations during the whole Christian era, and the experience and energy of the race whence they derive their origin, who can doubt their future power and progress in complete independence of all other nations?

"The true policy of our government and country, thereafter in reference to this subject is apparent. The great importance and absolute necessity of this communication across the continent, by railway and telegraph, must be appreciated. We confidently trust that it will be carried out, by national means and authority, as one of the most powerful auxiliaries to the integrity and perpetuity of the Union, and to the mission of our country in promoting and extending the influence of the noble cause of civil and religious liberty, civilization and humanity.

"What we want is a central highway that shall be most useful and most acceptable to all parts of our country. Nor

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can we anticipate any dispute as to power, inasmuch as the route will lie entirely through the territory of the United States, concerning which Congress have power to make all needful rules and regulations; and if it be expedient or necessary to enter the limits of a State, the right of way is already granted. To the eastern frontier of that territory, we have assurance that the electric telegraph will be constructed during the present year, and to the same frontier, railroad lines are already projected, or in operation, within the limits of the States."

The address concluded as follows:

"We therefore respectfully invite delegates from every State and Territory of the nation. Laying aside for the moment party and private engagements, we bespeak from all parties a day in union for the general good. We ask every district to send its representatives, that we may have them from the mountains and from the plains, from the cities and from the country, from the hills of New England and from the savannas of Georgia; that they will come to us from the north and the south, from the east, and even from the west, pouring in upon us by all the numerous avenues of conveyance which converge at this point, so that the hospitality of St. Louis shall rejoice in the fullest exercise and enjoyment of its means, and that a quickening voice may go forth from the assembled mass that shall give to the great measure of American progress assurance of its triumph."

At the adjourned meeting of the citizens, held on the first Monday in September, 1849, Mayor Barry called the meeting to order, and requested the same officers selected at the mass-meeting to serve with him, viz.: vice-presidents, Col. John O'Fallon, David Chambers, and A. R. McNair; Richard Phillips and A. B. Chambers, secretaries.

The mayor then explained the objects for which the adjourned meeting was held.

On the suggestion of Judge Krum, A. A. King, Governor of the State, being present, was invited and took a seat with the chairman and vice-presidents.

The proceedings of the mass-meeting held on the 4th of June were then read.

L. M. Kennett, from the committee of twenty-five, reported an abstract of the meetings and proceedings of the committee, and the following resolutions, which were accepted:

"Resolved, That a committee of arrangements consisting of twenty be selected by the chairman of this meeting, to provide a suitable place for holding the convention of the 15th of October, and to take all necessary measures for its comfort and accommodation whilst in session.

"Resolved, That the chairman appoint a committee of reception, also to consist of twenty, to procure the names of delegates as they arrive, and see that they are suitably provided for.

"Resolved, That a finance committee, consisting of three members from each ward of the city, be appointed to collect subscriptions to defray the expenses of the convention, as the appropriations made by the City Council and county court are insufficient for that purpose.

"Resolved, That fifty delegates to attend the convention, twenty from the county and thirty from the city (five from each ward), be now selected, the names to be proposed by the chairman and passed upon by the meeting."

The resolutions were adopted unanimously.

On motion of Judge Bowlin it was resolved that the committee of twenty-five appointed by the mass-meeting on the 4th of June be added to the delegation, from the city and county, and requested to take seats as delegates from the city and county.

The chairman then announced the following names of the committees and delegates, which were adopted:

Committee of Arrangements. — Thornton Grimsley, Charles Keemle, J. B. Sarpy, A. S. Smyth, James Magehan, J. H. Alexander, Wait Barton, John M. Wimer, John Leach, C. Pullis, C. L. Hunt, P. A. Berthold, Louis Beach, George K. McGunnegle, Samuel Hawken, Patrick Gorman, John McNeil, Edward Brooks, Hiram Shaw, Oliver D. Filley.

Committee of Reception. — James E. Yeatman, J. B. Crockett, D. D. Page, C. M. Valleau, George Maguire, Matthias Steitz, R. M. Reuick, T. T. Gantt, Luther C. Clark, Thomas O'Flaherty, William G. Clark, James M. Hughes, William Bennett, R. C. McAllister, J. A. Brownlee, L. A. Labeaume, Mann Butler, Sr., Bryan Mullanphy, J. A. Durkan.

Committee of Finance. — First Ward, John Dunn, John C. Dagenhart, Ezra O. English; Second Ward, Michael S. Cerré, J. P. Thomas, Patrick Walsh; Third Ward, William H. Pococke, Michael Kelley, H. D. Bacon; Fourth Ward, H. L. Patterson, J. B. Carson, Theron Barnum; Fifth Ward, J. T. Swearingen, George Plant, Isaac T. Green; Sixth Ward, Isaac L. Sturgeon, Nathaniel Childs, Jr., Reuben B. Austin.

Delegates. — First Ward, R. S. Blennerhassett, David B. Hill, Edward Haren, William R. Price, D. D. Mitchell; Second Ward, George R. Taylor, Archibald Gamble, Wilson Primm, John G. Shelton, Mann Butler, Jr.; Third Ward, Edward Bates, Henry S. Geyer, A. L. Mills, Bernard Pratte, Samuel Treat; Fourth Ward, James H. Lucas, William Robb, John M. Krum, G. B. Allen, John Howe; Fifth Ward, Alexander Hamilton, Trusten Polk, John B. Gibson, Robert Cathcart, Archibald Carr; Sixth Ward, Henry Holmes, T. M. Post, J. T. Swearingen, Isaac H. Sturgeon, Calvin Case; County, John K. Walker, James H. Castello, Geerge M. Moore, Frederick Hyatt, William F. Berry, Henry Walton, James Sutton, James McDonald, Hamilton R. Gamble, Alton Long, Judge Higgins, Henry McCullough, John B. Bogert, Peregrine Tippett, Zeno Mackey, John Sapington, Peter D. Barada, William Milburn, H. M. Shreve, G. W. Goode.

At the call of the meeting, Governor King briefly responded, expressing his entire approbation of the objects and purposes of the meeting. He regarded them

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as feasible, practicable, and within the powers and energies of the nation. The object was one not partial to the State or nation, but interested the civilized world. All the energies and assistance which he could bring to the furtherance of the proposed work he cheerfully promised to give.

At subsequent periods several meetings of the citizens were held, and suitable arrangements made for holding the convention, and for the accommodation of the delegates attending from a distance.

The convention, which consisted of delegates from the several States, assembled in St. Louis on Monday, the 15th of October, 1849.

At twelve o'clock the delegates assembled in the rotunda of the court-house, and on motion of Col. Thornton Grimsley, of St. Louis, Hon. A. T. Ellis, of Indiana, was called to the chair as president of the convention pro tempore.

Mr. Ellis thanked the convention for the honor conferred upon him. Before proceeding to business, he requested that the Rev. Bishop Hawks offer a prayer.

Bishop Hawks thereupon rose, and made a brief and eloquent address, in which he adverted to the rapid growth, prosperity, and influence of the nation among the people of the earth, and the grand project contemplated by the assembling of the convention, and prayed that in their consultations harmony of action and unity of purpose might prevail, and that their proceedings might redound in much good to the country, and to the glory of the Most High.

Upon a call of the several States it appeared that delegates were present from the States of Missouri, 130 Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan, Louisiana, and Tennessee.

On Tuesday the committee appointed to select officers for the permanent organization of the convention, and to recommend rules for the government of its deliberations, reported that they had agreed to recommend for president, Hon. Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois; for vice-presidents, W. L. Totten, of Pennsylvania; Samuel Forrer, of Ohio; Samuel Emison, of Indiana; Henry J. Eastin, of Kentucky; Hon. Joseph Williams, of Iowa; Charles Bracken, of Wisconsin; Henry S. Geyer, of Missouri; John Biddle, of Michigan; Amherst K. Williams, of New York; Hon. W. B. Scates, of Illinois; for secretaries, A. B. Chambers, of Missouri; W. H. Wallace, of Iowa; A. S. Mitchell, of Kentucky; W. G. Minor, of Missouri; T. A. Stuart, of Illinois.

The report of the committee was approved, and the president, Hon. Stephen A. Douglas, was conducted to the chair.

A committee of three from each State represented was appointed by the chair to report resolutions for the consideration of the convention, as follows:

Iowa. — V. P. Van Antwerp, G. H. Walworth, William Thompson.

Tennessee. — Le Roy Pope, Jr., E. J. Carroll, George W. Smith.

Kentucky. — H. J. Eastin, A. S. Mitchell, James Harper.

Pennsylvania. — George Darsie, Charles Naylor, J. H. Reed.

Wisconsin. — Charles Bracken, J. R. Murray, Edward Vaughers.

Illinois. — Richard Bond, William B. Warren, Thomas Hayne.

Indiana. — Albert S. White, R. W. Thompson, A. T. Ellis.

Michigan. — John Biddle.

Louisiana. — Charles C. Lathrop.

New York. — Amherst R. Williams.

Missouri. — A. A. King, J. Loughborough, T. B. English.

Ohio. — D. W. Deshler, J. H. Sullivan, Henry Stoddard.

On Wednesday the chair announced the following gentlemen as having been appointed, in accordance with the action of the convention, to constitute the committee to memorialize Congress: W. F. Bowden, of Wisconsin; A. K. Williams, of New York; Charles Naylor, of Pennsylvania; J. F. Maury, of Virginia; John G. Low, of Ohio; G. W. Lincoln, of Tennessee; O. H. Smith, of Indiana; W. S. Wait, of Illinois; John Biddle, of Michigan; James Clark, of Iowa; Thomas Allen, of Missouri; Basil Duke, of Kentucky; C. C. Lathrop, of Louisiana; Robert Chambers, of New Jersey.

Henry Stoddard, of Ohio, from the committee appointed to draft resolutions for the consideration of the convention, submitted the following, which were read:

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"1. Resolved, That this convention is, in its spirit and object, strictly national, having no party, no sectional, no local interests to serve or promote, but having at heart the interests of the whole country.

"2. Revolved, That it is the duty of the Congress of the United States to make immediate provision for the construction of a great trunk railroad to the Pacific Ocean, in California, with a branch road to Oregon, from such point in the Mississippi valley on the frontier of the States as may be found from examination and surveys to be most eligible and convenient reference to the existing and prospective state of the country and the population and convenience of the whole Union, and that it should be diligently prosecuted by the Federal government.

"3. Resolved, That the various lines of railway now either complete under process of construction from Savannah, Charleston, Richmond, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and Boston, tending to and connecting with the Mississippi valley, are only parts of the great whole which the general government is asked a consummate by the Mississippi and Pacific Railway, and that these Eastern connections now being prepared for it, by uniting all interests, guarantee the perfect nationality of this work.

"4. Resolved, That, as an important means necessary and preliminary to the construction of such railroad, it is the first duty of the American Congress, immediately upon its assembling together, to make provision for the establishment of military posts from the western confines of our Western States to the Pacific Ocean, and these posts should be established numerously in all proper places, not far distant from each other, and that civilized and productive settlements should be encouraged around them by liberal sales or grants of the public lands, by extending ample protection to the settlers and to the transport of their stores and merchandise, etc., so that by these means full opportunities may be afforded to our topographical engineers for the immediate reconnoissance and survey of our vast possessions reaching to the Pacific, and one or more practical roads, with facilities of travel, be immediately formed for our citizens across our own Territories from the Atlantic to the Pacific shores.

"5. Resolved, That the Congress of the United States be memorialized to construct, or authorize the construction of, a national line of telegraph along the route which may be determined upon by national authority for the great railway to the Pacific.

"6. Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed by the president of this convention to prepare and publish an address to the people of the United States urging their co-operation in procuring such action on the part of Congress as may be necessary to carry out the views of this convention."

Hon. R. W. Thompson, of Indiana, then addressed the convention at length, and concluded by submitting the following resolutions in lieu of those reported by the committee:

"Resolved, That in the opinion of this convention it is the duty of the general government to provide at an early period for the construction of a central national railroad from the valley of the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean.

"Resolved, That in the opinion of this convention a grand trunk railroad, with the branches to St. Louis, Memphis, and Chicago, would be a central and national one.

"Resolved, That a committee be appointed to communicate to the convention to be held at Memphis the foregoing resolutions, and to request the concurrence of said convention therein."

The resolutions offered by Mr. Thompson were carried by almost an unanimous vote.

Hon. Charles Naylor, of Pennsylvania, then addressed the convention.

A communication was received from the delegates from Memphis, Tenn., tendering to the convention an invitation to be present at and participate in the deliberations of the National Pacific Railroad Convention, which was to meet in Memphis, October 23d.

The invitation was signed by George W. Smith, Edward J. Carroll, L. Pope, Jr., W. T. Avery, E. Hickman, A. S. Caldwell, Samuel Vance, Miles Owen.

It was moved by Hon. J. H. Burch that the committee to communicate the resolutions of the St. Louis convention to the convention to meet on the 23d instant at Memphis be composed of fifty persons, and that Hon. R. W. Thompson, of Indiana, be chairman of that committee, which motion was adopted.

The following is a copy of the memorial prepared by the committee appointed for that purpose and forwarded to Congress:

"To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled:

"The memorial of the subscribers, members of a committee appointed at a meeting of numerous delegates assembled from fifteen States of the Union, held at St. Louis, in the State of Missouri, on the fifteenth, sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth days of October last, respectfully represents

"That your memorialists were instructed by said assembly ‘to draft a memorial to Congress, presenting the objects and desires of the convention.’

"Your memorialists, therefore, respectfully beg leave, to invite the attention of your honorable bodies to the published call of said convention, to its proceedings, and to the address to the people of the United States issued under its authority, as furnishing the best evidence in the possession of your memorialists of the ‘objects and desires of the convention,’ all of which are hereto annexed, marked respectively A, B, and C.

"Your honorable bodies will readily perceive, by reference to these papers, that the objects and desires of the convention embrace the construction of a national railroad, electric telegraph, and a line of military posts across the central parts of the continent, from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean.

"That these objects are held to be of national importance and of high necessity, and that they ought to be accomplished by the means and authority of the government of the United States at an early day.

"Your memorialists, in behalf of said convention, therefore, respectfully pray that immediate measures may be taken by your honorable bodies for the location and construction of this national railroad and telegraph; and in thus praying, your memorialists believe they are but asking your honorable bodies to promote and perpetuate social, commercial, and political intercourse with our regions in the interior and upon the Pacific Ocean, to render them readily and easily accessible to the whole people of the Union, and to the government itself, and to confirm and strengthen the Union of these States.

"And your memorialists beg leave to call the earnest attention of your honorable bodies to the actual present and probable future condition of affairs in the West. By the treaty of peace with Mexico the territorial property and domain of the

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nation have been immensely extended, as well, in the interior of the continent as upon the shores of the Pacific. The flag of the United States now waves among remote tribes and people who have hitherto been accustomed to feeble masters and to comparative freedom from the restraints of civilized government. These people and tribes are to feel the power of a new government; peace is to be maintained among them; the emigrants from the older States are to be protected; a largely-extended sea-coast is to be fortified against the dangers of foreign enemies, and we would respectfully submit whether a cheaper or more efficient provision for national defense and internal peace and union, in respect to the Territories and embryo States of the West, can be executed or devised than this railroad and telegraph, extending from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. And in this connection, and as a preliminary step in the process of constructing this great work, and as an important means of repressing Indian depredations, murders, and wars, your memorialists pray that your honorable bodies may, without unnecessary delay, establish the line of military posts recommended by the convention, and more particularly alluded to in this address.

"Nor is the general subject, in the opinion of your memorialists, unworthy of your serious consideration, viewed as a means of increasing the national wealth. Compare the Pacific Railroad as a medium of trade with the Mississippi and the Ohio Rivers, and the branches which will ultimately project from it, with the tributaries of those noble streams, and no true estimate can be made of its value. Experience has demonstrated that in all parts of the United States the enhanced value of land, through districts comparatively sterile or unproductive, far exceeds the cost of the railroads which have rendered them accessible to market. With the unequaled advantages to be afforded by the Pacific Railroad, would not the territory to be traversed by it immediately become nearly as valuable as the most eligible agricultural districts of the United States, whilst as it now lies it must remain comparatively useless? In this, therefore, would be a creation of value far exceeding the cost of the work at the highest estimation. And as a commercial link, bringing Europe and Asia into contact through the heart of our North American continent, and becoming the greatest common carrier of the world, — our own country, the half-way house upon the highway of nations, — your memorialists respectfully ask your honorable bodies to consider the immense consequences which will result from it beneficially to our country.

"And your memorialists, in conclusion, pray that the national bearing and importance of the subject may secure for it the favorable consideration of enlightened statesmanship and patriotism, and that it may be viewed and always held above the prejudices of party and aloof from the machinations of sectional interest.

"And your memorialists will ever pray, etc.

"THOMAS ALLEN, of Missouri.

"W. S. WAIT, of Illinois.

"W. F. BOWDEN, of Wisconsin.

"A. K. WILLIAMS, of New York.

"CHARLES NAYLOR, of Pennsylvania.

"M. F. MAURY, of Virginia.

"JOHN G. Low, of Ohio.

"G. W. LINCOLN, of Tennessee.

"O. H. SMITH, of Indiana.

"JOHN BIDDLE, of Michigan.

"JAMES CLARK, of Iowa.

"BASIL DUKE, of Kentucky.

"C. C. LATHROP, of Louisiana.

"ROBERT CHAMBERS, of New Jersey.

"J. C. ELDER, of Maryland."

Letters approving and encouraging the scheme of a national railroad to the Pacific were received and read from Levi Woodbury, Roger Huntington, Z. Pratt, Richard M. Johnson, James G. King, John H. McHenry, Lewis Cass, J. C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, Martin Van Buren, William H. Seward, Levi Hubbell, A. D. Crossmore, P. P. F. Degrand, Thomas H. Benton, Jr., Samuel Beardsley, Giles Spring, Robert M. McLane, D. S. Dickinson, J. W. Crisfield, G. W. Peter, W. L. Goggin, J. G. Chapman, John Glenn, O. G. Cates, H. B. Huntershott, James Gadsden, James Grant, Samuel R. Curtis, William Duer, J. Davis, George S. Fisher, Maunsel White, William T. Lawrence, D. Field, John M. Botts, John H. Clarke, Edwin Crosswell, Albert S. White, J. L. Martin, W. Preston, John F. Gray, A. W. Buel, John N. Niles, John G. Palfrey, Preston B. Reed, Washington Hunt, W. L. Foote, J. Van Buren, W. B. Maclay, Henry O'Reilly, Benjamin F. Porter, C. F. Keener, Chauncey P. Holcomb, William Woodbridge, and F. Tiernan.

The construction of the proposed railroad to the Pacific became a question in politics, and was favored in the "platforms" of both parties and the "pledges" of public men, but was postponed to a "more convenient season." The subject, however, continued to hold the earnest attention and interest of the people of St. Louis, and was urged with great force and vigor by Thomas Allen, J. Loughborough, and others.

On Jan. 29, 1850, Thomas Allen, one of the corporators mentioned in the charter of the Pacific Railroad, published a note in the Missouri Republican calling for a meeting of the corporators with a view to organization. At this meeting, which was held in the office of the St. Louis Insurance Company, in the city of St. Louis, on Thursday evening, the 31st of January, 1850, there were present John O'Fallon, James H. Lucas, Edward Walsh, George Collier, Daniel D. Page, James E. Yeatman, Joshua B. Brant, Thomas Allen, Adolphus Meier, Adam L. Mills, and Wayman Crow.

On motion of Thomas Allen, the meeting was organized by calling Col. John O'Fallon to the chair, and appointing Wayman Crow secretary.

Mr. Allen then delivered an address, which was published and extensively circulated. It was an able presentation of the Pacific Railroad enterprise and inspired confidence in the project of building railroad in Missouri for its local worth, as well as for a link in the great Pacific Railroad. After this address, on motion of Mr. Lucas, it was

"Resolved, That the corporators do now proceed to organize by the election of a president, secretary, and treasurer."

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The vote, having been taken, resulted in the election of Col. John O'Fallon, president; Thomas Allen, secretary; and Daniel D. Page, treasurer.

On motion of Mr. Allen, it was

"Resolved, That a committee of three corporators be appointed to open books for subscription to the capital stock of the company; that said books be opened on Monday, the 4th of February, at ten o'clock, and close at three o'clock P. M., and for six days in the rooms of the Merchants' Exchange."

The chairman appointed the following gentlemen committee, viz.: James H. Lucas, James E. Yeatman, and J. B. Brant.

On motion of Mr. Lucas, it was

"Resolved, That the several papers in the city be requested to publish proceedings of this meeting and the address of Mr. Allen on this subject."

On motion of Mr. Allen, it was

"Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed to prepare to Congress, praying a donation of alternate sections of land along the route for the construction of the proposed road."

The chairman appointed the following gentlemen that committee: Thomas Allen, James H. Lucas, Wayman Crow.

Before the adjournment of the meeting the eleven gentlemen present pledged themselves to subscribe $154,000 in the aggregate to the stock upon the opening of the books, which pledge they redeemed. Mr. Lucas first started the subscription by offering to be one of three to make up $100,000. In this he joined by John O'Fallon and D. D. Page. It was understood that there were others ready to subscribe and that $1,000,000 could be raised by the 1st of March.

The subscribers, nearly all of whom expressed their willingness and purpose, if necessary to the progress of the work, to double or more than double subscriptions, were:

James H. Lucas 333 shares, $33,300
John O'Fallon 334 shares, 33,400
Daniel D. Page 333 shares, 33,300
Thomas Allen 100 shares, 10,000
J. & E. Walsh 100 shares, 10,000
James B. Yeatman 50 shares, 5,000
Joshua B. Brant 100 shares, 10,000
George Collier 100 shares, 10,000
Wayman Crow 25 shares, 2,500
A. L. Mills 50 shares, 5,000
Adolphus Meier 15 shares, 1,500
Total 1540 $154,000

"We are justified in asserting," added the Republican in its notice of its meeting, "that the eleven men present, if they had had time for consultation and examination of the charter, would have promptly made up the two hundred thousand dollars, and they will yet do it. The three first on the list agreed to take one hundred thousand dollars, each expressing his willingness to double it if necessary, and for the privilege of subscribing the odd thousand they tossed up, Col. O'Fallon winning it. This subscription has been made in good faith by men under their own signature, every one of whom is able not only to fulfill his present pledge, but to go further if it should be necessary. Their judgment, feelings, and interest prompt them to push the measure forward, and we risk nothing in saying that this road will be early commenced and speedily completed."

At a subsequent meeting a book was ordered to be opened in each ward of the city, and the book at the Merchants' Exchange was ordered to be kept open until the Saturday preceding the last Monday in March. A committee, consisting of Thomas Allen, Edward Walsh, and Adolphus Meier, was appointed to make preliminary arrangements for a general topographical and geological survey of the country upon the proposed route of the road. An election of nine directors, as provided by the charter, was ordered to be held on the last Monday in March.

The committee, in accordance with the original action of the incorporators, issued the following notice:

"Books for the subscription of stock to the Pacific Railroad will be opened between the hours of 10 A. M. and 3 P. M. on Monday, the 4th of February, at the Merchants' Exchange, and will be kept open for six days.





In its issue of February 5th the Republican, describing the opening of the books, said, — "Nearly the whole amount required to put the Pacific Railroad into operation was subscribed yesterday. The books will continue open during the week.

"The Merchants' Exchange, from eleven to twelve o'clock yesterday, was crowded with business men and visitors, called thither to see what progress was making in the subscription.

"The subscription to the stock in the Pacific Railroad reached one hundred and ninety thousand dollars yesterday. Nineteen thousand dollars is wanted to perfect the organization of the company. As soon as this is secured the directors will feel themselves authorized to employ engineers and to go on with the work. It will authorize them also to ask subscriptions, on the part of the city and county of St. Louis, of all incorporated companies, and of the counties through which it may be settled that the road shall pass."

On February 7th the following subscriptions were added to those which had already been made:

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  Shares. Amounts.
Auguste Guelberth & Co. 20 $2,000
Charles L. Hunt 30 3,000
Thomas Grey 5 500
Jonn M. Johnson 5 500
L. Deaver 20 2,000
Thomas B. Chambers 5 500
B. M. Chambers 5 500
William Turner 2 200
H. L. Patterson 20 2,000
Ann C. T. Farrar, by J. T. Swearingen 20 2,000
James Harrison 50 5,000
William Beaumont 15 1,500
William Renshaw, Jr 10 1,000
P. A. Berthold 10 1,000
A. Shurlds Dent 5 500
Fred Dent, Jr. 5 500
S. E. Selleck 5 500
Total 232 $23,200

"When the books were closed yesterday," said a newspaper of Feb. 9, 1850, "the following gentlemen had subscribed the shares and sum placed opposite to their names:

  Shares. Amounts.
James H. Lucas 333 $33,300
John O'Fallon 334 33,400
Daniel Page 333 33,300
Thomas Allen 100 10,000
J. and E. Walsh 100 10,000
James E. Yeatman 50 5,000
George Collier 100 10,000
Joshua B. Brant 100 10,000
Crow, McCreery & Co. 25 2,500
A. L. Mills 50 5,000
Adolphus Meier 15 1,500
Joseph Charless 50 5,000
Taylor A Mason 25 2,500
K. Mackenzie 25 2,500
Switzer, Plaite & Co. 25 2,500
John B. Sarpy 25 2,500
Louis A. Labeaume 50 5,000
Chambers & Knapp 20 2,000
Charles L. Hunt 20 2,000
John Simonds 50 5,000
A. P. Ladew & Co. 15 1,500
Sandford J. Smith 10 1,000
W. Risley & Son 10 1,000
R. Simpson 10 1,000
R. W. Ulrici 10 1,000
John B. Carson 5 500
P. M. Dillon 30 3,000
P. R. Donnelly 10 1,000
John R. Baldwin 10 1,000
George I. Barnett 10 1,000
Charles Sellman 10 1,000
Evans, Nuckles & Co. 10 1,000
Oliver Quinette 5 500
John Hogan 5 500
J. D. Osborne 5 500
Alexander, Copp & Co. 10 1,000
Alexander Hallam 5 500
B. H. Batte 5 500
John W. Harker 5 500
Wilson & Bros. 10 1,000
Total 2020 $202,000 "

"Every day's subscription to the stock of the Pacific Railroad Company," said a St. Louis newspaper of February 10th, "only serves to show the strong hold which this project is acquiring upon the people of St. Louis. Yesterday the stock taken exceeded forty-five thousand dollars, and at the close of the books the whole amount subscribed was three hundred and five thousand five hundred dollars. When it was considered that the project has only been before the people for about a week, that it is only ten days since the charter was first published and a portion of the commissioners met in a quiet way and resolved that the great work should be commenced, and by way of attestation of their own convictions of what ought to be done subscribed one hundred and fifty-four thousand dollars, it may be claimed, we think, that the people of St. Louis have done nobly.

"After the close of the books yesterday the directors held a meeting to determine upon further proceedings. We understand that they resolved to reopen the books for the subscription of stock at the Merchants' Exchange to-morrow (Monday), and they resolved also to open additional books of subscription in the First, Second, Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Wards, the Merchants' Exchange being in the Third Ward, under the supervision of the committee who have had charge of the books; and that they were authorized to employ assistants in the several wards. This arrangement will accommodate a great number of persons, and will add, we have no doubt, to the interest felt in the success of the work."

Two days later (February 12th) it was announced that the following gentlemen had been appointed ward committees to collect subscriptions to the Pacific Railroad, and to make personal collections for subscriptions in their respective wards during the remainder of the week:

First Ward, Edward Haren, R. S. Blennerhassett, D. B. Hill, Adolph Abeles, M. Steitz.

Second Ward, George R. Taylor, George Knapp G. Schoentaler, M. S. Cerré, John Kern.

Third Ward, Louis A. Labeaume, Asa Wilgus, Ferdinand Overstolz, A. L. Mills, Sullivan Blood.

Fourth Ward, O. D. Filley, G. I. Barnett, Rufus Keyser, A. P. Ladew, Patrick Gorman.

Fifth Ward, A. H. Glasby, John Leach, William Branegan, Charles Dean, John B. Carson.

Sixth Ward, J. H. Sturgeon, Charles Hammond, Smith Robinson, D. W. Dixon, Theodore Labeaume.

At the closing of the books on the 12th of February, 1850, the whole number of shares taken amounted to three hundred and nineteen thousand eight hundred dollars. This, however, did not include any portion of what had been subscribed on the books in possession of the committees of the several wards. On the 1st of May, 1850, it was announced that the city corporation was about to subscribe the five hundred thousand dollars authorized by a vote of the people. "The subscriptions of individuals," it was added, "do not yet amount to that sum."

The amount required by the charter (two hundred thousand dollars) having been secured, the corporation proceeded to organize by the election of a board of directors. The committee appointed to superintendent the election consisted of Luther M. Kennett, O. D. Filley, A. Wilgus, Louis A. Labeaume, and George Knapp. At the election which was held on 25th of March, 1850, at the Merchants' Exchange the following were chosen directors: Thomas Allen, John O'Fallon, James H. Lucas, Louis A. Labeaume,

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Edward Walsh, James E. Yeatman, George Collier, Daniel D. Page, and L. M. Kennett.

On the following day the directors met and elected Thomas Allen president, and Louis A. Labeaume secretary pro tem. There were then twenty-nine million two hundred and sixteen thousand acres of land in Missouri open to private entry which, as in the memorial of the directors to Congress, remained unsold. 131

Mr. Allen, the president of the company, who, as we have seen, had been one of the most prominent and efficient promoters of the enterprise from the start, addressed himself to the work before him with characteristic energy and vigor, and under his able direction the affairs of the company soon took shape. On the 22d of April it was announced that James P. Kirkwood, of New York, had been appointed chief engineer of the road. 132

Mr. Kirkwood was then superintendent of the New York and Erie Railroad. Under his direction three parties of engineers were started on the surveys. Three different routes were surveyed, and a very full and able report made by the engineers, and published with the first annual report of the board of directors. The preliminary surveys were commenced on the 24th of May, and closed on the 29th of November, 1850. Five different lines were surveyed, embracing in the whole over eight hundred miles of survey.

During the progress of the surveys the president, Mr. Allen, personally visited and addressed the people and the county courts of nearly every county from St. Louis to the western boundary, and also laid his plans before the Governor of the State, which the Governor, after due consideration, substantially adopted. The city and county of St. Louis and the county of Jackson subscribed to the stock. Petitions to Congress in behalf of a grant of land, as applied for by the company, were circulated and numerously signed in all the counties along the proposed line, and in due time transmitted to Congress.

At the session of Congress held in 1850-51 a bill passed the Senate of the United States granting for the railroad alternate sections of land for a space of six miles in width on each side, but was not reached in the House of Representatives. In the same winter of 1850-51, the president of the railroad company having been elected to the State Senate, a plan for a complete system of railroads for the State was laid before the Legislature by him, including a form of State aid by a loan of the public credit. This plan, which was soon adopted, contemplated the issue of State bonds to the railroad company to an amount equal to the amount first to be advanced by the stockholders, the company agreeing to pay the interest and principal of the bond, and the State reserving a first lien on the road as security.

The first act was approved Feb. 22, 1851, and provided for the issue to the extent of two millions of State bonds to the Pacific Railroad Company, in sums of fifty thousand dollars, upon satisfactory evidence being furnished to the Governor at each application that a like sum of fifty thousand dollars had been expended by the company, derived from sources other than State bonds, and provided that the bonds should not be sold below par. These bonds having twenty years to run, and bearing six per cent. interest, were sold at a premium for more than a year and a half, and some were sold as high as 110. Some important amendments to the charter were granted at the same session by an act approved March 1, 1851. Congress, on the 10th of June, 1852, passed an act granting to the State of Missouri the alternate sections of land in a strip of six sections in width on each side of the line, for the construction of a railroad from St. Louis to the western boundary of the State. Soon after the passage of this act the company petitioned the Governor to call an extra session of the Legislature, and the then Governor, Hon. Austin A. King, complied with the request.

So largely had individuals entered the public lands the previous year or two in consequence of the railroad surveys, that it was soon discovered that the grant would be of little value for constructing a railroad in a direct line westward from St. Louis to the western boundary. Therefore, in view of the immense district of country lying at the southwest, known to be desirable in soil, climate, and minerals, yet inaccessible, and also in view of the probability that a good route for the national road to California might be found along the thirty-fifth parallel, it was deemed advisable to make a fork in the line of road, and run the main trunk nearly west in the direction of Kansas via the State capital, and the fork or branch in the southwestern direction. To the road from St. Louis to the point of divergence from the main line,

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and thence to the southwest boundary of the State, the State granted the lands by the act of Dec. 20, 1852, without bonus and with an exemption from taxation until the road could pay a dividend, and with also a further loan of $1,000,000 to the main line, and $1,000,000 to the Southwest Branch. The right of pre-emption to actual settlers already on the lands at $2.50 per acre was, however, reserved.

Mr. Allen, president of the company, was appointed the agent of the State to select the lands, and for that purpose went to Washington City. The lands selected amounted to about 1,200,000 acres.

The Pacific Railroad Company, having surveyed a route for a branch railroad to the Iron Mountain, to cross the Maramec near the mouth of Calvey Creek, in Franklin County, and run on an interior ridge west of Big River, via Potosi, and having reported that the Iron Mountain could thus be reached by building about sixty miles additional of railroad, at a cost of two or two and a half million dollars, the Legislature granted a loan to the company for that branch of seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars. The demand having arisen for a "direct line" to the Iron Mountain from St. Louis, this loan was subsequently yielded and transferred to the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad.

On the 12th of March, 1851, the board of directors resolved to commence the construction of the Pacific road, and were called upon for the first time to consider the question of route. The road had originally been defined as to Jefferson and Cass County, but, now free to seek the best route through the State, it became evident that more extended surveys must be made before they could act intelligently. A division of forty miles only was located, as being common to all the routes that they could take.

At the time it was in contemplation to make other surveys, not only connecting in detail those already made, but to try other routes, passing farther inland or towards the southwest. But it had been found that speculators followed the track of the engineers and entered all the best land, and it was thought advisable not to make any more surveys until a land grant had passed Congress, and the land was put out of market.

In the mean time vigorous efforts were made to increase the subscriptions to the stock of the company to one million five hundred thousand dollars, in order that the latter might avail itself of the State's subscription.

"There was a good deal of encouragement," said the Republican of May 12,1851, "in the meeting in relation to the Pacific Railroad which took place on Saturday evening. Mr. Allen stated a variety of facts in relation to the road. Speaking of the financial condition of the company, he said that the individual subscriptions amounted to about four hundred and fifty thousand dollars, the city had subscribed five hundred thousand dollars, the county of St. Louis one hundred thousand dollars, the county of Jackson one hundred thousand dollars, and other subscriptions would make the sum up to nearly twelve hundred thousand dollars. The directors desired to swell this sum to fifteen hundred thousand dollars, and hence the present effort. Whenever the last-named sum is subscribed, the company can then avail itself of the credit of the State to the amount of two millions of dollars, and then there would be a capital of three and a half millions of dollars to go to work with. The engineer estimates the entire cost of the road, assuming that it is three hundred miles in length, at six millions of dollars. This includes everything, payments for depots, cars, locomotives, etc. We have a right to expect that Congress will do justice to this State at the next session by making adequate grants of lands for the use of this road and that of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Company, and this will go very far towards the completion of the work."

At this meeting a resolution was adopted providing for committees "to canvass the several wards for subscriptions of stock to the railroad. Subsequently the following committees were appointed:

"First Ward, Adolph Abeles, Henry A. Lynch, Frederick W. Beckwith, Brannock Jones, Lewis Clark, L. C. Degenhardt, William Friend, H. Niemeyer, Thomas T. Gantt, John C. Rust.

"Second Ward, George R. Taylor, Solomon Smith, Matthew Steitz, William Palm, Francis P. Blair, J. B. Sickles, Hiram Shaw, John Kern, Alexander Keyser, Robert Simpson.

"Third Ward, R. S. Elliott, Asa Wilgus, A. Miltelberger, George R. Reed, John C. Meier, John C. Ivory, William H. Carroll, Adolphus Meier, Nathan Ranney, John Shade.

"Fourth Ward, William T. Christy, John Finney, S. H. Robbins, O. D. Filley, F. B. Chiles, A. J. P. Garesche, T. W. Hoit, John S. Watson, P. R. McCreery, J. D. Houseman.

"Fifth Ward, A. P. Ladew, John Leach, Willis R. Prichard, F. Laubmann, G. B. Allen, L. Holthaus, Leroy Kingsland, H. H. Cohen, Louis Bach, James Fortune."

At a meeting of the directors held on the 18th of June, 1851, at which A. S. Mitchell acted as secretary, the board proceeded to locate the First Division of the road. The various surveyed routes and their estimated costs having been presented and explained by James P. Kirkwood, chief engineer, Mr. Lucas offered the following resolution: "Resolved, That the route through Chouteau Pond valley and the valley of the Des Peres to the Maramec valley, and up the Maramec valley for a distance of about thirty-nine miles from St. Louis, commencing in St. Louis at Fourteenth Street, be adopted as the First Division of the Pacific Railroad."

