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Scharf, J. Thomas. History of Saint Louis City and County, From the Earliest Periods to the Present Day: Including Biographical Sketches of Representative Men. In Two Volumes, Illustrated. Volume II . Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts & Co., 1883. [format: book], [genre: biography; history; proceedings]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
Persistent link to this document: http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/file.php?file=scharf2.html


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Notes.

Note from page 990: 1. Assessed by assessor, no return being made by owner.

Note from page 992: 2. Governor Allen's address to the directors of the Pacific Railroad.

Note from page 993: 3. Including wheat, corn, rye, oats, barley, and flour, at five bushels to the barrel.

Note from page 995: 4. All the Texas railroads are tributary to St. Louis, so also are the Texas cattle and other live-stock.

Note from page 998: 5. 1867.

Note from page 998: 6. Decrease.

Note from page 998: 7. 1866.

Note from page 1003: 8. Closed for thirty-six days on account of low water.

Note from page 1003: 9. Closed for sixteen days on account of low water.

Note from page 1003: 10. Closed for forty-one days on account of low water.

Note from page 1003: 11. Closed for four days on account of low water.

Note from page 1005: 12. Such was the view of the Windom Committee in 1873.

Note from page 1005: 13. The enterprise was premature, and therefore not so wise as it might have been, but it has been laughed at probably more than it deserved. At present it may be said to sleep, for no one can pronounce it dead while the power, population, and wealth of the United States continue to gravitate so strongly towards the heart and centre of the valley of the Mississippi. The centre of the population, which is now in Kentucky, just west of Cincinnati, is moving upon a parallel of latitude that will take it to St. Louis before A. D. 1900, and at that date more than two-thirds of the members of the House of Representatives will be elected from districts west of the meridian of Pittsburgh, which was a far western frontier town at the day when the site of the Federal city was chosen upon the Potomac. As a matter of record, some of the proceedings of the "Capital Convention" are worth preserving. It assembled in the hall of the Mercantile Library of the afternoon of October 20, 1869, and was called to order by L. R. Shryrock, who was followed in prayer by Rev. R. G. Bransk, of the Central Presbyterian Church. The States and Territories which were represented were Alabama, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Kansas, Louisiana, Colorado, Alaska, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennesee, Utah, and Missouri, — 17. The Delegates from the last-named State were Governor J. W. McClurg, John Hogan, E. O. Stanard, Enos Clark, B. Poepping, G. A. Mozier, George Thelenius, T. T. Tracy, M. L. DeMotte, James H. Birch, A. J. Harlan, H. J. Drumond, F. Muench, G. R. Smith, W. Galland, John D. Caton, of Illinois, was made president, with a vice president for each State and Territory, and a staff of secretaries.

Mr. Medill, of Illinois, read the following as the report of the committee on resolutions:

"WHEREAS, The present site of the national capital was selected as the most central point when the people, of this republic, only a few millions in number, inhabited only a narrow strip of country along the Atlantic coast; and,


"WHEREAS, The population of this republic has increased thirteen-fold since then, and spread over a vast continent of which the States in existence when the seat of government was located formed only the eastern edge; and,


"WHEREAS, The present location of the national capital is notoriously inconvenient in times of peace and as the darkest domestic pages of our national history demonstrate, in times of war, or domestic turbulence is so dangerously exposed as to require vast armaments and untold millions of money for its especial defense; and,


"WHEREAS, All the reasons which caused the location of the seat of government where it now is have by the enormous development of the country and a corresponding change in the wants of the people become utterly obsolete; and therefore,


"Resolved, 1. That it is absurd to suppose that the handful of inhabitants in 1789, just emerging from colonial vassalage, before steamboats, railways, telegraphs, or power-presses were dreamed of, or a mile of turnpike or canal constructed, possessed the authority or desired to exercise the power of fixing the site of the capital forever on the banks of the Potomac, against the will of and the interest of the hundreds of millions who might come after them.


"2. That the people have endured the presnt illy-located capital for three-quarters of a century, patiently waiting for vast territory of the Union to be peopled and organized in States, and until the centre of the population, area, and wealth could be determined, when a permanent place of residence for the government could be selected. That time has now come; all sectional issues are settled, all dangerous domestic variances are disposed of, a new era has been entered upon, and a new departure taken.


"3. That in the language of James Madison, in the Congress and 1789, ‘an equal attention to the rights of the community is the basis of the republics. If we consider the effects of the legislative power on the aggressive community, we must feel equal inducements to look to the centre in order to find the proper seat of government.’ This equal attention has not and cannot be given to the interests and rights of the people so long as the capital is located in an obscure corner of the Union.


"4. That the vast and fertile region known as the Mississippi valley must for all time be the seat of empire for this continent and exert the controlling influence in the nation, because it is homogenous in its interest and too powerful ever to permit the outlying states to sever their connection with the Union. Their vast plain will always be the surplus food — and fiber-producing portion of the continent, and the great market for the fine fabrics and tropical productions of other sections of the republic. This immense basin must have numerous outlets and channels of cheap and swift communication by water and rail with the seaboard for the egress of its products and ingress of its exchanges. Therefore whatever policy the government may pursue that tends to multiply, improve, or enlarge these arteries of commerce must result in common advantage to the whole Union, to the seaboard States equally with those of the centre.


"5. That the natural, convenient, and inevitable place for the capital of the republic is in the heart of the valley, where the centre of population, wealth, and power is irresistibly gravitating, where the government, surrounded by numerous millions of brave and Union-loving citizens, would be forever safe and against foreign foes or sectional seditions, and where it would neither require armaments nor standing armies for its protection.


"6. That while advocating the removal of the seat of government of the Mississippi valley, we do not mean to serve the interests of any particular locality, but that we urge Congress to appoint a commission for the purpose of selecting a convenient site for the national capital in the great valley of the Mississippi, pledging ourselves to be satisfied and to abide by the decision to be arrived at by the National Legislature.


"7. That in urging the removal of the national capital from its present inconvenient, out-of-the-way, and exposed location in the far East we are in earnest, and that we shall not cease in our efforts until the end is accomplished, firmly believing that the end is a necessity of the removal will become more apparent every day, and the majority of the American people will not long permit their interests and conveniences to be disregarded.


"8. That the removal of the national capital being only a question of time, we emphatically oppose and condemn all expenditures of money for enlargement of old government buildings and the erection of new ones at the present seat of the national government as a useless and wanton waste of the property of the people."


Mr. Clark, of Kansas, offered the following resolution:

"Resolved, That this convention do recommend and request all congressional nominating conventions in the various States, without distinction of party, to incorporate in their platform a demand for the removal of the national capital to a more central and convenient locality."


Mr. Jones, of Illinois, moved to strike out "without distinction of party." Adopted.

On the suggestion of Mr. Hogan, of Missouri, the following was added to the resolution:

"And that the State Legislatures instruct their senators in Congress to advocate and vote for such a proposition."


Mr. Carr, of Illinois, offered the following resolution:

"Resolved, That a standing committee of one from each State here represented be appointed by this convention shall be added, to act as a ‘permanent committee upon the subject of capital removal,’ with power to act on behalf of this convention, and to publish an address to the people of this country, with power to call another convention at such time in the future as they may deem expedient and proper."

An executive committee was appointed of which the chairman of the convention was made president and L. U. Reavis secretary, and after a harmonious interchange of views and a good many speeches the convenient adjourned.

Note from page 1022: 14. In 1876 part of St. Louis City.

Note from page 1026: 15. It is only proper to give the other side of this Chauvin claim, — the side of the occupants whom it was sought to oust. The following statement of the case was published in 1853:

"A grant was made to Madame Chauvin in May, 1784, of sixteen hundred arpens of land, about six miles west of St. Louis, on both sides of the River des Peres, or, in the words of the grant, ‘said river running through it from north to south to be improved within a year and a day.’ In Juno, 1785, her grant was canceled for non user, and the land specifically granted to one Tayon. Tayon went to St. Charles, and Governor Trudeau granted to Madame Papin three thousand two hundred arpens, including the above sixteen hundred arpens. Tayon came back, told the Governor his grant had been invaded but as he did not wish to disturb the occupant, would be satisfied with a floating right for the sixteen hundred arpens; he got this, and sold it to Mr. Chouteau, the brother of Mrs. Papin and this float was afterwards located.

"J. F. Perry bought of Mrs. Chauvin, in Illinois, her right and presented it to the old board of commissioners for confirmation. They rejected the claim. Subsequently it was presented again and confirmed, ‘to be surveyed conformably to possession, and at the expense of the claimant.’ This was in 1811; the survey was made and approved in 1832, and the very place of Madame Chauvin's possession pointed out to the surveyor and marked on the plat, and this survey took the eastern half of the Papin tract, showing that Tayon knew what he stated when he got his float. But the Papin survey was before this, confirmed earlier, and hence the Chauvin survey could not hold, although Gen. Ashley, then in Congress, tried to get it patented.

"It has slept since, sometimes in the hands of Elliott Lee, Jesse G. Lindell, Daniel D. Page, and others, until it turns up to belong to Joshua R. Stanford, of Illinois, who appointed A. H. Evans his agent to locate the claim.

"This ingenious man fixes his corner for the sixteen hundred arpens of land on the River des Peres, and there turns the claim upon its axis, and rolls it round so that its southeast corner shall settle in the Chouteau mill tract, just across the Widow Camp's lot, and then run off north and west for quantity, running over the Grand Prairie common field lots to a little north of the St. Charles road, and going west from about the Prairie House so as to overlay John Lay, and just escape the Côte Brilliante tract, and so avoid the place where Tayun said the land was, and where Jean F. Perry had it surveyed.

"This claim has been rejected in every court where they have tried to introduce it, rejected by the surveyor-general here, rejected by the commissioner of the general land office at Washington, and is now tried to be pressed upon the Secretary of the Interior by the employment of Col. Benton as its advocate. Col. Benton is the member of Congress from this district, and we should like to know how much he is to receive for the effort to divest hundreds of owners of lands in the Grand Prairie.

"Mr. Geyer, in the performance of his duties as a lawyer, we have understood, was offered one-half of this claim if he would make it stick anywhere save where Perry had located it, but he could not do it. The influence of Col. Benton, representative in Congress from this district, is invoked in the hope of getting a different decision from that which has been rendered by the courts and the commissioner of the general land office in the case. We shall see how it works upon the secretary of the interior."

Note from page 1037: 16. Letter to the St. Louis delegation to the Chicago Convention, dated June 20, 1847.

Note from page 1040: 17. Thirty thousand dollars was approved by the River and Harbor Act of 1882 for improving this river.

Note from page 1043: 18. "The Mississippi and Ohio Rivers: containing plans for the protection of the delta from inundations; and investigations of the practicability and cost of improving the navigation of the Ohio and other rivers by means of reservoirs, with appendix on the bars at the mouth of the Mississippi, by Charles Ellet, Jr., Civil Engineer."

Note from page 1043: 19. John Scudder, before the Senate Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard, in 1873, said, "I suppose there are five thousand wrecks between this (St. Louis) and Cairo alone. I speak now of all the boats that are sunk." P. 615.

Note from page 1044: 20. The snag-boat fleet in 1871 under the command of Gen. Reynolds was composed of the "Thayer," the "Octavia," the "S. H. Long," the "R. E. DeRussey," and the "J. J. Abert." The "Thayer" operated in the Missouri, between St. Joseph and Omaha, from the time the river opened until the close of September, when she was sent to the upper White, Black, and Little Red Rivers.

The "R. E. De Russey" operated in the Missouri, between Kansas City and St. Joseph, from early in the season until the 1st of September.

After her arrival at St. Louis she was loaned to the city authorities to remove obstructions in the harbor, the city was paying all her expenses. This was a benefit to the city and no loss to the general commerce, for the reason that the appropriation was not enough to keep the boats at work until the 1st of July.

The "Long" operated in the Missouri, from Kansas City to Hermann, until about the 1st of September, when she was withdrawn. After she reached the Mississippi she worked a few days in the St. Louis harbor, and on the 1st of November was ordered below, between Memphis and the mouth of the Arkansas.

The "J. J. Abert" worked in the Missouri, below St. Aubert, until the middle of August, when she came into the Mississippi, and worked between the mouth of the Missouri and Memphis.

The "Octavia" was employed the entire the season between Keokuk and Cairo, endeavoring to keep a good depth of water between these points, until it was necessary to send her into the Missouri to help the "DeRussey" and "Abert" out of that river.

The work of the "Octavia" was of great service between St. Louis and Keokuk, but owing to the nature of the river from St. Louis to Cairo the benefit was not so great. Channels across the worst bars were cut several times during the season, but they soon filled up.

The amount available for running and operating the dredge and snag-boats after using enough for repairs was only one hundred and fifty-thousand dollars. With this they were run about nine months each, which, as there were five boats in all, was an average cost of about three thousand four hundred dollars per month, and less than one hundred and twenty dollars per day.

The Missouri from Omaha to the mouth, the Mississippi from Keokuk to Vicksburg, The Arkansas from its mouth probably to Little Rock, the Ouachita from its mouth to Camden, the White from its mouth to Jacksonport, the Little Red, Black, and St. Francis Rivers from their mouths as far up as the boats can go well, were all passed over by the snag-boats at least twice, and the greater part of the distance four or more times during the season.

Note from page 1044: 21. March 29, 1867; Rev. Stat., Sec. 5253.

Note from page 1045: 22. "The Commerce and Navigation of the Valley of the Mississippi, and also that appertaining to the city of St. Louis, considered with the reference to the improvement by the general government of the Mississippi and its principal tributaries, being a report prepared by authority of the delegates from the city of St. Louis for the use of the Chicago Convention of July 5, 1847."

Note from page 1045: 23. Ex. Doc. 285, Forty-first Congress, Second Session.

Note from page 1045: 24. Ex. Doc. 145, Forty-third Congress, First Session.

Note from page 1046: 25. River and Harbor Bill.

Note from page 1046: 26. In 1836, Lieut. R. E. Lee was in charge of the improvements, and continued work thereon until 1839. No appropriation was made from 1839 to 1852, when, under an appropriation by Congress, the work was intrusted to Lieut. Warren, of the topographical engineers. In 1856, Maj. Floyd was put in charge of the work, and since then it has been prosecuted under the supervision of engineers of the United States.

Note from page 1046: 27. River and Harbor Bill.

Note from page 1046: 28. Letter signed E. O. Stanard, chairman, Erastus Wells, W. H. Stone, Lewis V. Bogy, R. P. Tausey, Webster M. Samuel, George Bain, H. C. Haarstick, Isaac M. Masson, Myron Coloney, George H. Morgan, in report of Transportation Committee, page 598.

Note from page 1047: 29. Ex. Doc. No. 127, Forty-third Congress, First Session.

Note from page 1047: 30. Lands donated in 1831 by United States along the canal.

Note from page 1047: 31. Mr. Utley, of the Board of Canal Commissioners of Illinois: Transportation Report, p. 234.

Note from page 1048: 32. Rev. Stat., Sec. 5249.

Note from page 1048: 33. Evidence before Committee on Transportation, pp. 229-32.

Note from page 1049: 34. Appendix to "Memoir on Mississippi and Ohio Rivers," p. 329.

Note from page 1050: 35. Craig & Righter built but one jetty, and not jetties, as appears from a foot-note on page 455, stating that "the contractors (Messrs. Craig & Righter) merely built one insecure jetty of a single row of pile planks, about a mile long."

Note from page 1053: 36.

"Pursuant to the notice given by the Board of Aldermen, November 20th," says the Republican of Dec. 4, 1832, "a large number of our most respected citizens assembled last evening, at an early hour, in the city hall, to consider the propriety of taking measures for the removal of the sand-bar in front of the city. The meeting was called to order by Mr. P. Ferguson, and on motion, Thornton Grimsley, Esq., was called to the chair, and Nathan Ranney was appointed secretary.


"The meeting was addressed in a plain and lucid manner by the following gentlemen: Hon. James H. Peck, P. Ferguson, Mr. Tabor, A. L. Maginnis, Mr. McKee, J. F. Darby, W. K. Rule, R. Simpson, and Thomas Cohe, when a report of a committee previously appointed by the board of aldermen to examine the channel of the river was called for and ordered to be read.


"On motion of J. F. Darby, seconded by R. Simpson, it was resolved that a committee of seven gentlemen be appointed to draft resolutions expressive of the sense of this meeting, whereupon the chair named the following gentlemen to constitute the said committee: A. L. Maginnis, Gen. Bernard Pratte, James Clemens, G. Paul, A. Gamble, G. Morton, and J. F. Darby, Esqs.


"After the committee had retired for a short time it returned, and submitted the following resolutions, which were unanimously adopted:


"1. Resolved, That in the opinion of this meeting the increase of the sand-bar opposite this city would be alike injurious to its health and commercial prosperity.


"2. Resolved, That in the opinion of this meeting the course pursued by the corporate authorities of this city for the removal of the grievance complained of is justly deserving of and hereby receives its decided support, and that this meeting cordially approve of the city authorities effecting said removal by procuring funds for such object, whether by loan or otherwise, and that they also concur in requesting the corporate authorities to solicit the aid of the State and general government therefor."

Note from page 1054: 37. Gen. Ashley was warmly attached to the people of St. Louis, where he had lived so long and had so many devoted friends. This circumstance gave great encouragement and hope. His daring adventures, perils, and enterprises in the Rocky Mountains, whereby he had accumulated great wealth, the elegance of his entertainments at Washington, and his gentlemanly bearing, all had given him a position of commanding influence, and made him one of the most popular men in the House of Representatives; and although he was no speaker himself, his pleasant demeanor and his genial manner were so winning, that a dozen members of eloquence and ability on the floor were always ready to spring to their feet and advocate his measures.

Note from page 1054: 38. In 1847, Col. Benton wrote a letter to the St. Louis delegation to the Chicago Internal Improvement Convention, defining his position upon the question of internal improvements, saying, "I have always been a friend of that system, but not to its abuses; and here lies the difficulty, the danger, and the stumbling-block to its success. Objects of general and national importance can alone claim the aid of the Federal government; and in favor of such objects I believe all the departments of the government to be united. Confined to them, and the Constitution can reach them and the treasury sustain them; extended to local or sectional objects, and neither the Constitution nor the treasury could uphold them. National objects of improvement are few in number, definite in character, and manageable by the treasury; local and sectional objects are innumerable and indefinite and ruinous to the treasury."

Note from page 1055: 39. In 1846-47 the St. Louis authorities and the owners of the land on the Illinois side projected a dike, and agreed to extend it from the west side of Bloody Island to the main Illinois shore near where Vaughan's dike now is. It was begun in 1847, and prosecuted at great expense, which was borne exclusively by St. Louis.

In September, 1848, Governor French, of Illinois, directed the State's attorney at Belleville to ask the court there for an injunction against the work on the dike, which was yet incomplete. The injunction was asked and granted on the ground of the invasion by St. Louis of the State rights of Illinois.

An appeal was taken by St. Louis to the Supreme Court of the State of Illinois. That tribunal having expressed the opinion at its December term in 1848 that not the judiciary but the Legislature could properly determine what the interest of the State of Illinois required in the premises, the Legislature of 1848-49 was appealed to by St. Louis, in the celebrated case Illinois vs. St. Louis. In January, 1849, a joint resolution was passed authorizing the city of St. Louis to construct a highway over the dike then in progress of construction. The work was at once resumed, and progressed until June, 1851, when the dike and road, made of stone and earth, near completion, were swept away by the flood of that year. After the water abated, however, in the fall of 1851, one-fourth of a mile north of the site of the first dike and nearly parallel, another, the present dike, was projected. It was laid out by L. M. Kennett, mayor of St. Louis, and the city engineer, Gen. Curtis. It was finished in 1856, in the same status in which it now is. Its cost was one hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars. The land belonged to the Wiggins Ferry Company.

Thus the channel on this side was stopped, and by the increased volume and velocity of the St. Louis channel, Duncan's Island was removed therefrom, and the port of St. Louis restored. — History of East St. Louis, by Robert A. Tyson, page 28.

The Republican of March 24, 1852, speaking of Duncan's Island, said, —

"This bone of contention between this city and a number of claimants is about to be lost among the things that were. Some two years past the tongue of land from Duncan's Island reached as high almost as Market Street, and while the Levee about that point had become perfectly inaccessible to boats, the sand continued still to accumulate and the island to extend upwards. Every one can call to mind the apprehended total ruin of the South Levee from this cause, and property-owners in lower St. Louis know best the disastrous consequences which such damages would have involved. The dikes and other works about Bloody Island have effected a thorough change in the river at that locality. Duncan's Island having been curtailed materially of its proportions, has become almost unrecognizable. Two or three days since we strolled along the Levee, witnessing the vast and costly improvements which have sprung up on every side. We were surprised to see the head of Duncan's Island entirely washed away and its uppermost limits removed somewhere opposite the gas-works. A large body of water fills the slough, still washing away the island on its west side, while the main current of the river, which strikes directly against the head, is carrying it away at the opposite east side. The river along the whole southern landing is more than deep enough for the largest class of steamers. Whatever may be said of the works in our harbor, the owners of property in South St. Louis have had material cause to know their efficiency in averting a great evil, for which nothing could have repaid them."

Note from page 1057: 40.

The Republican of Feb. 25, 1874, gives the following as the measurements of the river: "At the foot of Pine Street it is 1560 feet wide; foot of Wash Street, 1500 feet; at Biddle Street, 1500 across to Bloody Island; North Market to the main shore below the dike, 3900; Warren Street to the end of the long dike, before the government commenced work, 2380 feet wide; to the shore below the dike, 3500 feet; from Destrehan to the Venice Ferry landing, 2580; from Angelica Street to Bishoff's dike, 1450 feet."

Note from page 1059: 41. The Republican of March 20, 1857, speaking of the wharf, said, —

"The whole of this magnificent work, from Market Street to Locust, has been completed and is now ready for use. Those who recollect the condition of the Levee when Mr. Kennett came into office, less than a year ago, can hardly realize the change which it has undergone. It was then a narrow, unpaved, and irregular spot, upon which business could be done only in the greatest confusion and with still greater delay. A narrow street afforded very little room for the receiving and discharging of freight, and the drays were so jammed together that it was impossible to get along. Now, thanks to Mr. Kennett's sound judgment, knowledge of the demands of commerce, and energy in carrying out his plans, he has, with the aid of the Council, built up and carried out a levee which has not its like in the United States. The work before him was enough to startle a man less bold and less confident of the ability to carry out his plans than himself. It was necessary not only to extend the wharf into the river, but also to fill up the ground several feet, and upon this a solid and durable pavement was to be laid. All this has been accomplished under circumstances of a very discouraging character. Merchants can now do their business with some comfort, the boats can discharge and receive their freight in one-half the time and in good condition, and the draymen can pursue their laborious calling without delay and without being constantly jammed against each other. For this improvement the community is indebted to Mr. Kennett. Before he came into office it was going on at a snail's pace, and upon so narrow and contracted a plan that no advantage could have been derived from it, even if it had been paved.


"If Mr. Kennett is continued in office — and the citizens will do great injustice to themselves if they do not elect him without a serious contest — seven additional blocks south of Main Street will be completed before the end of the summer, and then what a magnificent levee it will be! The work is going on as rapidly as possible; it gives employment to hundreds of men, and the sooner it is all completed the sooner the city will be able to effect a reduction in the rates of wharfage."

Note from page 1060: 42. "Mississippi and Ohio Rivers," by Charles Ellet, Jr.

Note from page 1062: 43. Many of the citizens of St. Louis recollect when the east bank of the river opposite Oak Street was where the island now is, which was farther up the river and nearer the St. Louis shore. There was a village of some twenty small houses at and above where the dike joins the island, and a ferry of the French fashion (two canoes with a light platform over them) crossed the river from that village to the foot of Oak Street.

Note from page 1063: 44. It rained continually for ten days. According to the estimate made by Dr. B. B. Brown, the quantity of rainfall was nine inches, being a greater quantity than that of the whole of the year 1843.

Note from page 1064: 45. "Nearly all the people of Brooklyn, Venice, Cahokia, and Six-Mile Prairie and other points along the river-banks are in the city. In the vicinity of Anderson's Mill, in the upper part of the city, there are upwards of fifty families and more than two hundred persons, many of whom are destitute, and all are without shelter, except such temporary covering as they have been able to erect," — Republican, June 24.

Note from page 1064: 46. The following interesting account of the great flood of 1844 was written in July of the same year by the late Dr. B. W. Brooks, of Jonesboro', Ill.:

"The Mississippi, being at a good boating stage of water, Commenced rising rapidly on the 18th day of May, 1844, and continued rising at the rate of from two feet to thirty inches every twenty-four hours until the first day of June, at which time it was within eighteen inches of high-water mark in the years 1811 and 1826. It then commenced falling gradually until the 10th of June, at which time it had fallen some five or six feet, so as to leave all the farms free from water, which were previously about half covered with water generally, with the exception of Jacob Treese's farm and a few others. This rise was presumed to come out of the Mississippi River. On the 11th of June the Missouri flood came down, and the Mississippi commenced rising again, and continued to rise at the rate of from one foot to eighteen inches every twenty-four hours until it inundated the entire bottom, covering every farm in it from eighteen to thirty feet, that being the depth of sounding on the road from Jonesboro' to Littleton's old ferry, and to Willard's ferry. Horses, cattle, sheep, and hogs were destroyed in vast numbers, notwithstanding every exertion was used by the benevolent and enterprising citizens throughout the county. Wood-boats, ferry-flats, canoes, and skiffs, and rafts or other crafts, made upon the spur of the moment, were employed in collecting and boating the stock and household property of the alarmed and distressed citizens to the high lands. Many of the citizens living near the banks on the Illinois shore fled with their families in consternation to the Missouri shore, leaving all their horses, cattle, and household effects to their fate. This latter rise and overflow of the river continued until the 29th of June, when it came to a stand, the citizens having in a great degree made an end of removing the effects of the suffering inhabitants to the neighboring hills. On the 1st of July the waters began greatly to recede to fall until...it became confined within the banks of the river. It is worthy of remark that about one-half of the houses in the Mississippi Bottom were removed from their foundations; all the fences wholly removed and washed away. All the warehouses on the bank fell into the river and many dwelling-houses shared a like fate.


"This inundation was ten or twelve feet higher than that of 1811, or of 1826, and higher than ever known, except in 1785, when it rose thirty feet above the common level, and from the report recorded in Beck's ‘History of Illinois and Missouri,’ it was the greatest flood known during the last one hundred and fifty years, at which period the Mississippi washed in a part of Fort Chartres. Mr. Cerré, the oldest French settler in St. Louis, says the inundation of the Mississippi and Missouri was not as high by some four or five feet in 1785 as it was this year, 1844, and all the old settlers of Kaskaskia agree in that the overflow of 1785 left one dry spot in the town of Kaskaskia, which was covered in 1844 with water five feet deep. The steamer ‘Indiana’ was chartered by the nuns to take the pupils of the nunnery to St. Louis, and received them on board at Col. Menard's door, and passed along the road to St. Louis, on which there was from six to fifteen feet of water, leaving the river far to the left the whole route. Some two hundred citizens went up from Kaskaskia on the ‘Indiana,’ and about three hundred found shelter on the premises of Col. Menard, and many more spread their tents along the bluffs.


"Millions of dollars will not cover the loss sustained by this flood in the States of Illinois and Missouri. Some of the most valuable farms in those two States have been rendered worthless for several years. The whole American Bottom from Alton to Cairo was submerged, containing seven hundred square miles of the finest land in the world. La Bute à Renard was the only point of land out of water in 1785: so says the St. Louis Republican.


"The great flood was occasioned by the swelling of the northern rivers which empty into the Missouri and upper Mississippi, and by the melting of the snow on the eastern declivity of the Rocky Mountains.


"The Spanish and Portuguese historians of De Soto's marauding expedition tell us that in March, 1542, all the high grounds on the west side of the Mississippi, from the mouth of the Ohio to Red River, were submerged several feet. There is a document in the clerk's office of Randolph County, Ill., at Kaskaskia, dated 1725, soliciting a grant of lots and lands from the crown of France, and urging as a reason the ‘great flood’ of the preceding year, 1724, which overflowed the village, destroyed the houses, and drove the inhabitants to the bluffs.


"The bottom lands along the Mississippi from Alton to Cairo, at the mouth of the Ohio, average five miles in width. Since the Mississippi was first discovered by Europeans, the waters had passed over all the low grounds from bluff to bluff several times. In 1785 this bottom was covered, and small boats passed from St. Louis to Kaskaskia over the land. In 1811, at the annual June rise of the Missouri, a part of the American. Bottom and the common fields of Ste. Genevieve were inundated. In 1826 the river inundated the town of Illinois, opposite St. Louis, and also the lowlands along the American Bottom, but not as high by ten feet as this flood of 1844. The flood at St. Louis attained its greatest height on the 24th of June, 1844, and was thirty-eight feet seven inches above low-water mark at that city."


William L. Murfree, Sr., gives a graphic description of the flood of 1844 in Scribner's Magazine: "The shallowest water, for indefinite miles in any direction, was two feet deep, the nearest land ‘the hills of the Arkansaw,’ thirty miles away. The mules were quartered on the upper floor of the gin-house; the cattle had all been drowned long ago; planter, negro, and overseer were confined to their respective domiciles; the gristmill was under water, and there was no means of preparing corn for culinary purposes except a wooden hominy mortar. The hog-and-hominy diet (so highly extolled by some people who have never lived on it) was adopted of necessity, the former being represented by mess-pork salter than tongue can tell. There were no visitors, except now and then a sociable snake, which, no doubt, bored by swimming around indefinitely in the overflow, and craving even human companionship, would glide up on the gallery of some of the houses. There was no means of locomotion except the skiff and the humble but ever serviceable ‘dugout,’ nowhere to go, and nobody within a day's journey otherwise or more comfortably situated. The only sense of sympathy from without was had from remote and infrequent glimpses of the gallant steamer ‘J. M. White,’ which, leaping from point to point, made better time from New Orleans to St. Louis than was ever made before or for many years after. That year nineteen plantations out of twenty failed to produce a single pound of cotton or a single bushel of corn and when the flood was over and the swamp Noahs came out of their respective arks, they were, to say the least, malcontent."