The yeas and nays were demanded on this resolution, and the result was as follows:

Yeas, Messrs. Allen, Bridge, Haren, Harrison, Kennett, Labeaume, Lucas, Walsh, and Yeatman, — 9. Nays, none; the entire board present and voting.

In deciding upon this location the board took into consideration not only the estimated cost of the different

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lines, but the need of a branch to the Iron Mountain and the southwest part of the State.

On motion of Mr. Kennett, the following resolution in relation to calls on stock in the Pacific Railroad was adopted: "Resolved, That not exceeding thirty per cent. upon the capital stock of the company shall be called in any one year during the construction of the road." 133

An election for directors of the road was held on the 19th of June, 1851, which, we are told, "excited very considerable interest, and called forth a large vote." It resulted as follows: For James H. Lucas, 3015 votes; Hudson E. Bridge, 2943; James E. Yeatman, 2915; Edward Walsh, 2914; Louis A. Labeaume, 2892; James Harrison, 2883; Luther M. Kennett, 2777; John C. Rust, 2728; Thomas Allen, 2294; Daniel D. Page, 2036; Joseph Charless, 1598; Joshua B. Brant, 1584; George Collier, 1470. This list completed the board. The next highest was Isaac L. Garrison, who received 1452 votes.

The first division of the road (thirty-nine miles having been put under contract, the first spadeful of earth was removed, in the absence of the Governor by the then mayor of the city, Hon. Luther M. Kennett, on the 4th of July, in the presence of a large and enthusiastic audience. This memorable event took place at a point on the south bank of Chouteau Pond, on Mr. Minckes' ground, west of Fifteenth Street.

The event was the occasion of a great popular demonstration, in which the entire city participated. The day was introduced with a national salute by the Missouri Artillery, under the command of Capt. Henry Almstedt. At an early hour the city in every portion was filled with the members of the civil and military societies who designed to join in the procession. Chief Marshal Grimsley had announced that the march to the ground would commence punctually at eight o'clock A. M., and accordingly as early as half-past seven the various associations, orders, companies, clubs, etc., began to pour into Fourth Street from all quarters. The city had seldom witnessed such an enlivening spectacle as that displayed previous to the forming of the procession. Flays were flying from the tops of engine buildings and public-houses, and streamed from the windows of newspaper offices, or floated over the street at many points; numerous detachments of military corps were dashing to their various places of rendezvous; squads of civil societies were coming to view from every corner, and the whole was enlivened by the inspiring sounds of music. Soon after seven o'clock an immense multitude thronged Fourth Street from Washington Avenue, where the head of the line rested, a distance of several blocks. The line formed on Fourth Street, and shortly before eight o'clock the chief marshal assembled his aids and assistants and instructed them in regard to the duties assigned them. The band of the St. Louis Grays was then ordered to its post, and the following officers also took the places previously agreed upon:

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Thornton Grimsley, chief marshal; John S. Watson, H. W. Williams, aids; assistant marshals, Joseph P. Wilkinson, William J. Romyn, William Waddingham, Jr., Benjamin Bogy, Alfred Dryden, William Light, Charles Mehl, William H. Cozens, — McDowell, Thomas Horrell, John Kern, D. Preston, William T. Knapp, John C. Vogel, George L. Nuckolls, George Shuly, William S. Chapman, Frederick King.

The chief marshal then arranged the procession in the following order:

Chief Marshal and his Aids.

St. Louis Grays' Brass Band.

Governor, his Aids, Heads of the Departments.

President, Directors, and Company of the Pacific Railroad.

Corps of Engineers.

Orator of the Day and Invited Guests.

Judiciary of the Eighth Circuit and Officers of the several Courts.

Mayor and Board of Aldermen, Delegates, and Executive Officers of the City. Editorial Corps.

St. Louis Grays, Capt. George Knapp.

Missouri Dragoons, Capt. Brinkman.

Missouri Artillery, Capt. Almstedt.

St. Louis Yagers, Capt. Schaeffer.

Union Swiss Guards, Capt. Frye.

St. Louis Fire Department.

Ancient Order of Free and Accepted Masons.

Hibernian Benevolent Society.

Catholic Total Abstinence and Benevolent Society.

St. Vincent Orphan Society.

German Roman Catholic Society.

St. Louis Musical Club.

Social Glee Club.

St. Louis Gymnastic Society.

German Benevolent Society.

United Association of Free Men.

Sons of Temperance.

German Catholic Total Abstinence Society.

United Ancient Order of Druids.

United Patriotic Refugee Association.

Citizens in Carriages.

Citizens on Horseback.

Arrived at the grand stand, which had been erected at Chouteau's Pond for the speakers and invited guests, the band performed the "Grand Pacific Railroad March," which had been composed for the occasion by Mr. Balmer, after which Col. Thornton Grimsley, the grand marshal, announced the order of proceedings, and then introduced the president of the railroad company, Thomas Allen. Mr. Allen delivered an interesting address, in which he reviewed the history of the road up to that time, and in the course of it he said, —

"The charter of the Pacific Railroad was granted in 1849, and slept for a year, disregarded and almost unknown. It is about eighteen months since public attention was first called to it, and only about fifteen months since the company now acting was organized under it. During that period we have had a good deal of preliminary work to do, comparatively new country to explore, and the people to awaken to the consideration of a new subject. We have made over eight hundred miles of preliminary survey; we have located about seventy miles; we have obtained the promised support of every county upon the line; we have secured the co-operation of the State, and a loan of the public credit; we have brought the subject to the notice of the government of the United States, and we have procured subscriptions which, though not yet so large as we desire, give us great encouragement.

The particular business of our proposed road has been estimated by the engineer, and the estimate is made in detail, and will be found upon examination to be a very moderate one. The general result, however, is that the passenger business will amount to $457,900
Freight 470,200
Total, second year $928,100

"This would be a gross profit of about fifteen per cent. on six millions. The cost of running may be forty to fifty percent, of the gross earnings. But it should be borne in mind that this business will constantly increase.

"The business on the Missouri River in 1850 seems to afford some corroboration of this estimate, if we may compare the river with the railroad. The results obtained from manifests is probably below the truth, but gives, —

For freight $450,478
For passengers 368,000

Upon the conclusion of Mr. Allen's address, a prologue in verse, composed by A. S. Mitchell, secretary of the company, was recited by J. M. Field. Hon. Edward Bates, orator of the day, then delivered an elaborate address, in which he drew a graphic picture of the fertility and resources of the great Mississippi valley.

"Here we are," said Mr. Bates, "in the centre of the great valley, the natural centre of the largest body of rich, habitable land on the face of the earth, — a land large enough to maintain in comfort two hundred millions of people, every one of whom could bring the produce of his labor to this centre by natural navigation, — just below the confluence of throe mighty rivers, Missouri, Mississippi, and Illinois, and just above the influx of the beautiful Ohio, whose fertile banks are already teeming with industry, enterprise, and wealth. Look at the map of the valley, its broad surface is divided into quarters by the figure of a cross, — a little irregular, to be sure, but still a cross. The Mississippi is the shaft, and the Ohio and Missouri are the limbs. And the shaft and both the limbs are bristling with tributaries, each one of which is large enough to be considered in Europe a mighty river, fit to be improved and cherished as the artery of a nation's commerce.

"Look again at the map, and note the distance and the commanding points. The driftwood that floats past our city plunges in the turbid waters of the Mississippi for twelve hundred miles before it is washed by the bright waves of the ocean. The water-line of commerce from Pittsburgh to St. Louis is twelve hundred miles. Your steamers go up the Missouri, without a snag pulled out or a sand-bar removed beyond our western border, two thousand five hundred miles. Ascending the Mississippi, they push their bows into the very foam of St. Anthony's Falls; and above those falls, I know not how many hundred miles of placid water invite the adventurous boatmen

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to the far north. Go up the Illinois: you can find no stopping-place there, for the Father of Waters is wedded to the lakes. In Illinois and New York the duty imposed by the great gifts bestowed upon us is partly done, and now, by the aid of their canals you can leave the ocean in a boat, and entering the Mississippi or the Hudson, circumnavigate the nation.

"We occupy the most important point on this great circuit. If there were not a cabin or a white man from the Ohio to the Missouri; if our forests were still in pristine solitude, and our prairies untracked, save by the hoof of the buffalo and the moccasin of the Indian savage, I should still believe — considering the extent and richness of the valley, the number, length, and direction of its rivers, and its capacity to produce, in boundless plenty, all that can minister to the comfort, wealth, and power of man — I should still confidently believe that the greatest city upon the continent must be established within that span's length upon the map.

* * * * * * * *

"Consider the country through which the road is to pass. It abounds in all the menus necessary for the support and comfort of a dense population. Its rich soil produces in abundance all the plants that belong to the climate, and its most barren hills serve but to contain its unmeasured stores of mineral treasures.

"But whither does it tend? When you have constructed the road to the frontier of Missouri, what power can stop it there? Beyond lie the extended plains of the Missouri and the Arkansas, New Mexico, Utah, California, Oregon, the Pacific, and the old Eastern World. My mind recoils from the magnitude of the contemplation, and I leave the incalculable results to mingle with the future glories of our country's name."

In the absence of the Governor of the State, Hon. Austin A. King, who was detained at home by ill-ness, Hon. Luther M. Kennett was called upon by the president of the company, Mr. Allen, to perform the ceremony of raising the first sod in the commencement of the work of grading the road. On receiving the spade which Mr. Allen presented for that purpose, Mr. Kennett made a brief address, closing with the statement that he would proceed to use the spade "to make the first cut in the line of the Pacific Railway."

At the conclusion of Mr. Kennett's speech, the procession again formed, and while the band played the "Governor's March," the assemblage proceeded to the line of the road, near the shore of Chouteau's Pond. The mayor here shoveled a few spadefuls of Earth into the pond, and was followed by the president, Mr. Allen, and several other members of the Pacific Railroad Company. Enthusiastic cheers greeted this proceeding, with which the ceremonies closed.

The first section of the First Division (from St. Louis to Franklin), the construction of which was thus inaugurated, extended from Seventh to Fourteenth Street, St. Louis, and included the filling in of Chouteau's Pond. The work of grading was fully commenced on 2d of August, 1851. The contracts on the first divisions were let when labor was cheap, and with little or no experience by contractors in doing work in Missouri, and labor increased in price from seventy-five cents to one dollar and twenty-five cents per day. A great deal of sickness prevailed upon the line most of the time. The cholera made its appearance nearly every year on almost every section. Provisions of all kinds rose to very high prices. Material was found more difficult of excavation than any one could have supposed. All these difficulties combined increased the cost, much over original estimates. A large portion of the work when the cars commenced running to Franklin was in an unfinished condition, and required a great deal of labor with gravel trains, in widening embankments and taking down slopes in cuts. Most of the ballasting was done by the company, material being procured from the bluffs upon the Maramec River.

The second division extended from Franklin to Jefferson City. 134

As the work progressed it was soon discovered that more money would be needed, and on the 6th of September, 1851, an election was held to test the sense of the people of St. Louis County on the expediency of subscribing an additional one hundred thousand dollars to the stock of the company, which resulted in favor of the proposition. Strenuous efforts were also made to swell the resources of the company by procuring grants of land from the general government. In June, 1852, as heretofore stated, Congress passed an act approved June 10th, which granted the right of way to the State of Missouri and a portion of the public lands to aid in the construction of railroads. The provision of the act relating to the sale of these lands was as follows:

"That a quantity of land not exceeding one hundred and twenty sections on each road, and included within a continuous length of twenty miles of said road, may be sold; and when the Governor of said State shall certify to the Secretary of the Interior that said twenty miles of said road is completed, then another

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other like quantity of land hereby granted may be sold, and so from time to time until said road is completed; and if said road be not completed within ten years, no further sales shall be made, and the lands unsold shall revert to the United States."

The State of Missouri also extended liberal assistance to the road. The first legislation on the subject, as we have seen, was the act of March 12, 1849, which required the company to complete the road within ten years from the date of its commencement, and reserved to the State the right to purchase the road at the expiration of fifty years, two years' notice of the intention so to do having been given, its value to be ascertained by appraisers mutually chosen. The General Assembly afterwards passed an act, approved Feb. 22, 1851, granting to the Pacific Railroad Company a loan of the credit of the State to the amount of two millions of dollars, in special bonds of the State, bearing interest at the rate of six per centum per annum from the date of the respective issues thereof, payable twenty years thereafter, to be delivered to the company in sums of fifty thousand dollars, after satisfactory evidence that an equal sum, derived from the other moneys of the company, had been expended on the work prior to the original and each successive issue. The act provided further that as a condition precedent to the delivery of the first installment of bonds, a bona fide subscription to the capital stock of the company of one million and a half of dollars should be made; required the company to provide for the payment of the accruing interest and the principal of the bonds, and provided that the acceptance of the successive issues of bonds, filed in the office of the Secretary of State, should operate as a mortgage of the entire property of the company to the State, to secure the payment of principal and interest, to be foreclosed for the benefit of the State upon failure to make such payment, with the further condition that none of the bonds should be disposed of at less than their par value.

During the same session an act was passed entitled "An Act to amend the act entitled ‘An Act to incorporate the Pacific Railroad,’" approved March 1, 1851, and accepted by the stockholders of the company, as required by the act, on the 2d of December, 1851, enlarging and defining the powers granted by the original act of incorporation, removing the conditions therein contained that the city of Jefferson should be made a point on the line of the road, and that it should intersect the western line of Van Buren County, and authorizing the company to select any route from St. Louis to the western line of the State deemed most advantageous. The act authorized the company to borrow money for the purpose of completing and operating the road (to any amount not exceeding the unsubscribed capital), and to issue bonds therefore, secured by mortgage on their property, subject, however, to the prior lien of the State.

On the 13th of December, 1852, the president and directors of the Pacific Railroad Company addressed a memorial to the General Assembly, setting forth their willingness — in view of the fact that that part of the grant of land made to the State by the act of Congress, approved June 10, 1852, and applicable to a railroad from St. Louis to the western boundary of the State, would, if the lands were selected with reference to the then proposed line of the road from St. Louis to the western boundary of the State, yield so small a quantity of land in view of the conditions coupled with the grant, as to be of comparatively little value to the railroad — to undertake the construction of a branch road, diverging from the trunk line of the Pacific Railroad, and terminating on the western boundary of the State, south of the Osage River, and seeking, if the views of the memorialists should be adopted, a further loan of the credit of the State in aid of the construction of the proposed branch road, and also, in view of the proposed diversion of the land grant from the main trunk of the Pacific Railroad, praying for an additional loan of the State credit to secure its completion. The memorialists further proposed to construct a branch of the Pacific Railroad southwardly to the Iron Mountain and Pilot Knob, if the aid of the State by a loan of her credit should be given. At the first session of the seventeenth General Assembly an act was passed entitled "An Act to accept a grant of land made to the State of Missouri by the Congress of the United States, approved June 10, A. D. 1852, to aid in the construction of certain railroads in this State, and to apply a portion thereof to the Pacific Railroad," approved Dec. 25, 1852, and accepted by the Pacific Railroad Company, as required in the act, on the 21st of January, 1853. This act vested the lands granted by act of Congress in the Pacific Railroad Company, to be by it selected, and located along the line of a road to be constructed by that company identical with the main line of the Pacific Railroad to the point of divergence, and diverging from the main trunk line of the road at a point east of the Osage River, and striking the western boundary of the State south of the Osage River, at any point selected by the company. This act granted a loan of the credit of the State in aid of the construction of the Southwest Branch Road to the amount of one million of dollars, on the condition that no part of the credit thus granted should be used until a bona fide subscription of five hundred thousand dollars to the

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capital stock of the company, applicable to the construction of the Southwest Branch, should be made, and on terms and under limitations similar to those which had attended the former grants of the credit of the State. The act further provided that the main trunk of the Pacific Road should be located from St. Louis to Jefferson City; thence by the best inland route through Johnson County, terminating at any point designated by the company in Jackson County, conditioned that the counties west of Jefferson City should subscribe four hundred thousand dollars to the capital stock of the company, in addition to the amount already subscribed; in default of which the company should be at liberty to select for the road any location deemed expedient. An additional grant of the credit of the State to the amount of one million dollars, applicable to the construction of the main trunk of the Pacific Railroad, was made by this act, on the same terms and conditions as prescribed in the act of Feb. 22, 1851, with the requirement that the road should be completed to its terminus in Jackson County and in operation within five years from the date of the passage of the act. Power was granted to the company for the purpose of raising money from time to time, for the completion and construction of the Branch Road, to sell the land in the manner provided in the act of Congress of June 10, 1852, and to issue bonds bearing a rate of interest not greater than seven per cent. per annum, secured by mortgage of the lands, subject to the terms of the act of Congress, for the redemption of which bonds the faith of the State should in nowise be pledged.

In the winter of 1853 an act was passed entitled "An Act to authorize the formation of railroad associations, and to regulate the same, approved Feb. 24, 1853, which provided that the gauge of track or width between the rails of all railroads in this State should be five feet six inches," the gauge adopted and brought into use prior to that time by the Pacific Railroad Company.

An act was also passed at the same session amendatory of the original act of incorporation, approved Feb. 24,1853, authorizing the Pacific Railroad Company to extend, construct, and operate the road to any point west of the boundary of the State, and to enter into contracts for that purpose.

At the first session of the Eighteenth General Assembly an act was passed entitled "An Act for the Pacific and other railroad companies," approved Feb. 10, 1855. This act provided for the loan to the Pacific Railroad Company of the sum of two hundred thousand dollars. The act so amended former laws require the Governor to deliver to the several railroad companies in the State who were entitled to a further issue of State bonds the whole amount within the limits of the grants to them respectively to which, they were entitled by virtue of showing an equivalent amount of actual expenditure upon their roads, respectively, of funds derived from other sources, without regard to the limit of such disbursement, before fixed at fifty thousand dollars; and, further, by authorizing the several companies to sell the bonds issued to them at their market value, even though they should fall below par, and by authorizing the hypothecation of the bonds, if desired, to carry on the operations of the roads.

At the same session an act was passed entitled "An Act to aid the construction of the Pacific Rail-road," approved March 3, 1855, granting a further loan of the State credit to the amount of three hundred thousand dollars, on the same terms and conditions which governed the loans formerly made, and providing for the appointment of a Board of Public Works to examine into the affairs of the company and its management. This act provided that unless accepted by the Pacific Railroad Company within six months after its passage it should be inoperative, and not having been accepted by the company it expired by its own limitation. A supplemental act passed at the same session was approved March 3, 1855, providing for the protection of innocent settlers on lands included in the land-grant to the Pacific Railroad Company.

On the 1st of June, 1853, a mortgage was executed by the company for ten million dollars, which included the lands granted by the General Assembly to the Pacific Railroad and the entire property of the company on the main and branch line, subject to the prior lien of the State. No bonds were sold under this mortgage, and it was subsequently canceled.

The estimates of cost furnished to the Legislature Dec. 1, 1852, were:

St. Louis to Kansas $7,858,043
Southwest Branch 8,157,000
Total, exclusive of interest $16,015,043

Estimates submitted Jan. 1, 1855:

Full expenditures required, with interest, etc., from St. Louis to Kansas, with rolling stock $10,300,000
Southwest Branch to State line 9,900,000
Total estimate, Jan. 1, 1855 $20,000,000

The total of stock subscriptions and State bonds devoted to the purposes of the company up to November, 1855, amounted to $6,734,400. Of this sum the individual subscriptions amounted to $864,400, of which $140,000 was applicable west of Jefferson

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City. The subscriptions made by the city and county of St. Louis, payable in bonds, were:

City of St. Louis $500,000
County of St. Louis 500,000
County of St. Louis subscribed in cash, at one, two, three, and four years, $1,200,000, but anticipated by the county's bonds to the amount of 875,000

The first railroad iron for the Pacific Road was received in St. Louis in April, 1852. There were in all 4267 bars, the aggregate cost of which was $16,595.30. The government duty amounted to $4978.50. The iron was imported from England. On Nov. 12, 1852, the first locomotive, the "Pacific," manufactured at Taunton, Mass., was placed upon the track at the machine-shop erected by the company, and run out to the Manchester road.

"Yesterday evening," said the Republican of Dec. 2, 1852, "we visited the depot station of the Pacific Railroad Company to see the first car started, and listen to the first whistle of the iron horse on this side of the Mississippi. We were disappointed in seeing the car start, but we had, in company with a number of persons, the pleasure of seeing the first car, the ‘Pacific, No. 3,’ placed on the track, and this morning at seven o'clock we expect to hear the first whistle. Owing to unavoidable circumstances, the car and tender could not be placed upon the track as early as was expected. It is there now, and the fact may be announced that the first car for the Pacific was placed on the track yesterday evening."

On the following day, as anticipated, the first trial was made. The locomotive, with the tender, had been backed down nearly to Fourteenth Street, and three heavily-laden cars of iron and ties were attached. Thomas Allen, president of the company, T. S. O'Sullivan, engineer, Mr. Copp, the secretary, and a number of other gentlemen were present. William R. Kingsley, the resident engineer, having charge of the construction of the First Division, had the track in complete working order. Everything being ready, and the word given, "All aboard," Charles Williams, the chief machinist of the company, took charge of the engine, and at seven o'clock the whistle sounded, and the train was in motion. To Mr. Williams belongs the credit of having run the first engine west of the Mississippi going towards the Pacific. The train was run successfully to the terminus of the track, a distance of several miles.

A few days later the road was completed to Sulphur Springs, or Cheltenham, five miles from St. Louis, and an experimental trip was made to that point on the 9th of December, 1852. 135

During this year (1852) Mr. Kirkwood, chief engineer, resigned, and was succeeded by Thomas S. O'Sullivan.

On the 6th of May, 1853, the directors decided that the road should be opened for travel to Kirkwood, fourteen miles from the city, and that for the accommodation of way business the train should stop at Rock Spring, two and a half miles from the city; "Cheltenham, about five miles; the River des Peres, a little beyond Sutton's; and Webster's College, which is two and a half miles this side of Kirkwood."

By resolution of the board "the fare for passengers from this time forth is not to exceed three cents per mile, with proper and liberal deduction for in and out passengers."

The First Division, thirty-nine miles, from St. Louis to Franklin, was opened on the 19th of July, 1853, and the event was signalized by an excursion to the then terminus of the road. At eleven o'clock on that day, twelve large passenger-cars, drawn by the locomotive "St. Louis," and carrying between six and seven hundred invited guests, including the St. Louis Grays, with Jackson's Band of the Sixth United States infantry, started for Franklin Station, in Franklin County, which was then situated in a forest of large timber, with no other improvements than a large and handsome depot, extending several hundred feet. Here the train was greeted by several hundred persons from the surrounding country, including many ladies. In all there were fully fifteen hundred persons present.

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"Much of the latter part of the road," says a contemporary account, "had not been used before, — in fact some of the rails had not been laid until that morning, — and still we arrived at Franklin before two P. M. The actual running time, as kept by some of the passengers, was one hour and fifty-one minutes, a fair speed for a new, partially unballasted and untried road."

A collation was served, after which Charles D. Drake proposed the health of the president of the company, Thomas Allen. In Mr. Allen's absence, Hon. L. M. Kennett responded in an address highly eulogistic of Mr. Allen's services in behalf of the enterprise. In the course of his address Mr. Kennett congratulated his hearers on the fact that the cars were of St. Louis manufacture, "drawn by a locomotive made in St. Louis, and by St. Louis mechanics, Messrs. Palm & Robertson, to whose enterprise and public spirit the company, and the citizens of St. Louis generally, are indebted for so important a movement towards our city's advancement to wealth and prosperity."

The actual cost of the division was set down by Mr. Kennett as being "a trifle over one million six hundred thousand dollars." At this time the two divisions of the main stem, towards Kansas, had been located, and were under construction as far as Jefferson City, eighty-eight miles from Franklin.

Addresses were also made by Hon. John How, mayor of St. Louis, Hon. Edward Bates, J. D. Stevenson, R. S. Elliott, William Palm (of the firm of Palm & Robertson, who built the first locomotive in St. Louis), A. S. Mitchell, P. B. Garesch&eagrave;, William L. Williams, James Conran, Henry Cobb, Charles S. Rannals, and others.

The president, Mr. Allen, who had devoted his time and energies to the starting of the enterprise, the first year without pay, and during the last at a salary fifteen hundred dollars per annum, willing still to make sacrifices for the cause, and desirous of attracting public attention at once to the necessities of the case and to propitiate all opposition, if any, on the score of long continuance in office, tendered his resignation, which was accepted at a meeting of the board of directors on April 30, 1854, which at the same time passed unanimous indorsement of his entire action in the affairs of the company. After Mr. Allen's resignation been accepted, Hudson E. Bridge was elected president of the company, and Henry L. Patterson vice-president. At an election held about this time the question of making a subscription on the part of St. Louis County to the amount of one million dollars to the capital stock of the company was decided affirmatively by a vote of three thousand four hundred and twenty yeas to one thousand three hundred and thirty-three nays.

The work of construction from Franklin westward was prosecuted with unremitting energy, and on the 1st of November, 1855, the road was opened to Jefferson City. 136 This event was the occasion of a catastrophe which resulted in great loss of life, and caused universal distress and mourning in St. Louis. It has ever since been known as the Gasconade Bridge disaster, and occupies a position of melancholy prominence in the history of the city.

The train, which consisted of fourteen passenger-cars, started from the Seventh Street Depot, St. Louis, on the morning of Thursday, November 1st, with the mayor and City Council of St. Louis, Company A of the St. Louis Grays, and the National Guard, with the band attached to the latter, and a number of invited guests, the whole party numbering between six and seven hundred persons. There had been heavy rains the night before, and the weather was still inclement, but the train proceeded in safety until the Gasconade River was reached, when the bridge across the stream gave way, and ten of the cars were precipitated a distance of twenty-five or thirty feet. The locomotive, from all appearances, had reached the edge of the first pier when the structure gave way, and in falling reversed its position, the front turning to the east and the wheels upward. On the locomotive at the time were the president, H. E. Bridge, T. S. O'Sullivan, the chief engineer of the road, and several employés. Mr. Bridge escaped, but Mr. O'Sullivan was killed. The road entered the bridge with a curve, and this circumstance, perhaps, prevented the disaster from being more fatal, as the cars thereby were diverted, and thus prevented from falling in a general mêlée. The baggage-car, next the engine, went down easily, without causing any serious casualty. The first and second passenger-cars followed, and in these several were killed, and a great number more or less mangled. In the third car one or two were killed only. This car, although in a dangerous position and almost entirely demolished, was less fatal to life and limb. In the fourth and fifth cars a great many were fatally injured and several instantly killed. The other cars of the train followed swiftly on their fatal errand, and the loss of life, with contusions more or less severe, was dreadful. Some of the cars plunged on those beneath them with their ponderous wheels, and crushed or maimed the unfortunate

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persons below. Others hung upon the cliff in a perpendicular position, and two or three turned bottom upward down the grade. Only one, the extreme rear car, maintained its position on the rail.

"When we take into consideration the fall of thirty feet in front to the bed of the river," says the Republican, in its account of the disaster, "and the high embankment on either side of the track, covered with stone, — the ponderous cars themselves capable of grinding each other into fragments, — the wonder is increased that so few were killed outright or fatally wounded. There is hardly a position in which a car could be precipitated from the track at the point named that gives a reasonable hope of escape, and yet although seven out of the ten of which the train was composed plunged headlong down the abutment, and then others rolled over the grade, containing five to six hundred passengers, we have only the report of twenty-five killed and mortally injured.

"As soon as the crash was over a moment of painful silence ensued, and then issued from the wreck the groans of the wounded, the supplications of the imprisoned, the screams of the agonized, while here and there might be observed the upturned face of the dead, mangled and clotted with blood, or the half-buried forms of others whose spirits had passed away forever. To add to the horror of the scene, a storm of lightning, thunder, and rain arose of the severest description."

Drs. McDowell and McPherson happened to be on the train, and rendered efficient aid to the wounded.

Couriers were dispatched forthwith to Hermann for another train, and in an hour or less the wounded were in comfortable cars on their way to the city.

The following is a list of the killed and injured:

Killed. — A. L. Chappell, Rev. A. Bullard, B. B. Dayton, Cyrus Melvin, Mann Butler, Thomas Grey, Rev. Mr. Teasdale, S. Best (fireman), Patrick Barry (wood-passer), T. J. Mott (representative of Dunklin County), Thomas S. O'Sullivan (chief engineer), E. C. Yosti (firm of Shields & Yosti), Capt. C. Case, E. C. Blackburn, J. A. Ross (firm of Ross & Gillum), — Athey (late assessor of St. Louis), Henry Chouteau (of the firm of Chouteau & Yallé), Capt. O'Flaherty, Joseph Harris (of St. Louis County), E. B. Jeffrees (representative of Franklin County), Adolph Abeles, George Eberle, William L. Lynch, R. M. Dubois, H. W. Huhn, Joseph A. Finnegan, Mr. McCulloch (of Dunklin); one body, left at the Gasconade; one body, identified at Hermann, name unknown.

All of the above not otherwise specified were residents of St. Louis.

Wounded. — Hon. Washington King, mayor of St. Louis, badly cut.

F. L. Billon, arm broken.

Carlos S. Greeley, slightly injured.

L. M. Kennett, slightly injured.

Judge Wells, United States District Court, slightly injured.

John M. Wimer, badly hurt.

Henry C. Hart.

George K. Budd.

Francis Lane, leg broken.

James Mullery, slightly injured.

D. H. Armstrong, right arm broken.

Capt. Connelly, right leg injured.

Wilson Primm, bruised about the head.

John Schuetze, not seriously hurt.

Edward Colston, badly cut on head.

S. J. Levi, bruised about face.

L. A. Benoist, leg hurt.

Judge Thomas, of Bridgeton, face injured.

John J. Hoppe, face cut.

Wayman Crow, leg bruised.

Peter Oehman, badly bruised.

Mr. Dyson, firm of Taylor & Dyson, lower jaw broken, and otherwise badly injured.

John C. Ivory, much cut and bruised.

William Lindsey, shoulder out of joint.

John K. Field, firm of Beardslee & Field. Mr. Field went out the day after the accident, having heard that his brother was seriously injured at the Gasconade Bridge. He failed to get across Boeuff Creek before the bridge there was washed away. Afterwards he crossed the river, took a hand-car, and was at work on it when his coat was caught in the wheel and he was thrown out. The wheel passed over him, doing him very serious injury, principally about the face.

W. H. Tucker, the engineer on the locomotive, had his legs badly bruised.

William D'OEnch, right arm broken.

Julius Bush, face cut badly.

John Neindenhofer, face bruised.

James McDermott, leg broken.

A number of others were more or less seriously hurt.

The masonry of this bridge was of the most substantial kind, and had stood every test applied it to without damage in any shape whatever. The wooden superstructure — trestle-work — was put up by Stone, Boomer & Co., men of great experience in bridge-building in the West. 137

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It having become apparent that the cost of the proposed railroads in Missouri had been underestimated, the Legislature on the 10th of December, 1855, enacted that the State bonds might be issued to the railroad companies in the proportion of two dollars of loan advanced for one expended by the stockholders, and thus granted the further sum of two millions to the main trunk line of the Pacific Road. The act also created and established a Board of Public Works, consisting of three persons, not stockholders, to be (after the first appointed by the Governor) elected by the people for four years, the first election in 1856, and further required each railroad company to set aside and pay to the State treasurer every year, on State bonds thereafter to be issued, one and one quarter of one per cent. on each thirty-year bond, and two and one-half per cent. on each twenty-year bond sold or hypothecated. The treasurer of the State and the treasurer of each railroad company for the time being were made commissioners of the sinking fund thus created, and each company was required to pay to the State treasurer the semi-annual interest on the bonds issued to them thirty days before the coupons should fall due. The State treasurer was required to select one place in the city of New York for the payment of the interest on all the bonds issued by the State, and to give public notice thereof thirty days in advance.

James H. Lucas was elected president of the Pacific Railroad Company in March, 1856, but resigned about a month afterwards, when William M. McPherson was elected president in his place, and Edward Miller soon after was made chief engineer. Mr. McPherson continued to serve as president until March, 1858, when Hon. John M. Wimer was elected in his place.

By an act approved March 3, 1857, the State agreed to guarantee the bonds of the Pacific Railroad Company, issued as authorized by the act of Dec. 10, 1855, upon a mortgage of lands on the Southwest Branch, in sums of $100,000 each, to an amount not exceeding $4,500,000, the first $100,000 to be issued upon evidence of a like amount of expenditure on that branch by the company, derived from sources other than guaranteed bonds, but the subsequent amounts were to be issued as fast as each given sum was expended. The Governor was also authorized to make such guarantees in larger amounts than $100,000 at a time if expedient, and place them for sale in the hands of an agent to be appointed by him, etc.

The company was required to complete the Southwest Branch in four years, pay the interest, and hold the State harmless from her guarantee, or forfeit the branch road, lands, and franchises. The same act further provided that whenever the Pacific Railroad Company had expended five hundred thousand dollars west of Jefferson City, the Governor of the State should issue to them $1,000,000, part of the amount granted by the act of Dec. 10, 1855, but not issued; and also granted a further loan of $300,000 of the same amount, to be based upon a showing of half that sum expended from stock subscriptions west of Jefferson City. The act also granted the same company a further loan of $1,000,000, to be issued in sums of $100,000, the applications for them to be based upon proof of additional expenditure of half the amount derived from other sources than State bonds, and not included in any previous statement, and showing also that the proceeds of all the bonds issued under the act of 1855 had been expended in the construction of the road, the statement of expenditure to be exclusive of interest, discount, and commissions.

This law also provided that the work should progress continuously west, so as to leave no part unfinished beyond the reach of the means of the company, and postponed the payments into the sinking fund required by the act of 1855 until Jan. 1, 1859, when said payments were to commence and be made as before required, and within two years from that time the companies were to make full payment of all sums thus postponed. The same act of March 3, 1857, required the State geologist to make a thorough survey along the lines of all railroads aided by the State, and to report in detail to the president and directors "all the mineral, agricultural, and other resources which may affect the value or income of the road under their direction."

In consequence of the panic in the money market, the State bonds of Missouri, like many others, touched

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a low point in the fall of 1857, and many of the holders felt much alarmed. The act of Nov. 19, 1857, suspended the further issue and guarantee of bonds until March 1, 1859, with some exceptions, and among them four hundred thousand dollars were permitted to be issued to the Pacific Railroad to finish to Round Hill, and two hundred thousand dollars to carry the Southwest Branch to Moseley's. But it was agreed that whenever State bonds could be sold for ninety cents on the dollar, the Governor might issue five hundred thousand dollars for the Southwest Branch, and receive in exchange the same amount of guaranteed bonds. It was further provided that there should be deposited with the State treasurer a like amount of seven per cent. railroad mortgage bonds as collateral security, and as the latter bore seven per cent. interest and the former six, the company was required to pay the difference (one per cent.) into the State interest fund on the bonds so exchanged.

The Pacific Railroad was also required to deliver up all guaranteed bonds, and a like amount of State bonds, running twenty years and bearing six per cent. interest, were ordered to be issued and delivered to them. It was a singular fact that while State bonds sold readily, mortgage bonds, guaranteed by the State, could not be sold.

The Board of Public Works was required to attend all the meetings of the boards of directors and watch their proceedings. Full and ample provision was also made by the Legislature to meet at all times the accruing interest on the State bonds of Missouri.

The main (or Kansas) line of the Pacific Railroad was completed to Sedalia, and its Southwest Branch, afterwards the St. Louis and San Francisco line, to Rolla in 1861. The four years of the civil war retarded the efforts of the company to push forward the work of construction, and the effect upon the road was disastrous in the extreme. For much of the time in the use of the government, which only allowed the actual cost of transportation, and seriously injured by destruction of its depots and bridges by armed bands, the work was still pushed forward under the greatest difficulties, and in May, 1863, was extended to Dresden, in July, 1864, to Warrensburg, and was being pushed to Kansas City, when the great raid of Gen. Price, in the fall of that year, destroyed everything destructible between Franklin and Kansas City, inflicting a damage which exceeded a million of dollars. Nearly one mile of bridging was destroyed, including the Gasconade, Moreau, and Osage, and depot buildings, machine-shops, water-tanks, and wood-sheds were totally destroyed at Franklin, Gray's Summit, South Point, Washington, Hermann, California, Syracuse, Otterville, and many lesser points. Large portions of the track were torn up, and the entire road was a wreck.

Under military protection the work of repair and extension was continued, and the road was opened to Holden in May, 1865, and to Kansas City in September of that year.

Since its completion to Kansas City other roads have been completed to that point, but the Pacific Road has held its own in the contest for the commerce of the West. Its present connections with roads west and southwest are of the most intimate character, and cars run to and from St. Louis, without break of bulk, to every railroad point in Kansas and Colorado.