Note from page 1067: 47. "The area is as large as the States of New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Jersey combined. Less than eight per cent. of this area is now under cultivation. It is estimated that if protected and improved these lands would be worth $2,043,858,251. As their present value is but $107,628,833, the increase would be a sum nearly equal to the national debt. It is therefore claimed that returns would justify the outlay of the largest sum which the improvement would be likely to cost."

Note from page 1067: 48. Ellet's "Memoir on the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers," p. 27.

Note from page 1067: 49. Act approved Sept. 28, 1850.

Note from page 1068: 50. In 1874 a national commission recommended an elaborate levee system. As this was regarded as but a temporary expedient, the commission appointed under the law of 1879 considered more comprehensive plans. Chief of these are two which are designed to make a subordinate element of the levees, and possibly to make it possible to dispense with them altogether. One of these is called the "outlet system," and is designed to carry off the superfluous waters by making large and adequate outlets, possibly diverting the Red River, so that it shall reach the gulf independently of the Mississippi.

Note from page 1068: 51. In "Annals of the West," page 122, the following reference to the ferry occurs:

"At that time [at the period of the foundation of St. Louis] a skirt of tall timber lined the bank of the river, free from undergrowth, which extended back to a line about the range of Eighth Street. In the rear was an extensive prairie. The first cabins were erected near the river and market; no ‘Bloody Island’ or ‘Duncan's Island’ then existed. Directly opposite the old Market Square the river was narrow and deep, and until about the commencement of the present century persons could be distinctly heard from the opposite shore. Opposite Duncan's Island and South St. Louis was an island covered with heavy timber and separated from the Illinois shore by a slough. Many persons are now living (1850) who recollect the only ferry from Illinois to St. Louis passed from Cahokia, below this island, and landed on the Missouri shore near the site of the United States arsenal."

Note from page 1069: 52. Another account states that "Pigot" (meaning, of course, not Capt. Piggott, but another member of the family) "operated the ferry in the same old fashion with canoes until 1815 or 1817. It probably passed then into the hands of Day, a squire and tavern-keeper in Illinoistown. In 1819, Day sold to Samuel Wiggins. Day had improved somewhat on the old system, and had run a boat operated by one horse, who, by a treadmill step, had worked stern- or side-wheels."

Note from page 1070: 53. "After the establishment of the Piggott ferry successive attempts were made to establish towns, which bore various names. Some of these were laid out immediately on the shore of the river, and as there were no paved levees to protect the bank the river kept constantly encroaching upon the land, and the towns were washed away. The first was named Washington. It was situated on the Illinois shore, eastward and opposite to the St. Louis grain elevator. It consisted of a tavern, owned by Mr. Samuel Wiggins, and four or five dwelling-houses. A gentleman now living near Belleville, once clerk of St. Clair County, relates an incident that occurred to him during the time when Washington was gradually washing away. He states that he had been to St. Louis with produce from his father's farm, fifteen miles eastward. He says, ‘One night I slept in Wiggins' tavern. It was pretty close to the shore. A big sycamore-tree stood eight feet from the house on the bank. Along about midnight I heard water. It seemed from the sound to be under the house. I thought it must be the river. I partly dressed as quickly as I could, and ran out shoreward. Wiggins and everybody else that was in it ran out too, expecting the house to go. The big sycamore was gone. It had taken with it a piece of ground from under the house, and the river was running under the outer wall. But it stood till morning. I got breakfast there, when they moved it back farther from the river.’ Subsequently all the town of Washington was washed away." — Hist. East St. Louis, by Robert A. Tyson, pp. 19 and 20.

Note from page 1072: 54. William C. Wiggins, brother of Samuel Wiggins, was born in 1783 at Newburgh, N. Y., and the early portion of his life was spent in the cities of New York and Albany. He then removed to Charleston, S. C., where he lived ten years and was married. After this he returned to the city of New York, remained there some years, and in 1818 started for the West, arriving in St. Louis in the same year. In 1822 he took charge of the "Wiggins Ferry," of which he remained in charge for thirty years. He was the last of the original purchasers of the stock of the company, and realized from his exertions and industry a handsome fortune. Mr. Wiggins died on the 25th of November, 1853.

Samuel B. Wiggins, son of William C. Wiggins, was born in Charleston, S. C., Dec. 11, 1814. He first commenced business in Illinois, but subsequently returned to St. Louis and opened a house in company with S. C. Christy, under the style of Christy & Wiggins. When Mr. Christy retired, Mr. Wiggins carried on the business alone until he took his brother into partnership, the new firm being known as S. B. Wiggins & Co. After continuing for some time it was again reorganized under the name of Wiggins & Anderson, and was a prominent grocery and dry-goods firm. It was dissolved in 1859, and Mr. Wiggins withdrew entirely from active business life. During the period of his commercial career and afterwards he occupied various important positions in business circles. He was a director in the Southern Bank, in the Pacific Insurance Company, and for fifteen years in the Citizens' Insurance Company. For several years he was president of the Wiggins Ferry Company, in which he was a large stockholder. He died on the 24th of July, 1868.

Note from page 1073: 55. A newspaper writer, describing the ferry at an early period, says, "There was no levee at that time, and the boat was landed under the cliffs and rocks. A road led down from the village (St. Louis) to the ferry landing. Capt. Trendley used frequently to run in under the cliffs to get out of a shower. The ferry landing at that early time on the Illinois shore was at the old brick tavern then kept by Dr. Tiffin (which has since been swept away), and about two hundred yards west of the Illinois and Terre Haute round-house. The fare at that time was a ‘long bit’ for a footman, a market-wagon seventy-five cents, and for a two-horse wagon one dollar."

Note from page 1073: 56. Marshall Brotherton was born in Erie County, Pa., Jan. 6, 1811, and when an infant was brought out into the wilds of St. Louis County by his parents. The family located upon a piece of ground not far from St. Louis, and Mr. Brotherton, the elder, lived there as a thrifty farmer up to the time of his death. James Brotherton, a brother of Marshal, was elected sheriff of St. Louis County, and Marshall, then a young man, removed to St. Louis and worked in the office of his brother as deputy. When James died, Marshall, who had made a very efficient officer, was elected sheriff, and occupied that office for several terms. He then engaged in mercantile pursuits in St. Louis, his business being mainly that of a lumber dealer. He was also interested in other matters, notable among them being a partnership with John L. Ferguson in the ownership of the St. Charles ferry. At various periods he held the offices of sheriff, county judge, fund commissioner, and president of the board of managers of the House of Refuge. About 1854 or 1855 he was put forward as a candidate for the mayoralty, but was not elected. He was uniformly successful in business, owing to his sound judgment, active habits, and great popularity. At the time of his death, which occurred in the latter part of November, 1875, his ferry interest and the North Missouri Planing-Mill, situated on the river-bank, at the foot of Bremen Avenue, were the only active operations which he still controlled. He was, however, president of the Bremen Savings-Bank, which position he had held ever since that institution was organized.

In early manhood Mr. Brotherton married Miss Ferguson, a sister of his partner, John L. Ferguson. His wife died a few years after they were married, and in 1840 or 1841 he married Miss Herndon, a daughter of Rev. John C. Herndon, by whom he had two daughters, afterwards Mrs. Oscar Reed and Mrs. Stephen M. Yeaman.

Note from page 1074: 57. In 1864 Arsenal Island, containing about one hundred and twenty acres of ground, was allotted by the Secretary of the Interior and the commissioners of the general land office to the St. Louis public schools, and in 1866 the school board sold it to the city for thirty-three thousand dollars. It was occupied for hospital purposes by the city until 1869, when the hospitals were removed to Quarantine. In 1874, Benjamin Segar settled on the island, and put part of it in cultivation, and continued to live there under a lease granted him by the city. The island for a number of years had been moving down stream, and finally fronted on a parcel of ground in the Cahokia commons on the Illinois shore, owned by Judge Rombauer, as trustee for the Cahokia Ferry Company. When the island had reached a point in front of the ground mentioned, the ferry company claimed the right to extend their north and south lines across it to the water's edge on the western side thereof, and to take possession of so much of the island as was contained within those lines, and they entered on the island and built a wire fence on their north line. This fence was torn down as soon as its existence came to the knowledge of the city authorities, and sign-boards were erected warning all persons from trespassing there. Subsequently an action was instituted in the Circuit Court at Belleville by Judge Rombauer, as trustee, against M. Segar, the tenant of the city, to recover the possession of the fifty acres of ground embraced within the lines spoken of.

Note from page 1074: 58. For the history of the construction of the great bridge, the author is mainly indebted to Professor C. M. Woodward, of Washington University.

Note from page 1074: 59. The first bridge to span the Mississippi River was a wire suspension bridge at Minneapolis, Minn., built in 1854 by Thomas M. Griffith, at a cost of nearly fifty thousand dollars.

Note from page 1074: 60. Republican, Jan. 13, 1853.

Note from page 1074: 61. "Yesterday," said the same paper of March 17, 1854, "we examined the drawing and profile of a bridge for the Mississippi River, drawn by B. Andreas, engineer, corner of Second and Chestnut Streets, over Ellis & Hutton's. He has located it across the river at or near the shot-tower above Carondelet, and has made his drawings to correspond. We understand that his plan is made with strict regard to the measurement of the river at that point in width and the elevations on either side. He proposes to cross the river by five spans, each three hundred and fifty feet, the base of the carriage-way to be sixty feet above the high water of 1844, or one hundred and twenty feet above ordinary low water, the bridge to rest on piers of rock or cast iron. The superstructure is to be of lattice-work of wrought iron, well secured together, with two ways in breadth and two for use, one placed above the other, the low ways for railroad tracks and the upper for the ordinary travel of horses, carriages, wagons, etc."

Note from page 1075: 62. "Last winter," said the Republican of July 11, 1855, "the Legislatures of Missouri and Illinois, anticipating the necessity which might exist for bridging the Mississippi at this point before the time for reassembling should again come round, passed the requisite legal provisions for such a purpose."

Note from page 1075: 63. Henry Flad, one of the most distinguished engineers of the West, was a graduate of the University of Munich, and his first professional engagement was in connection with hydraulic works on the Rhine. He came to America at the time of the German revolution of 1848, and for a period of eleven years was connected with some of the most important railroads in the country. In 1854 he removed to Missouri, and was employed as resident engineer of the Iron Mountain road, a considerable portion of which was constructed by him. He also made surveys for several other roads in Missouri.

In connection with Mr. Kirkwood, he made plans for the water-works of Compton Hill and Bissell's Point, and a large measure of the success of that great improvement is due to his skill. After the completion of this work he filled the office of commissioner of water-works for eight years. At the outbreak of the war he entered the army as a private, but his skill as an engineer soon brought him into prominence, and he rose rapidly to the rank of colonel of engineers.

Col. Flad's name will always be associated with that of Capt. Eads in connection with the St. Louis bridge and tunnel. He had charge of all the details of their construction, and it is a matter of history that on every occasion Capt. Eads insisted upon a division of the honors of their united success in this great undertaking. Among other works of Col. Flad may be mentioned in lowering of the track of the Missouri Pacific Railroad through the city, and the concentration of tracks at the Union Depot.

Note from page 1076: 64. A "History of the St. Louis Bridge, containing a full account of every step in its construction and erection, and including the theory of the ribber arch and the tests of materials," written by Professor C. M. Woodward, was published in 1882, by G. I. Jones & Co., of St. Louis.

Note from page 1079: 65. "The long-looked-for opening of the bridge to public travel," said the Republican of May 24th, "took place yesterday morning, as previously announced. Six o'clock was the hour fixed for the opening, but long before that time a great multitude of people had gathered around the office, each anxious to get the first ticket. The pressure on the ticket-sellers continued for two or three hours, and during the entire day they were kept reasonably busy. Many more tickets were sold than were used, as ninny persons, for economy's sake, purchased packages. It is understood that the receipts for the day were about one thousand dollars."

The first person who purchased tickets on May 23d, according to the same authority, was Charles Gallagher, night clerk in the office of the Republican. In announcing this fact that paper added, "He was present waiting for the office to open, and has the following certificate to show the facts:

"‘Charles Gallagher bought first one dollar's worth of tickets and crossed the bridge.


(Signed) "F. W. GEISEKER.


"May 23, 1874.’


"It has been stated, as "we understand, that Mr. McMahon, a superintendent of the bridge, was the first man to cross. This is incorrect. Mr. McMahon purchased his ticket the night previous, and was not legitimately a passenger, being an employé of the company. Mr. Gallagher is clearly entitled to the honor."

Note from page 1082: 66. In the course of his address Governor Brown gave an interesting sketch of the legislation of Congress in relation to the bridge, as follows: "Ever since the earliest act incorporating St. Louis the necessity of establishing some permanent way across the great river has impressed itself upon the minds of our people. On two or three occasions this has taken shape in charters proposed or passed by the Legislatures of the adjoining States, but as they were necessarily inoperative in the absence of any congressional sanction, they failed to attract investment. At length, however, the demand for greater facilities of transit forced itself into national importance, and in commemoration of the enterprise it may be stated that it was on the 4th day of December, 1865, that notice was given in the Senate of the United States of intent to bring in a bill to authorize the construction of a bridge across the Mississippi River at the city of St. Louis. On the 18th day of December the bill was presented and appropriately referred. It was reported back from the committee March 22, 1866, and laid over until a subsequent day for action. The discussion which followed was animated, elicited much hostile criticism, and the bill was only passed after an elucidation which seemed to render it innocuous in the eyes of its most violent opponents. Subsequently a bill relating exclusively to bridges and post-routes on the upper Mississippi came back to the Senate from the House of Representatives, and was referred to the Committee on Post-offices. The bill, which had passed the Senate, it was found had been suppressed in the committee of the House. The situation was critical, the calendar was loaded down, the session was closing. It was then that the appeal was made to the committee in the Senate to engraft by way of amendment the Senate bill upon the House bill and after much controversy this was finally assented to, so reported back and passed, the House concurring therein in the expiring hours of the Congress.

"It was in virtue of riparian rights conceded by Illinois and Missouri, under the sanction of an act of the National Congress, and sustained by tile indorsement of our own Chamber of Commerce, that this bridge was undertaken. Historically, therefore, it seemed to grow out of the necessities of the age. But the point to which I wish to invite your attention is this, that, so great was the antagonism from rival commercial routes, it was only when the provisions of tile congressional act had been made to declare that the central span should not be less than five hundred feet nor the elevation less than fifty feet above the city directrix that hostility could be so allayed as to permit the passage of the bill. It was upon the tacit assumption by its opponents of its utter impracticability that antagonism gave way. In fact, the utterance was then and there boldly made that the genius did not exist in the country capable of erecting such a structure. Others, however, had more faith, and to-day you behold the accomplishment of what was thus derided as impossible; you see the requirement of the law fulfilled in all its strictness; you see those spans of five hundred feet leaping agile from base to base; you see those tapering piers bedded on the immovable rock, deep down below the homeless sands, and rising to gather the threads of railways and roadways high in the upper air; and you see, caught as if by inspiration, beauty there in all its flowing proportion, and science there in its rare analysis of the strength of materials, and an endurance there for all time in its bond of iron and steel and granite to resist force and fire and flood."