During the year 1878-79 the construction of the Sedalia and Fort Scott Railroad shortened the line between St. Louis and Fort Scott more than one hundred miles, and arrangements were completed for the running of freight and passenger trains, without break, between St. Louis and Fort Scott. The connecting link between Fort Scott and the main line of the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad was completed in 1871, after which time freight and passenger trains ran, without break, to Chetopa and points in the Indian country.

Connections have been made between Pleasant Hill and Lawrence, by which the route to Denver was straightened and shortened. Roads from Sedalia to Lexington, from Holden to Paola and Emporia, Kan., and from Tipton to Versailles and Warsaw, in Missouri, have also been constructed.

Among the most active and liberal of the early promoters of this great enterprise was Edward Walsh. Mr. Walsh was born in County Tipperary, Ireland, Dec. 27, 1798. The family consisted of eleven children, who were trained to habits of industry and economy, and when old enough to work established in some employment. After being kept at school until twelve years old, Edward entered the store of a cousin, and remained there four years. He then went into business with his brother, who kept a mill and brewing establishment, and remained there four years. A letter from his cousin in Louisville about this time induced him to emigrate to America, and on the 7th of June, 1818, he arrived in New York, reaching Louisville in due season. In October, 1818, he removed to St. Louis, and subsequently settled in Ste. Genevieve Couty, where he built a mill and conducted a profitable business until 1824, when he sold out and another mill in Madison County. This, too, he soon disposed of, and acting on the idea which he had

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long entertained that St. Louis was the best field for his energies, he finally removed to the city and settled permanently, engaging with his brother in the general merchandising business, under the firm-name and style of J. & E. Walsh.

In 1831 he also engaged in milling again, and ultimately conducted operations on a large scale, having three mills in constant operation. One of the three is still standing, at the corner of Florida Street and the Levee. It was built in 1827, and has made more flour than any mill in St. Louis.

The milling business succeeded as merchandising had done, and Edward Walsh next engaged in steam-boating on a large scale. It is estimated that he had half a million dollars invested in the business, and at one time he was interested in twenty-one vessels that were plying on the Western waters.

During this period his firm enjoyed almost the entire monopoly of the Galena lead business. There was then no Chicago to dispute the supremacy of St. Louis in that region.

When railroads began to be agitated, Mr. Walsh was among their most earnest and energetic promoters, being one of the first subscribers and original directors of the Missouri Pacific Railroad Company.

He was also a subscriber to the stock of the North Missouri Railroad and the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad Companies, and was one of the originators of the present street railway system.

Mr. Walsh assisted in numerous other public enterprises, and was one of the first directors of the old Bank of the State of Missouri, and a director in the old Missouri Insurance Company and Union Insurance Company. He was also one of the founders of the present Merchants' National Bank.

The successful management of such large and complex interests, down almost to the very day of his death, indicate a mind of uncommon strength, and Mr. Walsh's sound business judgment was recognized by all his contemporaries. The splendid success which accomplished is his best monument. The young man who came to a new continent with neither friends nor patronage made his way by sheer force of character and industry to wealth and position, and when he died, on the 23d of March, 1866, he was mourned as one of the leading citizens of the State of his adoption.

Edward Walsh's brother, John Walsh, with whom he was so long associated in business, and who died years before him, was likewise noted for his business talents and lofty integrity. He was also widely known for his benevolence and charity, which endeared him to a very large circle of friends, and still keeps his memory green in the minds of the people of St. Louis. Edward Walsh was also of an eminently charitable and benevolent character, but many of his benefactions were private and were never known. He was particularly friendly and generous to immigrants, especially his own country-men, many of whom, being destitute, he helped to become prosperous business men, and who not infrequently testified their gratitude to Mr. Walsh by the presentation of some elegant and costly token.

Although frequently tendered political honors and preferment, Mr. Walsh uniformly declined, having no aspirations in that direction. He was, however, a warm friend and admirer of the Hon. Thomas H. Benton, and wherever his (Benton's) interests were involved he labored actively and unselfishly for their promotion.

Edward Walsh was twice married, — first in 1822 to Miss Maria Tucker, and secondly, Feb. 11, 1840, to Miss Isabelle De Mun, daughter of Julius De Mun. She died May 26, 1877. Mr. Walsh left six children, viz.:

Ellen, who became the wife of Solon Humphreys, of New York, president of the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railway.

Julius S. Walsh, of whom a sketch appears elsewhere in this work.

Marie C., who became the wife of B. M. Chambers, now a resident of St. Louis County.

J. A. Walsh, president of the Mississippi Glass Company.

Edward Walsh, Jr., president of the Pilot Knob Iron Company.

Daniel E. Walsh, ex-president of the People's, Tower Grove and Lafayette Railway Company.

In 1866 the Southwest Branch of the Missouri Pacific Railway was taken possession of by the State for non-payment of interest on the State subsidy, and sold with the lands in the same year to the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company, which company in 1872 leased the line of the old company. The two roads were operated under one management until Sept. 6, 1876, when the Pacific Road was sold, under process of foreclosure of the third mortgages, and conveyed by the purchasers to the present company, incorporated as the Missouri Pacific Railroad Company, Oct. 21, 1876, with a share capital of $3,000,000. The amount of old indebtedness prior to the third mortgage, and assumed by the new company, was $13,700,000.

By articles of association filed Aug. 11, 1880, the Missouri Pacific was consolidated (still retaining the same name) with the St. Louis and Lexington, the

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Kansas City and Eastern, the Lexington and Southern, the St. Louis, Kansas and Arizona, the Missouri River, and the Leavenworth, Archison and northwestern Companies. The authorized share capital of the consolidated company was $30,000,000; amount issued to carry out consolidation, $12,419,800; the funded debt of the new company, including three of the present lines, was $19,259,000. The Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway was leased to the Missouri Pacific Railway Company on the 1st of December, 1880, the rental being the net earnings of the leased line, which for 1881 amounted to $1,911,673.93. The Missouri Pacific Railway operates the Central Branch, Union Pacific Railroad, accounting to the Union Pacific, which owns it, for the net earnings.

During 1881 the Missouri Pacicfic Railway acquired the ownership of the railroad, branches, and property of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain, and Southern Railroad Company by the exchange of three shares of its capital stock for four shares of that of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railroad. The International and Great Northern Railroad of Texas was absorbed by the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad of Missouri by the exchange of one share of the stock of the former for two shares of the stock of the latter. According to the report for the year ending Dec. 31, 1881, the condition of the Missouri Pacific Railroad was as follows:

Rolling stock: Locomotive engines, 134; cars, passenger, 78, baggage, mail, and express, 28; cabooses, 81; freight (box, 2318; stock, 551; platform, 132; coal, 1138), 4139; total revenue cares, 4326; service cars, 24.

Operations for the year: Trains run (passenger, 1,109793; freight, 2,940078), 4,049,871 miles; total engine service, 4,220,241 miles; passengers carried, 1,017,507; carried one mile, 59,132,107; average fare, 2.48 cents; freight moved, 2,712,634; moved one mile, 368,817,609 tons; average rate, 1.30 cents.

The earnings (774 miles) were: From passengers, $1,472,150.13; freight, $4,806,913.67; mail and express, $294,281.01; miscellaneous, $2,067,612.99, total ($11,164.03 per mile), $8,640,957.80.

Expenditures: For maintenance of way, $1,043,655.78; rolling stock, $1,268,204.31; transportation, $1,047,254.58; mmiscellaneous and taxes, $269,040.17; total ($4,687.54 per mile), $3,628,154.84.

Net earnings, $5,012,802.96; dividends (April, July, October, and Dec. 31, 1881, 1½ per cent. each), $1,524,167.11.

The general balance sheet presented Dec. 31, 1881, showed,

Construction and equipment $33,555,939.10
Real estate 73,766.99
Stocks and bonds 20,300,866.53
Material and fuel 1,091,763.44
Current accounts 6,463, 138.66
Cash on hand 585,540.16
Total assets $62,071,014.88
Capital stock $29,955,375.00
Funded debt 20,664,000.00
Sundry debts 6,941,926.77
Bills payable 451,956.64
Profit and loss 4,057,756.47
Total liabilities $62,071,014.88

The increase in share capital during the year ($17,534,575) was due wholly to the issue made in the purchase of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railroad. The statement of the funded debt, Dec. 31, 1881, showed that there were $48,195,000 of authorized bonds, and that the outstanding indebtedness amounted to $20,664,000.

The Missouri Pacific now forms part of the great system of railroads controlled by Jay Gould and his associates. Its directors (elected March 7, 1882) are Jay Gould, Russell Sage, Sidney Dillon, W. F. Buckley, Thomas T. Eckert, George J. Forrest, George Gould, A. L. Hopkins, H. G. Marquand, Samuel Sloan, all of New York; F. L. Ames, South Easton Mass.; S. H. H. Clark, Omaha, Neb.; R. S. Hayes, St. Louis. Jay Gould, persident; R. S. Hayes, first vice-president; A. L. Hopkins, seocnd vice-president; A. H. Calef, secretary, New York; W. M. Arnold, assistant secretary; A. A. Talmage, general manager; A. W. Dickinson, superintendent; D. Brock, master of transportation; J. C. Brown, general solicitor; T. J. Portis, general attorney; D. S. H. Smith, local treasurer; C. G. Warner, general auditor; F. Chandler, general passenger and ticket agent; C. B. Kinnan, assistant general passenger agent; J. L. G. Charlton, assistant general ticket agent; S. Frink, general freight agent; G. W. Cole, assistant general freight agent; J. J. Rogers, assistant general freight agent; J. Hewitt, superintendent machinery; J. W. King, paymaster; R. B. Lyle, puchasing agent, all of St. Louis. M. Bullard, superintendent telegraph, Sedalia; A. G. Easton, car accountant, Sedalia; W. P. Andrews, general baggage agent, St. Louis, J. Hansen, general agent, St. Joseph; L. H. Nutting, general Eastern again, New York.

Missouri Division: Warder Cumming, superintendent, Sedalia; A. M. Hager, assistant superintendent transportation, St. Louis; C. L. Dunham, superintendent, Atchison Section, Western Division, Kansas City.

Kansas and Texan Division: T. M. Eddy, superiintendent, Sedalia, Mo.; T. G. Golden, assistant superintendent

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transportation, Denison, Texas; C. V. Lewis, division freight again, Parson, Kan.

Central Branch Division: W. W. Fagan, superintendent, Atchison, Kan.; M. L. Sargent, assistant general freight agent, Atchison, Kan.

The practical operation of the vast railway system, with all its ramifying lines and branches, is confided to the experienced and skillful hands of the general manager, Mr. Talmage. Archibald Alexander Talmage was born in Warren County, N. J., April 25, 1834. His father (an Englishman by descent) was pastor of a Presbyterian congregation, and was assisted in his responsible duties by a noble wife, in whose veins flowed some of the purest blood of Scotland. Born under these favorable auspices, young Talmage enjoyed every opportunity for acquiring a sound rudimentary education, and improved his advantages so well that at the comparatively early age of fifteen he had passed thorught curriculum of the High School and the academy with more than usual credit. Desiring to be independent, he then left home and spent three years in a country store at Goshen, N. Y., where he become somewhat familiar with the routine of general business and obtained his first glimpse of active commercial life. The lessons learned in this capacity no doubt proved invaluable in moulding the future character of the man and in giving him habits of method and orgainzation, which qualified him in an eminent degree for performing the duties of freight clerk in the freight department of the New York and Erie Railway, on which he entered when eighteen years of age, and where he remained one year, displaying during that brief period a precocious talent and an adaptability for railroad work which were highly satisfactory to his superiors. He next spent some months in a wholesale hardware establishment in New York City, but the business hardly suited him, and in 1853 he removed to Chicago and obtained employment with the Michigan Southern Railroad as freight clerk. Within sixty days, however, he was transferred to Monroe, Mich., and soon after to Toledo, Ohio, where he remained until August 1858, during the last two years in the responsible position of train-master, directing all trains on the Toledo Division of the road, and having charge of all employés at that point.

In his twinty-fifth year he removed to St. Louis and engaged as passenger conductor on the Terre Haute and Alton Railroad, displaying the same force of character, the same energy, and the same ready tact which characterize his present management, and his superior abilities in the tranportation department being generally conceded by all with whom he was brought in contact. In April, 1864, he was appointed assistant superintendent of the road between East St. Louis and Terre Haute, and infused into the management new energy and method; but in consequence of a want of harmony between himself and his chief, he resigned in October, 1864, and accepted a poisition as master of transportation of the military roads contolled by the United States government east and south of Chattanooga. Within thirty days he was appointed superintendent of the same lines, and remained in absolute charge of them until at the close of the war the goverment turned them over to the civil authorities. He was then appointed general superintendent of the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad, and remained busily engaged in its reorganization and reconstruction until the fall of 1868, when he was invited by Mr. Herkimer, general superintendent of the Indianaplis and St. Louis Railway Company (which had leased the Terre Haute and Alton Railroad) to resume the assistant superintendency, which he had resigned in October, 1864. Here he displayed such marked ability that in October, 1870, he was appointed Mr. Herkimer's successor, the late Col. Thomas A. Scott asserting that "A. A. Talmage was the best railroad manager in the West." In this poisition his abilities became more widely known and recognized, and hence it was not surprising that in March, 1871, he was requested to transfer his sphere of operations to the west side of the Mississippi River and to become general superintendent of what was then known as the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad, running from Pacific to Vinita. In December of the same year the general superintendence of the Missouri Pacific was intrusted to him, and for a period of over elven years, with the exception of a few months in 1876, he has remained in active charge of what may be truly considered the most valuable railroad property west of the Mississippi River. In this position he enjoys the implicit confidence of those who are recognized as being among the shrewdest and most far-seeing railway managers in the United States. His retention in so responsible a position as that of general transportation mananger of the Missouri Pacific Railway and its comprehensive system, covering about six thousand miles of railway, for so long a period, is the best possible evidence of his success. He certainly occupies a foremost place amoung those truly great and public-spirited men who have been instrumental in buliding up that unrivaled transportation system west of the Mississippi River. There can be no question as to the indomitable enery, versatility, and executive ability of one who,

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in the prime of physical and mental strength, has raised himself to a standard of influence incomparably superior to that which is occupied by any operating executive officer in the Western States.

In 1868, Mr. Talmage was married to Miss Mary R. Clark, the accomplished daughter of the Rev. James Clark, D. D., of Philadelphia, Pa. The Rev. T. De Witt Talmage, D. D., the brilliant pulpit orator of Brooklyn, N. Y., is his cousin.

The great Pacific railroad across the continent was completed May 10, 1869, and railroad communication was opened betweeen the Atlantic and Pacific coasts two days later, May 12, 1869. At a meeting of the Missouri Historical Society, held on the 4th of June, 1869, the following, on motion of Gen. Ranney, was adopted for the purpose of being placed on record:

"One the the greatest Pacific Railroads over the continent from east to west was finished May 10, 1869."

"One of our merchants, James H. Gibson, made over it the first importation of tea from China to St. Louis, which was only thirty-seven days in transit."

The Missouri Pacific or Southwestern system as it is called, operated under one management, or rather one interest, consists of the Missouri Pacific, the Iron Mountain, the Texas Division of the Missouri Pacific (formerly the Missouri, Kansas and Texas), the Texas and Pacific, and the International and Great Northern Railroads, covering five thousand nine hundred and forty-four miles of railway directly in the interests of St. Louis. The region drained by this system covers the whole country from the Mexican frontier to the Mississippi, from Omaha to the gulf. New lines are being built in many parts of the Southwest. One of the pricipal roads in this system now under construction is the Fort Worth and Denver Road, which is now finished to a point called Henrietta, one hundred miles morthwest of Fort Worth. It streches across the country towards Pueblo, in Colorado, whence the trains will run into Denver over the Rio Grande Railroad for the present. This line will be nearly six hundred miles in length, and will be pushed rapidly to completion.

The southern point of this system is Laredo, on the Rio Grande, reached by the International and Great Northern Railroad, where connection is made with the Mexican Railroad, where connection is made with the Mexican Railroad (narrow-gauge), now in course of construction towards the city of Mexico. The latter is being built from both ends, — Laredo and the city of Mexico. In time the International Road will itself have a standard gauge connection through to the city of Mexico, though the work as projected is at a standstill on account of certain complications that have arisen within the past few months in Texas. The Mexican National Road has many branches in the republic of Mexico, and before two years shall have elapsed the system will embrace something like eighteen hundred miles, giving St. Louis direct communication with all the principal cities of that country and the mining regions. St. Louis will not only have opened to her merchants and manufacturers a valuable trade, but, owing to her splendid railway connections, will have advantages which, if properly taken hold of, will secure the bulk of the business to be derived from Mexico.

To the westward the Texas and Pacific meets the Southern Pacific at Sierra Blanca, a point a short distance east of El Paso, and in connection with the Iron Mountain these roads form a through route to San Francisco and points on the Pacific coast. To the southeastward from Marshall the Texas Pacific is completed to New Orleans, the extension being known as the New Orleans Pacific, and thus does the Southwestern system have its own through line to New Orleans. Before many months St. Louis will have direct rail connection with New Orleans on the west bank of the Mississippi River. This line will soon be almost a bee-line between the two cities by the completion of the line of the Iron Mountain Road, now being pushed as reapidly as possible through Eastern Arkansas from a point known as Knoble, on the Iron Mountain Road, in Arkansas, to Alexandria, La., on the Texas Pacific, and now finished to Forest City. This system, while tending to draw trade to St. Louis, of couse brings St. Louis into competition with the cities of New Orleans and Galveston, and the course of trade will depend upon the inducements offered by the different cities for it.

This Southwestern system, as previously indicated, is a part of the Gould system, which embraces in addition to the roads named the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railroad system, both east and west of the river. This powerful combination is considered as advantageous to St. Louis, and the policy heretofore pursued has been in the interests of the city. It is understood that the interest of the two are identical in many respects, and that the true interests of this vast system will be to make St. Louis its grand centre. As far as can be known, this had been the policy of the management up to this time, and St. Louis is recognized as the headquarters of this vast interest, all the general offices being located here.

The Missouri Pacific on May 1, 1882, extended its line northward on the west bank of the Missouri River from Atchison, Kan., to Omaha, Neb., making direct connection through Kansas City between Omaha and

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St. Louis. Various other extensions of its branches have been and are being made.

The mileage of the Missouri Pacific at this writing (Jan. 1, 1883) is as follows:

Main line, St. Louis via Kansas City, to Omaha 496
St. Joseph Extension 21
Carondelet Branch 11
Lebanon Branch 40
Glencoe Branch 4
Boonville Branch 44
Lexington Branch 55
Lexington and Southern Division 132
Kansas and Arizona Division 135
Kansas City and Eastern Division 32
Warsaw Section 42
Kansas and Texas Division, main line, Hannibal, Mo., to Denison, Texas 575
Neosho Section 157
Mineola Section 103
Fort Worth and Waco Sections 280
Dallas Extension 38
Jefferson Branch 155
Central Branch Division, main line, Atchinson to Lenora, Kan. 293
Washington Branch 7
Republican Branch 31
Jewell Branch 43
South Solomon Section 24
Total Missouri Pacific proper, with Missouri, Kansas and Texas Division 2718

The Iron Mountain Road is the next most important factor in this system. The main line runs from St. Louis to Texarkana, on the border, between Arkansas and Texas, while from Bismarck a branch leads to Belmont, on the Mississippi, opposite Columbus, Ky., at which point connection is made with the system of roads east of the Mississippi River.

The Iron Mountain and Helena is forty-three miles in length, and was but recently acquired. It will be a most valuable feeder. It extends from Helena to Forest City.

The Galveston, Henderson and Houston Road, fifty miles in length, and running between the cities of Galveston and Houston, was recently purchased by the Gould system, and henceforth will be operated as a part of the International and Great Northern Railroad.

The Atlantic and Pacific Railroad, originally the Southwest Branch of the Missouri Pacific Railroad, was endowed December, 1852, by the State, with one million two hundred thousand acres of land, and with an appropriation of one million dollars of State bonds. In the spring of 1853 the president of the Missouri Pacific, who was then in new York, entered into a contact with Diven, Stancliff & Co. for the construction of the whole Southwest Branch. In December, 1855, the Legislature passed an act transferring to the main line the one million dollars before authorized for the Southwest Branch. The company was also authorized to mortgage a million acres of their lands and those of the Southwest Branch, and issue their own bonds thereon to the extent of ten million dollars, to aid them to construct that branch, the State agreeing to guarantee three million dollars of the company's bonds, the proceeds to be expended on the first one hundred and fourteen miles of of the Southwest Branch, reaching from Franklin to a point beyond the Gasconade River; but the company was required to expend fifty thousand dollars, to be derived from other sources, for every one hundred thousand dollars of bonds to be guaranteed. This act required the First Division of the branch to be complete within three years from its date, under penalty of forfeiture of the road to the State, with its lands and franchises, by operation of law, subject only to the mortgage above mentioned. The law also extended the privileges of actual settlers on railroad lands, by granting them rights of pre-emption at two dollars and fify cents per acre to the extent of fifteen miles from the road.

From 1854 to 1861 the State contributed two million dollars more to its construction. As the condition of its several contributions to the funds of the Southwest Branch, amounting to five million dollars, the State of Missouri had stipulated for the forteiture to it of the road, its lands, franchises, etc., in case of failure on the party of the company to pay the interest on the bonds issued by the State.

Such failure having been made, on Feb. 19, 1866, the Governour took possission of the road as State property, and by act of the Legislature its name was changed to the "Southwest Pacific Railroad," and the property was offered for sale. It was bought by Gen. J. C. Fremont at one million three hundred thousand dollars, payable one-fourth cash, the balance in four annual installments, and under the obligation to expend five hundred thousand dollars in its extension the first year. Fremont and his associates failed to comply with this agreement. He, however, succeeded in completing the road to the Gasconade River, at Arlington, or thirteen miles, but encumbered the prooperty with debts to a large amount. He took possession June 14, 1866, and was dispossessed by the Governour, under the terms of the sale, June 21, 1867.

While Fremont and his associates, one of whom was Levi Parsons, were in possession of the property, they procured from Congress the charter of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company. This charter contemplated one hundred million dollars of capital, granted forty sections, or twenty-five thousand six hundred acres, of land per mile in the Territories, and twenty sections, or twelve thousand eight hundred acres, per mile in the State through which its line

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might pass, provided for a railroad from Springfield, Mo. (thus tapping the charter of the Missouri Company), to the Pacific Ocean, with a branch in the Indian Territory from Van Buren, Ark., to an intersection with the main line on the Canadian River; and further provided for the consolidation of the company to be formed under this charter with any other (to wit, the Missouri Company) which might have been chartered over the same route or any party thereof. This charter was passed July 27, 1866.

Before the proprietors of this great enterprise had time to realize from the speculation, their power in the premises was broken to a degree by the loss of their control over the Missouri portion of the road, once more the property of the State. Andrew Peirce, Jr., F. B. Hayes, and their associates, having been losers as holders of bonds issued under the Fremont régime, which were apparently rendered worthless by the forfeiture of the property to the State, associated themselves together under a new act of the Missouri Legislature, organizing the South Pacific Railroad Company, and to this new compnay the State made almost a clean donation of all the road already completed, unsold lands, etc., on certain stringent conditions, to wit:

1st. The company was required to spend $500,000 the first year to complete the road to Lebanon in two years, to Springfield in three years and six months, and to the State line by the 10th of June, 1872.

2d. They were to deposit $1,500,000 in cash in the State treasury, which they were to be allowed to withdraw only in sums of $100,000, as the same might be expended in extending the road.

3d. They were required to give a bond in the sum of $1,000,000 for the faithful performance of the contract, and for the payment of $300,000 to the State in three annual installments.

These conditons having been complied with, and an excess of $200,000 over the sum required having been deposited with the treasurer, the South Pacific Company took possession June 30, 1868, and completed the road to the several points mentioned in from twelve to eightenn months less time than was required by their contract with the State.

The "Atlantic and Pacific," chartered, as above mentioned, July 27, 1866, was duly organized in October, 1866, and Gen. Fremont chosen president on June 11, 1868. The property having meanwhile been encumbered by the indorsement of some $3,000,000 bonds issued by the Southwest Pacific, the contol of the company passed into the hands of the same parties who owned and controlled the South Pacific Railroad Company, and on Oct. 21, 1870, the said South Pacific Company sold and conveyed its entire property to the Atlantic and Pacific. Thus the entire property and franchises of all these companies become merged in one under the liberal Federal charter granted to the Atlantic and Pacific, who thus owned not only what the stockholders had bought and paid for, but what has cost the State of Missouri and county of St. Louis over $6,000,000 in securities to its predecessors.

The St. Louis and San Francisco Railway Company is the successor of the Southwest Branch of the Missouri Pacific, which, as we have seen, was sold in 1868 to purchasers who were incorporated as the South Pacific Railroad Company. The latter corporation completed the road to Lebanon, severty-one miles, in 1869; to Springfield, fifty-six miles, in May; and to Peirce City, fifty miles, in October, 1870. At this date the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company purchased the road and completed it to Vinita, three hundred and sixty-four miles from St. Louis, where connection was made with the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad. On the 1st of July, 1872, the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company leased the Pacific and Missouri, to which its line once belonged, and operated that road until November, 1875, when the Atlantic and Pacific was placed in the hands of a receiver. On the 8th of September, 1876, the road and lands of the company were sold under foreclosure of mortgages to the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway Company, and the corporation was reorganized under the latter name.

Few Western roads have made the rapid progress that the St. Lous and San Francisco has. Up to the time of its extension to Springfield, in the southwestern corner of Missouri, its business was comparatively small. No sooner had the country of the Ozarks been reached than the road began to rise in importance, and to-day it is regarded as one of the most valuable roads of the St. Louis system. Several years ago the branches to Carthage and other parts of Southwest Missouri were built; then the extensions were carried into Kansas. On June 8, 1881, the first passenger train that ever steamed its way through Benton and Washington Countries, Ark., went into Gayetterville, and opened up a most fertile portion of that growing State to St. Louis.

During last year the line was competed to Van Buren and Fort Smith, beyond the Boston Mountains into the Arkansas valley, where the finest of cotton is grown, as well as all kinds of grain and fruit, and coal of the best varieties abounds in inexhaustible quantities. The right of way has been secured through the Choctaw nation, and the survey made for the further extension of the road to Paris,

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Texas, where it will some day form connections with the Houston and Texas Central and the Gulf, Colorado and Sante Fé Roads, two of the leading lines of that State, which will reach Paris by the time the St. Louis and San Francisco is finished to that point. The completion of the latter will give three competing lines to Texas, all under separate and distinct managements.

During last year the road was extended to Tulsa, in the Indian Territory, and is being rapidly pushed on to Albuquerque to meet the Atlantic and Pacific, which is jointly owned by the St. Louis and San Francisco and the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fé Railway Companies. West of Albuquerque the road is in operaton to Canon Diablo, three hundred and twelve miles, and the grading is being rapidly done from the latter point to the Colorado River. The Southern Pacific, working eastward, has a large force grading from Mohave, and expects to have the line completed to the Colorado River by the time the Atlantic and Pacific reaches that point.

The mileage of the St. Louis and San Francisco at this time (Jan. 1, 1883) is in detail as follows:

St. Louis, Mo., to Halstead, Kan. 533
Pierce City Mo., to Tulsa, Indian Territory 138
Plymouth, Mo., to Fort Smith, Ark. 134
Joplin, Mo., to Girard, Kan. 39
Springfield, Mo., to Sparta, Mo. 27
Oronogo, Mo., to Galena, Kan. 20
Total 891

On the 14th of March, 1882, the following persons were elected directors of the road: Leland Stanford, San Francisco, Cal.; Edward F. Winslow, Jay Gould, A. S. Hatch, C. P. Huntington, W. L. Frost, James D. Fish, and William F. Buckley, New York; Albert W. Nickerson, Boston, Mass.; Charles W. Rogers, R. S. Hayes, St. Louis. The executive officers of the compnay are Edward F. Winslow, president, New York; C. W. Rogers, first vice-president and general manager, St. Louis; James D. Fisch, second vice-president, New York; T. W. Lillie, secretary and treasurer, New York; A. Douglas, auditor, St. Louis; John O'Day, general attorney, St. Louis; W. A. Thomas, Springfield, Mo., and Jr. R. Wentworth, Neodesha, Kan., division superintendents; D. Wishart, general passenger agent, St. Louis; T. E. Cassidy, general freight agent, St. Louis; W. H. Coffin, land commissioner, St. Louis; D. H. Nichols, master of transportation, Springfield, Mo.; James Dun, chief engineer, Springfield, Mo. The principal office of the company is located in St. Louis.

The St. Louis, Salem and Little Rock Railway, which reaches St. Louis by the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway, extends from Cuba to Salem, Mo., a distance of forty-one and five-tenths miles, with a number of small branches. The company was chartered Jan. 17, 1871, and the road was opened Oct. 15, 1873. The president of the company is A. L. Crawford, of New Castle, Pa.; Vice-President and Purchasing Agent, H. A. Crawford, St. Louis; Treasurer and Secretary, William Brewster, Erie, Pa.; Assistant Secretary and Treasurer, E. L. Foote, St. Louis.

Of the enterprising band of St. Louis capitalists who secured the completion of the Missouri Pacific and its Southwest Branch none was more ardent, self-sacrificing, or energetic than Daniel Randall Garrison. Mr. Garrison was born near Garrison's Landing, Orange Co., N. Y., Nov. 23, 1815. His father, Capt. Oliver Garrison, owned and commanded the first line of packets that ran between New York and West Point, early in the present century before steamboats were known. Capt. Garrison was of old New England Puritan stock, and his wife was of a Holland family that settled in New York at an early day. Her connections embraced such historic names as the Schuylers, Buskirks, and Coverts.

Young Garrison's youth passed without special incident until his removal with his father to Buffalo in 1829, where he obtained employment with Bealls, Wilkinson & Co., engine-builders, with whom he remained until 1833, when he went to Pittsburgh and was engaged in one of the largest machine-shops in that city. In 1835 he removed to St. Louis.

While he was in Buffalo, Daniel Webster visited the place, and young Garrison was one of three young men who presented the great "expounder of the Constitution" with an elegant card-table, as a testimonial of their indorsement of his tariff views. The table was a mosaic, composed of nearly every description of American wood, and was accepted by Mr. Webster with flattering acknowledgments. The admiration which Mr. Garriosn thus early formed for the great stateman has continued undiminished ever since.

Upon arriving in St. Louis, Mr. Garrson occured employment at the head of the drafting department in the foundry and engine-works of Kingsland, Lightner & Co., and although less than twenty-one years of age, was soon distinguished as one of the ablest and most trustworthy mechanics in the city. This engagement continued until 1840, when, in connection with his brother, Oliver Garrison, he started in business as manufacturer of steam-engines. Manufacturing establishments in the West were comparitively few at that time, and nearly all manufactured articles were brought from the East; but coal and iron existed in abundance in Missouri, and the Garrisons

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reasoned that St. Louis presented many unsurpassed advantages as a manufacturing point. Their start was moderate, but as business prospered the capacity of their works was increased until nearly every kind of steam machinery in use was made by them. Their success had a stimulating effect on other enterprises of the kind, and gave a great impetus generally to the manufacturing interests of the city. During these years Mr. Garrison worked incessantly; all the drafting of the establishment was done by him, and every piece of work turned out passed under his personal inspection at every stage of its manufacture.

In 1848 the discovery of gold in California agitated the whole country, and a tidal wave of immigration swept westward. Believing that as the Pacific slope was settled a large market would be created for steamboat and mill machinery, the Garrisons immediately began to manufacture for that region, and Daniel was sent to California early in 1849, to supervise the introduction of their products. He went via the Isthmus; and upon his arrival at Panama found the discoveries of gold fully confirmed, and wrote to his brother Oliver at St. Louis to send on three engines immediately. These reached him in California in the fall of the year (1849), were quickly sold at a handsome profit, and were the forerunners of other extensive and profitable shipments of the kind.

One of the engines were sold to the Hudson's Bay Company, and Mr. Garrison went to Oregon to deliver it. Here was displayed a signal illustration of his fertility of resource in unforeseen emergencies. On the voyage the main couplings of the engine had been lost overboard, and it was necessary that Garrison should supply them; but since to order them from St. Louis would, in those days of slow-going sail-vessels by way of Cape Horn, have involved a protracted delay in the ordinary course of affairs, Garrison undertook to make the couplings himself. The nearest known iron ore was on the upper Willamette, a hundred miles or so distant, and the only way to get it down to him was by means of Indians and mules. This was done, however, and when the ore arrived Garrison had a blast furnace ready and made his iron and poured his casting. This is believed to have been the first iron manufactured on the Pacific coast. He also built the boat for his engine, — one hundred and eighty feet keel, twenty feet beam, and six feet hold, — also no doubt the first steamboat ever constructed on the waters of the Pacific.

Mr. Garrison returned to St. Louis in 1850, and soon after the brothers retired from the foundry, each having made an ample fortune. Daniel R. Garrison then settled down upon his beautiful farm in West St. Louis, embracing a large tract in what is now the fashionable "Stoddard's Addition." This tract was covered with woods when Mr. Garrison established himself there, and through its shady recesses he and his neighbors had often hunted deer and other game. It is now traversed by handsome avenues, and is dotted with charming residences.

After a brief period spent in the enjoyments of country life, Mr. Garrison, at the earnest solicitation of his friends and many prominent citizens of St. Louis, undertook the task of completing the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad, — an enterprise partly finished, but just then in what seemed a most helpless and hopeless condition. The directory of the company embraced such strong men as George K. McGunnegle, Judge Breeze, of Illinois, Col. Christy, Col. John O'Fallon, W. H. Belcher, H. D. Bacon, and Mr. Garrison himself. The others all turned instinctively to Mr. Garrison as the one man to lift the project out of the "slough of despond." First stipulating that he should have absolute power in the premises, he accepted the trust, and ultimately succeeded in finishing the work, but not without almost herculean labors in the face of obstacles that only those intimately acquainted with the circumstances can have any idea of. To Daniel R. Garrison, therefore, unquestionably belongs the honor of having completed the first railroad that connected St. Louis with the East. The completion of the road was a marked event in the history of St. Louis, and the merchants of the city gave Mr. Garrison a magnificent service of solid silver, as a testimonial of their appreciation of his invaluable labors.

Mr. Garrison continued to manage the Ohio and Mississippi until 1858, and then left it in fine condition. Meanwhile he had become interested in the Missouri Pacific Railroad Company. When the war broke out this road was finished from St. Louis to Sedalia, where it stopped, owing to lack of money to carry it forward. The enterprise was involved in the greatest embarrassments, and Mr. Garrison was appealed to to extricate it. He refused the presidency of the road, but was made vice-president and general manager, and, armed with full powers, succeeded completing the road to Kansas City in the face of obstructions that seemed insurmountable. The war was in active progress at the time, and in Missouri hostile armies were continually fighting for the possession the splendid domain through which the Missouri Pacific was to run. While the road was being built, therefore, he was placed between two hostile armies, and more than once he periled his life to push forward his great undertaking. As he was an uncompromising

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Union man, he repeatedly received warnings that his life was in danger, but these threats did not affect his composure in the slightest degree; he kept on, and before the war was over cars were running into Kansas.

In 1869 it was desired to reduce the gauge of the road from five and a half feet to the standard gauge, and in July of that year Mr. Garrison superintended the execution of the work. So complete were his amusements that this great feat was accomplished in sixteen hours, without the slightest interruption to travel, over the whole distance from St. Louis to Kansas City.

Mr. Garrison remained as vice-president and general manager of the Missouri Pacific Railroad and its connections until 1870, when he retired. In 1874, however was elected vice-president and general manager of both the Missouri Pacific and the Atlantic and Pacific, and so remained until the sale of those great properties.

As a railroad man, Mr. Garrison had cultivated an enlarged view of the future of the Mississippi valley, and naturally regarding iron as the base of its prosperity, he interested himself upon his first retirement from the management of the Missouri Pacific in the organization of the Vulcan Iron-Works in South St. employing nearly one thousand men, and the first mill of the kind established west of the Mississippi. Very soon thereafter he and his friends built the Jupiter Iron-Works, one of the largest furnaces in the world, and still later he brought about a consolidation of the two interests under the title of the Vulcan Iron and Bessemer Steel-Works, which were owned principally by himself and his brother. For he was managing director of these giant establishments, and conducted them with signal success. When be finally retired from the position a few months ago is employés presented him with a finely-engrossed testimonial expressive of their appreciation of his kindness as a humane and thoughtful employer, and of regret that the relations between master and men, so signally pleasant in every particular, were about to be sundered.