Note from page 1083: 67. With regard to the permanence of the structure, Capt. Eads said, "I am justified in declaring that the bridge will exist just as long as it continues to be useful to the people who come after us, even if its years should number those of the pyramids. That its piers will thus endure but few will doubt, while the peculiar construction of its superstructure is such that any piece in it can be easily taken out and examined, and replaced or renewed, without interrupting the traffic on the bridge. The effect of temperature upon the arches is such that in cold weather the lower central tubes and the upper abutment tubes composing the spans are so relieved of strain that any one of them may be uncoupled from the others and easily removed. In hot weather the upper ones of the centre and the lower ones near the piers may be similarly removed. In completing the western span, two of the lower tubes of the inside ribs near the middle of the span were injured during erection, and were actually uncoupled and taken out without any difficulty whatever after the span was completed, and two new ones put in their place within a few hours.

"This is a feature in its construction possessed by no other similar work in the world, and it justifies me in saying that this bridge will endure as long as it is useful to man."

Note from page 1087: 68. Bossu, vol. i. p. 114.

Note from page 1090: 69. Professor S. Waterhouse.

Note from page 1090: 70. Ibid.

Note from page 1090: 71. "Their athletic labors gave strength incredible to their muscles, which they were vain to exhibit, and fist-fighting was their pastime. He who could boast that he had never been whipped was bound to fight whoever disputed his manhood. Keel-boatmen and bargemen looked upon flat-boatmen as their natural enemies, and a meeting was the prelude to a ‘battle-royal.’ They were great sticklers for ‘fair play,’ and whosoever was worsted in battle must bide the issue without assistance." — Monette's History of the Valley of the Mississippi, p. 20

Note from page 1090: 72. Ibid., pp. 19 and 20.

Note from page 1091: 73. Professor Waterhouse.

Note from page 1092: 74. Professor Waterhouse.

Note from page 1092: 75. Ibid.

Note from page 1093: 76. Lloyd's Steamboat Directory, p. 38.

Note from page 1093: 77. Missouri Gazette, July 5, 1809.

Note from page 1093: 78. Ibid., Aug. 30, 1809.

Note from page 1093: 79. Ibid., Dec. 22, 1809.

Note from page 1093: 80. "FREIGHT FROM NEW ORLEANS TO KASKASKIA IN 1741. — We doubt whether so unique or so old a bill of lading can be found in the valley of the Mississippi as that which follows. It is a translation from a bill of sale executed the 18th of May, 1741, by Barois, notary in Kaskaskia. What would our steamboatmen say now at receiving such a price for an old salt-kettle, when they are in the practice of transporting one thousand to twelve hundred tons of goods between the ports of New Orleans and St. Louis, and are in a very bad humor if by chance they fail to make the trip in six days? ‘And has been further agreed that said Mettager promises to deliver to said Bienvena, at the landing-place of this town of Kaskaskia, at his own risks, the fortunes of war excepted, an iron kettle, weighing about two hundred and ninety pounds, used for the manufacture of salt, and which said Bienvena owns in New Orleans, and said Bienvena promises to pay to said Mettager, for his salary and freight, after the delivery of said kettle, a steer in good order, three bushels of salt, two hundred pounds of bacon, and twenty bushels of Indian corn, under the penalty of all costs, etc.’" — Republican, Nov. 30, 1850.

PETER PROVENCHERE'S BILL OF LADING.

Shipped by Peter Provenchere, of the town of St. Louis, merchant, on board the boat "J. Maddison," whereof Charles Quirey is master, now lying at the landing before the town of St. Louis and ready immediately to depart for Louisville, Ky.

F. T. Six packs of deer-skins, marked and numbered as per margin, and a barrel of bear-oil, containing about thirty-two gallons, all in good order and well conditioned, which I promise to deliver in like good order and condition (unavoidable accident excepted) unto Mr. Francis Tarascon, merchant, Louisville, or to his assigns.

And, moreover, I acknowledge to have of the said Peter Provenchere a note of Peter Menard on Louis Lorimer, inhabitant of Cape Girardeau, for one thousand pounds of receiptable deer-skins, the said note transferred to my order, and I bind and engage myself to ask of the said Louis Lorimer the payment of the said note, and if I reclaim it to deliver to the said Francis Tarascon or assign the thousand pounds of deer-skins, together with the six packs and the barrel now received, and in case of no payment to return the note to Mr. Tarascon, he or they paying freight.

In witness whereof I have set my hand to three bills of lading, all of the same tenor and date, one being accomplished, the others null and void.

CHARLES QUIREY.

Test, WILLIAM C. CARR.

St. Louis, the 8th, A. D. 1809.

Note from page 1094: 81. Professor Waterhouse.

Note from page 1094: 82. The "Navigator," an old and rare book printed at Pittsburgh, Pa., in the early part of this century, records many interesting facts concerning the "early navigators." From this source we learn something of the expenses and profits of the "New Orleans" when a packet between Natches and New Orleans. This old chronicle says, "Her accommodations are good and her passengers generally numerous, seldom less from "Natchez than from ten to twenty, at eighteen dollars per head, and when she starts from New Orleans generally from thirty to fifty, and sometimes as many as eighty passengers, at twenty-five dollars each to Natchez. According to the observations of Capt. Morris, of New Orleans, who attended her as pilot several trips, the boat's receipts for freight, upwards, have averaged the last year seven hundred dollars, passenger money nine hundred dollars; downward, three hundred dollars for freight, five hundred for passengers. She performs thirteen trips in the year, which, at two thousand four hundred dollars per trip, amount to thirty-one thousand two hundred dollars. Her expenses are, twelve hands at twenty dollars per month, four thousand three hundred and twenty dollars; captain, one thousand dollars; seventy cords of wood each trip, at one dollar and seventy-five cents, which amounts to one thousand five hundred and eighty-six dollars; in all six thousand nine hundred and six dollars. It is presumed that the boat's extra trips for pleasure or otherwise, out of her usual route trade, have paid for all the expenses of repairs, and with the profits of the barroom, for the boat's provisions, in which case there will remain a net gain of twenty-four thousand two hundred and ninety-four dollars for the first year. The owners estimate the boat's value at forty thousand dollars, which gives an interest of two thousand four hundred dollars; and by giving one thousand eight hundred and ninety-four dollars more for furniture, etc., we have the clear gain of twenty thousand dollars for the first year's labor of the steamboat ‘New Orleans.’

"The steamboat goes up in about seven or eight days, and descends in two or three, stopping several times for freight, passengers, etc. She stays at the extremes of her journey, Natchez and New Orleans, about four or five days to discharge and take in loading."

The first sea-vessel on the Western waters was a brig called the "St. Clair," one hundred and twenty tons burden, built at Marietta, Ohio, by Commodore Preble, in 1798 or '99, who went down the rivers in her to New Orleans, from thence to Havana and Philadelphia, and at the latter port he sold her. From 1799 to 1805 there were built at Pittsburgh four ships, three brigs, and several schooners, but misfortunes and accidents happening to most of them in going down the rivers to the gulf, ship-building at Pittsburgh and the upper Ohio went into a decline, until revived some years after in the shape of steamboat architecture. One of these ships took out her clearance papers at Pittsburgh for Leghorn, Italy, and in illustrating the commercial habits and enterprise of the American people, Henry Clay, in a speech in Congress, related the following anecdote about her; When the vessel arrived at Leghorn, the captain presented his papers to the custom officer there, but he would not credit them, and said to the master, "Sir, your papers are forged, there is no such place as Pittsburgh in the world, your vessel must be confiscated." The trembling captain asked if he had a map of the United States, which he fortunately had, and produced, and the captain, taking the officer's finger, put it down at the mouth of the Mississippi, then led it a thousand miles up that river, and thence another thousand up to Pittsburgh, and said, "There, sir, is the port whence my vessel cleared from." The astonished officer, who, before he saw the map, would as soon have believed the vessel had been navigated from the moon, exclaimed, "I knew that America could, show many wonderful things, but a fresh-water seaport is something I never dreamed of."

Note from page 1096: 83. Named after Zebulon Montgomery Pike, formerly a brigadier-general in the United States army, who was born at Lamberton, N. J., Jan. 5, 1779, and killed at York, near Toronto, Upper Canada, on the 27th of April, 1813. Zebulon, his father, was born in New Jersey in 1751, and died at Lawrenceburg, Ind., July 27, 1834. He was a captain in the Revolutionary army, was present at St. Clair's defeat in 1791, and was brevet lieutenant-colonel in the United States army July 10, 1812. His son was appointed a cadet in the regiment of his father March 3, 1799, and was made first lieutenant in November and captain in August, 1806. Skilled in mathematics and in the languages, he was appointed after the purchase of Louisiana to conduct an expedition to trace the Mississippi to its source. Leaving St. Louis, Aug. 9, 1805, he performed this service satisfactorily, returning after eight months and twenty days of exploration and exposure to constant hardship. In 1806-7 he was engaged in geographical explorations of Louisiana, during which, being found on Spanish territory, he with his party was taken to Santa Fé, and after a long examination and the seizure of his papers was escorted home, arriving at Natchitoches July 1, 1807. In 1810 he published a narrative of his expeditions, with valuable maps and charts. Receiving the thanks of the government, he was made major of the Sixth Infantry, May 3, 1808; lieutenant-colonel of the Fourth Infantry, Dec. 31, 1809; deputy quartermaster-general, April 3, 1812; colonel Fifteenth Infantry, July 3, 1812; and brigadier-general, March 12, 1813. Early in 1813 he was assigned to the principal army as adjutant and inspector-general, and was selected to command an expedition against York, the capital of Upper Canada. Landing under a heavy fire, he charged the enemy in person, and put them to flight, carried one battery by assault, and was moving to the attack of the main works, when the explosion of the British magazine mortally wounded him, speedily causing his death on April 27, 1813.

Note from page 1097: 84. The seventh boat on the Mississippi was the "Dispatch," twenty-five tons, built at Brownsville, Pa., by the same company that owned the "Enterprise," and under French's patent. She made several trips from Pittsburgh to Louisville, and one to New Orleans and back to Shippingport, where she was wrecked and her engine taken out. She was commanded by Capt. J. Gregg.

The eighth boat was the "Buffalo," three hundred tons, built at Pittsburgh by Benjamin H. Latrobe, Sr., the distinguished architect of the capitol at Washington. She was afterwards sold at sheriff's sale in Louisville for eight hundred dollars.

We find in the American Weekly Messenger, published in Philadelphia, July 2, 1814, the following letter, which relates the circumstances of the launch of the steamboat "Buffalo":

"PlTTSBURGH, June 3, 1814.


"We omitted to mention that the steamboat ‘Buffalo’ was safely launched on the 13th ult. from the yard of Mr. Latrobe. This boat, which was intended to complete the line of steamboats from New Orleans to Pittsburgh, is a fine and uncommonly well built vessel of two hundred and eighty-five tons burden, carpenters' measurement, and is intended to trade regularly between Louisville and Pittsburgh once a month as long as the water will admit. She has two cabins and four staterooms for private families, and will conveniently accommodate one hundred persons with beds. Should it be found that her draught of water, which will be about two feet six inches when her machinery is on board, is too great for the summer months, it is intended immediately to put on the stocks another boat or boats of smaller draught and less bulky construction. It is expected that the ‘Buffalo’ will be finished in time to bring up the cargo of the steamboat ‘Vesuvius’ from New Orleans."


A succeeding number of the same paper, the Weekly American Messenger, contains the following items from St. Louis:

"ST. LOUIS (I. T.), July 2, 1814.


"On Sunday last an armed boat arrived here from Prairie du Chien, under the command of Capt. John Sullivan, with his company of militia and thirty-two men from the gunboat ‘Governor Clark,’ their terms of service (sixty days) having expired. Capt. Yeizer, who commands on board the ‘Governor Clark,’ off Prairie du Chien, reports that his vessel is completely manned, that the fort is finished, christened Fort Shelby, and occupied by the regulars, and that all are anxious for a visit from Dickson and his red troops. The Indians are hovering around the village, stealing horses, and have been successful in obtaining a prisoner, a Frenchman, who had gone out to look for his horses."


Ninth boat, the "James Monroe," one hundred and twenty tons, built at Pittsburgh, by Mr. Latrobe, owned by a company at Bayou Sara, and run in the Natchez trade.

Tenth boat, the "Washington," four hundred tons, a two-decker, built at Wheeling, Va., constructed and partly owned by Capt. Henry M. Shreve.* The engine of the "Washington" was built at Brownsville, Pa., under the immediate direction of Capt. Shreve; her boilers were on the upper deck, being the first boat on that plan, a valuable improvement by Capt. Shreve, which is now generally in use. The "Washington" crossed the falls in September, 1816, under the command of Capt. Shreve, bound for New Orleans, and returned to Louisville during the following winter. In the month of March, 1817, she left Shippingport a second time, and proceeded to New Orleans, and returned to Shippingport, being absent only forty-five days. This was the trip that convinced the despairing public that steamboat navigation would succeed on the Western waters.

Eleventh boat, the "Franklin," one hundred and twenty-five tons, built at Pittsburgh, by Messrs. Shiras & Cromwell, engine built by George Evans, left Pittsburgh in December, 1816, was sold at New Orleans, and was subsequently employed in the Louisville and St. Louis trade. She was sunk in the Mississippi, near Ste. Genevieve, in 1819, on her way to St. Louis, commanded by Capt. Revels.

Twelfth boat, the "Oliver Evans" (afterwards the "Constitution"), seventy tons, built at Pittsburgh, by George Evans, engines his patent. She left Pittsburgh in December, 1816, for New Orleans; she burst one of her boilers in April, 1817, off Point Coupee, by which eleven men lost their lives, principally passengers. Owned by George Sulton and others of Pittsburgh.

Thirteenth boat, the "Harriet," forty tons, built at Pittsburgh, constructed and owned by Mr. Armstrong, of Williamsport, Pa. She left Pittsburgh, October, 1816, for New Orleans, crossed the falls in March, 1817, made one trip to New Orleans, and subsequently ran between that place and Muscle Shoals, on the Tennessee River.

Fourteenth boat, the "Kentucky," eighty tons, built at Frankfort, Ky., in 1817, and owned by Hanson & Beswell, engaged in the Louisville trade.

Fifteenth boat, the "Governor Shelby," ninety tons, built at Louisville, engine by Bolton & Ebolt, of England. In 1819 she was running very successfully in the Louisville trade.

Sixteenth boat, the "New Orleans," three hundred tons, built at Pittsburgh by Messrs. Fulton & Livingston in 1817, for the Natchez trade, sunk near Baton Rouge, but was raised, and sunk again near New Orleans in February, 1819, about two months after her first sinking.

Seventeenth boat, the "Vesta," one hundred tons, built at Cincinnati in 1817, and owned by Messrs. Bosson, Cowdin & Co. She plied regularly as a packet between Cincinnati and Louisville.

Eighteenth boat, the "George Madison," two hundred tons, built at Pittsburgh in 1818, by Messrs. Voorhees, Mitchell, Rodgers & Todd, of Frankfort, Ky., was engaged in the Louisville trade in 1819.

Nineteenth boat, the "Ohio," four hundred and forty-three tons, built at New Albany, Ind., in 1818, by Messrs. Shreve & Blair, in the Louisville trade.

Twentieth boat, the "Napoleon," three hundred and thirty-two tons, built at Shippingport in 1818, by Messrs. Shreve, Miller & Breckinridge, of Louisville, engaged in the Louisville trade.

Twenty-first boat, the "Volcano," two hundred and fifty tons, built at New Albany, Ind., by Messrs. John & Robinson De Hart in 1818. She was purchased in 1819 by a company at Natchez, and ran between that port and New Orleans.

Twenty-second boat, the "General Jackson," one hundred and fifty tons, built at Pittsburgh in 1818, and owned by R. Whiting, of Pittsburgh, and Gen. Carroll, of Tennessee, in the Nashville trade.

Twenty-third boat, the "Eagle," seventy tons, built at Cincinnati in 1818, owned by James Berthoud & Son, of Shippingport, Ky., in the Natchez trade.

Twenty-fourth boat, the "Hecia," seventy tons, built at Cincinnati in 1818, and owned by Messrs. Honoris & Barbaror, of Louisville, in the Louisville trade.

Twenty-fifth boat, the "Henderson," eighty-five tons, built at Cincinnati in 1818, and owned by Messrs. Bowers, of Henderson, Ky., in the Henderson and Louisville trade.

Twenty-sixth boat, the "Johnson," eighty tons, built at Wheeling, Va., in 1818, and in 1819 engaged in the Yellowstone expedition.

Twenty-seventh boat, the "Cincinnati," one hundred and twenty tons, built at Cincinnati in 1818, and owned by Messrs. Paxon & Co., of New Albany, Ind., in the Louisville trade.

Twenty-eighth boat, the "Exchange," two hundred tons, built in Louisville, Ky., in 1818, and owned by David L. Ward, of Jefferson County, Ky., in the Louisville trade.

Twenty-ninth boat, the "Louisiana," forty-five tons, built at New Orleans in 1818, and owned by Mr. Duplisa, of New Orleans, in the Natchez trade.

Thirtieth boat, the "James Ross," three hundred and thirty tons, built at Pittsburgh in 1818, and owned by Messrs. Whiting & Stackpole, of Pittsburgh, in the Louisville trade.

Thirty-first boat, the "Frankfort," three hundred and twenty tons, built at Pittsburgh in 1818, and owned by Messrs. Voorhees & Mitchell, of Frankfort, Ky., in the Louisville trade.

Thirty-second boat, the "Tamerlane," three hundred and twenty tons, built at Pittsburgh in 1818, and owned by Messrs. Bogart & Co., of New York, in the Louisville trade.

Thirty-third boat, the "Perseverance," forty tons, built at Cincinnati in 1818, and owned at that place.

Thirty-fourth boat, the "St. Louis," two hundred and twenty tons, built at Shippingport, Ky., in 1818, and owned by Messrs. Hewes, Douglass, Johnson, and others, in the St. Louis trade.

Thirty-fifth boat, the "General Pike," built at Cincinnati in 1818, intended to ply between Louisville, Cincinnati, and Maysville as a passenger packet, and owned by a company at Cincinnati. She was the first steamboat built on the Western waters for the exclusive convenience of passengers. Her accommodations were ample, her apartments spacious and convenient. She measured one hundred feet keel, twenty-five feet beam, and drew only three feet three inches water. The length of her cabin was forty feet, and the breadth twenty-five feet. At one end were six state-rooms, and at the other end eight. Between the two sets of state-rooms was a saloon forty by eighteen feet, sufficiently large for the accommodation of one hundred passengers. The "Pike" was built as an opposition boat to the "Vesta," built in 1817. The rivalry of these boats gave rise to a slang phrase which held its place with the boys at that period, and outlived the career of both boats. There are old citizens of Cincinnati now living who, if they will carry their memories back to the '20's, will remember the boys in their streets, and through the commons yelling, "Go ahead, ‘Vesta,’ the ‘Pike’ is coming!"

Thirty-sixth boat, the "Alabama," twenty-five tons, built on Lake Ponchartrain, La., in 1818, in the Red River trade.

Thirty-seventh boat, the "Calhoun," eighty tons, built in 1818 at Frankfort, Ky., and afterwards employed in the Yellowstone expedition.

Thirty-eighth and thirty-ninth boats, the "Expedition," one hundred and twenty tons, and "Independence," fifty tons, built near Pittsburgh, Pa., both of which were destined for the Yellowstone expedition, the "Independence" being the first that undertook to stem the powerful current of the Missouri. They both arrived at Franklin (Boon's Lick), Howard Co., two hundred miles up the Missouri River from its mouth, in the month of June, 1819.

Fortieth boat, the "Maid of Orleans," one hundred tons, built at Philadelphia in 1818, and owned by a company in New Orleans, and afterwards (in 1819) engaged in the St. Louis trade. She was constructed both for river and sea navigation, — the latter by sails, the former by steam-power. She arrived at New Orleans, schooner-rigged, ascended the Mississippi by steam, and was the first vessel which ever reached St. Louis from an Atlantic port.

Forty-first boat, the "Ramapo," sixty tons, built in New York in 1818, and in 1819 employed in the Natchez trade.

Forty-second boat, the "Mobile," one hundred and fifty tons, built at Providence, R. I., in 1818, owned at Mobile, and 1819 employed in the Louisville trade.

Forty-third boat, the "Mississippi," four hundred tons in New Orleans in 1818, arrived at Havana in February, 1819. She was intended to ply between Havana and Matanzas.

Forty-fourth boat, the steamboat "Western Engineer," built on the Monongahela in 1818-1819, descended the Ohio River from Pittsburgh about the 1st of May, 1819, and afterwards ascended the Missouri River in connection with the government exploring expedition. The object of the expedition was principally to make a correct military survey of the river and to fix upon a site for a military establishment at or near the junction of the Yellowstone with the Missouri, to ascertain the point where the Rocky Mountains are intersected by the forty-ninth degree of latitude, which formed the western boundary between the possessions of Great Britain and the United States, and to inquire into the "trading capacity and genius of the various tribes through which they may pass." The officers employed on this duty were Maj. S. H. Long, of the United States Engineers, Maj. Thomas Biddle, United States Corps of Artillery, and Messrs. Graham and Swift. The boat was completely equipped for defense and was manned by a few troops. The "Western Engineer" drew only two feet six inches of water. She was well built, was bottomed with iron or copper, and had a serpent's head on her bow through which the steam passed, presenting a novel appearance.

The launch of the "Western Engineer" at Pittsburgh, March 26th, was noticed in the Gazette of May 26, 1819, as follows:

"As the launching of the United States steamboat at Pittsburgh has been announced, and as it may not be generally known what are the objects in view, I send you some extracts of letter from a young officer going upon the expedition. She is called the ‘Western Engineer,’ and will start from Pittsburgh about the first of May. It is intended that she shall navigate the Western waters as far as the Yellowstone River, which will require upwards of two years. It is not expected that they will do more than explore the waters of the Missouri the first season, as the movements will be gradual, in order to obtain a thorough knowledge of that section of the country, with a history of the inhabitants, soil, minerals, and curiosities. The expedition is under the direction of Maj. Stephen H. Long, of New Hampshire, of the topographical engineers, attended by Mr. James Graham, of Virginia, Mr. William H. Swift, from the United States Military Academy, Maj. Thomas Biddle, of Philadelphia, of the artillery, and the following gentlemen: Dr. Jessup, of Philadelphia, mineralogist; Dr. Say, of Philadelphia, botanist and geologist; Dr. Baldwin, of Wilmington, Del., zoologist and physician; Dr. Peale, of Philadelphia, landscape painter and ornithologist; Mr. Seymour, of Philadelphia, landscape painter and ornithologist; Maj. O'Fallon, Indian agent.


"She is well armed, and carries an elegant flag, painted by Mr. Peale, representing a white man and an Indian shaking hands, the calumet of peace, and a sword. The boat is seventy-five feet long, thirteen feet beam, draws nineteen inches water with her engine, which, together with all the machinery, is placed below deck entirely out of sight. The steam passes off through the mouth of the figure-head (a large serpent). The wheels are placed in the stern, to avoid the snags and sawyers which are so common in these waters. She has a mast to ship or not as may be necessary. The expedition will depart with the best wishes of the scientific part of our country."


Forty-fifth boat, the "Rifleman," two hundred and fifty tons, built in Louisville in 1819, and owned by Messrs. Butler &, Earners, in the Louisville trade.

Forty-sixth boat, the "Car of Commerce," one hundred and fifty tons, built at Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1819, owned by William F. Patterson & Co., of Louisville, and engaged in the trade of that place.

Forty-seventh boat, the "Paragon," three hundred and seventy-six tons, built in 1819 at Cincinnati by William Parsons, and owned by William Noble and Robert Neilson, in the Louisville trade.

Forty-eighth boat, the "Maysville," one hundred and fifty tons, built in 1819, and owned by Messrs. Murphy, Moreton, and J. Birkley, of Washington, Ky., and Messrs. Armstrong and Campbell, of Maysville.

Forty-ninth boat, the "Columbus," four hundred and sixty tons, built at New Orleans in 1819, and owned by a company there. She was afterwards engaged in the Louisville trade.

Fiftieth boat, the "General Clark," one hundred and fifty tons, built at Louisville in 1819, and owned by a company there.

Fifty-first boat, the "Vulcan," three hundred tons, built at Cincinnati, 1819, for the New Orleans trade, and owned by James & Douglass and Hugh & James, all of Cincinnati.

Fifty-second boat, the "Missouri," one hundred and seventy-five tons, built at Newport, Ky., 1819, owned by John and Walker Yeastman, and destined for the St. Louis trade.

Fifty-third boat, the "New Comet," one hundred tons, altered from a barge called the "Eliza" in 1819, owned by Isaac Hough and James W. Byrne, of Cincinnati, and intended for the New Orleans trade.

Fifty-fourth boat, the "Newport," fifty tons, built at Newport, Ky., in 1819, owned by a company at New Orleans, and in 1819 engaged in the Red River trade.

Fifty-fifth boat, the "Tennessee," four hundred tons, built at Cincinnati in 1819, owned by Messrs. Breedlove & Bardford, of New Orleans, and a company of Nashville, afterwards employed in the Louisville trade. The "Tennessee" was sunk in the Mississippi by striking a snag on a very dark night in 1823, The loss of life was large, some sixty-odd persons being drowned, among them several persons of distinction. This disaster caused great excitement throughout the country, and deterred numbers from traveling on steamboats.

Fifty-sixth boat, the "General Robinson," two hundred and fifty tons, built at Newport, Ky., in 1819, owned by a company at Nashville, and run in that trade.

Fifty-seventh boat, the "United States," seven hundred tons, built at Jeffersonville, Ind., for the Natchez trade in 1819, and owned by Hart and others. She was the largest steamboat which had been built in the Western country.

Fifty-eighth boat, the "Post-Boy," two hundred tons, built at New Albany, Ind., in 1819, owned by H. M. Shreve and others, and run from Louisville to New Orleans. This was one of the packets employed by the Postmaster-General for carrying the mail between those places, according to an act of Congress passed March, 1819. By this act the whole expense was not to exceed that of transporting the mail by land.

Fifty-ninth boat, the "Elizabeth," one hundred and fifty tons, built at Salt River, Ky., in 1819, owned by a company at Elizabeth, Ky., and engaged in the New Orleans trade.

Sixtieth boat, the "Fayette," one hundred and fifty tons, built in 1819, owned by John Gray and others, in the Louisville trade.

Sixty-first boat, the "Elkhorn," three hundred tons, built at Portland, Ky., in 1819, owned by Messrs. Gray & Anderson, in the New Orleans trade.

Sixty-second boat, the "Providence," two hundred tons, built near Frankfort, Ky., in 1819, and owned by L. Castleman & Co.

Sixty-third boat, the "General Putnam," two hundred tons built at Newport, Ky., in 1819, owned by James M. Byrne & Co., of Cincinnati, and engaged in the New Orleans trade.

* The St. Louis Republican of March 7, 1851, thus notes the death of this eminent steamboat-man: "This worthy citizen died at the residence of his son-in-law in this city yesterday. He was for nearly forty years closely identified with the commerce of the West, either in flat-boats or steam navigation. During the administrations of Adams, Jackson, and Van Buren he filled the post of United States superintendent of Western river improvements, and by the steam snag-boat, of which he was the inventor, contributed largely to the safety of Western commerce. To him belongs the honor of demonstrating the practicability of navigating the Mississippi River with steamboats. He commanded the first steamer that ever ascended that river, and made several and valuable improvements, both of the steam-engine and of the hull and cabins of the Western steamboats. While the British were threatening New Orleans in 1814-16, he was employed by Gen. Jackson in several hazardous enterprises, and during the battle of the 8th of January served one of the field-pieces which destroyed the advancing column led by Gen. Keane. His name has become historically associated with Western river navigation, and will long be cherished by his numerous friends throughout this valley."

Note from page 1100: 85. "FRANKLIN (BOON'S LICK), May 19, 1819.

"ARRIVAL OF THE STEAMBOAT. — With no ordinary sensation of pride and pleasure we announce the arrival this morning at his place of the elegant steamboat ‘Independence,’ Capt. Nelson, in seven sailing days (but thirteen from the time of her departure) from St. Louis, with passengers and cargo of flour, whiskey, sugar, iron castings, etc., being the first steamboat that ever attempted ascending the Missouri. She was joyfully met by the inhabitants of Franklin, and saluted by the firing of cannon, which was returned by the ‘Independence.’

"The grand desideratum, the important fact, is now ascertained that steamboats can safely navigate the Missouri."

Note from page 1100: 86. "On Wednesday last arrived steamboat ‘Harriet,’ Capt. Armitage, twenty-six days from New Orleans.

"On Sunday arrived the ‘Johnson,’ from Cape Girardeau, with United States stores, one of the fleet destined for the Missouri expedition.

"On Saturday the steamboat ‘Independence,’ Capt. Nelson, arrived from Franklin and Chariton, on the Missouri. The ‘Independence’ has met with no accident on her route, although much troubled with bars and the impediments in the channel of the river. Both the inhabitants of Franklin and Chariton gave a dinner to the captain and passengers on board. The ‘Independence’ was three days coming from Franklin, but only running nineteen hours. She has been absent from St. Louis in all twenty-one days. This trip forms a proud event in the history of Missouri. The Missouri has hitherto resisted almost effectually all attempts at navigation; she has opposed every obstacle she could to the tide of emigration which was rolling tip her banks and dispossessing her dear red children, but her white children, although children by adoption, have become so numerous, and are increasing so rapidly, that she is at last obliged to yield them her favor. The first attempt to ascend her by steam has succeeded, and we anticipate the day as speedy when the Missouri will be as familiar to steamboats as the Mississippi or Ohio. Capt. Nelson merits and will receive deserved credit for his enterprise and public spirit in this undertaking." — Gazette, June 9, 1819.