It would be difficult to name one who has done so much for the real prosperity of St. Louis and the West as has Mr. Garrison, and there are not many who, having accomplished so much, would take so modest a view of their labors as he does of his; for he is one of the plainest and most unassuming gentlemen of which the city can boast, and yet one of the courteous and approachable. He is tall and of robust frame, is still capable of great physical and mental endurance, and possesses to a pre-eminent degree a "sound mind in a sound body." Upon scarcely any other man in St. Louis, and perhaps in the whole West, have rested such great responsibilities as frequently in his later career have devolved upon him. In every demand made upon him he has shown the finest executive ability. It has been justly remarked that Mr. Garrison "has compassed within his own experience an amount of beneficent enterprise and well-directed labor that, if parceled out among a score of common men, would make the life-work of each very large." All this Mr. Garrison has accomplished by sheer native energy and ability, for he is a self-made man in the most literal sense of the expression. He came to St. Louis a poor young man, and is now one of its wealthiest citizens; but his wealth is not merely in stocks and bonds; it consists also in the valued esteem of his fellow business men and the citizens of St. Louis, who gladly honor him for his unstinted labors in behalf of their city and State.

The biographical edition of Reavis' "St. Louis, the Future Great City," was dedicated to Mr. Garrison in these appropriate words:

"To Daniel Randall Garrison, a citizen great in the attributes of manhood, one who has woven out from his individuality, his superior brain and restless activity a large contribution to the city of my theme and to my country, one who in building up his own fortunes has impressed his character upon many material interests, and who gives promise of still greater usefulness in the future, this volume, which illustrates a fadeless hope and a profound conviction in the future of St. Louis, is respectfully inscribed by the author."

The Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad, one of the earliest railroad enterprises in Missouri, was chartered on the 16th of February, 1847, and ground was broken at Hannibal early in November, 1851. When the Pacific Railroad sought aid from the State the two enterprises worked together, each aiding the other, and the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad procured the State credit for $1,500,000. Again acting together before Congress, they both procured a grant of land. The Hannibal line was completed to St. Joseph in 1859. The Missouri Pacific Railway Company uses the road between St. Joseph and Atchison, together with the terminal facilities at both places. The total length of the line between Hannibal and St. Joseph is 206.41 miles, and the branches are:

Quincy. — Palmyra, Mo., to Quincy, Ill., 13.42 miles.

Kansas City. — Cameron to Kansas City, Mo., 53.05 miles.

Atchison. — St. Joseph to Atchison, Mo., 19.47 miles.

Making the total length of lines owned and operated 292.35 miles.

The Laclede and Crevecoeur Lake Railway Company was chartered Sept. 26, 1880, and opened July 1, 1881. The company owns no rolling stock,

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it being operated by the Missouri Pacific Railroad Company, whose road it joins at Laclede Junction, eight miles from St. Louis. Its line extends from Laclede Junction to Crevecoeur Lake, Mo., and is twelve miles in length.

The St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railway Company was formed May 6, 1874, by the consolidation of four other organizations, viz.: the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railway Company, the Arkansas Branch of the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railway Company, the Cairo, Arkansas and Texas Railroad Company, and the Cairo and Fulton Railroad Company. The through line was opened in 1874.

The valuable mineral deposits of the Iron Mountain and Pilot Knob early attracted the attention of the enterprising men of St. Louis, and in 1837 mention is made in the Republican of January 18th of a "railroad to the mineral region," and of the fact that "Mr. Stansbury has completed his reconnoissance of the country between St. Louis and the rich mineral region of Washington County, with a view to the location of a railroad in that direction."

The same paper, under date of Feb. 6, 1837, referred to

"an act to incorporate the St. Louis and Bellevue Mineral Railroad," with Robert Simpson, Samuel Merry, J. B. Brant, Thornton Grimsley, G. W. Call, Joseph C. Laveille, John F. Darby, James Robinson, William R. Ellett, John Perry, Jesse H. McIlvaine, James H. Relfe, Israel McGready, or a majority of them constituting the first board of directors.

The charter of the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad Company was granted by the State Legislature and approved March 3, 1851, reviving for the most part the charter of the "St. Louis and Bellevue Mineral Railroad Company," approved Jan. 25, 1837, and amended Feb. 17, 1853. The first survey for a railroad west of the Mississippi River was made for this road by W. H. Morrell, it having been ordered in 1839 by the State government on "the nearest and best route from St. Louis to the Iron Mountain." In 1849 a survey was made by order of the United States government from St. Louis to the southwest corner of Arkansas, and in 1852 one for a branch of the Pacific Railroad to the Iron Mountain was made by James H. Morley.

By the act of March 3, 1851, the capital stock of the Iron Mountain Company was fixed at six million dollars, divided into shares of one hundred dollars each, and the company was empowered to construct a road from the city of St. Louis, or from some point on the line of the Pacific Railroad, to or near the Iron Mountain, in St. François County, or the Pilot Knob, in Madison County, and at any time within ten years from the passage of the act to extend the road to Cape Girardeau, on the Mississippi River, or to any point south of Cape Girardeau within the limits of the State, or to the southwestern part of the State. At the second session of the Seventeenth General Assembly an act was passed entitled "An Act to expedite the construction of the Iron Mountain Branch of the Pacific Railroad, approved Dec. 25, 1852."

This act empowered the Pacific Railroad Company to construct a branch road to the Iron Mountain and Pilot Knob, with liberty to extend it to the Mississippi River and to the boundary line of the State of Arkansas, and granted a loan of the State credit, to be used solely in constructing the Iron Mountain Branch, to the extent of seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars. The act further provided for the transfer by the Pacific Railroad Company to the Iron Mountain Company of the bonds thus authorized to be issued on a failure by that company to commence the construction of the branch within twelve months from the passage of the act, on condition that five hundred thousand dollars should be subscribed to the capital stock of the company before any part of the bonds were issued, and that the road should be located through Washington County, and not more than five miles east of the county-seat thereof.

At the same session of the General Assembly an act was passed amendatory of the act last referred to, approved Feb. 23, 1853, providing that the adoption by the board of directors of the Pacific Railroad Company within the limit of twelve months from the 25th of December, 1852, of a resolution declining to construct the Iron Mountain Branch Road should operate as an immediate and full transfer of the loan of the State credit — granted for the construction of that branch — to the Iron Mountain Railroad Company.

At the same session an act was passed entitled "An Act to amend an act entitled ‘An Act to incorporate the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad Company, approved March 3, 1851,’" which was approved Feb. 17, 1853, granting general powers and supplying the deficiencies of the original charter.

The general provisions of an act passed at the same session, entitled "An Act to authorize the formation of railroad associations, and to regulate the same," approved Feb. 24, 1853, applied to the Iron Mountain Railroad Company, as well as the provisions of Sections 2 and 3 of an act passed at the first session of the Eighteenth General Assembly, entitled "An Act for the benefit of the Pacific and other railroad companies," authorizing the issue of bonds in installments of greater amount than fifty thousand dollars on certain conditions, and permitting

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the sale and hypothecation of bonds at their market value, though below par.

At the first session of the Eighteenth General Assembly an act was passed entitled "An Act to aid in the construction of the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad," approved March 3, 1855. This act provided for an additional loan of the State credit to the Iron Mountain Railroad Company to the amount of seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars, upon the same terms and with the same restrictions as prescribed by the several acts providing for and regulating the grant of State credit to the several railroad companies. The act provided also for the appointment of a Board of Public Works, charged with the supervision, and required to examine into the affairs of the company, the act to be operative only if accepted by the company within six months after its passage. This act was accepted as prescribed on the 11th of May, 1885. 138

The preliminary organization of the company was effected on the 4th of November, 1852, and on the 4th of January, 1853, the first board of directors was chosen as follows:

John O'Fallon, James Harrison, William M. McPherson, Jules Valle, Henry Kayser, Francis Kellerman, Jr., William H. Belcher, Andrew Christy, Solon Humphreys, Lewis V. Bogy, John Simonds, Frederick Schulenburg, and John Cavender. Surveys were ordered by the board and commenced during the same month (January, 1853), and were reported on the 29th of March, 1853. In all the preliminary movements the prominent object seems to have been to reach the mineral region and the Iron Mountain, without any definite idea of going beyond. The work on the line was advertised for contract on the 21st of July, 1853.

After some delay, caused, as appears from the journal of proceedings of the board, by conflicting opinions as to the proper route to be selected, the line was finally located for a portion of the distance to the Pilot Knob, in Madison County, on the 8th of September, 1853.

On the 7th of November, 1853, an election for directors of the company was held, at which the following were chosen: William H. Belcher, John Cavender, John How, Adolph Abeles, Lewis V. Bogy, L. M. Kennett, M. Brotherton, James Harrison, William M. McPherson, F. Schulenburg, E. Haren, M. Miller, and E. R. Mason. The board met on the following day (November 8th), and elected Luther M. Kennett president. Mr. Kennett was re-elected in 1854, and his successors in the presidency up to the sale of the road in 1866 were Madison Miller, 1855-58; Lewis V. Bogy, 1858-59; S. D. Barlow, 1859-66.

In the fall of 1853 the work of construction was commenced, under a partial letting to Messrs. Holmes & Co. on a small portion of the northern end of the line. On the 28th of February, 1854, a contract for the construction of the whole road to the Pilot Knob, except that portion already contracted for, was entered into with Messrs. Watts & Co. This contract did not include the furnishing of iron rails. Messrs. Watts & Co. subsequently bought out the other contracts, with the exception of that for work connected with the bridge over the Maramec, and that for the grading of a small portion of the line between St. Louis and Carondelet, which was contracted for by the board, in the spring and summer of 1854, with the owners of the land through which the line of the road passed.

On the 15th of June, 1855, a contract was entered into with a Pennsylvania firm for nine thousand tons of iron rails of their manufacture, the whole quantity needed for the completion of the road to the Pilot Knob.

The first locomotive (made in St. Louis by William Palm) was placed on the road in 1856, and the road was opened for business a distance of eighty-five miles, from St. Louis to Pilot Knob, in May, 1858. The entire cost of the road, including Potosi Branch, rolling stock, discounts and interest to Oct. 1, 1860, was $5,519,948.51. The means of construction were derived from the following sources:

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From stock subscribed and paid in $1,970,537.50
From St. Louis of Missouri bonds 3,501,000.00
From net earnings transportation to October, 1859 87,093,68
From floating debt 43,089.13

The company having received from the State of Missouri from time to time during the progress of construction loans of State bonds amounting in the aggregate to $3,501,000, for which the State took a statutory first mortgage, and having failed for several years, in common with some of the other railroads, to pay all the interest falling due upon those bonds, the Legislature on the 19th day of February, 1866, passed an act entitled "An Act to provide for the sale of certain railroads and property by the Governor, to foreclose the State's lien thereon, and to secure an early completion of the Southwest Branch Pacific, the Platte Country, the St. Louis and Iron Mountain, and the Cairo and Fulton Railroads of Missouri."

Under the provisions of this act the Governor advertised the road for sale, and on the 27th of September, 1866, sold it at public auction, and bid it in for the State for the amount of principal and interest due the State. Three commissioners, appointed under the act, took possession of the road and managed it for the State until Jan. 12, 1867. They were authorized by the law to receive proposals and sell the road "to the highest and best bidders," one fourth cash, and the balance in five equal annual installments, with six per cent. interest, payable annually, and the purchasers to enter into contract and give bond in the sum of $500,000 to complete the road to the Mississippi River, opposite to or below Columbus, Ky., in five years after the date of sale, and to expend $500,000 a year "in the work of graduation, masonry, and superstructure on said extension." The commissioners awarded the road to McKay, Simmons & Vogel, and the Governor approved the award, and completed the sale contract by a deed, and these parties, without taking any but momentary possession, sold and transferred the property to Thomas Allen, who entered into possession Jan. 12, 1867. He assumed the bond and the obligation to pay the purchase-money, and the contract to complete the road as required. He at once appointed James H. Morley chief engineer, and the surveys for the extension commenced in February, and owing to the rough character of the country were continued on many different lines, which were fully reported on until July, when the route from Bismarck to Belmont was selected, Finally located, and put under contract.

On the 20th of March, 1866, the Legislature passed an act to enable the purchasers of the railroad to incorporate themselves, directing how it might be done, and declaring that the corporation thus provided for should have the same rights as to property and franchises that the corporation to which they succeeded through the sale made by the State formerly had.

Accordingly Mr. Allen and his associates incorporated themselves on the 29th of July, 1867, in the manner directed by the law, into the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad Company, adopting the same name as the original corporation, and acquiring the same right of property and franchises as had belonged to that corporation.

On the 17th of March, 1868, the Legislature passed an act entitled "An Act to confirm the title of the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad to Thomas Allen, his heirs and assigns, and to deliver possession thereof to the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad Company, organized as a corporation on the 29th day of July, 1867."

In the month of April, 1867, a suit was commenced by the attorney-general of the State (Wingate) against the State commissioners and purchasers of the road, to set aside the sale, as made by the commissioners and Governor, seeking at the same time to enjoin the company from going on with the road. In this latter he was overruled by the court, but his suit, prosecuted in the form it was, proved a serious detriment, embarrassing all attempts to get the public interested, and causing heavy discounts on loans. This burden, in view of the short time remaining (six months) within the first year, for the proper expenditure of $500,000, as required by law, gave the company great anxiety. It succeeded, however, through strenuous efforts, with the aid of efficient contractors, in getting forty miles of the lower division graded, and by the time the first year had elapsed, viz., from Jan. 11, 1867, to Jan. 1, 1868, the expenditures had amounted to $583,611.73, in addition to the sum of $225,700 paid into the State treasury on the purchase. This was done, and the statement sworn to, certified by the Governor, and filed with the Secretary of State, in spite of the impediments put in the way by the attorney-general. The Legislature upon petition were about to pass a resolution ordering the suit dismissed as to the road, but to insist on its prosecution as to the Governor's commissioners and the original purchasers, when the Governor, on the night of the 15th of January, 1868, seized the road. His reason, as afterwards published, was that the company had not made the expenditure, nor the annual statement, as required by law. The Legislature, however, subsequently ordered him to restore the road and all its earnings and property forthwith,

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and at the same time confirmed the title forever by the act of March 17th, above mentioned, and in six days thereafter granted the balance due the State as a subsidy to aid the company in building the Arkansas Branch.

The Governor and his agents operated the road from Jan. 15 to March 18, 1868 (sixty days), when it was restored to its lawful owners. The suit of the attorney-general was dismissed, as to the road and the company, on the 16th of April ensuing, and the net proceeds of the Governor's two months' operations ($3806.80) were turned over to the company about the 1st of the ensuing May. A claim for damages done by these acts of State officers was laid before the Legislature January, 1869, amounting to $1,316,724. The road from St. Louis to Belmont (opposite to Columbus, Ky.) was completed in 1869.

On the 7th of April, 1870, the board of directors resolved "that the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad Company desire to avail themselves of the provisions of an act entitled ‘An Act to aid the building of branch railroads in the State of Missouri,’ approved March 21, 1868, for the purpose of building a branch of their road from Pilot Knob southerly to the State line of Arkansas, under the name of the ‘Arkansas Branch of the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad.’" The act authorized a separate corporation to be governed by the parent road, the accounts to be kept separate, the stockholders having the same right to vote for the directors as those of the original company. It was therefore agreed that the capital stock of this branch should be $2,500,000, and that bonds should be issued to the extent of $250,000, payable in twenty-five years, with interest at seven per cent., payable semi-annually in gold, and secured by a special mortgage of the Branch Railroad, its property and appurtenances. The State having by law appropriated the unpaid portion of the purchase-money and interest accruing after the date of the act for the Iron Mountain and Cairo and Fulton Railroads ($674,300), at the rate of $15,000 per mile for every mile completed within a certain time, it became necessary to complete the first twenty miles on or before the 23d of March, 1871, and work was sliced in the fall of 1870, and the first thirty miles completed Feb. 23, 1871. The work was prosecuted during the remainder of that year, and Nov. 4, 1872, the whole line (ninety-nine miles in length) was completed to the boundary of Arkansas. It was duly accepted by the State, and the debt canceled. Trains commenced running regularly over the line April 2, 1873.

As previously stated, the road was consolidated with other roads in May, 1874, and a through line secured to Texarkana, Texas.

The gauge of the road was changed in June, 1879, from five feet to four feet eight and one-half inches, to accommodate its running machinery to the roads east of the Mississippi, with which it connects at St. Louis by means of the great bridge.

The connections of this great railroad are, — At Carondelet, five miles south of St. Louis, with the Missouri Pacific and with the East St. Louis and Carondelet Railways, by which it is enabled to handle with great economy the provision and produce business from Kansas City for Southern markets.

At Mineral Point, six miles from St. Louis, with a branch to Potosi.

At Bismarck, seventy-six miles from St. Louis, the line divides; the one to Belmont intersects at Charleston, one hundred and seventy-eight miles from St. Louis, the Cairo, Arkansas and Texas Railroad; here a ferry connects with the Mobile and Ohio Railroad for Mobile and intermediate points in Mississippi and Alabama, also with New Orleans. The St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern system connects at Union City with the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway for Memphis, Nashville, Chattanooga, Atlanta, Augusta, Charleston, Columbia, Port Royal, Savannah, Macon, Selma, Montgomery, Decatur, Jacksonville, and points in Florida. The other line of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railroad from Bismarck continues in the direction of Arkansas and Texas, passing the great iron deposits at Iron Mountain and Pilot Knob, the valley of Arcadia, the grades of the Ozark Mountains, and the Black River to Poplar Bluff, one hundred and sixty-six miles from St. Louis. At that point the branch from Cairo connects with the Arkansas division, crossing the Missouri boundary at Moark, so called from MO. and ARK.

At Little Rock, three hundred and forty-five miles from St. Louis, connection is made with the Memphis and Little Rock and Fort Smith Railroads.

At Malvern, three hundred and eighty-eight miles from St. Louis, connection is made for the Hot Springs by the Hot Springs Narrow-Gauge Railroad.

At Texarkana, four hundred and ninety miles from St. Louis, the southern terminus of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railroad, connection is made with the Texas and Pacific Railway, and by it with New Mexico and California, and with the International and Great Northern Railroad, by which Hearne, Houston, Galveston, San Antonio, Columbia, and Palestine trade with St. Louis. When Mexico is opened to American enterprise, the St. Louis, Iron

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Mountain and Southern Railway will, as heretofore indicated, be one of the chief lines of intercommunication with that great and undeveloped country, and St. Louis the entrepôot for its trade with the United States.

The Cairo, Arkansas and Texas Railroad Company was an independent organization, which derived its powers from a special act of the Missouri Legislature, approved May 16, 1872, authorizing the construction of a road from Greenfield, opposite Cairo, to Poplar Bluff. This road, seventy-one miles in length, was completed in September, 1873, intersecting the Belmont line of the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Road at Charleston, in Missouri County, and the Arkansas Branch at Poplar Bluff. Having a grant of government lands amounting to sixty-five thousand acres, it became a desirable adjunct of and is now controlled by the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railroad Company.

The Cairo and Fulton Railroad was incorporated in 1853, and received a grant of land from Congress of 3840 acres per mile. In 1866 its privileges were extended for ten years and its grant enlarged to 6400 acres per mile. At that time the charter was controlled by Eastern capitalists, but being a direct link in the line from St. Louis to Texas, the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad and its Arkansas Branch, the Cairo, Arkansas and Texas Railroad, entered into arrangements by which the Cairo and Fulton Railroad was consolidated with the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad.

The total mileage of the Iron Mountain road is as follows:

St. Louis to Texarkana 490
Bismarck to Columbus 121
Iron Mountain and Helena 43
Potosi Branch 4
Cairo to Poplar Bluff 74
Doniphan Branch (as far as completed) 7
Cowley Ridge Branch 140
Camden Branch 34
Total 913

The earnings of the road for the year ending Dec. 31, 1881, amounted ($10,691.20 per mile) to $7,686,973.38; expenditures ($6859.34 per mile) to $4,931,863.70. The total assets were set down at $56,334,799.54; capital stock, $22,084,115; funded debt, $31,792,929.71.

During the year 1881 the greater part of the stock of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railroad Company was purchased by the Missouri Pacific Railroad Company, the object of the purchase being the consolidation of the two corporations, and on the 14th of March, 1882, the following directors were elected: Henry G. Marquard, Jay Gould, Russell Sage, Thomas T. Eckert, Sidney Dillon, Joseph S. Lowery, Samuel Shethar, John T. Terry, and George B. McClellan, of New York; Henry Whelan, of Philadelphia; Frederick L. Ames, of Boston; Rufus J. Lackland and R. C. Kerens, of St. Louis. The executive officers of the company are Jay Gould president, New York; R. S. Hayes, first vice-president, St. Louis; Thomas T. Eckert, second vice-president, New York; S. D. Barlow, secretary, St. Louis; A. H. Calef, treasurer, New York; C. G. Warner, general auditor, St. Louis; H. M. Hoxie, general manager. St. Louis; E. L. Dudley, superintendent, St. Louis; O. A. Haynes, master-mechanic, Carondelet, Mo.; Seth Frink, general freight agent, St. Louis; F. Chandler, general passenger agent, St. Louis; Thomas Essex, land commissioner, St. Louis; J. H. Morley, chief engineer, St. Louis; R. B. Lyle, purchasing agent, St. Louis; A. E. Buchanan, superintendent of bridges, Little Rock, Ark. The principal office of the company is located at St. Louis.

The Texas and Pacific Railway Company was organized under an act of Congress, March 3, 1871, and the general railroad laws of Texas. It acquired the properties of the Southern Pacific, the Southern Transcontinental, and the Memphis, El Paso and Pacific Railroad Companies. The Southern Pacific was a consolidation of the Vicksburg, Shreveport and Texas and the Southern Pacific. The portion of the line in Louisiana, about twenty miles, was built by the Vicksburg, Shreveport and Texas, and the section from the east line of Texas to Longview, Texas, about forty miles, by the Southern Pacific Company. The rest of the line in Texas was built by the Texas and Pacific Company. The road extends from New Orleans, La., westward through Louisiana and Texas, and by junction with the Southern Pacific Railroad of California to the Pacific coast. Its length June 1, 1882, was:

From New Orleans to Sierra Blanca, Texas 1080
Other Divisions 312
Statement of mileage as operated by divisions. June 1, 1882:
New Orleans Division, New Orleans to Shreveport. La. 335
Southern Division, Shreveport, La., to Sierra Blanca Texas 745
Jefferson Division, Marshall to Texarkana Junction 69
Transcontinental Division, Texarkana via Sherman to Fort Worth 243
Total length of road 1392

During 1881 seven hundred miles of road were completed and equipped, and on the 1st of January, 1882, a junction was formed with the Southern Pacific Railroad of California, at a point five hundred and

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twenty-three miles west of Fort Worth, and on the l5th of the same month the road was opened for traffic to El Paso, and a through line established from St. Louis to San Francisco via the Iron Mountain Road. On the 21st of June, 1881, the Texas and Pacific was consolidated with the New Orleans Pacific Railway, extending from Shreveport to New Orleans, a distance of about three hundred and thirty-five miles.

The total earnings of the Texas and Pacific Railway for the year ending May 31, 1881, amounted to ($6208.62 per mile) $3,201,777.08; expenditures ($4929.78 per mile), $2,608,021.32; total assets, $44,609,589.03; capital stock, $14,814,700; bonded debt, $27,460,000.

By a general law of Texas the road, in common with others in the State, is entitled to a land grant of sixteen sections (10,240 acres) to the mile. The land earned upon the mileage constructed up to May 31, 188l, was 10,225,462 acres.

The officers of the company are: Directors, Frank S. Bond, Philadelphia, Pa.; John C. Brown, Pulaski, Tenn.; Jay Gould, Russell Sage, E. H. Perkins, Jr., T. T. Eckert, A. L. Hopkins, New York; James P. Charles O. Baird, Philadelphia, Pa.; E. B. Wheelock, New Orleans, La.; B. K. Jamison, Philadelphia, Pa.; W. T. Walters, Baltimore, Md.; W. C. Hall, Louisville, Ky.; William M. Harrison, Jefferson, Texas; R. S. Hayes, St. Louis, Mo. President, Jay Gould, New York; Vice-Presidents, R. S. Hayes and John C. Brown, St. Louis; General Manager, H. M. Hoxie, St. Louis.

The active and directing mind of the Texas and Pacific Railway since its inception has been Hon. John C. Brown. Governor Brown was born Jan. 6, 1827, in Giles County, Tenn., and was the son of a farmer in moderate circumstances. His parents were of Scotch blood, and he was the youngest of nine children. He received his earliest training in the old field school-house of that day, and then received the best education which the times afforded at Jackson College, at Columbia, Tenn. He finished his course in 1846, and then engaged in teaching while preparing for the bar, to which he was admitted in October, 1848. He opened an office in Pulaski, where his diligence, integrity, and ability secured him a large and lucrative practice, to which he mainly devoted himself until the civil war. His devotion to his profession did not interrupt his private studies of general literature; and having the means and the leisure, he supplemented his studies with a journey abroad in 1858-59, visiting the country of his forefathers and then making the tour of the Continent, Egypt, and the Holy Land.

Up to 1860 Mr. Brown had strictly devoted himself to his profession. He never sought office, and although a zealous and pronounced Whig avoided politics as a pursuit. In 1860, however, he was chosen an elector on the Bell and Everett or Constitutional Union ticket. As a consequence of Mr. Lincoln's election the Southern States determined to secede from the Union. The State of Tennessee was in a condition of intense political excitement, during which Mr. Brown took the stump and made a vigorous and fearless canvass in favor of the Union and in opposition to secession. But when Tennessee separated herself from the Union and began organizing her troops for the Confederacy, as a "son of the South" John C. Brown did not hesitate, but joined the Confederate army as a private, was elected captain of his company, became colonel of the Third Tennessee Volunteers, and as senior colonel commanded a brigade and participated in the defense of Fort Donelson. When the fort surrendered he became a prisoner of war. After his exchange in August, 1862, he was promoted to be brigadier-general, and was assigned to duty with Gen. Braxton Bragg. In the campaign in Kentucky he participated in the battle of Perryville and other actions. After the battles of Chickamauga and Missionary Ridge, and the actions incident to Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's retreat (in all of which he participated), he was promoted to be major-general. He finished his active military career at Franklin, Tenn., where he was so severely wounded as to be unable to rejoin his command until a short time before the surrender of Johnston's army at Greensboro', N. C., where he was assigned to the command of one of Johnston's best divisions. In his relations with the army he was a strict disciplinarian, and always at the post of duty. No trespassing on private property was tolerated, and marauding was severely and promptly punished. He was several times severely wounded.

In 1864 he was married to Miss Childers, an accomplished lady of Murfreesboro', Tenn., and a niece of Mrs. James K. Polk, widow of the ex-President. Mrs. Brown has contributed a woman's share in promoting her husband's fortunes, and has borne him an interesting family of four children.

At the close of the war Governor Brown returned to the practice of his profession at Pulaski, and continued in full practice till 1869, when he was elected delegate to the convention which, in January, 1870, met and framed the present Constitution of Tennessee, and was chosen, without solicitation, president of that body. In 1870 he was unanimously nominated by the Democrats of Tennessee for Governor. The issues in this canvass were of a character that seriously affected

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the honor and prosperity of Tennessee. The war had greatly wasted the resources of the State. An enormous public debt had accumulated, and default had been made in payment of interest. The public credit was low and the resources for current expenses almost exhausted. Governor Brown took the statesmanlike ground that the public debt could be and must be paid. He was elected by forty thousand majority to the office of Governor, an office to which his eldest brother, Neill S. Brown (now living in Nashville), had been chosen in 1847 over Aaron V. Brown, one of the most popular Democrats of his day. The influence of Neill S. Brown, who was a central figure in State and national politics, was sensibly felt in the Presidential campaign which resulted in the election of Gen. Taylor, and Mr. Brown was subsequently tendered the post of minister to Russia, which he accepted.

In 1872, Governor John C. Brown was unanimously renominated, and re-elected, and during his administration (1871-75) the bonded debt of the State was reduced from about forty-three million dollars to a little more than twenty million dollars, a large floating debt was paid, and the State re-established its credit by resuming the payment of its current interest after funding its past-due obligations at par. He retired from office after having won the general approval of the people of the State.

In November, 1876, a new career opened to him with the offer of the vice-presidency of the Texas and Pacific Railway. This great highway from the Atlantic seaboard, through Texas and Mexico, to California, a route unexposed to snows and frosts, had been projected before the war. Such a system of railways, connecting the Mississippi River with the Pacific slope, was intended to attract the trade of California and the trans-Cordilleras to the great waterways of the United States, and at the same time open the too-long neglected commerce of the republic of Mexico to our enterprising merchants. This Texas route, south of the isothermal line of snow blockades, had been projected, a small portion of it built, and valuable franchises secured before the war. An immense grant of land from the State of Texas, which owned her own public domain, had been secured, and favorable treaties with Mexico for the right of way were in progress of negotiation, when the secession of the Southern States stopped the work. When the war had ended the Southern States found their Mississippi River commerce destroyed and their great transcontinental railway still a paper scheme, while the North and West had made rapid progress in the building of the Northern and Central Pacific Railroads towards the Pacific slope. Governor Brown accepted the office of vice-president of the Texas Pacific, with the enlightened views of the statesman and publicist. He saw clearly if the South was not to have her ante-bellum river traffic there was in the projected railway through Texas and Mexico, with its liberal franchises yet preserved and its land subsidies, a ready means of reaching the trade of California and the sister republic, and he entered heartily into the project. As vice-president of the company, he issued an appeal to the people of the South, elaborating his views in relation to the enterprise in a statesmanlike, sagacious, and practical pamphlet which deserves a leading place in the railway literature of a period that was prolific of great enterprises. He also delivered numerous addresses, in which he appealed to the Southern States to lay aside all questions of sectional political strife, and urged them to address all their efforts to the improvement of their country, the fostering of education, and the creation of wealth-producing facilities. For three consecutive years he remained at Washington, appearing before congressional committees and pressing upon them the claims of his great work. His labors were onerous and difficult, but owing to the opposition of rival interests they were not fully successful. Nevertheless, he performed them to the eminent satisfaction of Col. Thomas A. Scott and the capitalists who were interested in the enterprise, and who, pending the appeal to Congress, had gone on with the work. Ultimately Governor Brown was authorized by Col. Scott to proceed to New York and effect negotiations which had been invited by Jay Gould and other capitalists. These negotiations were satisfactorily accomplished in January, 1880. Governor Brown was then continued in his confidential position, and in September, 1881, he accepted the position of general solicitor for the consolidated system, which includes the Missouri Pacific system, with the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway connections, the Iron Mountain, Texas and Pacific, New Orleans and Pacific, and International and Great Northern, and continued in charge and superintendence the construction of the Texas Pacific from Worth to El Paso, with headquarters in St. Louis, until the line was completed in the winter of 1881-82.

Governor Brown's identification with the interests of St. Louis was heartily welcomed, for his knowledge of the law, and his abilities as a speaker, trained in the sharp school of exciting debate and in the calmer methods of inquiry, his experience in the command of men and in the management of the most important

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affairs, his careful examination and knowledge of the carrying trade and its auxiliary interests, had eminently combined to fit him for leadership in the gigantic schemes that are radiating from this centre to the undeveloped regions of the great Southwest. Each year of his present high responsibilities but adds to the reputation for talent and usefulness which he incontestably enjoys in the judgment of those best qualified to determine.

The Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad. — On the 20th of September, 1865, the "Union Pacific Railway Company" (Southern Branch) was incorporated for the construction of a railroad, to be one hundred and eighty miles in length, from Junction City to Chetopa. When the road was completed to Emporia, it passed into the hands of the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway Company, which was organized April 7, 1870, and which at the same time absorbed the Neosho Valley and Holden, the Labette and Sedalia, and the Tebo and Neosho Railroad Companies. The lines from Sedalia to Parsons and from Holden to Paola were then constructed, and being the first to reach the Indian Territory, the company became entitled to construct its road through the Territory. The progress made was so rapid that in January, 1873, the Red River eastern terminus, the managers effected (April 29, 1872) the purchase of the St. Louis and Santa Fé Railroad, extending from Holden, Mo., to Paola, Kan., and (in 1874) the Hannibal and Central Missouri Railroad, by which connection between Hannibal and Moberly was obtained. In 1873 trains were running from Hannibal to Denison. The road was leased to the Missouri Pacific Railway Company, Dec. 1, 1880, the paid being the net earnings of the road.

The International and Great Northern Railroad was organized Sept. 22, 1873, by the consolidation of the International Railroad Company, chartered Aug. 17, 1870, and the Houston and Great Northern Railroad Company, chartered Oct. 22, 1870. In 1881 the company's road and property were purchased by the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway Company.

Ohio and Mississippi Railroad. — The Ohio and Marietta and Cincinnati, and Baltimore Railroads form a great highway of commerce and travel between the Mississippi River and the Atlantic seaboard, and between St. Louis and Baltimore. Practically under one management, they illustrate the genius and ability of one man and the enterprise of two great cities. To John W. Garrett, of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, is due the honor of having linked St. Louis and Baltimore together by this great railroad line, thus making each city the complement of the other in all that relates to trade and commerce.

The Ohio and Mississippi Railroad was incorporated by the State of Indiana, Feb. 14, 1848, its charter authorizing the construction of a railroad from Cincinnati via Vincennes to St. Louis, and providing that the directors be taken from the citizens of Cincinnati, Vincennes, and St. Louis, and one or more from each county along the line of the proposed work. The directors named in the charter from St. Louis were Bryan Mullanphy, Ferdinand Kennett, Robert Campbell, George K. McGunnegle, and William Carr Lane. The St. Louis directors met at the Planters' House, St. Louis, on the 24th of March, 1848, Mr. Campbell in the chair, and Mr. Mullanphy acting as secretary.

On motion of Col. Ferdinand Kennett, it was

"Resolved, That the citizens of St. Louis have heard with pleasure of the public-spirited efforts in the State of Indiana preparatory to the construction of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad, in which they most heartily concur, and trust that at an early day a charter from the State of Illinois will enable St. Louis to connect itself with that great contemplated undertaking; that in the mean time they feel assured that the citizens of St. Louis will cheerfully aid in all preliminary steps, and subscribe liberally for the establishment of a communication so important to the whole West.

"Resolved, That we will respond to any allotment of labor that may be imposed upon us towards promptly effecting the foregoing objects."

On motion of George K. McGunnegle, it was

"Resolved, That we will, if it shall be judged proper by the directory, attend to the opening of subscription books in St. Louis, and to the obtaining subscriptions to stock in said railroad, and in conjunction with the public-spirited citizens of our sister State of Illinois, attend to all details necessary or proper to the procuring such charter, privileges, and powers as may be necessary to the extension of said railroad to the State of Missouri."

On motion of Dr. William Carr Lane, it was

"Resolved, That the period of construction of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad has now arrived, in the opinion of the most cautious and practical business men in the community, and that it cannot fail, so soon as completed, to realize and exceed the most sanguine anticipations of its enterprising projectors."

On the 29th of March, 1848, a meeting of the directors of the company was held at Vincennes, at which Abner T. Ellis was elected president, John Ross treasurer, and Benjamin M. Monroe secretary. At the same meeting it was resolved that a thorough survey of the route from Cincinnati to St. Louis, to be made by a competent engineer, was necessary, and that a sufficient sum should be collected for this purpose.

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The directors in St. Louis, Vincennes, and Cincinnati were appointed a committee for their several towns and counties to receive subscriptions for this purpose.

On the 15th of March, 1849, the road was chartered by the Legislature of Ohio, and on the 28th of the same month an "Ohio and Mississippi Railroad mass-meeting" assembled in the rotunda of the courthouse in St. Louis to consider a proposition to loan the city's credit for five hundred thousand dollars to the proposed road. The mayor, Hon. J. M. Krum, was called to the chair, and J. M. Field appointed secretary. James J. Purdy, William M. McPherson, Archibald Gamble, D. D. Page, and William M. Campbell were appointed vice-presidents. The chairman explained the objects of the meeting, and announced his intention to sustain the proposition and to vote for the loan. After an address by Professor O. M. Mitchell the following gentlemen were appointed a committee to prepare an address to the people of St. Louis in favor of the railroad loan: Thomas Allen, Frederick Kretchmar, John McNeil, Willis L. Williams, Samuel M. Bay, Isaac N. Sturgeon, Samuel Hawken, Trusten Polk, Daniel D. Page. L. V. Bogy, A. L. Mills.

The committee reported an address, after the reading of which Judge Mullanphy addressed the meeting. The question was then put upon the adoption of the address, and it was carried unanimously.

L. V. Bogy offered the following resolution, which was unanimously adopted: "That the chairman appoint ten delegates to represent the city of St. Louis in the proposed convention to be held in the town of Salem, in the State of Illinois, on the second Monday in May next, the appointments to be made hereafter, and the names of the delegates to be published in the city papers." On his further motion, it was

"Resolved, That the chairman appoint a committee of vigilance, to consist of ten in each ward friendly to the proposition, to attend the polls on Monday next and secure the favorable consideration of the subject."

The election referred to in the last resolution was for the purpose of deciding whether the city should lend its credit to the extent of five hundred thousand dollars for the construction of the road. A large majority was returned in favor of the proposition. The vigilance committee appointed in accordance with Mr. Bogy's resolution was composed of:

"First Ward, Thomas Allen, R. J. Collins, S. Pilkington, Sol Smith, — Renick, C. Campbell, Edward Haren, J. McHose, H. D. Bacon, D. B. Hill.

"Second Ward, Isaac A. Hedges, Charles Kribben, Ellis Wainright, Fred Kretschmar, Thornton Grimsley, Patrick Walsh, Hiram Shaw, Edward Tracy, J. C. Barlow, J. C. Maigne.

"Third Ward, C. G. Henry, John Largee, Charles Keemle, L. V. Bogy, A. L. Mills, T. B. Targee, J. H. Lucas, H. E. Bridges, J. F. Darby, Joseph H. Conn.

"Fourth Ward, Austin Piggott, L. M. Kennett, William Robb, J. L. Finney, Charles M. Valle, T. Barnum, Amadee Vallé, T. W. Hoyt, J. A. Eddy, J. H. Lightner.

"Fifth Ward, Samuel Hawken, Charles Dean, William Blackmore, Conrad Doll, John Sigerson, Trusten Polk, Saint Gaty, T. F. Risk, Dennis Marks, Conrad Fox.

"Sixth Ward, W. H. Belcher, Thomas Gray, W. G. Clark, R. Dobbins, J. L. Garrison, J. R. Hammond, R. B. Austin, Charles M. Pond, J. M. Wimer, L. Perkins.

"The heavy majority," said a St. Louis paper in announcing the result, "cast in favor of the subscription by the city to stock in this road must be gratifying to every friend of the measure. It is now manifest that the citizens of St. Louis are in earnest in their desire to see this work commenced speedily completed. They have manifested their appreciations of the object and their confidence in its success by the unanimity with which they have agreed to invest their money in the enterprise.

"This vote may be hailed as a new era in the history of St. Louis. It is the first instance in which she has put forth efforts to the accomplishment of a great enterprise, and she has come up to the full amount desired with a promptness and a heartiness which evince that she understands her interest in the proposed work. It is due to the success of this enterprise to state that the vote on this question was not controlled, to any considerable extent, by party feeling. A few men may have been actuated to oppose it by the belief that opposition would be popular, but the great body of the voters were governed purely by their own sense of the expediency or inexpediency of the measure, and the probable effect of the construction of the road on business and the prosperity of the city. A few of the more wealthy citizens and large property-holders opposed it, but they were limited in number compared with those of the same class who advocated the proposition. Efforts were made to rally the holders of leased ground and the owners of small estates into opposition to it, on the ground that it would bring about an increase of taxes, but this failed to be successful except with a few persons. The only ward which gave a majority against it was the First. The Third Ward gave an overwhelming vote in favor of it.

"Now that a million and a half of dollars have been secured by the two cities of Cincinnati and St. Louis, and about eight hundred thousand dollars by the counties of Indiana, the work will doubtless be taken hold of promptly and pushed forward with proper energy. There is no longer a doubt that the road will be built. The only question is, how soon? This will, to a certain extent, depend on the early action of the Legislature of Illinois."

On the 12th of February, 1851, the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad Company of Illinois was incorporated by the Illinois Legislature to build a railroad from Illinoistown (now East St. Louis) connect with the Ohio and Mississippi of Indiana. The incorporators named in the Illinois charter were Jos. G. Bowman, Sidney Breese, James Hall, Alfred Kitchell, Arthur McCauley, George W. Page, Benjamin Bond, J. L. D. Morrison, A. T. Ellis, John Ross, Luther M. Kennett, John O'Fallon, James H. Lucas, Andrew Christy, Daniel D. Page, John Law, Peter Chouteau, Jr., Benjamin F. Rittenhouse, Samuel B. Chandler,

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John A. McClernand, John S. Martin, Aaron Shaw, William W. Roman, and Green C. Crawford.

In the latter part of March, 1851, the directors of the St. Louis and Vincennes Railroad (the Western Division of the Ohio and Mississippi) met at St. Louis for the purpose of organization. The following gentlemen were present: John A. McClernand, Shawneetown; James L. D. Morrison, Samuel B. Chandler, Belleville; Alfred Kitchell, Richland County, Ill.; Aaron Shar, Lawrence County, Ill.; Abner T. Ellis, Vincennes, Indiana; John O'Fallon, Daniel D. Page, Luther M. Kennett, and Andrew Christy, St. Louis.

The meeting was organized by calling Mr. Christy to the chair and the appointment of Mr. Morrison as secretary. An adjournment then took place until March 24th, when the board again assembled at the Merchants' Exchange, the same members being present. Col. John O'Fallon, of St. Louis, was then elected president of the company, and "it being deemed important for the dispatch of business to have in additional director in St. Louis, Mr. Bowman, of Lawrence County, one of the earliest and most prominent friends of the enterprise, tendered his resignation. It was accepted, and Charles P. Chouteau appointed to fill the place. Col. Robert Campbell was also elected to fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of Mr. Page."

On the 26th of March the directors requested the directors of the Eastern Division to instruct their chief engineer, E. Gest, to prosecute his surveys from Vincennes to Illinoistown, and report to them his estimate of the probable cost of the road. Mr. Gest reported to the board on the 1st of September following. In the latter part of September the board was advised that the directors of the Eastern Division had adopted the plan of constructing that division by letting it to an association of individuals to construct whole line. The directors of the Western Division concurring in the views of the board of the Eastern Division as to the advantages to be gained by letting the whole line to one set of contractors, adopted the same plan, and a committee was appointed with full powers and authority to negotiate, which concluded a contract in conjunction with a similar committee appointed by the directors of the Eastern Division.

Under this authority a contract was negotiated, and concluded on the 22d of November, 1851, with Messrs. H. C. Seymour & Co., of New York, by which they agreed to construct and equip the road from Cincinnati to St. Louis for nine million dollars, the relative proportions of the cost to be paid by each company, to be determined by the amount of work done and equipment furnished on each division.

At a meeting of the directors of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad Company held on the 7th of September, 1851, Col. John O'Fallon was unanimously re-elected president; George K. McGunnegle, secretary; and Sidney Breese, of Illinois, counselor of the company.

At a meeting of the directors held Feb. 2, 1852, it was

"Resolved, That a public demonstration of the commencement of the work on the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad be had at Illinoistown on Saturday, the 7th instant, at eleven o'clock A. M., that the secretary request the insertion of a proper notice thereof in all the daily journals in this city, and that in the same an invitation be extended to the Governors of the States of Illinois and Missouri, to the people of these States generally, and to the citizens of St. Louis and Belleville and their public functionaries, and that the president appoint a committee of five to make arrangements for said celebration, and that at the same hour the work be commenced on said road at its intersection with the Central Railroad in Marion County, Ill.

"Resolved, That the secretary of this board communicate with the City Council of the city of St. Louis and request them to take action in aid of said celebration, in such manner as to the Council may seem most proper, in co-operation with the committee appointed by the board."

The resolutions were submitted to the City Council by the secretary of the company, and the invitation accepted by both boards.

The following committees were appointed by the Council to confer with the committee of the railroad company: from the Board of Aldermen, Messrs. Anderson, Sturgeon, Degenhart, and Lynch; from the Board of Delegates, Messrs. Farrar, Pilkington, Trask, and McKee. 139

On Feb. 7, 1852, the ceremony of breaking ground took place according to the announcement.

"About ten or eleven o'clock," says a contemporary account, "a large number of the citizens congregated

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on the ferry-boat, and proceeded across the river to take part in and witness the interesting spectacle. The spot selected for the purpose was within a few rods of the Mississippi, and there, with a plank or two for the wheelbarrows, and an old cart for a rostrum, the immense work of connecting Cincinnati and St. Louis by railroad was commenced.

"Charles D. Drake announced in a short but witty and pithy speech the programme of the ceremonies. By the arrangement Col. O'Fallon, as president of the road, opened the business of the day. Having addressed the citizens present on the magnitude of the "undertaking and the great results which must follow from its completion, he proceeded to the working part of his duties, and in a few moments had quite a load of sand and gravel for the mayor of the city to wheel off Col. O'Fallon is one of the oldest inhabitants. He has almost grown up with the city, and the past and present in his memory represent two views of the metropolis, one a French village on the borders of civilization, the other a magnificent emporium, the centre of commercial attraction, the nursery of refinement and science for an immense area of country, extending north to the Lake of the Woods and west to the Pacific slope. His words on the occasion were few but terse. Like the old Roman general, who was ‘no orator,’ he seemed to say, ‘What others promise I will do.’ Although silvered with the frost of many years, he looks forward to the completion of the work within ‘his day.’

"Judge Ellis next took the stand. He briefly reviewed the difficulties encountered thus far in the work, spoke confidently of its completion, and dwelt for a time on the great importance of the road. He assisted Col. O'Fallon in ‘breaking ground,’ as an earnest that on his section of the line the great undertaking was commenced, to be prosecuted with unabated energy to a full and triumphant completion.

"Mayor Kennett then addressed the assembly, and in some happy remarks, in which he alluded to the progressive links of connection with Illinois, from sand to stone dikes, and now by iron bands, he hoped the tie would ultimately become strong and indissoluble, wedded by reciprocal interests which nothing should be able to dissever.

"The officers of the Pacific Railroad Company were invited to take part in the ceremonies of the day, and they were accordingly present. The president, Mr. Allen, expressed his warmest wishes for the success of the enterprise, as one intimately connected with the prosperity of the work over which he presided." Addresses were also delivered by Professor Mitchell and Mr. Seymour, the contractor.

At an election for directors of the company, held Sept. 7, 1852, the following were chosen:

John O'Fallon, Henry D. Bacon, William H. Belcher, Joshua H. Alexander, Joshua B. Brant, Samuel Gaty, Isaac H. Sturgeon, Abner T. Ellis, Sidney Breese, J. L. D. Morrison, Charles P. Chouteau, Samuel H. Clubb, Alfred Kitchell.

The first section of the road was opened with appropriate ceremonies on April 8, 1854.

"At the hour appointed," says a writer in a St. Louis newspaper of April 9th, "we, in company with nine hundred and ninety-nine others, presented ourselves at the office of the company on Fourth Street, and there found some twenty or more omnibuses drawn up in array to receive their freight; from thence a few minutes' ride brought us to the Mill Creek station, where the invited disembarked from the horse conveyances and jumped into the railway cars. Precisely at noon the first train started, and in fifteen minutes was followed by the second.

"The line is of the six-foot, or broad gauge, and is built between the banks of the Ohio and the Whitewater Canal, the scenery on both sides being most variedly picturesque. On the train moving the band struck up a lively air, the people thronged the windows, road, and bridges, and amid the vivas of the multitude, the cheers of the passengers, and the firing of cannon the iron horse commenced its trip. All along the line the same gay scene was presented until the ears reached Sedamsville, where the train paused in its progress a few minutes. The band again played, and Mr. Sedam, from the bridge, fired several feu de joies from a small piece of artillery, making the welkin ring again. A short ride from Sedamsville brought us to Industry, a flourishing little town of some fifteen hundred inhabitants. Once again the iron horse moves on through the valley, between the hills of Indiana and Kentucky, till it reaches the bank of the Great Miami, at the junction of the Lawrenceburg and Indianapolis Railroad.

"Here we were met and welcomed by a train from Aurora (our destination), filled with the gallant sons of Indiana. With this accession of numbers the cars crossed the Miami bridge, plain but substantial and ingeniously built structure of wood. A few hundred yards over this a, halt was made at Lawrenceburg. Leaving Lawrenceburg and its inhabitants behind, Farmer's and Miller's Creeks are passed (both spanned by wooden trestle bridges), and the train approached Aurora, which lies at the foot of surrounding hills, with the Ohio on one side and Hogan's Creek on the other. Here some time was passed in examining the machine- and locomotive-shops, which are built of stone, and in size commensurate with the prospective business of the road. The train started homeward at 4:30 P. M., stopped on the road at Lawrenceburg, at Gen. Harrison's seat, where the band played ‘Auld Lang Syne,’ at Sedamsville, where the cannon was again fired, and finally arrived at the Mill Creek station at six P. M., the passengers having had a most pleasant trip, attended with unmixed pleasure."

The "last spike" on the road was driven Aug. 15, 1857. 140

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Two years after the "last spike" was driven, Aug. 2, 1859, the following notice appeared in the Republican of that date:

"To St. Louis Merchants. — The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company is receipting for goods through from all Eastern cities from St. Louis, all rail via the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad, without the necessity of insurance against the perils of river navigation, and in as short time as by any other route."

The well-laid plans and bright anticipations with which the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad began its career did not avail to save it from the influence and effects of the panic of 1857, and both companies of that name succumbed before the blows of a financial disaster that destroyed almost all commercial values and prostrated enterprises of every kind. In order to save the property, the "Ohio and Mississippi Railroad Company of Illinois" was organized in 1861, and under the authority of its charter purchased the whole road from East St. Louis to Vincennes. Similar action was taken by the Indiana Company, and in 1869 the two companies were consolidated. In 1871 steps were taken to reduce the gauge from six feet to four feet eight inches, in conformity with that of the Marietta and Cincinnati and Baltimore and Ohio Roads, over and by which its "through" business with Baltimore must be transacted. This feat, then considered very remarkable, but now not so much so, was completed seven hours on the 23d of July, 1871. It was during the administration of J. L. Griswold as general superintendent that the change of gauge was effected.

Before this time the gauge of the Ohio and Mississippi had conformed to that of the Erie Road of New York, with which it connected via the Atlantic and Great Western, across the State of Ohio. Hence freights reaching Cincinnati from St. Louis and farther West via the Ohio and Mississippi road, and destined for the Atlantic seaboard, must have gone forward to New York by the Erie connection or been reshipped at Cincinnati, subject to the additional expense of that operation. To obviate this great obstruction to the trade of Baltimore as well as of St. Louis, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, by a large subscription to the new loan of the Ohio and Mississippi, obtained an influence and power in the management of that company which effected first the change of gauge, and subsequently a practical consolidation of the Ohio and Mississippi, the Marietta and Cincinnati, and the Baltimore and Ohio in one great central line.

The Louisville Branch of the Ohio and Mississippi, from North Vernon to Jeffersonville, Ind., was built under an act of March 3, 1865, and opened in 1869.

Surveys for the Springfield Division, extending from Beardstown, on the Illinois River, to Shawneetown, on the Ohio, were commenced in 1865. The organization that completed that part of the road was the Springfield and Illinois Southeastern Railroad Company. The road was opened from Springfield to Pana in 1869, from Shawneetown to Flora in 1870, from Springfield to Beardstown in 1871, and from Pana to Flora in 1872. The panic of 1873, and the years of business depression that followed, caused, in 1874, a sale under foreclosure proceedings, at which, on the 1st of January, 1875, the property was purchased by the Ohio and Mississippi Railway Company for $1,700,000 in bonds secured by mortgage on that division.

On the 17th of November, 1876, the Ohio and Mississippi Railway was placed in the hands of a receiver.

The Ohio and Mississippi Railway is a direct line between St. Louis and Cincinnati, and the main stem is three hundred and forty-one miles in length. It has intersections at Sandoval, Olney, Vincennes, and other points along the road. At North Vernon, two hundred and sixty-eight miles from St. Louis, the Louisville Branch leaves the main line, making fifty-five miles to Louisville. At Flora, Ill., the Springfield Division crosses the main line, connecting Shawneetown and Beardstown, two hundred and twenty-eight miles, and joining at the north with the St. Louis and Rock Island Division of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad.

The mileage of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad on Dec. 31, 1882, was as follows:

St. Louis to Cincinnati 341
Louisville to North Vernon 55
Shawneetown to Beardstown 228
Total 624

The earnings for the year ending Dec. 31, 18811 amounted to $4,074,407.81; operating expenses, $3,115,355.19; net earnings, $959,052.62. The share capital of the company is $24,030,000, of which $20,000,000 is common and $4,030,000 preferred. The total funded debt is $12,872,000.

After the road was placed in the hands of a receiver, it was proposed to reorganize the company as follows: To create a series of five per cent. fifty year bonds secured by mortgage on road, equipment, and personal property of the company to the amount of $16,000,000, of which $12,784,000 will be exchanged for old bonds as they mature as follows: Income and funded debt bonds, due Oct. 1, 1882, $174,000; first consolidated mortgage bonds, due Jan. 1, 1898, $6,772,000; second consolidated mortgage bonds, due

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April 1, 1911, $3,829,000; Springfield Division bonds, due Nov. 1, 1905, $2,009,000. The residue ($3,216,000) to be used for the following purposes: To pay past-due coupons on the first mortgage, $48,825; on second mortgage, $536,060; on Springfield Division, $351,575; to pay contributions first mortgage sinking fund, $177,000; second ditto, $165,845; to pay second mortgage, Western Division bonds, $97,000; debenture bonds, $140,000; special loans (for which Springfield Division bonds have been hypothecated), $250,000; remainder of floating debt, $150,000; contingent liabilities, $300,000; additional equipment and terminal facilities, $999,695. The $3,216,000 issue is to be further secured by a pledge of $991,000, Springfield Division bonds, which will be canceled on the retirement of the present first mortgage bonds of the company. The $12,784,000 to be held for the sole purpose of retiring the old bonds as they mature. The above proposition of the committee on reorganization, which was under date of Jan. 20, 1882, was accepted by the stockholders of the company on the 7th of April, 1882. The officers of the company are: Directors, W. T. McClintick, Chillicothe, Ohio; Charles A. Beecher, John Waddle, Cincinnati; R. L. Cutting, Jr., Henry M. Day, New York; Robert Garrett, Osmun Latrobe, James Sloan, Jr., T. H. Garrett, Baltimore, Md.; F. W. Tracy, Springfield, Ill.; F. Janssen, Louisville, Ky.; H. Pearson, London, Eng. President, W. F. McClintick, Cincinnati; Receiver, J. M. Douglas, Cincinnati; Superintendent, W. W. Peabody, Cincinnati; Secretary, W. M. Walton, New York; Treasurer, Charles S. Cone, Cincinnati; Chief Engineer, N. A. Gurney, Cincinnati; Master of Car Repairs, J. P. Coulter, Cochran, Ind.; General Passenger Agent, W. B. Shattuck, Cincinnati; General Freight Agent, William Duncan, St. Louis; Purchasing Agent, G. E. Atwood, Cincinnati; Road Master, H. D. Hanover, Aurora, Ind.; Superintendent of Bridges, H. M. Hall, Olney, Ill.

The Ohio and Mississippi Railroad Company has contributed immensely to the development of East St. Louis. "The Ohio and Mississippi Railroad at East St. Louis," said a St. Louis newspaper of April 16, 1864,

"has congregated a population large enough to constitute quite a populous village of most industrious inhabitants. The company owns there forty-two acres of ground about a mile from the river. On that tract, with great labor and expense, they have constructed an elevated plateau of more than four acres of ground, about twelve feet above the average level of the surrounding bottom land, and about six feet above the high-water mark of 1858. On these four acres are the extensive machine-shops of the company, which, with necessary yard-room, occupy nearly the whole or that large space. Within these shops over two hundred and seventy men are employed, — machinists, carpenters, blacksmiths, painters, and glaziers, upholsterers, copper- and tin-workers, and common laborers. In the various departments the workmen are of the best class, skillful machinists, carpenters, and painters, who all command the highest wages, and would be in demand in any city where skilled labor is required."

The Marietta and Cincinnati and the Baltimore and Ohio and Ohio Railroads, continuing the great central St. Louis and Baltimore line to the Atlantic Ocean, fill a place in the railway system of which St. Louis is the commercial and business centre, which requires some description and explanation. The Belpre and Cincinnati Railroad Company was chartered in 1848 to construct a line of railway from the Ohio River opposite Parkersburg, W. Va., up the Hocking valley to the Little Miami Railroad, and by an amendment to the charter in 1851, was authorized to construct to Cincinnati and to consolidate with the Franklin and Ohio River Railroad, under the corporate title of the "Marietta and Cincinnati Railroad Company." For seven years the work of construction was prosecuted slowly; and the company having become embarrassed, was placed in the hands of a receiver in 1857, in which year (April 20th) it was opened, the Little Miami Railroad being used from Loveland to Cincinnati. From this receivership the company emerged in 1800, barnacled with "first preferred," "second preferred," and "common stock." Other legal obstructions as to the character of its franchises kept the company "in chancery" until relieved by legislative action in 1863. The Union Branch Railroad from Scott's Landing to Belpre was soon after purchased, and also the road from Hillsboro' Loveland from the Hillsboro' and Cincinnati Railroad Company. In December, 1863, the Marietta and Cincinnati Railroad Company purchased that part of the Scioto and Hocking Valley Railroad between Portsmouth and the track of the Cincinnati and Muskingum Valley Railroad, now known as "Portsmouth Branch."

The extension from Loveland to the Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton Railroad was completed Feb. 17, 1866, and the Cincinnati and Baltimore Railway, which continues the line into Cincinnati, was opened June 1, 1872. The Baltimore Short-Line Railway was opened Nov. 15, 1874. The Marietta and Cincinnati Railroad Company guaranteed the stock and bonds of these companies.

Owing to the non-completion of the Northwestern Virginia Railroad, now known as the Parkersburg Branch of the Baltimore and Ohio, from Grafton to Parkersburg, it was not until 1857

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that through business with Baltimore could be effected. The material aid extended by the Baltimore and Ohio kept the company afloat until June 27, 1877, when, having made default in the interest on its fourth mortgage bonds, its property was placed in the hands of a receiver. After remaining under the control of receiver John King, Jr., for several years, J. H. Stewart was appointed receiver, and in 1880 a committee on reorganization was named by the bondholders, as follows: Augustus Kountze, E. R. Bacon, George Arents, and J. B. Dumont, of New York; T. Edward Hambleton, Skipwith Wilmer, and H. Irvine Keyser, of Baltimore. This committee adopted plans looking to the reorganization of the road, which was finally sold for $4,375,000 to the purchasing committee of security-holders, composed of Messrs. E. K. Bacon, of New York, T. Edward Hambleton, and Robert Garrett. The Baltimore and Ohio interest, in the absence of Robert Garrett, was represented by John K. Cowen. The price was about two-thirds of the appraised value of the property, the lowest amount at which it could be sold under the order of the court. As the transaction was entirely formal and in accordance with the plan of reorganization, which was assented to by ninety-eight per cent. of the security-holders, the price is not a criterion of the value of the road. Under the reorganization, the leased short line at each end becomes part of the new line, one hundred and ninety-five miles long, from Cincinnati to Parkersburg, with branches, etc., that make the total length two hundred and fifty-five miles. The purchasers paid $100,000 cash and the remainder in the securities of the corporation. After the ratification of the sale new securities were issued. Their classification is as follows: First mortgage bonds, four and a half per cent. guaranteed, $7,185,000, subject to reduction second mortgage, five per cent., $3,040,000; third mortgage, three per cent. for ten years and four per cent. thereafter, $2,270,000; fourth mortgage, first income, five per cent., $3,410,000; fifth mortgage, second income, five per cent., $4,000,000, together with preferred and common stock to be issued the completion of the reorganization. Some claims in litigation remained to be settled by the courts. The old first and second mortgages were per cents., and the thirds and fourths were eight per cents.

After confirmation of the sale by the court a new company was incorporated, which was styled the Cincinnati and Baltimore Railroad Company. It forms the connecting link between Parkersburg and Cincinnati, in the St. Louis line of the Baltimore and Ohio, and is fully under the control of the Baltimore and Ohio corporation. J. H. Stewart, formerly receiver of the Marietta and Cincinnati, is general manager of the reorganized road.

The length of the Marietta and Cincinnati Railroad proper, from Cincinnati and Baltimore Junction, Ohio, to Main Line Junction, Ohio, in 1882, was 156.80 miles.

Scott's Landing, Main Line Junction to Scott's Landing 31.20  
Belpre, Marietta to Belpre 11.10  
Hamden, Portsmouth to Hamden 55.40  
Hillsboro', Blanchester to Hillsboro' 21.40  
Total branches   119.10
Leased lines:    
Cincinnati and Baltimore Railway, Cincinnati to junction Marietta and Cincinnati Railroad 5.80  
Baltimore Short Line Railway, Main Line Junction to Belpre 30.30  
Total leased lines   36.10
Total length of lines operated   312.00

The directors of the company, elected Feb. 15, 1882, were Robert Garrett, W. T. Burns, Theodore Cook, W. W. Peabody, Baltimore, Md.; George Hoadley, H. C. Smith, R. M. Bishop, W. W. Scarborough, James D. Lehmer, W. B. Loomis, John Waddle, Cincinnati, Ohio; William T. McClintick, William Waddle, Chillicothe, Ohio. General superintendent, W. W. Peabody, Cincinnati, Ohio; ticket agent at St. Louis, J. D. Phillips.

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company. — The history of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company is too voluminous for more than brief and cursory treatment in this work. As early as 1827 the merchants of the Atlantic cities were looking to that vast and fertile region of the great West between the Alleghenies and the Mississippi River, for the bulk of the productions that were to constitute the commerce and subsistence of the country. The Erie Canal of New York and the public works of Pennsylvania promised to New York City and Philadelphia a future interest in that great valley, from which Baltimore would be practically cut off for want of something better than the "National road." The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, confronted by the elevations of the Alleghenies, could promise but little, and that little would go to Georgetown on the Potomac, hindering rather than promoting the commerce of Baltimore. Steam railroads at that day were unknown, none having been built either in England or elsewhere for the transportation of passengers and produce. Iron tramways for coal and other heavy productions were in use only to a very limited extent. It was a bold thought which induced Philip E. Thomas, then president

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of the Mechanics' Bank of Baltimore and commissioner of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, to resign the latter position and undertake to enlist his fellow-citizens of Maryland in the work of constructing a railroad from the Chesapeake Bay to the Ohio River. Nevertheless, Mr. Thomas entered upon the work with a zeal born only of conviction, and succeeded in obtaining the co-operation of George Brown, another prominent and influential capitalist of Baltimore.

At a public meeting held in Baltimore, Feb. 12, 1827, these two gentlemen expressed the conviction that rail transportation must supersede that of water, and induced the appointment of a committee to collect facts and carefully consider the novel proposition. That committee was quick to observe and note the facts that the trend of the Atlantic coast shortened the line from the East to the West, placing Southern cities nearer to the great valley than Northern cities, and that Baltimore was two hundred miles nearer to the navigable waters of the Mississippi valley than New York, and one hundred miles nearer than Philadelphia. The committee also strongly sustained in its report the idea that railroads would supersede canals in transportation, and earnestly recommended the construction of a railroad from Baltimore to the Ohio River. John V. L. McMahon prepared the charter of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, the charter for the first railroad in the United States, which, from its very great clearness, became the model for many subsequent charters. At the session of the General Assembly of Maryland in 1823, the sum of five hundred thousand dollars was voted to aid in the construction of the work. The surveys of 1827 and those of 1828 made apparent the feasibility of the route to the Ohio River along the valley of the Potomac, and on July 4, 1828, the venerable Charles Carroll of Carrollton "broke ground," and on the 1st of October, 1828, the work was fairly commenced "all along the line" from Baltimore to Ellicott's Mills. Congress was petitioned at the session of 1828-29 to aid in this important work, but notwithstanding a favorable consideration by many members, the influence of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company was potent enough to prevent any favorable action. The first division of the road to Ellicott's Mills was opened for traffic in 1830, and the "brigade of cars," 141 as trains were then called, hauled by horses or mules, left "the depot on Pratt Street at six and ten o'clock A. M., and at three and four o'clock P. M., and will leave the depot at Ellicott's Mills at six and eight and a half o'clock A. M., and at twelve and a half and six o'clock P. M." It was in 1830 that George Stephenson's locomotive, "The Rocket," made fifteen miles per hour on the Liverpool and Manchester Railroad. But the England of 1830 was very much farther from America than that country is to-day. Ideas traveled then by sail vessels, and not by electricity, and it was to "put fire on their backs" that the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company offered to the mechanical genius of America rewards of five and four thousand dollars respectively for locomotives which, upon trial, should prove to be the first and second best in complying with the specifications. "The York," an engine built at York, Pa., by Davis & Gartner, attained upon trial a speed of fifteen miles an hour, and practically demonstrated the feasibility of steam as a traction agency. The charter of the "Washington Branch" was obtained in 1832, as well as authority to extend the tracks of the company to the harbor of Baltimore from Mount Clare shops and depot. The road was opened from Baltimore to Point of Rocks in 1832, but further prosecution of the work to Harper's Ferry was temporarily arrested by injunction sued out by the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company. The delay continued for about a year, and the road was not opened to Harper's Ferry until 1834. The charter of the Washington Branch had been saddled with objectionable provisions, which were not removed until 1833, after which so energetically was the work of construction pushed that in July, 1835, the branch was opened to Bladensburg and to Washington City in August of the same year. The controversy with the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company impeded and obstructed the work of the railroad company west of Harper's Ferry until the Legislature of 1835-36 removed all obstructions to the extension westward of the company's lines. The State of Maryland and the city of Baltimore each about this time subscribed three million dollars to the capital stock of the company.

The Harper's Ferry viaduct over the Potomac River was completed in December, 1836, opening a connection with the valley of Virginia by the Potomac and Winchester Railroad. From Harper's Ferry to the Ohio River the work of construction was not pushed forward steadily. Preliminary surveys were completed in 1838, but the period of time fixed in the charter of the company by the State of Virginia for the occupancy of that part of the State to be entered upon by the company having expired, an extension of five years for completion to the Ohio River was granted by the State, coupled with the condition that Wheeling should be one of the termini, and a

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subscription of $1,058,420 to the capital stock of the company was made by the State of Virginia. In 1842 the road was opened to Hancock and Cumberland, and in 1853 to Wheeling, a total distance of three hundred and seventy-nine miles. The formal opening took place on the 12th of January, 1853. The successive periods of progress by this great road in reaching its destination on the Ohio are worthy of being preserved. They are:

May 24, 1830, Ellicott's Mills, by horse-power 14
Aug. 30, 1830, Ellicott's Mills, by steam power 14
Dec. 31, 1831, to Frederick 61
April 1, 1832, to Point of Rocks 69
Dec. 31, 1834, to Harper's Ferry 84
July 20, 1834, to Bladensburg (Washington Branch) 32
Aug. 25, 1834, to Washington (Washington Branch) 40
June 1, 1842, to Hancock 123
Nov. 5, 1842, to Cumberland 178
July 21, 1851, to Piedmont 206
July 22, 1852, to Fairmont 302
Jan. 12, 1853, to Wheeling 379

The Northwestern Virginia Railroad was leased by the Baltimore and Ohio in 1857, for a period of five years renewable, and became the Parkersburg Branch, extending from Grafton on the main line to Parkersburg, on the Ohio River.

The civil war was a period of repeated raids and injuries to the road, but the work of reconstruction was promptly entered upon immediately after the termination actual hostilities in 1865, and at the same time the policy of the president, John W. Garrett, looking more intimate and thorough connections railway system west of the Ohio River, took active shape. In pursuance of this general plan the Central Railroad of Ohio, between Bellaire and Columbus, was leased in 1866 by the Baltimore and Ohio, and an unbroken line opened between Baltimore and the capital of Ohio, where connection was made with Cincinnati, Indianapolis, and other points in the Western States. The Winchester and Potomac Railroad, leased in 1867, opened the great valley of Virginia to this railroad, and the line was further extended up that valley by the lease in 1870 of the Winchester and Strasburg Railroad and the Manassas Division, in the valley, of the present Virginia Midland Railroad Company.

In 1809 the Sandusky, Mansfield and Newark Railroad having passed under the control of the Baltimore and Ohio, opened the lakes to the Lake Erie Division of the road. The great iron bridge at Parkersburg was opened in 1871, and in the same year the Hempfield Railroad, from Wheeling to Washington, Pa., was purchased, and has since been operated as the Wheeling, Pittsburgh and Baltimore Branch. The Pittsburgh and Connellsville Road, which was leased from Jan. 1, 1876, offered another outlet, and brought Baltimore and Pittsburgh into a direct interchange of trade and business. The Metropolitan Branch, from Washington to the main line, was commenced in 1870, and completed May 28, 1873. The Newark, Somerset and Straitsville Railroad Company passed into the control of the Baltimore and Ohio in 1872, and in the same year the charters from the States of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois for the Baltimore, Pittsburgh and Chicago Railroad Company were granted, and the road was completed from Centreton to Chicago in 1874, thus providing a through line between Baltimore and Chicago.

The different lines of the Baltimore and Ohio system in 1882 were:

Main Stem, from Baltimore to Wheeling 379
Parkersburg Division, from Grafton to Parkersburg 104
Washington Branch, Relay to Washington 31
Metropolitan Branch, Washington to Junction 43
Alexandria Branch, Bladensburg to Shepherd 12½
Washington County Branch, Weverton to Hagerstown 24
Harper's Ferry and Valley Branch, Harper's Ferry to Staunton 126
Pittsburgh Division, Cumberland to Pittsburgh, with branches from Connellsville to Uniontown, and Broad Ford to Mount Pleasant 174
Central Ohio Division, Columbus to Bellaire 137
Lake Erie Division, Sandusky to Newark 116
Chicago Division, Newark to Shawnee 43
Wheeling, Pittsburgh and Baltimore Branch, Wheeling to Washington, Pa. 32
Marietta and Cincinnati Railroad 297
Ohio and Mississippi Railway 620
Total 2409½

The "terminal facilities" of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company at Locust Point, Baltimore, inuring indirectly but most materially to the trade and commerce of St. Louis, constitute a factor in the railroad facilities of St. Louis as well as of Baltimore. As early in the history of the road as 1848 the coal trade demanded and received the means of easy and inexpensive trans-shipment from the cars to the boat. In 1851 the Locust Point lands, purchased by Hon. Thomas Swann, president of the company, were increased in area by means of inducements held out to private parties to erect their own wharves at Whetstone Point. It was not until 1860, however, when connections had been established with the West, and the fruits of Mr. Garrett's sagacity were beginning to be realized, that the development of the "terminal facilities" at Locust Point took their present definite and complete shape. The experimental European line established by Mr. Garrett's purchase of the "Allegheny," the "Carroll," the "Somerset," and the "Worcester" steamships from the United States government was the beginning of that Atlantic extension of the Baltimore and Ohio, by which Western grain and produce are shipped in bulk to

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Europe on through bills of lading. The erection of piers, wharves, and warehouses followed immediately upon the establishment of this European line. The management of so vast an enterprise demanded the sagacity and nerve of a man like Mr. Garrett to demonstrate its feasibility, before the more timid would take hold of a doubtful and untried business. The experimental line finally gave way to others which are now reaping the harvest of the seed which Mr. Garrett sowed.

Elevators followed and facilities increased until Baltimore offers cheaper and easier trans-shipment of heavy products than any Atlantic port in the country. The largest steamer in the United States transfers trains of cars across the harbor of Baltimore to the tracks of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad, and an independent connection with Philadelphia and New York will in the near future make the Baltimore and Ohio a separate and distinct line from New York as well as from Baltimore. When this great object shall have been consummated it is fair to presume, from his past career, that Mr. Garrett will give greater freedom to transportation between the East and the West, as he has given cheaper rates, and forced upon others the lesson that Baltimore is an important factor in the foreign commerce of the Western States.

To the great executive powers and financial talents of John W. Garrett, ably seconded by his son, Robert Garrett, now first vice-president of the company, the present vast development of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad is unquestionably due. Under Mr. Garrett's prudent, wise, and at the same time aggressive management the company has successfully weathered all the financial storms that have threatened it in common with other railroad properties, and has come off more than conqueror in all the "wars" that have been waged by it with rival companies. Mr. Garrett has also preserved his company from the injurious effects of "watered stock," and now enjoys the satisfaction of seeing it command a place in the markets surpassed by no other railroad corporation.

Several years ago Mr. Garrett called to his aid the vigorous energies of his son. Robert Garrett, who had been educated and trained to railroad management, and who has since abundantly demonstrated his peculiar fitness for the position.

To the facilities of transportation offered by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and its extensive connections, Mr. Garrett has added those of the telegraph and express systems. By the former he provides competition with the former telegraphic monopoly of the Western Union Company, and by the latter he extends the competition to the transportation of valuable and perishable articles. He has also organized an Atlantic Cable Company for telegraphic communication with Europe, which will probably soon have in operation two cables connecting the land wires of the Baltimore and Ohio Telegraph Company with all European capitals and commercial centres. It is doubtful whether any single life has been more fruitful of grand achievements in railroading than that of John W. Garrett.