Note from page 1100: 87. "The steamboat ‘Johnson’ passed here on Wednesday last with troops, etc., for the Yellowstone." — Gazette, May 25, 1819

"The steamboat ‘Jefferson’ arrived on Saturday last from Louisville. She is another of Col. Johnson's boats destined for the Western expedition, and has been delayed by the breaking of her machinery." — Gazette, June 23, 1819.

"The ‘Western Engineer’ left St. Louis on Monday, the 21st inst., and proceeded on her journey up the Missouri. The undertaking is worthy of an enlightened and patriotic government, and its success will confer deserved renown both its projectors and its executors." — Gazette, June 23, 1819.

"Last week Col. Henry Atkinson, on seeing the ferry-boats worked by wheels, immediately conceived the idea of applying them to the barges bound up the Missouri with the United States troops, stores, etc. In about three days he had one of the barges rigged with wheels and a trial made, in which she was run up the Missouri about two miles and back in thirty minutes." — Gazette, June 30, 1819.

Note from page 1101: 88. Professor Waterhouse.

Note from page 1103: 89. The death of Joseph Bates, captain of the steamboat "Boonville," occurred on the 5th of April, 1837.

Note from page 1104: 90. Elliot R. Hopkins, collector of the port, died on the 18th of September, 1842.

Note from page 1105: 91. The Commerce and Navigation of the Valley of the Mississippi, p. 7.

Note from page 1106: 92. Capt. Alfred Rodgers, formerly a commander of one of the finest steamboats on the river, and for the last year or eighteen months of his life engaged in the commission and produce business in St. Louis, died on the 13th of June, 1849.

Note from page 1106: 93. In July, 1857, the steamer "Louisiana,"commanded by Capt. J. Harry Johnson, with S. D. Bradley, clerk, and Capt. D. R. Asbury, pilot; Joseph Brennan, engineer; and Hugh Maney, mate, fired her gun from a point between the shot-tower and water-works at eight minutes after four o'clock A. M., and arrived at Keokuk, a distance of two hundred and forty miles, making the run all the way against a swift current, by eight o'clock and sixteen minutes P. M., in sixteen hours and eight minutes. On her memorable run the "Louisiana" landed at Hannibal, and lost some twenty-four minutes. She beat the fastest time ever before made, that of the "Hannibal City," forty-one minutes.

Note from page 1106: 94. The "Jennie Bonnie," a little yacht commanded by Capt. Carpenter, arrived at St. Louis June 14, 1870, from New Orleans, in tow of the "Mary Alice." Capt. Carpenter started over a year previously from the coast of Maine, made a voyage of over twenty-six thousand miles, including the survey of harbors and inlets, terminated by his arrival at St. Louis. The crew consisted only of the captain and a companion. The vessel took a most circuitous route, up and down all the bays and inlets of the Atlantic coast, until her arrival at New Orleans. After remaining at St. Louis a couple of days the "Jennie Bonnie" went to St. Paul, and thence across the grand portage to Lake Superior, through Lakes Huron, Erie, and Ontario into the St. Lawrence, and around to the coast of Maine to the point where she started from.

Note from page 1107: 95. "Quite an excitement," says a St. Louis journal, "was created in steamboat circles by the trials of speed between the steamers ‘R. E. Lee’ and ‘Natchez.’ For years the time of the ‘J. M. White’ New Orleans to St. Louis had stood unequaled, and among river-men there was a desire to know if any improvement in the building of fast, and at the same time good, business boats had been made. While we cannot see that anything was gained by the trial, we place the time of each boat on record for the benefit of those interested.

1844. — ‘J. M. White's’ run:
From New Orleans to Miles. Days. Hours. Min.
Natchez 300   20 40
Vicksburg 410 1 5 55
Montgomery Point 625 1 23 8
Memphis 775 2 12 8
Cairo 1000 3 6 44
St. Louis 1200 3 23 9
1870. — ‘Natchez’ time, July, 1870:
From New Orleans to Days. Hours. Min.
Natchez   17 52
Vicksburg   26  
Head of Thresher Field   24 4
Napoleon 1 18 15
White River 1 19 30
Helena 2 2 35
Memphis 2 9 40
Head of Island No. 10 3    
Hickman 3 1 43
Cairo 3 4 24
St. Louis 3 21 58
1870. — ‘Lee's’ time, July, 1870:
From New Orleans to Days. Hours. Min.
Carrollton     27½
Harry's Hill   1 ½
Red Church   1 39
Bonnet Carré   2 38
College Point   3 50
Donaldsonville   4 59
Plaquemine   7 5
Baton Rouge   8 25
Bayou Sara   10 26
Red River   12 56
Stamps'   13 56
Briers   15 51½
Ashley   16 29
Natchez   17 11
Cole's Creek   19 21
Waterproof   19 53
Rooney   20 45
St. Joseph   21 2
Grand Gulf   22 6
Hard Times   22 18
Vicksburg 1   38
Milliken's Bend 1 2 37
Railey's 1 3 49
Lake Providence 1 5 47
Greenville 1 10 55
Napoleon 1 16 22
White River 1 16 56
Australia 1 19  
Helena 1 23 25
Memphis 2 6 9
Island No. 37 2 9  
Island No. 26 9 15 30
Island No. 14 2 17 23
New Madrid 2 19 50
Island No. 10 2 20 37
Island No. 8 2 21 25
Lucas' Bend 3    
Cairo 3 1  
St. Louis 3 18 14


"Not satisfied with the result of the trips to St. Louis, a race against time was arranged for in October, from New Orleans to Natchez, in which the ‘Natchez’ came out victorious.

"Time of the ‘Lee’ and ‘Natchez’ from New Orleans to Natchez, October, 1870:

  ‘NATCHEZ.’ ‘R. E. LEE.’
From New Orleans to H. M. S. H. M. S.
Carrollton   25 30   25 30
Hill's   55 45   54 15
Red Church 1 29 45 1 28 15
Bonnet Carré 2 27 30 2 22 15
College Point 3 29 30 3 26 15
Donaldsonville 4 34 15 4 28 15
Plaquemine 6 32 45      
Baton Rouge 7 49 30 7 41 15
Bayou Sara 10 1 45 9 53 15
Red River 12 21 30 12 23  
Stamps' 13 23 30 13 23 30
Bryan's 15 26   13 32  
Henderson's 16 8 32 16 15 40
Natchez 16 51 30 16 59 5


"Capt. Kannon feeling confident his boat could do still better, made one more run against time, and regained the reputation of the ‘Lee.’ The time was as follows:

From New Orleans to H. M. S.
Carrollton   26 25
Harry Hill's   54 43
Red Church 1 29 5
Bonnet Carré 2 25 5
College Point 3 28 20
Convent 3 37  
Donaldsonville 4 30 55
Bayou Goula 5 40 28
Plaquemine 6 26 50
Baton Rouge 7 40 42
Bayou Sara 9 48 20
Stamps' 13 11 55
Henderson's 15 55 25
Natchez 16 36 47"

Note from page 1108: 96. The Fifth Annual Report of the St. Louis Chamber of Commerce, for 1860, has no reference to or mention of steamboat casualties.

Note from page 1108: 97. The "Dubuque," Capt. Smoker, was destroyed on the Mississippi River while on her voyage from St. Louis to Galena, Aug. 15, 1887, near Muscatine Bar, eight miles below Bloomington. The accident was caused by the explosion of the boiler on the larboard side, probably on account of some defect in material or workmanship. The steamboat "Adventure," arriving in a few hours after the explosion, took the "Dubuque" in tow to Bloomington. The killed were John Littleton, Isaac Deal, Felix Pope, Charles Kelly, Noah Owen, Jesse Johnson, James C. Carr, George McMurtry, Francis Pleasants, Henry A. Carr, John C. Hamilton, Joseph Brady, John Boland, Joseph L. Sanes, L. B. Sanes, Martin Shoughnohoy, George Clix, David Francour, and Mrs. M. Shaughnessy and child.

Note from page 1108: 98. When the "George Collier," while on her way, May 6, 1839, from New Orleans to St. Louis, was about eight miles below Natchez, her piston-rod gave way. The cylinder-head was broken, and the boiler-stand carried away. The steam escaping scalded forty-five persons, of whom twenty-six died that day, as follows: T. J. Spalding, Ch. Brooks, William Blake, C. Herring, Mrs. E. Welch and two children, S. O'Brien and wife, S. J. Brogua, John Idida, D. J. Rose, D. Groe, F. Gross, J. B. Bossuet, P. Smith, Joseph Lawerence, Charlotte Fletcher and brother, — Bilch, and six other unknown.

Note from page 1111: 99.
The number of steamboats destroyed and damaged in 1860 was 299
The number of canal-boats destroyed and damaged in 1860 was 48
The number of coal and flat-boats destroyed and damaged in 1860 was 208
The number of steamboats totally destroyed was 120


Due to the following causes:
Sunk 11
Burned 31
Explosion 19
Collision 24
Snagged and damaged 44
Damaged by storm 39
Breaking machinery 21
Collision with banks 8


Loss of life, 254.

Note from page 1111: 100. From the Republican of Dec. 12, 1864:

"At seven o'clock Sunday morning the steamboat ‘Maria,’ loaded with government troops, horses, mules, wagons, etc., was blown up while lying at the landing at Carondelet, and afterwards burned to the water's edge. About six o'clock Saturday evening the ‘Maria,’ ‘Lillie Martin,’ and ‘Ella Faber,’ having on board a considerable number of cavalry, principally belonging to the Third Iowa and Fourth Missouri Cavalry, left the Levee at St. Louis and dropped down to Carondelet, about seven miles below, where they were lying when the disaster took place, the ‘Maria’ between the other two. She had on board Col. Benteen, commanding brigade, with his staff and escort, Col. B. S. Jones, Third Iowa Cavalry, a portion of his command and detached troops, amounting in all to about one hundred men, besides the crew of the boat, en route for Cairo. The explosion, by whatever means caused, threw the forward end of the boilers apart, landing them on the deck, without disturbing the after ends, and dashed the front of the furnaces and a quantity of coal forward, setting fire to bales of hay, twelve of which only were on deck, the remainder with the oats being in the hold. At the moment the explosion took place the floor of the cabin was burst up, and falling back precipitated number of soldiers down upon the boilers and burning wreck.


"When the ‘Maria’ left St. Louis she was in advance of the "Ella Faber," who had on board men recently belonging to the Fourth Missouri Cavalry. Eight of the men of this regiment left behind got on board the ‘Maria.’ Two only of those are known to have got off unhurt. What has become of the others is not known. Immediately after the accident occurred the ‘Lillie Martin,’ which had steamed up, fell down and took off the men on board and on the after-part of the boat, and also three ladies. In half an hour after the explosion the boat was a mass of flame, allowing time to save nothing but the load of human life aboard. The ‘Maria’ is a new boat, built at Cincinnati, the trip to St. Louis being her third since built. Her cost was thirty-five thousand dollars. She is insured at Cincinnati, but for what amount we did not learn. The officers of the ‘Maria’ are Capt. Alexander Montgomery; Wesley B. Dravo and William Dravo, clerks; Washington Couch and Frank Ganger, engineers; Thomas Botts and Andrew Acker, mates; Sol. Catterlin and David Blashfield, pilots."

Note from page 1113: 101. "Marine Railway at St. Louis. — The proprietors have the pleasure of informing the public that their ways have been fairly tested, and are now ready to receive for repair steamboats and other craft at the very low price of one hundred dollars for all boats not exceeding one hundred tons, to lie on the ways two days for repair without any additional charge, except the cost of repair. Boats exceeding one hundred tons will be charged one dollar per ton, with the privilege of lying on the ways for repair from two to four days, according to tonnage. Boats that shall remain on the ways longer than is herein privileged to pay for every day exceeding the privileged number twenty per cent. on the sum charged for drawing out.

"THOMAS J. PAYNE,

"Superintendent Marine Railway Company."

Republican, July 22, 1833.

Note from page 1113: 102. "A great deal has been said by the newspapers of this city in favor of building boats at this place. The spirit has been moved, the ground has been broken, and we trust that hereafter we shall have no cause to complain, and that our boat-owners will consult not only their own individual interests, but the interests of the community also, and give to their neighbors and customers employment in return for their custom. It is not more gratifying to us than it will doubtless be to many others of our citizens to learn that Capt. Case has opened a boat-yard in the upper part of the city, near the site of the old brewery. The situation is pronounced by experienced boat-builders to be one of the best in the West. The water in front of it is deep, and no difficulty will be experienced at any season of the year in launching boats. Upon examination it is ascertained that the timber is superior to any used in the West in building boats.

"A contract has been made by Messrs. Hoffman, Alleyne & Klein for the hull of a new boat, and for the machinery of the ‘Little Red,’ of three hundred and fifty tons, for the New Orleans trade. The keel has been laid, and the frame is nearly ready to be put up. The foundry-work will be by Messrs. Kingsland & Lightener, and the cabin and upper works by Mr. Lumm. The whole is under the supervision of Capt. J. C. Shepard.

"A contract has been made for the rebuilding of a boat to be called the ‘Phoenix,’ and for the machinery of the ‘Missouri.’ The contract for the hull has been made with the Dry-Dock Company, the cabin and superstructure by Messrs. Whitehill & Weston, the foundry-work by Messrs. Kingsland & Lightner and her clothing and other articles of outfit by Mr. John J. Anderson, the whole under the superintendence of Capt. John F. Hunt." — Republican, Nov. 11, 1841.

Note from page 1114: 103. It was noted in the Republican of Nov. 1, 1848, that "attracts have been entered into with Messrs. Brotherton & Gordon for the lumber to be used in the building of a ship in this city. It is to be commenced immediately by Capt. Evans and Mr. French, who design to make it a permanent business. The vessel is to be of three hundred tons burden, and will be completely fitted and rigged here. It is to be completed by the 1st of April, will then be loaded and proceed seaward. It is believed that sea-vessels can be built here on better terms than at New York or on the Ohio. The timber used in their construction is a better quality than that obtained on the Ohio, greatly cheaper than that which is used on New York."

Note from page 1115: 104. The commander of the "Jeanie Deans" was Capt. J. W. Malin. Capt. Malin was born in October, 1818, at Vevay, Switzerland Co., Ind. In 1832 he commenced his career as a river pilot in the flat-boat business, between Madison and Cincinnati, and a few years later began running a packet between Cincinnati and St. Louis, commanding at different times in that trade the "John Drennan," the "Mary Stevens," the "Royal Arch," the "Hamburgh," and the "Statesman." He next engaged in the Minnesota trade, and was afterwards connected for ten years with the Keokuk Packet Line, commanding at first the "Jeanie Deans," with which he remained until the building of the "Warsaw," which he commanded until that vessel became unfit for farther use. In 1868 he engaged with Capt. Scudder in the commission business in St. Louis, the firm being Malin & Scudder, but subsequently returned to his old occupation and commanded vessels in the Star and Anchor Lines. Capt. Malin had purchased in 1868 an interest, with Capt. Brolaski, in the Laclede Hotel, and in 1870, having bought his partner's share, he associated his son, Walter A. Malin, with him and assumed the management of the hotel. In 1871 the erection of an extensive addition to the hotel was commenced by Dr. Bircher, and completed in August, 1873, at which time Malin & Son took possession and united the two under the name of the Laclede-Bircher Hotel. The latter portion of the title, however, was seldom used, and the hotel was popularly known simply as the Laclede. Capt. Malin died at the Hot Springs, Ark., in September, 1874.