The labors of Mr. Garrett in the many departments of his great railroad system have demanded the assistance of men of marked ability and fertility of resource at points distant from the headquarters of the company. The selection at St. Louis has been a most fortunate one. To W. W. Peabody, general superintendent of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad, the great success of this line has been pre-eminently due. His zeal, ability, energy, and integrity have established with the commercial and traveling community a confidence in the safety and reliability of the great line of railroad possessed by no other company to a greater degree and enjoyed by very few to an equal extent.

The Ohio and Mississippi Railway claims to be the shortest and quickest route between St. Louis and Cincinnati, and between St. Louis and Louisville. The road being under the management of one general superintendent, all trains leaving St. Louis for Louisville and Cincinnati are run through promptly on time, and a continuous trip is guaranteed. In connection with the Marietta and Cincinnati and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroads, trains are run through to Washington, D. C., without the change of a single car in all the chain of day-coaches, parlor-, palace-, and other cars. It is worthy of remark in this connection that the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company operates a sleeping-, dining-, and parlor-car system of its own, and that it is the only line that passes through the national capital in going East.

The Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railway Company originated in the Toledo and Illinois Railroad Company, which was organized April 25, 1853, under the laws of the State of Ohio, to construct a railroad between Toledo and the western boundary of the State. On the 19th of August following the Lake Erie, Wabash and St. Louis Railroad Company was organized under the laws of Indiana to build a road from the east line of the State through the valleys of the Little River and Wabash River to the west line of the State in the direction of Danville, Ill. The road from Toledo through Ohio and Indiana was constructed under these two charters. On the 25th of June, 1856, the two companies were consolidated under the style of the Toledo, Wabash

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and Western Railroad Company. This organization having become financially embarrassed in the general panic of 1857-58, its property was sold in October, 1858 under foreclosure proceedings, and purchased by Azariah Boody, who conveyed it to two new companies, under the style of the Toledo and Wabash, of Ohio, and the Wabash and Western, of Indiana, the two being consolidated Oct. 7, 1858, under the corporate name of the Toledo and Wabash Railroad Company, which operated the road through the States of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois until 1865, when all interests between Toledo and the Mississippi River at Quincy and Hamilton were consolidated under an agreement between the Toledo and Wabash, the Great Western of Illinois, the Quincy and Toledo, and the Illinois and Southern Iowa Railroad Companies, under the style and designation of the Toledo, Wabash and Western Railway Company. The Great Western Railroad Company of this combination was organized in 1859, and its road extended the Indiana State line to Meredosia, in Illinois with a branch from Bluff City to Naples. The road from Meredosia to Camp Point was owned by the Quincy and Toledo Railroad Company, and the road from Clayton, Ill., to Carthage, Ind., was owned by the Illinois and Southern Iowa Railroad Company.

In 1870 the Decatur and East St. Louis Railroad constructed and equipped a road between Decatur and East St. Louis, which in the same year came under the management and control of the Toledo, Wabash and Western Railway Company, and which was opened to St. Louis in 1871. The Hannibal and Naples Railroad, between Naples and Hannibal, with a branch to Pittsfield from Maysville, was leased in 1870 by the Toledo, Wabash and Western Railway Company, and in 1871 the same company obtained control of the Hannibal and St. Louis Central Railroad, from Hannibal to Moberly, and also of the Pekin, Lincoln and Decatur Railroad, which was thenceforth operated as the "Pekin Division." In 1872 the Lafayette and Bloomington, from Lafayette Junction to Bloomington, was added to the lines of the Toldeo, Wabash and Western Railroad Company, making a total of over nine hundred miles of road under ownership and lease by this corporation. In 1874 financial disaster overtook the company, and its property passed under decrees of the courts into the hands of John D. Cox as receiver. Mr. Cox retained control until 1877, when a reorganization was effected under the style of the Wabash Company. The leases of the Pekin, Lincoln and Decatur and the Lafayette and Bloomington Railroads were set aside during the receivership, as well as that of the bridge at Quincy. In 1877 the Edwardsville Branch passed under the control of the Wabash, and on the 7th of November, 1879, the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railway Company was organized by the consolidation of the Wabash and the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern Railway Companies and their branches.

The St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern Railway Company is the outgrowth of the North Missouri Railroad Company, which was chartered March 1, 1851, to build, equip, and operate a railroad from St. Louis to the boundary line between Missouri and Iowa, and thence on to Ottumwa and Chariton.

The work of construction was commenced in May, 1854, and the road was completed to the Missouri River, opposite St. Charles, on the 2d of August, 1855; to Warrenton in August, 1857; to Mexico in May, 1858; to Moberly Nov. 30, 1858, and to Macon in February, 1859. The civil war affected all works of this character, and the North Missouri remained stationary at Macon until 1864. Unable to meet its obligations to the State for interest, in consequence of the war and its effects, the company met with most favorable action on the part of the Legislature of 1866-67, which relinquished the State lien, upon the condition that the company should build a branch from Moberly to Kansas City and the western boundary of the State, and extend the road from Macon to the Iowa line. By this generous action on the part of the State the company was enabled to push its extensions both north and west. In 1868 the road was completed to the State line at Coatesville, and in 1869 the road was opened to Kansas City, on the western line, and to Ottumwa, on the northern line, which was reached over the St. Louis and Cedar Rapids Railroad, built by an independent corporation and leased by the North Missouri. The Chariton and Randolph and the Missouri River Valley Railroad Companies were consolidated into the North Missouri in 1864. The line of the latter companies was opened from Moberly to Brunswick Dec. 15, 1857; to Carrollton Aug. 15, 1868; to Lexington Junction Oct. 1, 1868, and to the junction with the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad Nov. 28, 1868.

In 1871 financial embarrassments overtook the North Missouri Company, and foreclosure following, the road was purchased by M. K. Jessup, of New York, who in February, 1872, assigned it to the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern Railroad Company, a corporation organized under the general railroad law of Missouri. A new line from Ferguson into St. Louis and the Union Depot was built in 1876, and the road was extended from North Missouri Junction to Kansas

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City and from Pattensburg to Council Bluffs, with a branch to Clarinda, in 1879. 142

The capital stock of the new consolidated company (Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railway) on Jan. 1, 1880, was $40,000,000, half common and half preferred, of which $12,000,000 of each kind was assigned to the former stockholders and creditors of the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern, and $8,000,000 of each kind to those of the Wabash Company. The indebtedness of the two companies, $35,469,550, was assumed by the new company upon consolidation, making the capital and bonded debt of the new company Jan. 1, 1880, $75,464,550.

Twenty-one railroad organizations which were at one time operated as distinct lines have been merged in order to form what is now known as the great Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railroads, one of the largest systems in the United States. Previous to 1880 the Wabash proper extended from Toledo to St. Louis, Hannibal, Quincy, and Keokuk, with a branch from Logansport to Butler, Ind., or a total length of seven hundred and eighty-two miles. But in the fall of 1879, as we have seen, the Wabash was consolidated with the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern Railroad, extending from St. Louis to Kansas City, St. Joseph's, Ottumwa, and Council Bluffs, with several small branches, having in all seven hundred and sixty-nine miles of road. The corporation thus formed, with a mileage of fifteen hundred and fifty-one miles, established its headquarters at St. Louis. During the same year entry to Chicago was effected by the purchase of the Chicago and Paducah, extending from Effingham and Altamont to Chester, Ill., and the construction of a branch from Strawn, ninety-six miles northward. Subsequent acquisitions were the Toledo, Peoria and Warsaw Road, extending from State line, Indiana, through Peoria to Burlington, Warsaw, and Keokuk, a distance of two hundred and forty-six miles, and before the close of the same year, the Quincy, Missouri and Pacific, Champaign, Havana and Western, Missouri, Iowa and Nebraska, and Centreville, Moravia and Albia Roads, all connecting at different points with the main line. On Dec. 31, 1880, the system comprised two thousand four hundred and seventy-nine miles.

The lines built and acquired during 1881 were the Detroit and Butler, an extension of the Logansport and Butler Division to the city of Detroit, one hundred and thirteen miles; and the purchase of the Indianapolis, Peru and Chicago Railway, extending from Indianapolis to Michigan City, a distance of one hundred and sixty-one miles. Other roads added to the system the same year were the Cairo and Vincennes, the Danville and Southwestern, the Quincy, Missouri and Pacific, the Des Moines and Northwestern, and the Attica and Covington, making the actual revenue-earning mileage of the Wabash at the close of the year 1881 three thousand three hundred and eighty-four miles.

The Butler and the Detroit, in connection with the Toledo, Peoria and Warsaw, completed the second independent trunk line of the system from the Mississippi River to Lake Erie, besides securing new connections upon its entrance to Detroit.

Several extensions and branches were finished during 1882, the most important of which were the Shenandoah and the Des Moines Divisions. The former continued the second trunk line from the Mississippi to Lake Erie through to the Missouri, and established another to Council Bluffs and Chicago line. The cities of St. Louis and Des Moines were connected in a more direct manner than heretofore. The total length of the Wabash is 3670.6 miles, being the third largest mileage of any distinct railroad company in the world. The details of the mileage of the lines east of the Mississippi are as follows:

Toledo, Ohio, to St. Louis, Mo. 435.7
Decatur, Ill., to Quincy, Ill. 150.7
Bluffs, Ill., to Hannibal, Mo. 49.8
Maysville, Ill., to Pittsfield, Ill. 6.2
Clayton, Ill., to Keokuk, Iowa 42.3
Logansport, Ind., to Detroit, Mich. 213.8
Edwardsville, Ill., to Edwardsville Crossing, Ill. 8.5
Indianapolis, Ind., to Michigan City, Ind. 161.0
Havana, Ill., to Springfield, Ill. 47.2
Hollis, Ill., to Jacksonville Junction, Ill. 75.3
West Lebanon, Ind., to Le Roy, Ill. 76.0
Vincennes, Ind., to Cairo, Ill. 158.0
Danville, Ill., to St. Francisville, Ind. 113.1
Toledo, Ohio, to Milan, Mich. 34.0
Attica, Ind., to Covington. Ind. 14.5
State Line, Ind., to Burlington, Iowa 214.8
La Harpe, Ill., to Elvaston, Ill. 20.8
Hamilton, Ill., to Warsaw, Ill. 5.0
Chicago, Ill., to Altamont, Ill. 215.5
Streator, Ill., to Streator Junction, Ill. 39.6
Shumway, Ill., to Effingham, Ill. 8.5
Urbana, Ill., to Havana, Ill. 102.2
White Heath, Ill., to Decatur, Ill. 29.7
Bates, Ill., to Grafton, Ill. 71.4
Champaign, Ill., to Sidney, Ill. 14.0
Total 2307.6

The Western Division, connecting the Missouri River with the great lakes, is the great Northwestern feeder of St. Louis commerce, penetrating all portions of Missouri, and furnishing an outlet to St. Louis for a large portion of the commerce of Central and Northern Iowa. The Western Division is being pushed forward, and will ultimately be extended to Estherville, Dickinson Co., in the northern border of Iowa, and

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will some day penetrate the great wheat-fields of Minnesota and Dakota. Various short lines have been extended, until now the total mileage of the Wash west of the Mississippi is in detail as follows:

St. Louis, Mo., to Kansas City, Mo. 276.8
Brunswick, Mo., to Council Bluffs, Iowa 224,4
Roseberry, Mo., to Clarinda, Iowa 21.5
Moberly, Mo., to Ottumwa, Iowa 131.0
North Lexington, Mo., to St. Joseph, Mo. 76.3
Centralia, Mo., to Columbia, Mo. 21.8
Salisbury, Mo., to Glasgow, Mo. 15.0
Ferguson, Mo., to Biddle Street, St. Louis 10.0
Quincy, Mo., to Trenton, Mo. 135.9
Keokuk, Iowa, to Shenandoah, Iowa 244.0
Relay, Iowa, to Des Moines, Iowa 91.3
Des Moines, Iowa, to Fonda, Iowa 115.0
Lines east of the Mississippi River 2307.6
Lines west of the Mississippi River 1363.0
Total 3670.6

From Toledo the Wabash makes connection with the Atlantic cities via the Lake Shore and also the Canada Southern Road. The Wabash is located in the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, and Iowa, or in that portion of those States lying between thirty-seven degrees and forty-two degrees of latitude, and between eighty-two degrees and ninety-six degrees of longitude. Within these boundaries is contained one of the most productive regions on the continent.

The elements of agricultural, forest, and mineral strength combined make it now, under partial development, a region of unsurpassed richness. The largest agricultural production is of wheat and corn. The production of wheat in the United States for 1882 was 502,798,600 bushels. Of this, 196,244,100 bushels was grown in the five States through which the road passes, being thirty-nine per cent. of the whole crop. The production of corn in the same year was 1,624,917,800, and the amount grown in the same States was 740,665,000 bushels, being forty-six per cent. of the whole crop. Other farm productions were proportionately large.

All the climatic and soil conditions are the most favorable the growth of the staple crops of the temperate zone. In Ohio, Indiana, and Missouri are yet extensive and valuable timbered areas, from which the manufacturing establishments of these and adjoining draw large supplies. The manufacturing establishments of the United States turned out productions valued at $5,369,667,706 in 1880; the five States mentioned, embracing an area of 256,880 square miles, about nine per cent. of the entire area of the United States, turned out from their manufactories a product valued at $1,147,606,405, or twenty-one per cent. of the whole product of the country. The mineral wealth of all these States is destined at no distant period to make them the central manufacturing ground of the country.

The large area of bituminous coal contained in them, of a quality suitable for the manufacture of iron, with the unlimited supply of Missouri ore of the best quality located so near the coal, must place these States in the front rank as manufacturing localities. Their central location will give them great advantages in distribution, much greater than any other locality can command. This area also presents the rarest and strongest combination of elements for future growth and greatness.

The population of these States was, by the census of 1880, 12,048,764, averaging in the States as a group only 47 to the square mile. Their area has the capability of sustaining and profitably employing five times the population it now has, and there is no other area on the continent of equal extent that has within its boundaries so small a percentage of waste or unproductive land.

The transportation facilities for movement of productions, by natural and artificial means, are better adapted to its wants than those of any other region of equal extent. These are considerations of the greatest importance, which will have a potent influence on this region.

The officers of the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railway Company are: Directors, Frederick L. Ames, Boston; A. L. Hopkins, Jay Gould, Russell Sage, Sidney Dillon, Solon Humphreys, Samuel Sloan, G. G. Haven, New York; Charles Ridgeley, Springfield, Ill.; James P. Joy, Detroit, Mich.; James Cheney, Fort Wayne, Ind.; B. W. Lewis, James P. How, Thomas E. Tutt, St. Louis; George L. Dunlap, Chicago. President, Jay Gould, New York; First Vice-President, A. L. Hopkins, New York; Second Vice-President, John C. Gault, St. Louis; Third Vice-President and Secretary, James F. How, St. Louis; Treasurer, W. B. Corneau, St. Louis; Auditor, D. B. Howard, St. Louis; Assistant Auditor, M. Trumbull, St. Louis; General Superintendent, R. Andrews, St. Louis; Assistant General Superintendent, W. F. Merrill, St. Louis; General Solicitors, W. H. Blodgett, St. Louis, and W. Swayne, New York; Chief Engineer, W. S. Lincoln, St. Louis; General Freight Agent, A. C. Bird, St. Louis; First Assistant General Freight Agent, M. Knight, St. Louis; Assistant General Freight Agent, C. L. Wellington, St. Louis; General Passenger Agent, H. C. Townsend, St. Louis; General Baggage Agent, C. P. Maule, St. Louis; Purchasing Agent, R. W. Green, St. Louis; Paymaster, G. F. Shepherd, St. Louis; Commercial

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Agent, J. M. Osborn, Toledo, Ohio; Car Accountant, C. P. Chesebro, St. Louis; Superintendent Telegraph, C. Selden; Assistant Superintendent Telegraph, G. O. Kinsman; General Master-Mechanic, J. Johnson, Springfield, Ill.; General Master Car-Builder, U. H. Kohler, Toledo, Ohio.

Vandalia Line. — The St. Louis, Vandalia and Terre Haute Railroad Company, which, in connection with the Terre Haute and Indianapolis Railroad, is commonly known as the "Vandalia Line," originated in a project for an eastern connection along the general route of this road, which was very early considered by the people of St. Louis.

"So early as 1837," says the Republican of Feb. 2, 1847, "the subject of connecting the improvements in the States of Indiana and Ohio with the Mississippi River commanded the attention of the Legislature, and it was deemed advisable to authorize the construction of what is called the Northern Cross Railroad, a route by which the works in our sister States could be connected with the great commercial artery of the nation, and a continuous line of communication formed between the East and West, affording every facility to a free commercial and social intercourse between the different and otherwise almost disconnected sections of our common country. The route had in contemplation not only the accommodation of a numerous population along the line through which it would pass, but a point nearly central in the State, and being the seat of government, so that from that point roads or branches of the main trunk would radiate to points upon the Mississippi and Illinois River, and insure the building up of commercial marts within our own State,"

The Northern Cross Railroad was ultimately located between Galesburg and Quincy, Ill., and was sold in 1860 to the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad.

In 1847, by "An Act to incorporate the Mississippi and Atlantic Railroad Company," it was provided that "J. B. Drake, M. G. Dale, James Bradford, William S. Wait, W. S. Smith, Henry Willis, Curtis Blakeman, G. T. Allen, A. B. Chambers, Ferdinand Kennett, T. A. Madison, R. K. McLaughlin, and their associates and successors, are hereby created a body corporate under the name of the Mississippi and Atlantic Railroad Company for the term of fifty years. The incorporators were authorized and empowered "to locate and construct a railroad from the banks of the Mississippi opposite St. Louis through Greenville and Vandalia to the east line of the State, and terminating in Clark or Edgar County, most convenient for the continuation of the same to Terre Haute, and following as near as may be the line of the great Cumberland Road."

In 1850 a convention was held at Vandalia for the purpose of organizing a company to construct a railroad from Terre Haute to Illinoistown, opposite St. Louis. "Such a road when built," said the Republican of March 21, 1850, "will connect Philadelphia, New York, and Baltimore in a continuous line of railway with St. Louis. It is now, we believe, the only piece of route not under contract or unprovided for."

It was not, however, until 1865, when the St. Louis, Vandalia and Terre Haute Railroad Company was chartered (Feb. 10, 1865) for the construction of a line via Vandalia, Effingham, and Marshall to the Indiana line, that the project of 1847 took definite shape. Though the work of construction was begun in 1866, the enterprise would probably have eventuated in a merely local road if the lease of the St. Louis, Alton and Terre Haute Railroad to parties inimical to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company had not threatened the traffic of that great corporation with hostile action and compelled it to seek other connection with St. Louis. Under the influence and by the aid of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, the St. Louis, Vandalia and Terre Haute Railroad progressed so rapidly that in 1868 trains were running between East St. Louis and Highland, and the road was completed to Effingham in July, 1869, and a through train arrangement between St. Louis and Chicago effected by the Illinois Central connection in 1870. 143

The Terre Haute and Indianapolis Railroad Company leased the St. Louis, Vandalia and Terre Haute Line as soon as it reached the Indiana State line. In 1876, the Vandalia Line and the Indianapolis and St. Louis Line came under one management, and were so operated until 1878.

The Terre Haute and Indianapolis Railroad Company, an integral part of the Vandalia Line, was organized as the Terre Haute and Richmond Railroad Company in 1847, under the railroad laws of Indiana, to construct a railroad from Terre Haute to Richmond, to connect with the Columbus and Indiana Central Railroad. In 1851 the company was reorganized, and built a line between Terre Haute and Indianapolis. In 1866 the title of the company was changed from the Terre Haute and Richmond Railroad Company to the Terre Haute and Indianapolis Company.

The St. Louis, Vandalia and Terre Haute Railroad Company, under the existing arrangement, is leased to the Terre Haute and Indianapolis Railroad Company, for account of itself and the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati and St. Louis Railway Company and the Columbus, Chicago and Indiana Central Railway, which jointly guarantee the first mortgage bonds and

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one million six hundred thousand dollars of second mortgage bonds, the obligation of the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati and St. Louis Railway Company in this respect being guaranteed by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. The Terre Haute and Indianapolis Railroad operates the Vandalia Road under a lease for nine hundred and ninety-nine years, at an annual rental of thirty per cent. of the gross earnings, and guarantees interest on the mortgage bonds. The Terre Haute and Logansport Railroad is also leased and operated and its bonds guaranteed by the same company. 144

The lines owned and operated by the Terre Haute and Indianapolis Railroad in 1882 were:

Main line from Indianapolis to Illinois State line 79.40
Coal branches 33.92


Terre Haute and Logansport Railroad, — Logansport to Rockville, Ind. 94.00
St. Louis, Vandalia and Terre Haute, — East St. Louis, Ill., to Indiana State line 158.10
Total length of line operated 365.42

The general balance sheet Oct. 31, 1881, placed the assets at $5,734,507.43; capital stock, $1,988,150; funded debt, $1,600,000.

The president of the company is W. R. McKeen, Terre Haute, and the general superintendent is Joseph Hill, St. Louis. The principal office is located at Terre Haute. The general freight agent at St. Louis is H. W. Hibbard, and the general ticket agent E. A. Ford.

The Vandalia Line stretches one hundred and sixty-seven miles across Illinois and Indiana, connecting at Effingham with the Illinois Central, furnishing an outlet to Chicago on the north and Cairo on the south, and terminates at Terre Haute. From there it runs via Indianapolis and Columbus over the Pan Handle, connecting at Pittsburgh with the Pennsylvania Railroad. This road has a great many small branches and coal connections, but its total direct mileage is three hundred and fifty-six miles between St. Louis, Terre Haute, Indianapolis, and Logansport. The general offices of the Vandalia are nearly all located at St. Louis. Within the past two years the road-bed has been put in the most thorough

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order, and the iron rails between St. Louis and Indianapolis have been replaced with steel rails. Many other improvements have been made.

The eastern prolongation of the Vandalia Line is the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati and St. Louis Railroad, which operates in addition to its own line the Columbus, Chicago and Indiana Central Railway. The latter road, beginning at Indianapolis, where the Terre Haute and Indianapolis Railroad terminates, extends to Columbus, Ohio, where it meets the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati and St. Louis Railway. The latter road extends to Pittsburgh, Pa., and forms part of the Pennsylvania Railroad system.

The Pennsylvania Railroad Company was chartered by the Legislature of Pennsylvania, April 7, 1870, for the purpose of managing in the interest of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company the railroads leased and controlled by it west of Pittsburgh. The organization of the company dates from April 1, 1872. The aggregate length of the lines operated in 1882 was 3422.70 miles. Of this vast network of roads the Vandalia Line is one of the most important.

The Pennsylvania Railroad Company was chartered April 13, 1846, to construct a railroad from Pittsburgh to Harrisburg, to unite with the Harrisburg, Portsmouth, Mountjoy and Lancaster Railroad or by extension eastward with the Columbia Railroad. Authority was also conferred upon the company to connect with the Portage Railroad over the Allegheny Mountains at or near Hollidaysburg or Johnstown. The work of construction was begun at Harrisburg in July, 1847, and the division from that point to the junction with the Portage Railroad at Hollidaysburg was opened Sept. 16, 1850. The Western Division, from the western end of the Portage Railroad at Johnstown to Pittsburgh, was opened Sept. 10, 1852. The Mountain Division, and with it the whole line, was opened Feb. 15, 1854. From Harrisburg to Philadelphia the line is made up of the old Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad and the Harrisburg, Portsmouth, Mountjoy and Lancaster Railroad, which was leased in 1849.

The capital stock of the company was authorized to be increased in 1853, under which authority the company has been able to aid its western connections. In 1856 authority was obtained for the construction of a railroad to the Schuylkill River from the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad, as well as for the construction of wharves, warehouses, etc. In 1857 the policy of disconnecting the State with the public works by the sale of all the works then owned by the State was confirmed by legislative action. These public works consisted of the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad, the canal from Columbia to Duncan's Island, the Juniata Canal, the Allegheny Portage Road, and the canal from Johnstown to Pittsburgh. The property thus disposed of was purchased by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. In 1860 the Lancaster and Harrisburg Railroad was leased, and in 1861 the Philadelphia and Erie Railroad was also leased. In 1864 the Philadelphia and Erie was opened for through traffic by means of the Western Pennsylvania Railroad. In 1865 the old canal below Freeport was converted into a railroad to connect the Western Pennsylvania and the Fort Wayne Railroad at Allegheny City, and during this year the "Connecting Railway" from Frankford to Mantua Junction, West Philadelphia, was constructed. "Fast freight" lines were introduced upon the road in 1865. In 1868-69 were effected those extended leases of Western lines by which communication was secured with Indianapolis, St. Louis, Louisville, and Chicago. In 1869 the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad was leased by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company; in 1870, the Erie and Pittsburgh; in the same year also the Wrightsville, York and Gettysburg Railroad came into the possession of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. In 1870, as previously stated, the "Pennsylvania Company" was chartered to give greater efficiency to the management of the Western leased roads, and to the latter company all the interests of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company were transferred. In 1870 arrangements were effected with the Northern Central Railway Company which opened direct communication with Baltimore, and resulted in the construction of the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad, which gave the Pennsylvania Railroad a through line to Washington in 1873. In May, 1871, the railways and canals of the United Companies of New Jersey were leased by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, and the amplest terminal facilities at Jersey City were secured. In the same year the Cleveland and Pittsburgh was transferred to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, and also a controlling interest in the Jeffersonville, Madison and Indianapolis Railroad.

In 1881 the company purchased a controlling interest in the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad (including the Delaware, the West Chester and Philadelphia, and the Philadelphia and Baltimore Central Railroads), and thus secured another and more direct line connecting Philadelphia and Baltimore.

The total mileage of the Pennsylvania Railroad proper, including branches, leased and operated lines, etc., in 1882 was:

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Pennsylvania Railroad proper, with leased lines and branches 1172.50
Lines operated by the Pennsylvania Company 3422.70
Total 4595.20

The above statement includes the lines operated between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh and west of Pittsburgh, but does not comprise the New Jersey roads, the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore, the Northern Central, and the Baltimore and Potomac, with their branches in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, and New Jersey.

Chicago and Alton Railroad. — The Alton and Sangamon Railroad, chartered in 1847, commenced in 1849, and completed in 1852, was the first link in one of the most important railroads in the country, and the parent of the Chicago and Alton Railroad. After completion to Springfield, the road was extended to Bloomington, thence to Joliet, and thence to Chicago. The Chicago and Mississippi Railroad, chartered Feb. 27, 1847, was the organization that completed the road to Joliet. In December, 1857, the road from Alton to Joliet was sold for the paltry sum of five thousand dollars to Governor Matteson. The road represented an expenditure at the time of the sale of nine million five hundred and thirty-five thousand dollars. The purchaser was the St. Louis, Alton and Chicago Railroad, from whose hands the property passed in 1860 to James Robb, receiver. Under the financial and executive management of Mr. Robb the property improved in value, resources, and revenues rapidly, and in 1861 measures were inaugurated looking to the rehabilitation of the company, and in that year (February 16th) the Chicago and Alton Railroad Company was formed, with Mr. Robb as president. The proper termini of the road were recognized as being Chicago and St. Louis, and the offer of John J. Mitchell to build an independent line from Alton to East St. Louis, provided the Chicago and Alton Railroad Company would merge its franchises with those of the Alton and St. Louis Company, was accepted, and the road completed between East St. Louis and Alton. In 1868 the Chicago and Alton secured control of the Bloomington and Godfrey Line, a distance of one hundred and fifty miles, which had been built under the charter of the St. Louis, Jacksonville and Chicago Railroad Company. The lease under which this important connection was made runs for nine hundred and ninety-nine years, and the rental to be paid is forty per cent. of the gross earnings, provided the forty per cent. does not exceed two hundred and forty thousand dollars in any one year. In 1870-71 arrangements were entered into with the St. Louis, Jacksonville and Chicago Railroad Company by which a branch road from Rood-house, Ill., to Louisiana, on the Mississippi River, was built, and at the same time the charter and franchises of the Louisiana and Missouri River Railroad Company were transferred to the Chicago and Alton Railroad Company. This latter charter contemplated the construction of a road two hundred and sixteen miles in length (with a branch from Mexico to Cedar City, fifty miles in length), to a point opposite Jefferson City. The road from Louisiana to Mexico, Mo., was opened in the year 1871-72, from Mexico to Fulton March 6, 1872, and from Cedar City to Fulton in July of the same year. Legal difficulties intervened to prevent the construction of the contemplated line from Louisiana to Kansas City, and arrangements were made with the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern Railroad for traffic and passenger transportation over the road of the latter company from Mexico, Mo., to Kansas City, and for running passenger-trains on the line via Bloomington, Roodhouse, Louisiana, and Mexico, Mo., between Chicago and Kansas City. In 1878 the formation of an independent company to be controlled by the Chicago and Alton Company was effected, to build the Missouri extension from Mexico, Mo., to Kansas City. The corporate name of this company is the Kansas City, St. Louis and Chicago Railroad Company. Its road was opened through on the 1st of May, 1879.

The Chicago and Alton Road, main line, extends to Chicago, making connection there with the great number of roads running to the north and east. The Missouri Division uses the main line to Rood-house. The length of the main lines east of the river and all in the State of Illinois, including branches, is five hundred and sixty-seven miles. This road is now in the twenty-first year of its existence, and, including side tracks, is one thousand and seventy miles in length east and west of the river. It forms a triple link between the cities of Chicago, St. Louis, and Kansas City, and there is a branch from Dwight to Washington, Ill., 86.96 miles in length. Very nearly the entire road has been relaid with steel rails within the past few years. The line traverses rich sections of country, and has a splendid freight and passenger business.

In 1877 the Chicago and Alton Company built a bridge across the Mississippi at Louisiana.

The directors of the Chicago and Alton Railroad Company are T. B. Blackstone, John B. Drake, Chicago, Ill.; Morris K. Jesup, New York; John F. Slater, Norwich, Conn.; George Straut, Peoria, Ill.; James C. McMullin, John Crerar, Chicago; Lorenzo Blackstone, Norwich, Conn.; John J. Mitchell, St.

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Louis. The president of the company is T. B. Blackstone, Chicago. The Louisiana and Missouri River Railroad, extending from Louisiana, Mo., to Cedar City, Mo., a distance of 100.80 miles, was chartered in 1805, completed in July, 1872, and leased in perpetuity to the Chicago and Alton Railroad Company from Aug. 1, 1870. R. P. Tansey, St. Louis, is president of the company, and W. W. Pope, St. Louis, is secretary and "treasurer.

The Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad Company had its origin in the organization in 1849 of the Aurora Branch Railroad Company, and the construction of a railroad from Aurora to Geneva. In 1852 the Chicago and Aurora Railroad Company was organized, and built the road from Chicago to Aurora. In 1856 this latter road was consolidated with the Central Military Tract Railroad Company, which owned the road from Mendota to Galesburg, the new company being known as the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad Company. The Northern Cross Railroad Company, owning a line between Galesburg and Quincy, became embarrassed, and was purchased in 1860 by the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy. The Peoria and Aquatoka Railroad, which was purchased in 1862, gave the company a line from Peoria to East Burlington, with a terminus on the Mississippi River. In 1862 the company built the line from Gates City to Lewiston, and in 1868 the road from Lewiston to Rushville, under the charter of the Peoria and Hannibal Railroad Company. The Dayton, Peoria and Hannibal Railroad Company's charter was obtained about the same time. From Galva to New Boston and Keithsburg, the road was built under the charters of the American Central and of the Dixon and Quincy Railroad Companies, and leased by the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy. The Fox River Line was built under the charter of the Ottawa, Oswego and Fox River Valley Railroad Company, and leased by the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy. The road from Mendota to East Clinton was built by the Illinois Grand Trunk Railroad Company, and leased by the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy. By the lease of the Chicago and Iowa Railroad by the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy the Chicago and Rock River Railroad was reached, and by the lease of the Quincy and Warsaw Railroad and of the Carthage and Burlington Railroad the line from Quincy to Burlington was obtained, while the Keokuk and St. Paul Railroad Company opened the trade and travel of Keokuk to the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy. The Quincy Division, from Quincy to East Louisiana, was built by the Quincy, Alton and St. Louis Railroad Company, and was leased to the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy in 1876. The St. Louis, Rock Island and Chicago, built under the charter of the Rockford, Rock Island and St. Louis Railroad Company, and leased in 1876 to the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy, extend from the Chicago and Northwestern, near Sterling, to Rock Island, and thence to St. Louis.

The Burlington and Missouri River Railroad consolidated with the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy in 1872, and became the Iowa Division. During 1881a number of extensions and new lines of road were built in Missouri, Nebraska, Illinois, Iowa, and Colorado.

The St. Louis Division of the great Burlington Road consists of the old Rockford, Rock Island and St. Louis Railroad, two hundred and forty-seven miles in length, to Rock Island, and connects St. Louis with the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy system, with two thousand five hundred and eighty-six miles of road in Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado. The St. Louis Division was opened up in 1877. Previous to that time the Burlington had no line of its own into St. Louis, though it had good connections. From St. Louis a through line is formed in connection with the Burlington, Cedar Rapids and Northern and Minneapolis and St. Paul Roads to points in the Northwest. Via Rock Island and the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul a line is formed for all Missouri River and Wisconsin points, Manitoba, Montana, and Idaho. The Denver extension of the Burlington was completed July 1, 1882, and it is the only one of the lines from St. Louis which has its own track to that city. It penetrates the most fertile portions of Nebraska, and has opened up a section of country the trade of which ought to be very valuable to the merchants and manufacturers of St. Louis if the proper efforts are put forward to secure it.

The south end of the St. Louis Division of the Burlington passes through a rich wheat country. North of Vermont, Ill., the corn country along the line is reached and extends on through Illinois and Iowa, and in that section are also the great dairy farms of the West. This road brings over four million pounds of butter to St. Louis annually in its refrigerator-cars. The business both in and out of St. Louis is rapidly increasing.

The president of the company is C. E. Perkins, Burlington, Iowa; First Vice- President, A. E. Tonzalin, Boston; Second Vice-President and Treasurer, J. C. Peasley, Chicago; Third Vice-President and General Manager, T. J. Potter, Chicago. Officers of the St. Louis Division: Superintendent, W. R. Crumpton, St. Louis; Freight and Passenger Agent, W. D.

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Sanborn, St. Louis; Master-Mechanic, A. Forsyth, Beardstown, Ill.

The Texas and St. Louis Railway Company was organized on the 14th of April, 1879, as the successor of the Tyler Tap Railroad, and the road was opened to Trinity, one hundred and eighty-one miles, at the close of 1880. It was extended to Corsicana, a distance of two hundred and three miles, on the 1st of April, 1881, and to Waco, two hundred and sixty miles, Sept. 1, 1881. The company purchased the Little River Valley and Arkansas Railroad in Missouri, and organized under the name of the Texas and St. Louis Railway Company of Arkansas and Missouri, to build a railroad from Texarkana to Cairo, the object being to run through cars from Bird's Point, opposite Cairo, Ill., to Gatesville, Texas, a distance of seven hundred and thirty-two miles. On the 29th of May, 1882, the company effected a traffic alliance with the Illinois Central Railroad and the St. Louis, Alton and Terre Haute, commonly known as the Cairo Short Line, by which those companies agreed to interchange business and operate their respective roads as one line. Under this agreement the company is enabled to run its trains into St. Louis and Chicago. On the 16th of May, 1882, a similar arrangement was effected with the Arkansas Midland and the Batesville and Brinkley Railroad Companies, by the terms of which those companies agreed to change their gauge from three feet six inches to three feet and to complete their lines to their respective termini. This agreement secures to the Texas and St. Louis Company a line into Little Rock and Helena, Ark., and also to Augusta, Newport, Jacksonport, and Batesville, in the White River valley. Arrangements were also made to extend the line from Waco to Laredo, and to construct a branch from Mount Pleasant to Dallas, Texas.

The road is known as the "Cotton Belt" route, and is a most important addition to the railroad interests of St. Louis. The project originated among the cotton men of St. Louis, who saw an opportunity to penetrate one of the richest cotton belts in the South and draw the staple to the St. Louis market. With the exception of a gap of forty-five miles to be filled in Arkansas, this road has a continuous track between Bird's Point, Mo. (opposite Cairo, Ill.), and Gatesville, Texas, or a distance of seven hundred and fifty-two miles. There is a branch from New Madrid, Mo., to Maiden, the county-seat of Dunklin, the "banner" cotton-producing county of Missouri, and also producing a large amount of corn. A branch will soon be constructed to Dallas, Texas, and as soon as the forces can be transferred from Arkansas the extension through Texas to Laredo, on the Rio Grande, will be pushed along as fast as men and money can accomplish it. When the road reaches Laredo a connection will be formed with a narrow-gauge road which will be running into the city of Mexico by that time, — the Mexican National. From Texarkana the road runs parallel with the Iron Mountain Railway through Arkansas, and divides the country between it and the Mississippi River. While the richest cotton counties are traversed, there are also along the route some of the heaviest and best timber forests to be found in the United States. In Arkansas and Texas there have already been over fifty saw-mills started along the line of the narrow-gauge; new towns are being established, and immigration is pouring into the counties through which the road passes.

From Cairo the connection is made by change of trucks with the Cairo Short Line, over which road the freight will be transported to East St. Louis. During the past year a large and substantial brick building was put up at East St. Louis and supplied with the machinery necessary to establish there a cotton compress, the total cost of which was two hundred thousand dollars. This press will receive and handle the staple from along the narrow-gauge line, and it is expected that the cotton trade of St. Louis will be largely increased by the receipts over the Texas and St. Louis and Cairo Short Line roads.

The earnings during 1881 amounted to $198,039.90, and the expenses to $166,237.49. The company has a land grant of 10,240 acres to each mile of completed road, and capital stock is provided for at the rate of $10,000 per mile; funded debt, first mortgage six per cent. thirty-year bonds, dated June 1, 1880, interest June and December, $10,000 per mile; land grant and income six per cent. thirty-year bonds, dated June 1, 1880, $10,000 per mile, interest payable if earned. Up to April 1, 1882, there had been issued $2,660,000 first mortgage bonds, $2,660,000 income bonds, and $2,660,000 of stock, a total of $7,980,000. On the Missouri and Arkansas Division bonds were issued upon 160 miles of road at $10,000, or $1,600,000 first mortgage, and the same amount of income bonds.

The officers of the company are: Directors, J. W. Paramore, W. M. Senter, J. L. Sloss, St. Louis; L. H. Roots, Little Rock, Ark.; T. R. Bonner, L. B. Fish, Tyler, Texas; L. C. De Morse, Texarkana, Ark.; T. J. Lowe, Gilmer, Texas; C. M. Seley, Waco, Texas. President, J. W. Paramore, St. Louis; Vice-President, W. M. Senter, St. Louis; Treasurer, L. B. Fish; Secretary, C. T. Bonner; General Freight and Ticket Agent, G. W. Lilley, all of Tyler, Texas; Master of Machinery, G. W. Prescott,

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St. Louis; General Superintendent, J. B. Van Dyne, Tyler, Texas; Chief Engineer, C. F. Stephens, Pine Bluff; Purchasing Agent, F. W. Paramore, St. Louis; Master of Car Repairs, W. J. Lewis, Tyler, Texas. The principal office of the company is at St. Louis. Col. James W. Paramore, president of the Texas and St. Louis Railway Company, was born near Mansfield, Ohio, Dec. 27, 1830, — a farmer's son and the tenth of a family of eleven children. He early determined to secure a college education, and as his father was only in moderate circumstances, he decided that it should be obtained at his own expense. After some debate his father gave his consent, on condition that he should relinquish his share of the paternal estate. At seventeen he prepared for college at Mansfield Academy, and then went through Granville College (now Dennison University), graduating in the class of '52 with high honors. During this entire period he supported himself by his own labor. He then taught two years in the Montgomery (Ala.) Academy, and studied law in the office of Bortley & Kirkwood, at Mansfield, Ohio. Mr. Bortley was afterwards elected supreme judge, and also became Governor, while Mr. Kirkwood moved to Iowa, and became Governor and United States, senator, and was a member of President Garfield's cabinet.

Young Paramore then attended the Albany Law School, graduating in 1855 as Bachelor of Laws, and subsequently opened a law-office at Cleveland, and made an excellent beginning. A disastrous commercial speculation, however, in 1857, induced him to seek a new field in the West, and he settled at Washington, Mo., where, in addition to conducting a promising law business, he published the Washington Advertiser, a local paper of fair circulation and influence.

Upon the breaking out of the war he returned with his family to Ohio, and promptly responded to the call for troops, becoming major in the Third Ohio Cavalry, and serving under Buell, Rosecrans, and Thomas, in the Armies of the Ohio and the Cumberland. He participated in twenty-seven engagements (many of them very severe ones), without, however, receiving a wound. He was very popular and efficient as an officer, and after the battle of Stone River was promoted to the colonelcy of the regiment over the lieutenant-colonel and the senior major, and for a considerable period commanded the Second Cavalry Brigade.

In 1861 he resigned from the army and engaged successfully in business at Nashville, Tenn. In 1867 he turned his attention to railroading, and obtained a charter for the Tennessee and Pacific Railroad, a link designed to connect the Southern Pacific with the Atlantic waters at Norfolk, Va. Under the stimulus of liberal aid from the State, a portion of the line was completed, but unfriendly legislation followed and the work was suspended. As superintendent, etc., Col. Paramore continued to operate the finished portion until the adoption of the new Constitution forbade any further hope of help from the State, and then he sold his interests and removed to St. Louis, attracted by the grand capabilities of the city. He here began to urge upon others the possibilities of St. Louis becoming a great cotton market, but generally his ideas were declared to be Utopian. The Iron Mountain Railroad had just been completed into the cotton belt, and his quick perception grasped the idea that this highway, extending into the very heart of the cotton-producing region of Arkansas and Texas (the finest in the world), opened a new enterprise for St. Louis and made it possible to establish hero one of the leading cotton markets of the world. To accomplish this two things were requisite: 1. Reasonable transportation charges to St. Louis, which were readily conceded by Mr. Allen, the president of the Iron Mountain Railroad; and 2. The reduction of the expense of handling the staple to the lowest possible figures. The latter could be accomplished only by the use of machinery more powerful than had been previously considered necessary. Chiefly through his labors the Cotton Compress Company was formed in 1873, with himself as president. It started with seventy-five thousand dollars, but now has one million two hundred and fifty thousand dollars paid-up capital, and maintains the largest and most convenient warehouses for handling cotton in the world. The company occupies about eighty acres of land, and has a handling capacity of fully five hundred thousand bales of cotton a year, and a compressing capacity of three thousand bales daily.

Col. Paramore was president of the company, and the architect of all the buildings and compresses that now comprise this magnificent system of handling cotton, which (by the way) is being copied by other cotton markets of the country.

This was the pioneer of other establishments of a similar character, and the result of Col. Paramore's prompt and far-sighted action has been to place the cotton trade of St. Louis on a substantial basis. From an average of 28,575 bales from 1866 to 1873 it has risen to 480,028 bales in 1879-80, and 402,706 bales in 1880-81.

In such esteem were Col. Paramore's services in this respect held, that in December, 1880, the business men of St. Louis presented him with a silver service, accompanied by the following letter:

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"Dear Sir, — By this testimonial we desire to express our high regard for your character as a friend, and to offer our tribute of admiration for the rare ability you have shown in the successful management of the large business enterprise under your control. To you more than to any other person is due the credit for erecting the compress warehouses, by which a flourishing trade in cotton was created; and to you, also, should be accorded especial praise for your untiring efforts to build a railroad into Texas, that our commerce with that State might be increased and forever secured. Not alone as a leader in these enterprises have you manifested that consummate skill and courageous, indomitable energy which have marked your conduct as a business man, but in every useful measure with which you were concerned, whether for the public good or for private gain, you have always shown the fidelity and disinterested zeal of a true friend and benefactor. Please accept this solid silver service as being the token of our esteem commemorative of your career."

While studying the cotton question, Col. Paramore observed that in Arkansas, Texas, Southern Kansas, and the Indian country there was a region capable of producing more than two million bales of cotton yearly legitimately tributary to St. Louis, but with no economical means of reaching a market, and he conceived the system of roads known as the "Cotton Belt Route" to penetrate this region. In the fall of 1881 he resigned the presidency of the Cotton Compress Company, and has ever since given his undivided attention to the prosecution of this great work. It is a system of narrow-gauge railroads, extending from Cairo, Ill., to Laredo, Texas, with "feeders" at various points, embracing, when completed, over one thousand five hundred miles of railroads, and penetrating a section of the Southwest unrivaled for the raising of cotton and miscellaneous produce. At Laredo the system connects with the road now building under the "Palmer-Sullivan concession" through Mexico, and at Cairo it has an extremely advantageous traffic contract with the Illinois Central Railroad, by which, as previously stated, it makes direct connection with St. Louis, and also Chicago and all Eastern cities.

It is not by chance that Col. Paramore has selected the three-feet gauge for his system of railroads. His is a strong, analytical mind, and before engaging in any enterprise he is accustomed to give it a thorough and exhaustive study from every stand-point. He chose the three-feet gauge, not on grounds of present expediency merely, but in the firm belief that this system is the one best adapted to the South, and must crowd the old "broad-gauge" roads to the wall. He argues that since the product of about eighty acres of cotton may be carried in one car, while only five to ten acres of the staple products of the North are required to till a car, the South does not need the heavy and expensive system of broad-gauge railroads. He asks, "Why send a four-horse wagon to bring a two-horse load?" In other words, why maintain broad-gauge roads when narrow-gauge will answer the same purpose?

In his investigation of the matter, Col. Paramore has come to the most important conclusions, if true. He not only claims the absolute economy of a three-feet gauge road, but he believes that such a road, with a debt limited to the expense of building and operating, can hold in check the vast railway monopolies already in existence, with their roads bonded for many times their value. It must be apparent that a railway whose fixed charges for interest do not exceed six hundred dollars per mile, and which if substantially built can be worked for 33 1/3 per cent. of its gross earnings, can afford to give lower rates, both for freight and passenger traffic, than one whose fixed interest charges are twelve hundred to fifteen hundred dollars per mile annually, and which, under the most favorable circumstances, cannot be worked for much less than sixty per cent. of its gross earnings.

There seems little room to doubt the correctness of Col. Paramore's belief that this system of railways will effectually protect the people of the South against the concentrating tendencies of the great broad-gauge roads. In the judgment of Col. Paramore the narrow-gauge railroad is the one upon which the future business of the country will be done; the present standard gauge must ultimately give way before it, since it embraces economy in construction and economy in operation, and lessens immensely the cost of moving the products of the farmer and manufacturer. There is also the important consideration that such roads, properly managed, will always be able to respond to the popular cry of cheap transportation, and will effectually spike the guns of those who are demanding that "government should lay its iron hand on the railroads and undertake to regulate their charges."

Upon the subject of cheap transportation Col. Paramore holds novel and striking views, contrary to the belief generally entertained by the people in the Mississippi valley, viz., "that railroad transportation is cheaper than river." While others have proclaimed the Mississippi to be "God's great highway for commerce," he views it as merely a great "national sewer," and says that to man has been left the labor of providing "cheap and rapid transportation" by the construction of railroads. He energetically insists that, as a matter of fact, cotton can to-day be shipped from Arkansas and Texas via St. Louis to Europe cheaper than from the gulf port cities.

This discussion illustrates very forcibly the original and striking methods of thought that characterize

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Col. Paramore. Whether his conclusions agree with those of previous investigators in the same field matters little to him; like every independent and original thinker, he has supreme confidence in his own judgment, and follows it unfalteringly, although it may lead him to abandon old traditions and attack old idols. Living in a period celebrated for great railroad men, he loses nothing by comparison with the greatest of them. In one short decade he has written his name indelibly on the history of St. Louis and the great Southwest. As has been well said, "He has been the chief promoter, and in some sense the creator, of one of the richest trades that pay tribute to St. Louis, and has now laid hold upon the carrying trade of the Southwest with a boldness and vigor and originality that make him one of the most conspicuous and able leaders of the time."

Col. Paramore has not only shown St. Louis how to be a great cotton market, but he has also exerted himself to make it the centre of a system of railroad transportation which now seems destined to revolutionize the railroad system of the South and Southwest, and work incalculable benefits to the industries of those regions.

Col. Paramore is still in the full vigor of manhood, when judgment is at its best, and although he has already done more for St. Louis than often falls to the lot of one man to accomplish for a community, his fellow-citizens are encouraged to hope that what he has already performed is only a promise of a yet more brilliant and useful future.

Indianapolis and St. Louis Railroad and the St. Louis, Alton and Terre Haute Railroad. — The Terre Haute and Alton Railroad was chartered Jan. 28, 1851. In 1852 the Belleville and Illinoistown Railroad Company was incorporated by the Illinois Legislature to construct a railroad from Illinoistown (now East St. Louis) to Belleville. In 1854 an act was passed by the Illinois Legislature authorizing the consolidation of both of the above railroads under the style of the Terre Haute, Alton and St. Louis Railroad Company. The consolidation was not effected until 1856, when the whole line from East St. Louis to Terre Haute and from East St. Louis to Belleville was completed and opened to traffic. Financial embarrassments overtaking the new company it was placed in the hands of a receiver, and on the 18th of February, 1861, reorganized under the style of the St. Louis, Alton and Terre Haute Railroad Company, which took possession in 1862.

The Indianapolis and St. Louis Railroad was chartered Aug. 31, 1867, and opened July 11, 1870, having been built in the interest of and leased to the Pennsylvania Company (Pennsylvania Railroad). In 1867 it leased the St. Louis, Alton and Terre Haute Railroad for ninety-nine years; the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati and Indianapolis, the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern, the Indianapolis, Cincinnati and Lafayette, and the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad Companies being guarantors of the lease. The Indianapolis, Cincinnati and Lafayette Railroad having passed into the hands of a receiver, the other companies were left to guarantee the provisions of the lease, which they did until April 1, 1878, when the Indianapolis and St. Louis Railroad Company refused to pay the monthly rental unless the St. Louis, Alton and Terre Haute consented to a reduction of the rental to three hundred thousand dollars. Litigation ensued to compel a performance of the lease.

The Cairo Short Line, as the St. Louis, Alton and Terre Haute is generally called, is the connecting link between St. Louis and New Orleans. It is also closely allied with the Illinois Central, and the latter now controls the Chicago, St. Louis and New Orleans, or Great Jackson route, which with the Cairo Short Line forms the through line between St. Louis and New Orleans, the entire distance being six hundred and ninety-eight miles. The distance between St. Louis and Cairo by the Short Line is one hundred and fifty miles. The traffic agreement with the Texas and St. Louis, it is confidently believed, will result in a large exchange of business between the two roads, The narrow-gauge has opened up an entirely new section of country, and one, too, that is rich in resources, and rapidly filling up with a good class of settlers. At Cairo adequate transfer facilities have been provided, and very little time will be lost in changing the cars from the trucks of the two lines, which is to be done in order not to break bulk. The Carlo Short Line not only has a large through business, but its local business is exceptionally fine. It is one of the heaviest of the coal-carrying roads.

The Indianapolis and St. Louis Railroad is a part of the "Bee-Line System," the other lines in the system being the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati and Indianapolis Railroad and the Dayton and Union, all of which are practically under one management. The Bee Line has been in operation more than twenty years. The mileage of the system is as follows:

Indianapolis and St. Louis Line, from St. Louis to Indianapolis 263
Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati, from Indianapolis to Cleveland 283
Cincinnati to Cleveland 245
Columbus to Delaware, Ohio 25
Dayton to Union 47
Total 863

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The president and receiver of the company is J. H. Devereux, of Cleveland, Ohio. The president of the St. Louis, Alton and Terre Haute Company is W. Bayard Cutting, of New York; Vice-President, Treasurer, and General Manager, George W. Parker, St. Louis; Secretary, E. F. Leonard, St. Louis.

Louisville and Nashville Railroad. — The St. Louis and Southeastern Railway (Louisville and Nashville Railroad, St. Louis Division) was the outcome of railroads chartered by the States of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee. The St. Louis and Southeastern and the Evansville and Southern Illinois were chartered by the State of Illinois in 1869. The Evansville, Carmi and Paducah Railroad Company was chartered by Indiana in the same year. Under these three charters the main line from St. Louis to Evansville, Ind., and the Shawneetown Branch were constructed. The road from Mount Vernon to Ashley and from Ashley to St. Louis was put under contract immediately, and trains were running to Mount Vernon in 1870, and to East St. Louis in 1871. The Illinois companies were consolidated in 1870 under the name of the St. Louis and Southeastern Railway Company of Illinois and Indiana.

In 1872 negotiations were finally completed by which the franchises of the Evansville, Henderson and Nashville Railroad, incorporated by Kentucky in 1867 to build a railroad from Henderson to the State line of Tennessee, were transferred to the St. Louis and Southeastern. The length of the road proper is 208 miles, divided into the St. Louis Division, from East St. Louis to Evansville, 160.8 miles; the Shawneetown Branch, 41.5 miles; and the O'Fallon Branch, 5.9 miles. The Kentucky Division, from Henderson to Guthrie, is 98 miles in length, and the Tennessee Division, from Guthrie to Nashville, is 47 miles in length.

In 1880 the road passed under the control of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, and now forms a part of that great system.

The Louisville and Nashville Railroad connects St. Louis with Nashville, Tenn., it being three hundred and sixty-one miles to the latter point, and there joins the system which extends through the Southeast, penetrating with its leased lines and allied roads the States of Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Florida. The Louisville and Nashville system proper, without including the leased lines, is two thousand three hundred and twenty miles in length. The headquarters are at Louisville, and it is regarded as one of the most valuable of the lines classed as Southern roads.

In conjunction with the Chesapeake and Ohio Road, with which it connects at Louisville, a through route to points in West Virginia, Virginia, Washington, Baltimore, and Georgia is formed. During the past year the Louisville and Nashville opened up a line between St. Louis and the city of Louisville, the route being formed over the Louisville Air Line, which meets the Louisville and Nashville at Mount Vernon, Ill. The line passes the county-seat of every county on the route in Illinois, and traverses one of the best wheat-growing sections of that State. There is a large milling interest on the road, and it is one of the heaviest coal-carrying roads that enters the city of St. Louis.

St. Louis and Cairo Railroad. — The Cairo and St. Louis Railroad Company was chartered Feb. 16, 1865, to construct a railroad from East St. Louis, via Columbia and Waterloo, Red Bud and Sparta, Murphysboro' and Jonesboro', to Cairo. Ground was broken Aug. 30, 1871, and the road was completed and opened on the 1st of March, 1875. On July 14, 1881, the road was sold, under foreclosure of the first mortgage bonds, and a new company organized, under the name of the St. Louis and Cairo Railroad Company, which took possession of the road on Feb. 1, 1882. The line of the road extends from East St. Louis to Cairo, Ill., a distance of 146.5 miles. The St. Louis and Cairo Railroad is a narrow-gauge line, and was the first of its kind built near St. Louis. Its business has been chiefly of a local nature, and principally between the points from which the name is derived. It passes through some of the most prosperous counties of Illinois, and has built up a business which, while not being regarded as large, is fairly satisfactory. One of the drawbacks has been the gauge, on account of which the exchange of business with the standard gauge roads has been comparatively light. About a year ago it was generally supposed that the St. Louis and Cairo would make connection with the Texas and St. Louis (the Paramore system), and thus form the connecting link between that chain of narrow-gauge lines and the Toledo, Cincinnati and St. Louis, the latter now practically completed to East St. Louis. The arrangement, however, was not carried out, as the Texas and St. Louis some time since made a traffic arrangement with the Cairo Short Line and the Illinois Central.

The directors of the company in 1882 were S. Corning Judd, H. B. Whitehouse, Chicago; J. A. Horsey, E. Norton, New York; J. B. Livingston, East St. Louis; F. Bross, Cairo. President, W. F. Whitehouse, Chicago; General Superintendent, Charles Hamilton, St. Louis.

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The Toledo, Cincinnati and St. Louis Railroad is the longest narrow-gauge road east of the Mississippi River, and is now practically finished to East St. Louis, where track-yards, freight-houses, and depots are being provided. The original name of the road was the Toledo, Delphos and Bloomington, but it was subsequently changed to the style given above. The system now embraces a mileage of about nine hundred miles, and the necessary amount of money has been secured to put in order and equip the St. Louis end. At Delphos, Ohio, the line branches to St. Louis, making nearly a direct route from St. Louis to Toledo, Ohio. This will be a most important road to St. Louis, as it runs through the upper Ohio valley, and thus opens up to trade a territory not heretofore directly tributary to this market.

The West End Narrow-Gauge Railway extends from Grand Avenue, St. Louis, to, Florissant, Mo., a distance of sixteen miles. It was opened Oct. 1, 1878, and sold under foreclosure in March, 1879. The president of the company is Erastus Wells; Superintendent, Holla Wells; Secretary and Treasurer, William D. Henry.

The East St. Louis and Carondelet Railway was chartered on the 18th of February, 1857, and opened Sept. 26, 1872. It is used chiefly as a connecting road for all lines terminating at East St. Louis. It extends from East St. Louis to Falling Springs, Ill., a distance of 9.25 miles, with a branch to East Carondelet, a distance of 2.25 miles. At East Carondelet. by means of the Missouri Pacific steam ferry, cars are transferred to and fro between the Missouri Pacific and San Francisco and Iron Mountain Roads and the roads on the east bank of the river. The officers of the company are Thomas D. Messier, president, Pittsburgh; John B. Bowman, secretary, East St. Louis; W. H. Barnes, treasurer, Pittsburgh; Joseph Hill, general superintendent, St. Louis.

The East St. Louis Connecting Railway extends along the levee in East St. Louis a distance of 1.25 miles. The company was chartered Dec. 26, 1877, and the road was opened Oct. 28, 1879. The officers are S. C. Clubb, president, St. Louis; S. A. Chouteau, secretary, St. Louis; Gordon Willis, general freight agent, East St. Louis; H. L. Clark, treasurer, St. Louis; Robert Henry, road-master, East St. Louis.

The Illinois and St. Louis Railroad and Coal Company was chartered originally as the St. Clair Railroad Company on the 26th of February, 1841, and the name was changed to that of the Pittsburgh Railroad and Coal Company, chartered Feb. 10, 1859. The corporation was reorganized under its present title on the 16th of February, 1865. The line extends from Belleville, Ill., to East St. Louis, Ill., a distance of fifteen miles, and has coal-mine brandies aggregating three miles in length.

The St. Louis Bridge Railroad was operated until 1881 by the St. Louis Bridge Company, which succeeded (March 17, 1879) the Illinois and St. Louis Bridge Company, sold out under foreclosure. On the 1st of July, 1881, the bridge was leased to the Missouri Pacific and "Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railway Companies. The length of the tract on the great bridge across the Mississippi and its approaches is 6439 feet, and the length in St. Louis is 11.19 miles, and in East St. Louis 5.77 miles. The bridge has two roadways, — the lower one for steam railway traffic alone, the upper one for horse railways, wagons, and foot-passengers.

The St. Louis Coal Railroad is owned and controlled chiefly by capitalists of St. Louis, mostly manufacturers and coal-miners. Its length is now about one hundred miles. It runs to some of the largest coal-mines in Illinois, and there are being started on the line some iron- and steel-works that promise to be the largest in the State. It reaches St. Louis over the Cairo Short Line track.

The Tunnel Railroad of St. Louis was formerly the St. Louis Tunnel Railroad, which was sold under foreclosure, and a new company formed under it title of the Tunnel Railroad of St. Louis, with a capital of one million two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, divided into shares of one hundred dollars each. In July, 1881, this company leased its road and property to the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific and the Missouri Pacific Railway Companies, which agreed to pay as rental an annual dividend of six per cent. on the capital stock, to pay two thousand five hundred dollars a year for the expenses of organization, to provide and maintain offices in New York and St. Louis, and to pay all expenses of advertising, etc. The president of the company is Julius S. Walsh, of St. Louis. The length of the tunnel is about one mile.

Vandalia Line 356  
Ohio and Mississippi 624  
Bee Line 863  
Chicago and Alton 567  
Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific (east) 2307  
Chicago, Burlington and Quincy 1064  
Louisville and Nashville 319  
St. Louis and Cairo 151  
Toledo, Cincinnati and St. Louis 900  
Cairo Short Line 150  
Total eastward   7,301
Southwestern system 5944  
St. Louis and San Francisco 891  
Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific (west) 1363  
Chicago and Alton (west) 265  
Keokuk and St. Louis Line 139  
Texas and St. Louis 800  
Chicago, Burlington and Quincy (west) 1522  
Total westward   10,924
Aggregate   18,225

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St. Louis, although advantageously situated, with sixteen railroads and three great rivers, has labored under many disadvantages in respect to freight rates, and an attempt is now being made through the organization of a Freight Bureau to obtain her just rights in the premises. The amount of business in the past year, as indicated by the tonnage handled, shows a steady increase, as will be seen by the following table:

  1882. 1881. 1880.
Tons freight received 7,702,702 7,002,985 6,990,384
Tons freight shipped 4,519,065 4,346,937 3,793,205
Total by river and rail 12,221,767 11,949,922 10,783,589

Union Depot, on the south side of Poplar Street, between Ninth and Twelfth, is the central point at which converge the railroads entering St. Louis. It is a large building of brick and stone, and was erected by a company organized on the 10th of June, 1871. At the preliminary meeting held for the purpose of completing the organization "for the establishment of a union passenger depot and tunnel in St. Louis" the following persons were present:

Daniel Torrance, president O. and M. R. R. Co.; A. N. Christie, vice-president O. and M. R. R. Co.; Gen. L. B. Parsons, director O. and M. and North Mo. R. R.; W. R. McKeen, president St. Louis, Vandalia and Terre Haute Railroad; W. G. Broughton, superintendent St. L. and St. J.; E. W. Woodward, president Indianapolis and St. Louis R. R.; Oscar Townsend, president C. C. C. and I. R. R. Co.; J. J. Mitchell, director C. and A. R. R.; J. C. McMullen, general superintendent C. and A. R. R.; Gen. E. F. Winslow, president St. L. and S. E. R. R.; A. Carnegie, director U. P. R. R.; Capt. James B. Bads, chief engineer Bridge Company; Dr. William Taussig, chairman executive committee Bridge Co.; William P. Shinn, general agent Penn. Central R. R. Co.; James Smith, of Jamison, Smith & Cotting, bankers, New York; Col. T. A. Scott, president Penn. Central R. R. Co.; J. A. McCullough, general manager Penn. Central; J. N. Drummond, assistant president T. W. and W. R. W. Co.; Gen. A. Anderson, vice-president T. W. and W. R. W. Co.; Hon. W. M. McPherson, director in Bridge Company and N. M. R. R. Co.; Col. George E. Leighton and B. M. Chambers, directors in Mo. Pacific R. R. Co.; Thomas Allen, president Iron Mountain R. R.

On motion of Col. Thomas A. Scott, the following plan of organization was adopted:

"1. The company to be organized on a basis of five millions of dollars, as follows:

"First mortgage seven per cent. gold bonds, free of tax $2,000,000
Three millions capital stock 3,000,000
"From which it is expected to realize —  
Two millions of bonds, at say 85 $1,700,000
Three millions capital (assuming that only one-third will be called) 1,000,000
"Which will cover the following estimated cost:  
Real estate $750,000
Tunnel (according to engineer's estimates) 615,000
Depot building (according to engineer's estimates) 1,000,000
Interest on bonds during construction 100,000
Contingencies 235,000

"2. The amount necessary to pay the annual interest on the bonds and the premium thereon (say $155,000), also eight per cent. interest on the paid-up capital ($80,000), also the costs and expenses of maintenance (say $50,000), and a sufficient amount to provide a sinking fund of not less than $50,000 per annum, which shall be used by the trustees, first, to reduce by lot annually the bonded indebtedness until it is paid off, and thereafter to return ratably to each shareholder ninety per cent. of his stock investment, and when this is accomplished, the depot and its business shall ever thereafter be subject only to such assessment as will be required to pay its maintenance. Taxes and working expenses with eight per cent. per annum on the remaining ten per cent. of stock, which shall be preserved for the purpose of holding intact the corporate organization and franchises of the company, shall be assessed pro rata against all the roads using the depot and tunnel.

"3. Contracting roads pay only the net amount of such assessment; non-contracting roads or future lines shall pay thirty (30) per cent. in addition to their pro rated assessment, of which additional percentage one-half is to be returned to the contracting roads according to their pro rata, and the other half, together with all the rents obtained from the building proper, such as offices, eating-houses, restaurants, etc., goes to stock.

"4. With the consent of the depot company and two-thirds of the contracting lines, the additional percentage of the assessment against non-contracting lines may be reduced to not less than ten (10) per cent.

"5. The pro rating shall be made on the tonnage of freight passing through the tunnel or going to the depot, whether through the tunnel or otherwise, and also on each passenger-, baggage-, and express-car entering the depot or tunnel (an account of which shall be kept by the depot company), and each passenger-, baggage-, and express-ear shall be assessed the same as ten tons of freight. But the board of directors shall, by the assent of two-thirds of its entire body, have authority to make and establish from time to time such tariff of rates and charges, both as regards the through and local business that may be done in said tunnel and depot, as they may deem just and equitable, it being, however, provided that the rates so established shall produce the amount required as stated in Section 2.

"6. No charge shall be made to contracting roads for locomotives or empty cars.

"7. The privileges of the depot consist in the use of tracks in the depot proper and sidings for empty trains, waiting-rooms, baggage- and conductors' rooms, ticket- and telegraph-offices.

"8. The choice of tracks and other depot facilities shall be at the option of contracting roads. In case of disagreement it shall be determined by lot.

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"9. The passage of trains through the tunnel shall be regulated in the same order of precedence as that established by the bridge company.

"10. Each contracting road shall bind itself to use the passenger depot and tunnel during the term of the corporate existence of the Union Depot Company, and they further respectively agree to run each and all of their passenger-trains running through the present limits of St. Louis to and from said company's depot in St. Louis, and to pay such rates for their use and maintenance (according to provisions of paragraph 2) as may be equitably assessed against it according to their use, and shall subscribe not less than fifty thousand dollars to its capital stock, payable in installments, as called for by the board during the progress of the work.

"11. Every contracting road terminating in East St. Louis or in St. Louis shall be entitled to be represented by one director in the board of directors, and provision shall be made as soon as possible to carry this article into effect."

The following were the articles of association:

"ARTICLE 1. The corporate title of this association shall be the Union Depot Company of St. Louis.

"ART. 2. The object of this company shall be the acquisition of the necessary grounds and the erection of the necessary buildings for the establishment and maintenance of a union passenger depot in the city of St. Louis, also, ultimately, of a union freight depot for the accommodation of through and local freight, and to make such arrangements with the bridge company as may be found needful for the early completion of the connections leading from the bridge to the depot or depots of this company or other companies, by tunnel or otherwise.

"ART. 3. The company shall organize under the provisions of the act of the General Assembly of the State of Missouri, approved March 10, 1871, providing for the formation of such companies.

"ART. 4. The capital of the company shall be three million dollars, to be represented by thirty thousand shares of one hundred dollars each, and its corporate existence shall continue for nine hundred and ninety-nine years.

"ART. 5. So soon as five hundred thousand dollars are subscribed to the capital stock, the subscribers thereto shall, either in person or by duly executed proxy, elect a board of nine directors, who shall continue in office for one year, and who, immediately after their election, shall organize by the choice of a president from among their number, and of a secretary and treasurer. Until such time as the company has its own offices, such election and meetings of the board shall be held at the office of the Illinois and St. Louis Bridge Company.

"ART. 6. Five per cent. of the amount subscribed shall be paid in cash at the time of subscription, and until a treasurer is elected William Taussig, of the city of St. Louis, is authorized to collect such first cash payment.

"ART. 7. The board of directors shall, as soon as practicable, enact by-laws for the government of the company, and the ‘plan of organization’ hereto attached shall form the basis of such bylaws.

"The undersigned agree to the above articles of association, and subscribe the number of shares set opposite their names to the capital stock of the Union Depot Company of St. Louis:

Subscribers. No. Shares.
Ohio and Mississippi Railway Company, by D. Torrance, president 1000
A. N. Christie 1000
Louis B. Parsons 1000
The Toledo, Wabash and Western, by A. Anderson 2500
St. Louis, Vandalia and Terre Haute, by William R. McKeen 1000
Indianapolis and St. Louis Railroad Company, by E. W. Woodward 500
J. B. Eads, on account of the North Missouri Railroad 1000
Illinois and St. Louis Bridge Company, by William M. McPherson, president 1000
Pittsburgh, Cincinnati and St. Louis Railroad Company, by Thomas A. Scott, president 2250
The Pennsylvania Company, by Thomas A. Scott, president 2000
St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad Company, by Thomas Allen, president 500
Chicago and Alton Railroad, by J. J. Mitchell 500
James B. Eads 50
James D. Smith 50
Andrew Carnegie 100
William Taussig 100
Thomas A. Scott 50
James H. Britton 50
D. Torrance 50
A. N. Christie 50

Stock having been subscribed to the extent of fifteen thousand shares, a meeting of the stockholders was held. Thomas A. Scott was elected chairman, and William P. Shinn secretary.

On motion of Capt. Eads it was resolved that the subscribers proceed to an election of nine directors of the company by ballot. Messrs. Smith and Britton were appointed tellers. The election having been held, the tellers reported the whole number of votes cast fourteen thousand three hundred; necessary to a choice, seven thousand one hundred and seventy-six.

The following gentlemen were declared duly elected for the ensuing year, each receiving fourteen thousand three hundred and fifty votes, to wit: D. Torrance, E. W. Woodward, William R. McKeen, Thomas Allen, J. B. Eads, Thomas A. Scott, J. J. Mitchell, A. Boody, William Taussig. The meeting then adjourned.

The board of directors then met, and was called to order by Col. T. A. Scott. Dr. William Taussig was then elected president of the board, and Daniel Torrance vice-president; E. W. Woodward was chosen secretary pro tem.; Col. James H. Britton was elected treasurer of the board.

On motion of Col. Scott, it was resolved that the president be requested to collect and prepare a report of all the data and information respecting sites and plans for depot purposes, with power to employ proper persons to assist in obtaining such data.

On motion of Mr. Mitchell, it was resolved that the books of subscription to the stock of the company be closed until otherwise ordered by the board.

At a meeting of the directors held on the 27th of June, 1871, it was

"Resolved, That a special committee of five be appointed to confer with the authorities of the city of St. Louis, with the officers of the several lines of railroads west of the river that terminate in St. Louis, and such other parties as said committee may deem needful, in order to ascertain whether the facilities and united action can be obtained, said committee to have

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power to call the board together whenever they are prepared to submit a report for consideration of the board.

"Resolved, That no location of the depot west of Fourth Street should be considered."

The resolutions were adopted unanimously, and the following gentlemen were appointed the committee: Col. Thomas A. Scott, D. Torrance, A. Boody, Thomas Allen, J. B. Eads. The president, Dr. Taussig, was added to the committee. The site on Poplar Street was finally chosen, and the building erected.

On the 9th of May, 1874, the St. Louis Union Depot Company was chartered under an act authorizing the formation of union depots and stations for railroads in the cities of Missouri, approved March 18, 1871. The charter was to run ninety-nine years. The capital stock of the company was $1,000,000, divided into ten thousand shares of one hundred dollars each. The following is the list of incorporators, with the amount of stock subscribed by each:

William D. Griswold $10,000
William H. Clement 25,000
Joseph N. Kinney 25,000
Robert M. Shoemaker 25,000
Peter W. Strader 25,000
William Taussig 5,000
Samuel Gaty 2,500
Total $117,500


In St. Louis as elsewhere the omnibus preceded the street-car, just as the stage preceded the railway train.

In March, 1838, Mr. Belcher was proprietor of an omnibus line which a local journal stated was "deserving of the praise and patronage of the public for the handsome and convenient style in which his carriage is fitted up." This enterprise did not, however, receive the patronage it deserved, and Mr. Belcher's omnibus line soon suspended operations. In the fall of 1844, Erastus Wells, now one of the leading citizens of St. Louis, associated himself with Calvin Case, and the firm of Case & Wells established an omnibus line. Referring to the enterprise a St. Louis newspaper of June 11, 1845, said, —

"It is but a few months since our opinion was asked as to the probable profits of an omnibus to be run in a certain part of the city. At that time no omnibuses were run in the city. The experiment was attempted. The first was started by Messrs. Case & Wells, to ran from the National Hotel, on Market Street, to the ferry at the upper end of the city. We believe it has been as successful as could have been expected from a new undertaking. At first people were a little shy of it; some did not think it exactly a genteel way of traveling the streets. These scruples have entirely disappeared, and everybody now rides in them, and is glad of the opportunity. Messrs. Case & Wells manifest a determination to keep up with the encouragement given, and have lately put on their line a new and beautiful omnibus manufactured in Troy, N. Y. It is a fine specimen of workmanship, and is a very comfortable carriage. In addition to the line above mentioned, we now have regular lines running from the National Hotel to the arsenal, along Second Street; a line from the Planters' House to the arsenal, along Fourth Street; a line from the corner of Fourth and Market Streets to the Camp Springs, and a line to the Prairie House. All seem to be doing a flourishing and profitable business, and they prove to be a great convenience to persons residing in distant parts, and to those having business to attend to in remote parts of the city. They have contributed not a little to give an increase of value to real estate lying at a distance from the centre or business part of the city."