Note from page 1117: 105. Henry W. Smith was born in Connecticut, and about 1845 removed to Missouri, settling at Glasgow, where he engaged in mercantile pursuits. While thus occupied he was chosen a member of the State Legislature, and served with ability and zeal. In 1850 he abandoned his business at Glasgow to engage in steamboat enterprises, and commenced his career on the river as clerk on the "General Lane." He afterwards commanded and owned steamers of the same line. In 1855 he was made inspector of hulls for the board of underwriters, but upon the formation of the Memphis Packet Line he was called into active service again, and, as general superintendent, and subsequently president, of that company he became widely known upon the Western waters. At the time of his death Capt. Smith was also president of the Wrecking Company, and of a building association, besides being engaged in a large lumber business in East St. Louis and other mercantile enterprises.

Note from page 1122: 106. Capt. Weaver died in St. Louis on the 6th of August, 1871, in the fifty-seventh year of his age. Capt. Weaver arrived in St. Louis when a young man, and until his death was identified with the city's steamboat interests. As clerk and then commander, he was connected with steamers plying on the Missouri River for more than twenty-five years. As previously stated, he was elected president of the St. Louis and Omaha Packet Company, and in connection with Capt. Davidson and others became one of the steamer "John Kyle," and in the fall of 1870 commander of that vessel.

Note from page 1122: 107. Capt. Joseph Throckmorton was born on the 16th of June 1800, in Monmouth County, N. J. As a lad he entered a mercantile house in New York, but, in company with others, subsequently purchased the steamer "Red Rover," and made several trips with her from Pittsburgh to Zanesville, Ohio. The "Red Rover" was finally sunk in a collision, but was raised and taken to St. Louis and employed in the Galena trade. While engaged in the upper Mississippi trade, Capt. Throckmorton won the friendship of the Indian chief Keokuk, who offered him nearly all the Flint Hills, afterwards the site of the city of Burlington, if he would settle there. About 1830 Capt. Throckmorton, in company with Capt. George W. Atcheson, built the steamer "Winnebago" at Paducah, and employed her in the Galena trade until 1832, when he built at Pittsburgh the steamer "Warrior" and a tow-barge for the accommodation of passengers. While Capt. Throckmorton was in command of the "Warrior" the Black Hawk war broke out, and the vessel was chartered for the transportation of the United States troops under Gen. Atkinson. At the battle of Bad Axe, which I was the decisive engagement of the war, the captain and crew of the "Warrior" were hotly engaged. The "Warrior" continued in the upper Mississippi trade until 1835, when Capt Throckmorton built the steamer "St. Peter," and in 1830 to "Ariel." During the following year he built the "Burlington," and in 1842 the "General Brooke." In 1845 he sold the "Brooke" to the American Fur Company, and assumed command of that company's steamer "Nimrod," but having purchased the "Cecilia," relinquished his position. In 1848 built the "Cora," which he commanded for a year or two, after which he acted for four years as the agent of the Tennessee Insurance Company at St. Louis. He then returned to former occupation of steamboat captain, and having built the "Genoa," commanded that vessel from 1854 to 1856. In 1857 he built the "Florence," and in 1864 the "Montana." In the spring of 1868, Capt. Throckmorton purchased the "Columbia," and employed her in the trade between St. Louis and Fort Benton. He subsequently made several trips with his the service of the Illinois Packet Company, and finally sold her to the Arkansas River Packet Company. During the last two years of his life Capt. Throckmorton was employed by the United States government, under the command of Col. Macomb, United States engineer, in the improvement of the upper Mississippi. He died December, 1872.

Note from page 1124: 108. John Arthur advertises among "cheap goods" bleached country cottons, cotton cloth, cotton and wool cards, German steel, smoothing-irons, ladies' silk bonnets, artificial flowers, linen duck, muslins, white thread, wool and cotton, a handsome new gig and harness, cable and cordelle ropes, and that he will take pay in furs, hides, whiskey, country-made sugar, and beeswax, with "a negro girl eighteen years of age also for sale." And even the editor and proprietor of the only journal west of the Mississippi advertises in his sheet that he will keep a house of entertainment for strangers, where they will find every accommodation except whiskey. He would also take care of eight or ten horses. — Edwards' Great West, p. 295.

Note from page 1124: 109. Dr. Lewis C. Beck's Gazetteer of Missouri, 1823.

Note from page 1125: 110. The Republican of June 4, 1836, describes the commercial condition of St. Louis at that time as follows:

"At no prior time has this city exhibited so many signs of improvement as are now daily seen. Capital is finding its way to us, and large investments are made in real estate, not, we feel assured, with a view to speculation, which benefits no one who are parties in it, but with the design of improving it. The sale of lots in Christy's addition to the town amounted on the first two days to one hundred and one thousand dollars. It was continued yesterday, and will probably reach one hundred and forty thousand dollars. Other sales of property bordering on the town have recently been made amounting to many thousands of dollars. Block No. 13, with three or four houses upon it, fronting upon Main and Water Streets, sold ten or twelve days ago for two hundred and forty thousand dollars, and other property in the business part of the city went for equally fair prices. We say fair prices, for they are by no means so extravagant as have been obtained in other Western towns, and are such as will justify the purchasers in making permanent improvements upon the property. In many cases it is their intention to do so.

"We have made some inquiry, and have found that upwards of two hundred houses are now building in the city. They are started in every direction, and it is probable that another hundred will be put up during the season if contracts can be made for them. One or two churches are to be erected, a splendid theatre is under way, and a female seminary is to be commenced. Many of the buildings will be handsomely finished for stores and extensive warehouses, and it is to be hoped that before another year passes away we shall be able to furnish houses for the numerous business men who are desirous of making establishments here. Our country friends who are engaged in mercantile pursuits have in many instances determined to make their purchases hereafter at St. Louis, as the competition and increase of business has satisfied them that they can do so to better advantage than in the Atlantic cities. Useful and extensive manufactories are starting up at every point, and in a short time we shall be independent of other places for our steam-engines and other materials of daily use. The corporate societies are not behind our citizens in making improvements. The whole line of the wharf is rapidly being macadamized, and before the winter sets in it will present a better appearance than any port in the Western country. Many contracts are made for paving the streets, and two or three years of industry will bring about the completion of this work throughout the city."

Note from page 1128: 111. "Thoughts about St. Louis," John Hogan, pp. 6 and 7.

Note from page 1128: 112. Ibid.

Note from page 1131: 113. "Up to 1871 the elevator had no source of supply save the river, connections with the various railroads not having been made in 1866." — St. Louis, the Commercial Metropolis of the Mississippi Valley, by L. U. Reavis, p. 189.

Note from page 1133: 114. Paid for removing wrecks, included in the above amounts, viz.:

In 1862-63 $300.00
1866-67 64,952.77
1867-68 50,575.00
1868-69 30,775.00
Total $146,602.77

Note from page 1133: 115. In the report of the Union Merchants' Exchange for 1866 it is stated that "the barge system is fast finding favor with our merchants, and will, at no distant day, be the prevailing mode of transporting heavy freights, while the fine packets which now grace our western waters will be run on time for passengers and light freight. The Mississippi Valley Transportation Company has, during the past summer, demonstrated the fact that this is the cheapest mode of moving produce and heavy freights, having since May 1st carried from this port over one hundred and ten thousand tons. And when the plan of moving grain in bulk is established the tow-boats and barges will add to the commerce of our city by giving cheap freights and saving an immense amount of expense in the shape of handling, tarpaulins, and dunnage."

Note from page 1133: 116. Republican, Jan. 1, 1872.

Note from page 1134: 117. The law of the 38th of February, 1871, has not been materially changed, and will be found in the Revised Statutes of the United States, Title LII, Regulation of Steam Vessels.

Note from page 1136: 118. Report of the Select Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard, p. 8.

Note from page 1136: 119. Missouri Republican, Jan. 1, 1874.

Note from page 1136: 120. Among the arguments against the value of the Mississippi as a route for the transportation of cereals to foreign markets was the assertion that climatic influences at New Orleans and on the gulf would injure the products of the Northwestern States. The testimony of a large number of gentleman informed on the subject before the Senate Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard most effectually disposed of that alleged difficulty. For instance, Capt. A. R. Miller, agent of the State Line Steamship Company, stated that during his absence in business "we have shipped here on our ships about two hundred and twenty thousand bushels of corn, and have never, in any instance, heard complaint of any damage whatever; but, on the contrary, it has landed in as fine condition as when it was shipped." These statements were confirmed by a committee of the Union Merchants' Exchange of St. Louis, which also presented to the Senate committee a list of eighteen cargoes of corn shipped from New Orleans to Europe from Feb. 11 to Aug. 26, 1873, all of which arrived in good condition.

Note from page 1137: 121. Shipments of flour via Atlantic seaboard and by New Orleans were in sacks of various weights, and are reduced to barrels for convenience in reference.

Note from page 1141: 122. The two charters contain the following provisions:

"SEC. 13. It shall be lawful for said corporation to place on or prescribe the kind of carriages that may be used on said road, and by whom used, and whether propelled by steam or other power, for the transportation of passengers, goods, wares, and merchandise of all kinds, and also all kinds of produce.


For this purpose the company may construct such turnouts and other things or devices as may be considered necessary or interest of the company. All cars, carriages, or other vehicles on said road shall be subject to the direction of the company, and no person shall put any carriage or other vehicle on said road without the permission of said company.


"SEC. 14. The company may charge and receive such tolls and freights for the transportation of persons, commodities, or carriages as shall be to the interest of the same. Such tolls shall be established by the directors, and may from time to time be altered. They may charge tolls and freights on any part of the road that may be in a state for traveling on, whether the rails be laid or not.


"SEC. 15. Semi-annual dividends of so much profits as the directors may deem expedient shall be made to the stockholders, but no dividends shall be made to a greater amount than the net profits after deducting all expenses, and no dividend shall be more than twenty per cent. per annum on the capital stock paid in."

Note from page 1141: 123. "At the railroad convention," said the Republican of July 28, 1836, "the following-named gentlemen constituted the committee to raise by subscription the necessary means to pay the expenses of a complete reconnoissance and survey of the routes of the two proposed roads, to secure the services of skillful and competent engineers, etc., and cause the work to be done with as little delay as possible: Messrs. George Collier, J. B. John Smith, John W. Reel, J. H. Gay, of St. Louis; D. M. Hickman, of Boone; Uriah Sebrec, of Howard; Jacob C. Lebo, of Calloway, Andrew Monroe, of Montgomery; David Bailey, of Lincoln; Myers F. Jones and John C. Bricky, of Washington; Samuel Massey, of Crawford; Thomas M. Dougherty and Jacob R. Stine, of St. Louis County."

On the 17th of December the same paper added, —

"All of us remember that we made such ado at the time the railroad convention was held in this town, but that spirit died with the disappearance of the members of that body. Several committees were appointed to perform certain specified duties; all of them were competent, and had abundant time and a deep interest at stake, and yet not one of them has attended as he ought to have done, punctually and assiduously, to the duties of his appointment. These gentlemen are the largest property-holders in the city, are all of them wealthy, and it was right to expect that they would feel some little interest in the important matters intrusted to them."

Note from page 1141: 124. In August, 1830, a miniature railroad was exhibited at the old Baptist Church situated at Third and Market Streets. It consisted of a small circular track, fastened to a stage, on which moved a miniature locomotive attached to a car just large enough to hold one person. The speed attained was at the rate of seven miles an hour. A small admission fee was charged, and persons were required to pay "an extra picayune" for the privilege of riding round the track. In its notice of the exhibition at the time (Aug. 24, 1830) a local journal said, "The public will be much gratified by a visit to the miniature railroad exhibited at, the old Baptist Church. This combination of art and science, although in miniature, is complete in all its parts, and exhibits in one view all the apparatus necessary for railway traveling. With a few ounces of coal, and a small measure of water, it winds its way round on a circular track of one hundred feet at the rate of seven miles per hour, carrying a person of the largest size in the car."

Note from page 1141: 125. In 1832 the bill incorporating the Cincinnati and St. Louis Railway Company passed the Legislature of Ohio.

The Republican of Aug. 13, 1836, published the report of the engineers appointed to survey the route of a railroad from Marion City to the interior of the country. "It will be seen," added that paper, "that the rails on a part of this road have already been laid, and many miles more are under contract."

Note from page 1141: 126. "A gentleman and his family left here a few days since in a boat for Peoria. There he took another boat to Peru, and from Peru was carried overland by stages to Chicago, making the whole trip in three days, he took a boat the same evening for Buffalo. Judging from the speed of the lake boats, he would reach Buffalo in about four or five days from the time he left this place, and if he traveled from Buffalo to New York at the rate stated by a traveler in a late number of the Journal of Commerce, he would reach the latter place in less than three days more, making the whole distance from St. Louis to New York in about eight or nine days. The ordinary trip from New York to St. Louis, by the Ohio River, requires between ten and twelve days." — Republican, July 11, 1839.

Note from page 1142: 127. "Passing by Smith's foundry yesterday, corner of Pine Street and Post-Office Alley, we there observed certain components of a species of machinery which will be a new sight to many hereabouts, as it was to us. This was the wheels and axles for a train of railroad freight cars, intended for the conveyance of coal from the mine to some point on the Cumberland River which we could not ascertain. The proprietor has taken a contract for furnishing the running apparatus for thirty-six cars, together with the castings of a crane of stupendous power for swinging the entire car, with its load, from the track to the boat." — Republican, Aug. 7, 1847.

Note from page 1142: 128. "Seven young gentlemen, citizens of this city," said a St. Louis newspaper of Jan. 21, 1849, "left last evening on the steamer ‘Rowena’ for the gold regions, via New Orleans, Chagres, and Panama, their final destination being San Francisco. The party consists of Messrs. D. S. Ford, C. H. Francher, William Barlow, T. B. Walker, A. H. Gould, — Holbrook, and John S. Robb.

"In addition to this company, another consisting of Capt. William Craine, J. M. Julies, James Anthony, — Murray, and — Piper leaves this morning on the steamer ‘St. Joseph,’ destined for the same point. These parties, the first regularly organized in this city, go, as we learn, fully prepared to encounter all the hardships and dangers of so long a journey, and, what is better, carry with them means sufficient to enter into any suitable or profitable business after their arrival, should they not find that of gold-digging as lucrative as they expect."

In its issue of March 8th the same paper added: "Our city is rapidly filling up with persons from all quarters of the Union, wending their way to the gold regions. A gentleman who has means of arriving at something like reliable information informs us that there are now in the city several hundred persons from a distance, preparing to start as soon as the weather and season will permit for California. The fine steamer ‘Germantown’ arrived last evening from the Ohio with a freight and a crowd of passengers, of whom we noticed twenty-two persons and several wagons destined for California. Fourteen of the persons styled themselves as the Buffalo Mining Company, and hail from Buffalo, N. Y. They are completely fitted out with all the utensils, implements, etc., for a long journey and a life in the mountains. The others are from different parts of the Keystone State."