The first omnibus of St. Louis manufacture was placed upon the Market Street and Carondelet Avenue line Sept. 17, 1845. It was constructed by T. Salorgne, and was "in every respect equal to those used on the Case & Wells line." 145 The Sunday idea in 1846 entered into the legislation about omnibuses, and the City Council adopted the following ordinance:

"It shall not be lawful for any omnibus or vehicle capable of containing more than four persons to be driven in the streets of this city on Sunday after the hour of two o'clock in the afternoon, for the purpose of carrying passengers from point to point within the city, or from a point within the city to a point without the same, or from a point without the city to a point within the same. For any violation of this section, the owner, driver, or person in charge of any such vehicle shall forfeit and pay for the first offense not less than twenty dollars, for the second offense not less than fifty dollars, for the third offense not less than one hundred dollars, and upon a third conviction the license to run such vehicle shall be adjudged to be forfeited."

"The above," said the Republican of June 22d, in reference to the ordinance, "is a fair specimen of the legislation of the Native American City Council. The distinction drawn between the morning and evening of Sunday, making an act lawful if done before 2 o'clock P. M. and unlawful if done after that hour, the distinction between carriages that will hold four and those that will hold five persons, the allowing the rich and prodigal who can own or hire a carriage an unbounded latitude to ride and drive through the streets at all hours, while the laboring and less prodigal must not enjoy a ride, although it only costs a dime, is worthy of this enlightened age and the liberal spirit of the board that can sanction it."

In 1850, Erastus Wells, with Calvin Case, Robert O'Blennus, and Lawrence Matthews, formed a combination which purchased and operated all the omnibus lines in St. Louis. In the following year there were six lines in existence, as follows: First, from the arsenal to Carondelet; second, from the corner of Market and Second Streets to the arsenal; third, from the corner of Main and Market to Camp Springs; fourth, from the corner of Broadway and Franklin Avenue to Rising Sun Tavern; fifth, from the corner of Market and Third to Bremen; sixth, from Bremen to Bissell's Ferry. The omnibuses from these points started from every four to ten minutes,

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and the lines comprised in all ninety omnibuses, four hundred and fifty head of horses, four stables, and about one hundred hands.

Luther Case also had a line running on Seventh Street, from the corner of Morgan Street and Broadway to the Flora Garden, and comprising seven omnibuses, forty-five head of horses, and about fifteen hands.

William Billings was just entering into the business, and had three omnibuses on Broadway, which ran from the corner of Second and Market Streets to Bremen.

In 1859 the city's territory had grown to such dimensions that the introduction of the street-car system had become a necessity. On the 3d of January of that year a meeting of citizens of the First Ward was held at Jaeger's Garden, "to consider the subject of horse railroads." T. C. Chester called the meeting to order, and David Bayles was elected chairman. Benjamin Bryson, Sebastian Burbeck, and Noah H. Whittemore were chosen vice-chairmen, and William S. Hilyer secretary. On taking the chair, Mr. Bayles made a short address, in the course of which he argued that the establishment of a safe, speedy, and comfortable mode of travel from one end of the city to the other parts would enhance the value of suburban property, increase the population of the outskirts, and build up business in those localities. A committee consisting of Thomas C. Chester, H. C. Lynch, B. Vanewitz, A. Hammer, and Joseph N. Lock, was appointed by the chairman to draft resolutions expressive of the sense of the meeting. While the committee were absent, W. S. Hilyer addressed the meeting.

The committee on resolutions reported through Mr. Chester the following:

"Resolved, By the citizens of the First Ward, in mass-meeting assembled, —

"1. That the construction of horse railways upon the public streets, connecting the suburbs more closely with the centre and with each other, and affording increased facilities for rapid and convenient communication with all parts of the city, is a measure commending itself highly to our favor and encouragement.

"2. That the successful completion and operation of such railways will contribute in an especial manner to the growth and prosperity of our own ward, by inducing settlement and improvement within its limits, and filling up our now large vacant territory with an industrious and thrifty population.

"3. That the aldermen and delegates of the First Ward in the City Council be, and they are hereby instructed to encourage and promote by all lawful means within the sphere of their official duties the granting of the right of way for one track on Carondelet Avenue, and one on Seventh Street, and such other necessary, facilities to city railway companies as will contribute to the speedy completion of the roads, limiting them, however, to passenger traffic alone, and surrounding them with such proper and wholesome restrictions as will insure the safety and convenience of the public."

Mr. Chester, on reporting the resolutions, made a few appropriate remarks. Dr. Hammer also spoke, "criticising the action of the late meeting of citizens of the Second and Third Wards, and ascribing the disaffection manifested there to the influence of a few politicians who had axes to grind."

T. E. Courtenay followed in a brief speech, setting forth the advantages of street railroads, and answering the arguments of their opponents.

The resolutions were then submitted to the action of those present, and were adopted by a large vote.

The first street car corporation in St. Louis was the Missouri Railroad Company, and the first car was run on the 4th of July, 1859, the driver being the president of the company, Hon. Erastus Wells. A contemporaneous account thus describes the event:

"In accordance with previous arrangements and expeditions, this the first horse railroad in St. Louis was brought into practical use yesterday at ten o'clock by running over its track the first car, which arrived via the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad yesterday morning, and was immediately placed upon the track at the Fourth Street termination of the road, in the presence of a large number of spectators congregated there to witness the somewhat novel sight of a horse-car. It is a beautiful vehicle, light, elegant, and commodious, built with fifteen others of the same style for the Missouri Railroad Company by Kimball & Gorton, Philadelphia, at a cost of nine hundred dollars, including freights, etc.

"At ten o'clock a few invited guests with the directors of the road took their seats within the car, and the horses were attached to the pole, which can readily be shipped to either end of the car. Mr. E. Wells, president of the road, then took the reins, and after a jerk or two the first car moved slowly but steadily up the track, amidst loud shouts and cheers from the crowd. Troops of urchins followed in its wake, endeavoring to hang on, and we fear unless this is prevented in future serious accidents may occur. The centre of the track, or footpath, being macadamized and not sufficiently settled, small pieces of rock were constantly being detached by the horses' feet, and falling upon the track materially retarded the progress of the car, in several cases throwing it from the track. The switches or turn-outs, too, require some alteration, as they do not answer entirely the purpose intended. Several times the car failed to run upon the track intended, and a general backing out was found necessary before the car could proceed. But after various delays of this nature the car arrived at Tenth Street, the track having been cleared of stone only that distance. The horses were then attached to the other end, and the return trip progressed, and after but few delays, the track being much improved by the first trip, the pioneer car arrived at Fourth Street, where it was again greeted by a large crowd of persons, each waiting an opportunity for a free ride. During the progress of the car through the streets its presence was greeted by hundreds of fair faces beaming from every window and door, while shouts of joy from scores of urchins heralded its approach. The first trip has proved the enterprise a complete success, and at each subsequent trip which was made with the car crowded to repletion fresh laurels were won, as the horses pulled the enormous load without apparent effort."

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During the same year the St. Louis, Citizens', and People's Lines were started in close succession in the months of August, September, and October. With each succeeding year new companies have been organized and new lines constructed, until now the city is amply supplied with transportation facilities. The first two-story car, or "double-decker," was used on the Northwestern St. Louis Railway, Oct. 25, 1874. The running of a steam motor was attempted in the suburbs, but the accidents occurring from the frightening of horses caused the experiment to be abandoned. In April, 1881, a general strike was inaugurated on the part of the conductors and drivers on all the lines, and resulted in a general suspension of business. On April 24th, 25th, 26th, and 27th no cars were run in the city. On the 28th of April the Missouri Railroad Company and the Lindell Company effected a compromise with their employes and resumed business on their respective lines. On the 29th and 30th the other roads followed their example. The various roads with their connections form one complete network, and afford the traveling public every facility for going to any portion of the city on short notice. A uniform fare of five cents is charged, the tickets on any road being good on all others.

According to the assessment of 1882, the valuation of the different street railway companies of St. Louis is as follows:

Benton and Bellefontaine, 6 1/3 miles of track, $10,330; real estate, $32,760. Total, $43,090.

Cass Avenue and Fair Grounds, 8.62 miles of track, $26,550; real estate, $32,850. Total, $59,400.

Lindell Railroad, 9½ miles of track, $33,250; real estate, $54,020. Total, $87,270.

Missouri Railroad (Olive and Market Streets), 8½ miles of track, $29,750; real estate, $57,240. Total, $86,990.

Mound City, 6½ miles of track, $15,000.

People's Railway, 8 miles of track, $28,000.

St. Louis (Fifth Street), 14¾ miles, $44,000; real estate, $39,100. Total, $83,100.

South St. Louis, 12 miles of track, $24,400.

Tower Grove, 1 mile, $2000.

Tower Grove and Lafayette, 3 1/5 miles, $8000; real estate, $6790. Total, $14,790.

Union Line (Fourth and Locust), 8 miles, $28,000; real estate, $15,030. Total, $63,030.

Union Depot, 10 miles, $25,000; real estate, $14,390. Total, $39,390.

The total length of the roads is 119.6 miles; total number of cars, 496; total number of horses, 2280; total number of men employed, 1010; total number of passengers carried, 19,600,000.

These companies return horses and mules as follows: Benton and Bellefontaine, 132; Cass Avenue, 193; Lindell, 356; Olive and Market, 295; Mound City, 93; People's, 250; Fifth Street, 437; South St. Louis, 75; Tower Grove and Lafayette, 93; Union, 210; Union Depot, 366.

THE MISSOURI RAILROAD COMPANY was organized May 10, 1859, with a capital stock of three hundred thousand dollars, as authorized by an act of the Legislature of Missouri dated Dec. 13, 1855, and by an ordinance of the City Council May 6, 1859. The incorporators were William Vanzandt, Marcus M. Hodgman, Charles Hathaway, Erastus Wells, George Trask, Marshall Brotherton, and William M. McPherson. Erastus Wells was chosen president of the company upon its organization, and was successively re-elected and held the position until Nov. 5, 1881. The construction of the road was commenced in the early part of 1859, and was completed from Fourth and Olive Streets as far west as Twelfth Street in July of that year. On July 4, 1859, as previously stated, the first car was run over the track. The Fourth and Olive Streets line has since been extended, running west as far as Grand Avenue. In 1859 the Market Street line extended from Fourth to High Street, but has since been extended west to Grand Avenue, and to Tower Grove Station. This road was controlled and managed by the original incorporators until Nov. 5, 1881, when the stock was transferred to the present corporation and an election held, resulting as follows: P. Chouteau Maffitt, president; John R. Lionberger, vice-president; William D. Henry, secretary and treasurer, and Charles M. Allen, superintendent; P. C. Maffitt, John R. Lionberger, Charles Parsons, Daniel Catlin, and James Clarke, directors. Under the new management the capital stock of the road was increased from three hundred thousand dollars to six hundred thousand dollars. The route at present is from Fourth and Market Streets to Bellevue House, Manchester road, and Olive Street to Grand Avenue. The offices and Market Street stables are located at No. 1827 Market Street, and the Olive Street line stables on Olive, between Leonard and Channing Avenues.

THE ST. LOUIS RAILROAD COMPANY was organized Feb. 1, 1859, and incorporated March 24, 1859, the incorporators being Hudson E. Bridge, D. A. January, John How, Alexander Peterson, Robert A. Barnes, James H. Lucas, William M. McPherson, D. H. Armstrong, Frederick Meyer, and George R. Taylor. The original capital stock was three hundred thousand dollars, but it has since been increased to nine hundred thousand dollars. D. H. Armstrong was elected president of the company in 1859, and his successors in order have been D. A. January, Hudson E. Bridge, W. T. Sherman (afterwards the distinguished general), D. H. Armstrong, Hudson E. Bridge, J. O. F. Farrar, James H. Blood, Benjamin Farrar, John F. Madison, Robert A. Barnes, and Christian Peper. The road was built and the running of

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cars commenced in 1859, the line of route being from the old city limits on the north to Keokuk Street on the south (Wild Hunter), via Bellefontaine road, Broadway, Fifth and Seventh Streets, and Carondelet Avenue. The total length of the company's tracks is seven and one-half miles. The officers of the company are Christian Peper, president; Robert A. Barnes, vice-president; Robert B. Jennings, secretary and treasurer; Smith P. Gault, attorney; and Charles Ischer, superintendent. Directors, Christian Peper, Robert A. Barnes, Henry Blakesley, F. E. Schmieding, John N. Straat, B. Brockmann, and Gerhard Dröge.

THE CITIZENS' RAILWAY COMPANY was organized in 1859, and commenced running during that year. The present organization was chartered in July, 1874, with a capital stock of three hundred thousand dollars. Among the incorporators and officers were B. Gratz Brown, president; Edward Walsh, Henry T. Blow, James B. Eads, B. Gratz Brown, G. S. Case, John Doyle, and Gary Gratz, directors. The track was laid on Franklin Avenue and Morgan Street, from Fourth to Garrison Avenue. In 1864 the company extended the line from Garrison Avenue to Prarie Avenue, along Easton Avenue, also from Easton Avenue, along Grand Avenue, to the fair-grounds. In 1865 the capital stock was increased from three hundred thousand to five hundred thousand dollars. Another extension was made in 1881 from Prairie Avenue, along St. Charles Rock road, to Renkelville, and along Papen Avenue to the National Bridge road and King's Highway. The total length of the company's lines with extensions is fourteen miles of single track. The stables and depot are located on Prairie Avenue and St. Charles Rock road. The first and successive presidents have been B. Gratz Brown, James B. Eads, A. R. Easton, and Julius S. Walsh, who still retains the position. The other officers of the company are J. P. Helfestein, vice-president; George Kaufhold, secretary and treasurer; and Thomas Gartland, superintendent. Directors, Julius S. Walsh, J. P. Helfestein, A. R. Easton, G. S. Case, John A. Walsh, J. N. Straat, and G. H. Plant.

THE PEOPLE'S RAILWAY COMPANY was organized in 1859, and chartered June 22d of that year by special act of the State Legislature, with a capital stock of three hundred thousand dollars. The incorporators were R. M. Renick, B. Able, J. H. Lightner, P. L. Foy, H. Crittenden, J. B. Sickles, and John S. Cavender. The first president of the road, elected in 1859, was R. M. Renick, who was succeeded in turn by G. W. Dreger, J. H. Lightner, James H. Britton, J. R. Lionberger, D. E. Walsh, and Julius S. Walsh. In the fall of 1859 the road was completed from Morgan Street, running along Fourth Street and Chouteau Avenue, to St. Ange Avenue. In 1864 the track was extended from St. Ange Avenue to Lafayette Park. In 1882 another extension was made from Lafayette Park, running along Lafayette Avenue, to Grand Avenue. The total length of the road at the present time is eight miles of single track, which is fully equipped and supplied with all the latest and most improved rolling stock, etc. The stables and depot, located on Park Avenue, between Mississippi and Second Carondelet Avenue, are substantial brick buildings, being especially constructed for the purpose for which they are being used. The officers of the company are Julius S. Walsh, president; Wm. B. Ryder, secretary, and Patrick Shea, superintendent. Directors, Julius S. Walsh, John R. Lionberger, J. T. Sands, Chas. Green, J. H. Lightner, James F. How, and John Jackson.

Julius S. Walsh, the present able and popular president of the Citizens', People's, Tower Grove, and Union Lines, has been conspicuously identified with the growth and development of St. Louis for twenty-five years, and his name has been associated with many important enterprises. Mr. Walsh was born in St. Louis, Dec. 1, 1842, and was a son of the late Edward Walsh and Isabelle de Mun. His father was a native of Ireland, who emigrated to America as early as in 1815, first settling at Louisville, Ky. In 1824 he removed to St. Louis, and during that year established the well-known firm of J. & E. Walsh.

After receiving the usual primary instruction in the preparatory schools, Julius entered the St. Louis University, where he prosecuted his studies until 1859, when he entered St. Joseph's College, Bardstown, Ky., from which institution he graduated in 1861. In 1863 the St. Louis University conferred upon him the degree of Master of Arts. In 1864, Columbia College, New York, conferred upon him the degree of LL.B., and he was also admitted to the bar in the State of New York.

In 1864 he returned to St. Louis and entered the office of the firm of J. & E. Walsh. In 1866, Edward Walsh, the senior member of the firm, died, leaving the management of the business to Julius, and from 1866 until 1870 he was occupied in settling up the affairs of his father's estate. The assets were of a varied character, consisting of steamboats, railroad stocks, real estate and other securities. During these years he was elected director in several corporations.

Abandoning mercantile life, Mr. Walsh turned his attention to the street railway system of St. Louis, and

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is among the most active of those who have contributed to its extension and development. In 1870 he was elected president of the Citizens' Railway Company, and of the Fair Grounds and Suburban Railroad Company; the last named road having since been consolidated with the Citizens', of which company he is still the chief executive officer. In 1880, Mr. Walsh was elected president of the People's Railway Company, the Park Railroad Company, and the Tower Grove and Lafayette Railroad Company, which positions he still retains. In 1882 he was chosen a director in the Third National Bank of St. Louis.

In 1874 he was elected president of the St. Louis Agricultural and Mechanical Association, and served as its chief executive officer for four consecutive years, infusing into the management an energy and method strikingly characteristic of all his business operations. At the time he became president of the association, its eighty-three acres were occupied only one week during the entire year, which was during the annual fair, while the remainder of the year it remained closed to the public. He at once set to work to make the grounds attractive at all seasons and on every day of the year. He commenced this improvement by first erecting the Art Gallery, and next founded the Zoological Gardens, which have since become so popular and such a favorite public resort. The gardens contain some of the finest and rarest specimens of the animal kingdom in America. During his term of office as president of the association, all the beautiful buildings of the department of natural history were erected, and the grounds converted from an unsightly waste to a beautiful landscape. These improvements were most beneficial to the association, securing to it a daily revenue instead of during only one week of the year. The grounds were embellished with fine trees, handsomely inclosed and ornamented with shrubbery, flowers, drives, graded walks, etc., and were made one of the most beautiful spots of the kind in the country.

In 1875 the Illinois and St. Louis bridge passed into the hands of receivers, and Julius S. Walsh was appointed agent in St. Louis. The affairs of the Bridge Company at that time were much complicated and embarrassed; but upon his resignation as agent in 1876 he received the most complimentary letters from J. Pierpont Morgan and Solon Humphreys, of New York, who were the receivers, and from Messrs. J. S. Morgan & Co., of London, the agents of the bondholders, expressing their entire satisfaction at the manner in which he had conducted the affairs of the corporation, and urging him to continue his relations with the Bridge Company.

In 1875 he was made president of the South Pass Jetty Company, and continued to hold that position for the term of three years, when he resigned on account of the pressure of other business. Mr. Walsh was the first person to subscribe to the stock of the corporation, and it was largely owing to his individual efforts that its financial success was secured.

On the reorganization of the Tunnel Railroad Company of St. Louis, at the first meeting of the directors, on Dec. 19, 1878, Mr. Walsh was elected president, and has ever since retained that position. In 1880, having served for a number of years as director in the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern Railroad Company, he was, upon its consolidation with the St. Louis, Wabash and Pacific Railway, made a director in the last-named corporation, which position he afterwards resigned to accept the presidency of the St. Louis Bridge Company. The executive ability of Mr. Walsh is well known, and has been exhibited in several other positions of great responsibility.

Notwithstanding his great popularity and widespread influence, Mr. Walsh has never aspired to municipal, State, or national office, but has always exhibited the keenest interest in every important movement concerning the growth and welfare of the city. All the corporations with which he is connected are upon a firm financial basis, and are among the most important and solid institutions of St. Louis.

In 1870 he was married to Miss Josephine Dickson, daughter of the late Charles K. Dickson, of St. Louis.

Mr. Walsh, has aided in building up and maintaining some of the most important corporations of the city, and to his unswerving business integrity and indefatigable, though unostentatious, energy their success is largely due. As a citizen, he stands without reproach, and as a business man, second to none in the community. His benevolence of disposition is proverbial among all who know him. Strictly moral in every walk of life, and a truly high-minded, honorable gentleman, but few men possess in so marked a degree the merited confidence and friendship of their fellow-citizens.

Julius de Mun, grandfather of Julius S. Walsh, was descended from one of the most ancient and influential families of the province of Bigorre, France, where the castle and the domain bearing the name of De Mun — to which the family possessed a title until 1690 — were situated. The first of the family, or rather the first seigneur known by name, was Anstor de Mun (knight), who was born about the year 1180. Of this Anstor, Julius de Mun was a lineal descendant.

The immediate ancestor of Mr. de Mun was Sieur Jacques de Mun, knight of the Old Guard of the

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person of His Majesty, and of the Lady Marie Madeleine le Meilleur, his wife. The children of Jacques de Mun and wife were:

Juliette Marie Madeleine, who married M. de Pestre. She accompanied her mother in 1817 to the island of Cuba, where she remained until her children required education beyond the ability of the neighboring schools to furnish, when she removed to Philadelphia to complete their training. Having accomplished this object she returned to Cuba, and when her grandchildren required similar advantages, she again repaired to Philadelphia for that purpose, and finally died there after the year 1854.

Louis de Mun, who became an attaché to the embassy of Baron Hyde de Neauville, French minister to the United States, and from that position went to Cuba, became a sugar-planter in that island, and died there unmarried.

Auguste Elizabeth Vincent de Mun, killed at Ste. Genevieve, Mo., by McArthur, about the year 1816, unmarried.

Jules Louis Réné Marie de Mun, known in St. Louis as Jules or Julius de Mun, and Amadée de Mun, who was lost at sea, unmarried. Julius de Mun was born in Port au Prince, in the island of San Domingo, on the 25th of April, 1782, his parents having visited that island to look after their large possessions. Here they remained, in consequence of the disturbed condition of France, until the massacre of the whites during the insurrection of the negroes, from which they escaped after great peril and difficulty. They went to England, the condition of France (then convulsed by the Reign of Terror) not permitting them to return there with safety. Shortly after this, Jacques de Mun died, and the family remained in England for the purpose of educating their children, until the year 1808, when they came to the United States, stopping in New Jersey, from whence they moved to Ste. Genevieve, Mo. (then the largest town in the State), in 1810. Here they remained until the year 1817, when Mrs. de Mun, heart-broken by the death of her son Auguste, removed with her family (except her son Julius, who was married) to Baltimore, Md., and from thence to the island of Cuba, where she died.

The life of Julius de Mun was filled with extraordinary incidents. Born, as we have seen, in San Domingo of noble parentage, he was sent with his brother Auguste, when quite young, to Paris, France, to be educated, where he remained until his parents removed from San Domingo to England, when word was conveyed to the brothers of their father's desire that they should join him. In charge of a devoted servant, who disguised them in the habiliments of poverty, they then started for the coast, and arrived safely in England. As they were passing through Paris they witnessed the scenes of blood and death near the guillotine when Robespierre was being executed. The little boy Julius began to cry, whereupon his brother shook him and told him to be quiet, and not to attract attention.

In the year 1816, Mr. de Mun formed a partnership with Auguste P. Chouteau and Pierre Chouteau for the purpose of trading with Santa Fé and Chihuahua; Auguste P. Chouteau and Mr. de Mun, with their employés, going on the expedition. When they arrived at Chihuahua they were robbed of their goods and the whole party imprisoned. They remained in durance for nearly two years, when, owing to the pressure brought to bear by the government of the United States on the central government of Mexico and the good offices of the French minister at Washington, they were released and returned to St. Louis.

In the fall of 1819, Mr. de Mun and family left St. Louis for the island of Cuba, where he arrived early in 1820 and purchased a coffee estate, which he cultivated until the fall of 1830, when he returned to St. Louis, arriving in January, 1831. Shortly after his return he was appointed secretary and translator to the board of United States commissioners for adjusting the titles of the French and Spanish grants to lands in Missouri, the duties of which position the discharged with marked ability. Mr. de Mun was afterwards appointed United States register of the land office at St. Louis, and subsequently was elected recorder of deeds for the county of St. Louis, which office he held at the time of his death.

On the 31st of March, 1812, Mr. de Mun was married to Miss Isabella Gratiot, daughter of Charles Gratiot, who was considered the most beautiful woman in St. Louis, and of charming manners. She died July 13, 1878.

The issue of this marriage were Isabella, married to Edward Walsh; Julie, married to Antoine Leon Chenie; Louise, married to Robert A. Barnes; Emilie, married to Charles Bland Smith; and Clara, who died unmarried just after becoming of age.

Upon the restoration of the Bourbon family to the throne of France royal letters were forwarded by the government of Louis XVIII. to Julius de Mun through the French ambassador, inviting himself and family to return to France, and accompanying these letters was the decoration of the order of the Fleur de Lys, the highest honor in the gift of the king.

Mr. de Mun died in St. Louis on the 15th of August, 1843.

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Julius de Mun had a fine English and French education, also speaking and writing Spanish, and was possessed of accomplishments not common to the gentlemen of this country at that period. He was of gentle but distinguished manners, modest and retiring in his disposition, of perfect integrity and pure morals, and of the most delicate sense of honor.

THE UNION DEPOT RAILROAD COMPANY, which was originally known as the "Gravois Railway," was chartered under an act of the Legislature of the State of Missouri on April 27, 1862. After its construction the road was sold under foreclosure of a second mortgage, and purchased by Green Erskine and Thatcher S. Johnson, who afterwards sold it to the present corporation. The original incorporators were John Scullin, C. M. Seaman, Francis Carter, Thatcher S. Johnson, Green Erskine, and James H. Roach. The road was constructed in 1862 from the corner of Fourth and Pine Streets west to Gravois road, a distance of three and one-half miles. Since that time extensions have been made, the route at present being: Gravois Branch (yellow cars), from Fourth Street, corner of Pine, on Ninth; Clark Avenue, Twelfth; south on Park Avenue to Ninth; Gravois road to Jefferson Avenue, with extension to Tower Grove Park. Lafayette Branch (blue cars), same to Park Avenue; thence north to State, Carroll, Linn, and Lafayette to Lafayette Park. The present capital stock of the company is three hundred thousand dollars, with first mortgage bonds of one hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars. John Scullin was elected president of the road in 1876, at the time of the sale of the "Gravois Railway" to the present company, and has filled the position ever since. The general offices and stables are located on the corner of Gravois road and Jefferson Avenue. The officers of the company are John Scullin, president; Clement M. Seaman, vice-president and treasurer; James H. Roach, secretary; John Scullin, Clement M. Seaman, Francis Carter, Francis Erskine, and James H. Roach, directors.

THE BENTON-BELLEFONTAINE RAILROAD COMPANY was incorporated under a special charter Feb. 8, 1864, with a capital stock of $500,000. The incorporators were A. W. Henning, Felix Coste, William W. Warren, Norman Cutler, Silas Bent, Jacob B. Terrell, Charles L. Holmes, and H. M. McKittrick. The construction of the road was begun in 1864, and completed in 1866. In 1876 the road was sold for the payment of first mortgage bonds, the present corporation becoming owners of the franchise. Under the present management the capital stock was reduced to $300,000. The lines extend from Third Street and Washington Avenue via Washington Avenue, Tenth and Eleventh Streets to the Water Tower, the length being seven miles of single track. The officers are George H. Chase, president, and Robert McCullough, secretary and treasurer.

THE LINDELL RAILWAY COMPANY was chartered on Feb. 26, 1864, with an authorized capital stock of $600,000. Among the applicants for the charter and the original stockholders were John H. Lightner, Wayman Crow, Dwight Durkee, Levin H. Baker, John M. Krum, D. R. Garrison, William Patrick, Joshua Cheever, Bernard Crickard, William D'Oench, Charles K. Dickson, William Mayer, and Morris Taussig. Dwight Durkee was elected president of the company in 1864, and continued to hold the position until March, 1870, when he was succeeded by John H. Maxon, the present incumbent. The road was begun in October, 1864, and cars commenced running on Washington Avenue March 15, 1867, and on the Fourteenth Street line May 12, 1867. The route extends from Third and Washington to Ware and Lucas Avenues, along Lucas Avenue to Grand Avenue, north on Grand Avenue to Delmar Avenue, west on Dclmar Avenue to Vandeventer Avenue, thence north on Vandeventer Avenue to Finney Avenue, thence east on Finney to Grand Avenue, thence south on Grand Avenue to Morgan, thence east on Morgan, connecting with regular tracks (blue cars), to Summit Avenue, via Fourteenth Street and Chouteau Avenue. The offices and stables are located at No. 2305 Washington Avenue, and there are stables also at 2330 Chouteau Avenue, corner of Finney and Vandeventer Avenues. The officers of the company are John H. Maxon, president; John H. Lightner, vice-president; and G. W. Baumhoff, secretary and treasurer. Directors, John H. Maxon, John H. Lightner, G. W. Baumhoff, John M. Gilkeson, E. Catlin, and W. A. Hargadine.

THE BADEN AND ST. LOUIS RAILROAD COMPANY was organized in 1865, and chartered during the same year. The road was finished and equipped in 1866. The line of route is from Grand Avenue and Bellefontaine road to Baden, a distance of two and one-half miles. The capital stock is $100,000. The offices and stables are located on the east side of Bellefontaine road, near Dowling Avenue. The officers of the company are George S. Case, president; John H. Reel, vice-president; and John W. Archer, superintendent.

THE UNION RAILWAY COMPANY was organized in 1865, and chartered July 29, 1865, with a capital stock of $300,000. Among the incorporators were C. D. Colman, C. D. Blossom, W. E. Saltmarsh, H.

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M. Blossom, and C. W. Horn. During 1865 the road was constructed from the corner of Fourth and Locust Streets west to Hyde Park. In 1875 the lines were extended from Hyde Park to the fair grounds, and at present their entire length is eight miles of single track. Hon. B. Gratz Brown was elected first president of the road, and was succeeded by John Brown, who held the position for a short term, being followed by Julius S. Walsh, who has ever since retained the presidency of the company. In 1866 the capital stock was increased from $300,000 to $600,000. In 1882 the officers were Julius S. Walsh, president; J. P. Helfestein, vice-president; M. J. Moran, secretary and treasurer; and Michael Moran, superintendent. Directors, Julius S. Walsh, B. Gratz Brown, A. R. Easton, J. P. Helfestein, J. A. Walsh, Charles Greene, and George S. Case.

THE TOWER GROVE AND LAFAYETTE RAILWAY COMPANY was chartered March 20, 1866, with an authorized capital stock of $300,000, the incorporators being H. N. Switzer, John J. Roe, James B. Eads, C. K. Dickson, and J. O. Cavender. The road was constructed and put in operation during 1866, over Second and Third Streets from the corner of Fourth and Morgan to Anna Street, the total length being six miles of track. G. W. Dreyer was elected first president of the road in 1866, and his successors in regular order have been J. H. Lightner, J. H. Britton, J. R. Lionberger, D. E. Walsh, and Julius S. Walsh, the latter being still the chief executive officer. W. B. Ryder is secretary and treasurer of the company, and the directors are Julius S. Walsh, John R. Lionberger, J. T. Sands, Charles Green, J. H. Lightner, James T. How, and John Jackson.

THE CASS AVENUE AND FAIR GROUNDS RAILWAY COMPANY was organized in 1874, its incorporation being approved by the City Council Jan. 19, 1874, and the charter granted Feb. 9, 1874. The first directors were James Edwards, William T. Wernse, Louis H. Stroube, Joseph M. Fitzroy, Jeremiah Fruin, H. Klages, William Miller, Thomas Bowe, John Cunningham, Sol. Lawrence, and D. E. Lockwood. The construction of the road was begun during the latter part of 1874, and it was completed and equipped with the cars running on June 25, 1875. William K. Patrick was elected the first president, and held the position during the construction of the road. He was succeeded in June, 1875, by W. R. Allen, who has since retained the position. The capital stock of the company originally was five hundred thousand dollars, but it has since been reduced to three hundred thousand dollars. At the present time the company has no bonded indebtedness. The line extends from Fifth and Walnut Streets north on Seventh Street to Cass Avenue, thence to Glasgow Avenue, north to St. Louis Avenue, west to Grand Avenue and the Fair Grounds, returning by the same to Eighth Street, south to Walnut Street, and thence to Fifth Street. The entire length of the road is nine miles of single track. The stables and car-sheds were erected in the spring of 1875. The officers of the company are W. R. Allen, president; George W. Allen, vice-president; and G. G. Gibson, secretary and treasurer. Directors, W. R. Allen, George W. Allen, Thomas Allen, William R. Donaldson, J. D. Barlow, James W. Wallace, and E. M. Smith. The general offices are located in the Southern Hotel building, corner of Fifth and Walnut Streets, and the stables and car-sheds on the corner of Cass and Glasgow Avenues.

THE MOUND CITY STREET RAILWAY COMPANY was organized in 1875, as the successor of the Mound City Railway Company, chartered in December, 1865, with a capital stock of one hundred thousand dollars. The original incorporators were John Scullin, Clement M. Seaman, William Nichols, A. D. Jaynes, Francis Carter, J. B. Johnson, and Thatcher S. Johnson. The first and only president of the company, elected in 1875, is John Scullin, who has ever since retained the position. Immediately after the organization of the company the charter and franchises of what was then known as the "Northwestern St. Louis Railway" were sold on foreclosure to J. B. Johnson, by whom they were transferred to the present corporation. The road was completed and the cars commenced running in January, 1866. The route extends from the corner of Fourth and Pine Streets west to Ninth Street, thence north to North Spring Street, thence west on Spring Street and St. Louis Avenue to Jefferson Avenue; returning by St. Louis Avenue, North Spring, Fourteenth, Locust Avenue, Twelfth. Locust, Ninth, and Pine Streets to Fourth Street The total length is seven miles of single track. The cars of the Mound City Line pass by the new post-office and government building, Pope's Theatre, St. Luke's Hospital, St. Louis University, St. Louis Place Park, Lindell Park, Base-Ball Park, Fair Grounds, and Zoological Garden. The officers of the company are John Scullin, president; Francis Carter, vice-president; and Clement M. Seamen, secretary and treasurer. Directors, John Scullin, Francis Carter. Clement M. Seaman, George A. Madill, and James H. Roach. The offices are located at 623½ Olive Street, and the stables on the southwest corner of St. Louis Avenue and Twenty-first Street.


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incorporated in April, 1876, with a capital stock of one hundred thousand dollars, the incorporators being Charles P. Chouteau, P. A. Hadney, A. Habsinger, and others. Soon after its organization the company absorbed the Carondelet Railway Company, with its franchises, tracks, etc., and extended the tracks of that road to the corner of Sixth and Market Streets. I. C. Terry was elected the first president of the road in April, 1876, and was succeeded by Pierre Chouteau, who in turn was followed by Theo. Plase, the present incumbent, who is also the treasurer of the corporation. The secretary is J. B. Greensfelder, and the directors are F. W. Moss, J. S. Robertson, M. A. Wolff, L. Gottsehalk, and C. F. Hermann. The route extends north from the stables along Main Street, Carondelet road, and Jefferson Avenue, east on Pestalozzi Street, north along Eighth and Decatur Streets, east on Lafayette to Fulton, north to Hickory, east to Fifth, north to Market; returning same to Pestalozzi, south on Eighth to Arsenal, thence west to Jefferson Avenue, and south to the stables, which are located on the north side of Davis, near Main Street. The general office is at the corner of Sixth and Walnut Streets.

THE ST. LOUIS TRANSFER COMPANY was chartered Dec. 12, 1859, as the Ohio and Mississippi Transfer Company, the original incorporators being P. W. Strader, Joseph N. Kinney, Alex. H. Lewis, Thomas Lowe, Henry C. Cooling, and Alfred Gother. P. W. Strader was elected the first president in 1859, and was succeeded by Samuel Gaty, the present incumbent. The capital stock is eight hundred and fifty-nine thousand two hundred dollars, and the company transacts a general transfer business, handling passengers, baggage, and freight to and from railroad depots, steamboats, etc. S. H. Klinger is secretary of the company; T. B. Thompson, treasurer; and R. P. Tansey, manager. The directors are Samuel Gaty, R. P. Tansey, S. C. Clubb, W. H. Clement, J. J. Mitchell, D. S. Gray, and J. M. Thompson. The office is located at No. 213 North Third Street.

THE RAPID TRANSIT COMPANY was chartered June 3, 1880, with an authorized capital stock of fifty thousand dollars, the incorporators being M. A. Wolff, Charles McClaren, John H. Terry, John Lumsden, John T. Davis, George D. Reynolds, and Henry Gennett. The company commenced operations with twenty of the "Herdic" coaches on Sept. 16, 1880, and continued the transfer of passengers over various streets in the city up to May 1, 1882, when the coaches were taken off and the company changed in character to that of one doing a general livery business. The first president was M. A. Wolff, who was elected in 1880, and was succeeded by John H. Terry in 1882. The other officers of the company are Geo. D. Reynolds, secretary; M. A. Wolff, treasurer; M. A. Wolff, Geo. H. Shields, E. S. Barnes, E. G. Obear, Peter Lehman, John, H. Terry, and John T. Davis, directors.

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Scharf, J. Thomas. History of Saint Louis City and County, From the Earliest Periods to the Present Day: Including Biographical Sketches of Representative Men. In Two Volumes, Illustrated. Volume II . Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts & Co., 1883. [format: book], [genre: biography; history; proceedings]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
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