Note from page 1142: 129. Senator Benton, on the 7th of February, 1849, introduced a bill into the United States Senate to provide for the location and construction of a central national road from the Pacific Ocean to the Mississippi River, to be an iron railway where practicable, and a wagon-road where a railway was not practicable and proposed to set apart seventy-five per cent. of the proceeds of the sales of the public lands in Oregon and California, and fifty per cent. of the proceeds of all other the public lands, to defray the costs of its location and construction, but nothing practicable ever came of that bill.

Note from page 1146: 130. St. Louis Delegation. — Same as above stated, with the addition of the following:

Dr. Prout, Hugh Garland, William M. McPherson, Miron Leslie, John Barnes, L. A. Labeaume, R. S. Elliott, Dr. Penn, F. M. Haight, M. Blair, L. M. Kennett, Thomas Allen, Thomas B. Hudson, M. Tarver, Henry Kayser, A. B. Chambers, R. Phillips, John O'Fallon, Edward Walsh, John F. Darby, J. M. Field, G. K. Budd, N. R. Cormany, John Loughborough, Charles G. Ramsey, John B. Meyer, John Withnell, George L. Lackland, T. T. Gantt, Thomas D. Yeats, Samuel Gaty, O. D. Filley, A. Olshausen, V. Staley, James G. Barry.


Ste. Genevieve. — Lewis V. Bogy, August St. Gemme, Felix St. Gemme, F. Valle, Gustave St. James.

Note from page 1151: 131. At this time not a single railway touched the Mississippi on either side at St. Louis. The Erie Railroad was not completed, only seven thousand miles of railroad had been constructed in the United States.

Note from page 1151: 132. "Pacific Railroad. — The commencement of this great and, to our city, important work we presume will take place immediately. Mr. Kirkwood, late engineer of the New York and Eric Railroad, now engineer of the Pacific Railroad, arrived in our city yesterday morning accompanied by two assistants. In short time the corps of engineers will be organized and the reconnoissance and the location commenced." — Republican, May 21, 1850.

Note from page 1153: 133. "The report of J. P. Kirkwood, chief engineer of the road, to the board of directors, in June, 1851, contained the following information as to the lines he had surveyed, their lengths and estimated cost:

  Miles.  
Missouri River route by Crevecouer Lake to Jefferson) 121.87 $2,989,157
Maramec route, inland to Jefferson City 149.03 3,752,854
Maramec combination route by Maramec and Gray's Gap 130.58 3,145,303


"The board of directors were divided in opinion as to which route, under all the circumstances, should be adopted. At the eastern end of the line, and more practically in St. Louis, there was very decided opposition to the selection of the route shown above as the Missouri River route, for this principal reason, that, as was urged, the river itself afforded sufficient facilities to the whole country through which it ran, and that the road should be so located as to open and develop a country not penetrated by any natural highway. Under these circumstances of opposition to the route shown by the engineer's report to be the shortest, as well as the least expensive, it was determined to locate the road as far as Franklin, thirty-seven miles. This point was selected for the reason that it was the extreme western point from which, after further deliberation and examination, it would be possible, without seriously increased cost, to continue the location either on the inland or the Missouri River route. To accomplish this object they were compelled to abandon the route described above by Crevecoeur Lake, which strikes the Missouri River eighteen miles and three-quarters from St. Louis, though that was the shortest and the most economical.

"Prior to the decision of this question, and while it was spending, considerable feeling arose in St. Louis, which was manifested in denunciations of the board of directors, coupled with charges that they were purposely delaying the location of the line, especially that portion of it nearest to St. Louis, for unworthy reasons, arising out of a desire to enrich themselves by speculations in lands, having, as was alleged, in their capacity of directors information respecting the route to be selected which the community generally could not procure. When, therefore, the report of the engineer was made, the road was immediately located (on the succeeding day, as appears by the records of the company), and an order made for the publication of the route selected. "It should, perhaps, also be added that though, as has been explained above, the board of directors were influenced by popular prejudice in favor of the inland route (in which they probably to some extent participated) to locate the road upon that route so far as Franklin, there is no evidence whatever that in the actual location of the road upon the particular route adopted to that point any considerations had weight except the engineer's report and the questions of economical construction and use." — Report of Joint Railroad Committee of Missouri Legislature, published Nov. 28, 1855.

Note from page 1155: 134. Sections 16 and 17 were the heaviest on the First Division, covering very deep rock excavations and two tunnels, one about six hundred and the other about four hundred and fifty feet long. During the progress of this work the cholera appeared and drove, at several periods, the entire force from the sections. Great numbers died, and for a while it was impossible to induce men to go upon the work. Finally the contractors succeeded in procuring a large force, but there was a good deal of trouble between Sections 17 and 18, which finally resulted, in January, 1853, in a general riot in which two laborers of Section 17, John Flood and James Carroll, were killed and a number of others badly injured. In order to suppress these disturbances and restore order, the St. Louis Grays, Capt. Knapp, and the Missouri Artillery, Capt. Almstedt, were dispatched to the scene and accomplished that object. After this outbreak a police force was stationed upon Section 18, which had become known as the "Bloody Eighteenth," to preserve order.

Note from page 1158: 135. "The president, Thomas Allen, in commemoration of the event, had invited the directors of the company, the members of the Legislature from St. Louis and other counties, then on their way to Jefferson City, and a few early friends of the enterprise to a collation at the Sulphur Springs, or Cheltenham. At one o'clock the train was off. There were two beautiful and commodious passenger-cars attached to the powerful locomotives. A few minutes brought the company to the mansion of Mr. Hawley, at the Sulphur Springs, and they sat down to a most bountiful repast.

"After discussing the viands the meeting was entertained by addresses from Mayor Kennett, the president of the railroad company, Mr. Allen, Dr. Shelby, the then Speaker of the House of Representatives of the State, the Hon. Edward Bates, James H. Lucas, Esq., Mr. Halliburton, member of the House of Representatives from Linn, Mr. Tarver, Mr. O'Sullivan, the then engineer of the road, who commenced the work in connection with Mr. Kirkwood, the first engineer, and who was most flatteringly toasted by the company. The health of Mr. Williams, who ran the first locomotive, was also received with cheers. Mr. Labeaume gave ‘the Governor of the State and the aid he has given this and other internal improvement enterprises,’ and expressed the hope that his successor would prove as favorable to their consummation. This sentiment was received with much enthusiasm. Mr. Loughborough and many other early friends of this road were toasted.

"The day was remarkably fine, and at the appointed time (railroad time) the company, with several hundred who had come out on the second train, returned to the city. Everything worked well, and for a new road, we say advisedly that there is not a better built road in the Union." — Republican, Dec. 10, 1852.

Note from page 1159: 136. On the 10th of February, 1855, the road was opened to Washington, fifty-five miles; and on the 6th of August, 1855, to Hermann eighty-one miles.

Note from page 1160: 137. In the view of the distressing nature of the calamity, the mayor of St. Louis, Hon. Washington King, determined to set apart a day of fasting and prayer. He accordingly issued the following proclamation:

"TO THE CITIZENS OF ST. LOUIS. — In view of the awful and inscrutable dispensation of Providence, by which so many valuable lives were lost on Thursday last, I have deemed it proper to recommend, and as the mayor of the city I do hereby recommend and set apart Monday next, the 5th inst., and ask that it be observed universally as a day of cessation from all labor, as tribute of respect to those who are most deeply stricken by this terrible blow, and a day of heartfelt thankfulness and gratitude to God by and on account of all who are saved from death.


"I recommend that all business houses be closed, and that all secular pursuits go unobserved on that day. I also request that the churches of all denominations be opened for religious worship on that day.


"WASHINGTON KING, Mayor.


"MAYOR'S OFFICE, ST. LOUIS, Nov. 3, 1855."

Note from page 1173: 138. "Pursuant to a call published in the English and German papers, a meeting was held on the 16th inst. at the Phoenix Engine-House, for the purpose of raising subscriptions to the Iron Mountain Railroad.

"On motion, Mr. H. Kayser was chosen president, Messrs. F. Schulenberg, J. B. Bremel, H. Cobb, and Ch. Gehrke vice-presidents, and Charles Mehl and Ad. Abeles were appointed secretaries.

"After some preliminary remarks by the president as to the object of the meeting, Messrs. McPherson, Reynolds, Alex. Kayser, and Cobb addressed the meeting in an eloquent manner, expressing at the same time their preference for a separate, direct route.

"The following gentlemen have been appointed on the eight sub-committees for collecting subscriptions to the stock of the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad Company:

"1. C. R. Dickson, L. King, J. Brimermann; 2. A. H. Menkins, J. Kern, J. P. Bremel; 3. J. D. Daggett, E. R. Mason, A. Steinkauler; 4. A. Abeles, Thos. Reynolds, I. G. C. Heidricks; 5. C. C. Simmons, J. C. Degenhart, L. M. Kennett; 6. G. Gehrke, Wm. Hohenschild, M. Feldman; 7. H. C. Lynch, C. Jung, B. Rice; 8. F. Blattau, E. O. English, C. Mehl.


"The first named on each of the committees will be furnished with a subscription-book.


"H. KAYSER, Ch'n of Com."


Republican, Dec. 18, 1852.

Note from page 1181: 139. "On Saturday next at eleven o'clock the construction of this road will be simultaneously commenced in Illinoistown and at its intersection with the Central Railroad in Marion County. The intervention of the telegraph enables the directors to have the work commenced at each point, although far distant, at almost the very same moment of time.

"At the commencement of the construction in Illinoistown there will be present Judge Ellis, the president and father of the enterprise; Professor Mitchell, who has taken from the first a most lively interest in the work; Mr. Seymour, the contractor for the construction of the entire distance; and the board of directors, at least such of them as are in the city. The public functionaries of Belleville, Collinsville, Alton, and St. Louis will be present." — Republican, Feb. 5, 1852.

Technically, the work had already been commenced. By the contract of Seymour & Co. it was stipulated that the construction of the road should be commenced on or before the 1st day of February, 1851, and "on Saturday last," said the Republican of February 2d, "Mr. Morris, the engineer for the contractors, commenced the construction by breaking ground in Illinoistown. This was necessary on the part of the contractors to save the contract."

Note from page 1182: 140. "We have official information that the grandest internal improvement work of the West will be completed to-day at noon, by the driving of the last spike necessary to close up the gap in the Eastern Division of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad. A company of gentlemen left here last evening to meet one from Cincinnati at the point of completion, near Mitchell, Ind., where, with appropriate extemporaneous observances, the happy event will be duly inaugurated." — Republican, Aug. 15, 1857.

Note from page 1186: 141. Baltimore American, July, 1830.

Note from page 1190: 142. On the 2d of February, 1878, the Republican announced that on "Monday morning the first through train from St. Louis to St. Paul will leave the Union Depot via the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern Railroad."

Note from page 1192: 143. "The railroad excursion from Indianapolis and Terre Haute to this city, given in celebration of the opening of the St. Louis, Vandalia and Terre Haute Railroad, occurred yesterday, and the excursionists will be publicly received to-day." — Republican, June 9, 1870.

Note from page 1193: 144. Maj. John E. Simpson, general manager of the Vandalia Line, died at the Lindell Hotel, St. Louis, Aug. 2, 1880. Maj. Simpson was born near Londonderry, Ireland, Nov. 1, 1839, his father being a wealthy farmer of Scotch and Irish extraction. In 1840 his family emigrated to America, his father engaging in the grocery business in New York City. In 1843 the family moved to Detroit, where the elder Simpson was occupied in building light-houses for the government. He also became engaged in the Michigan Central Railroad. While thus employed be removed to Michigan City, Ind., where young Simpson attended the free school, and at the age of eleven years started out in life, selling Chicago papers. He was next employed as messenger-boy in a telegraph-office, and during the illness of the operator learned the art of telegraphing, by which means be secured a position as telegraph operator at Detroit when but thirteen years old. He remained in that position five years, when he obtained a position with the Michigan Central Railroad in order that he might perfect himself in running trains by telegraph. At the expiration of two years he received the appointment from Col. Ricker, general superintendent of the Louisville, New Albany and Chicago Railroad, of assistant train dispatcher, and as such had charge of the movements of all trains between Michigan City and Lafayette, Ind. While in Michigan City he was chosen captain of the Zouaves, an independent military company, and was made president of the Literary and Library Society for the engagements of lectures, etc. At the beginning of the war in 1861 he enlisted as a private, and was soon elected captain of Company H of the Fifty-ninth Indiana Volunteers. Previous to this he joined a regiment composed entirely of railroad men raised as engineer troops, and went to Chicago. After remaining in camp at Chicago for six months it transpired that there was no law in existence authorizing the raising of this regiment, and as a consequence it was disbanded. Capt. Simpson, returning from Chicago with his company, joined the Fifty-ninth, and soon after the battle of Pittsburgh Landing joined the Army of the Tennessee, with which he remained four years, participating in all the battles, including the siege of Vicksburg and the march to the sea. During the last two years he served on the staff of Maj.-Gen. John E. Smith, commander of the Third Division of the Fifteenth Army Corps of the Army of the Tennessee, ranking as major. While in active service in the field he filled several responsible positions. He was provost-marshal at Huntsville, Ala., and performed that duty at other places. At the close of the war he was appointed in the regular army, but declined. On being mustered out in August, 1865, at Indianapolis, he accepted the position of train dispatcher and superintendent of telegraph for the Terre Haute and Richmond Railway, under Col. Ricker, and in 1867 was appointed assistant superintendent of the Terre Haute and Indianapolis Railway.

In June, 1870, the Vandalia Line having been completed, Maj. Simpson was appointed division superintendent in charge from Indianapolis to Terre Haute. In July, 1871, he was made general superintendent of the entire line from Indianapolis to St. Louis, and continued thus until November, 1875, when, the Vandalia and St. Louis and Indianapolis Lines having been combined under one management, Maj. Simpson was made general manager of the consolidated lines. This position he held up to the time of his death, with headquarters in St. Louis. He was married December, 1866, to Miss Hattie L. Sherman, second daughter of Dr. W. G. Sherman, of Michigan City. During his residence in St. Louis he filled numerous positions. He was president of the Railway Employés Mutual Benefit Association, president of the Governing Board of the Union Depot, and chairman of the committees in charge of relay depots at East St. Louis and at Indianapolis. He was a member of the Society of the Army of the Tennessee, and belonged to the Cincinnati Society of ex-army and navy officers. He was also a member of the Ancient Landmarks lodge of Masons at Indianapolis, and belonged to the Order of Elks.

Maj. Simpson was pre-eminently a self-made man, rising to a position of great responsibility by sheer energy and faithful performance of duty. His integrity and honesty were unquestioned, and he was honored and esteemed for many sterling qualities.

Note from page 1205: 145. Republican, Sept. 17, 1845.

Note from page 1215: 146. "Forty years ago the trades and industries of St. Louis were already extensive and flourishing. At this time (1841) there were in St. Louis two foundries, twelve stone, grate, tin, and copper manufactories, twenty-seven blacksmiths and house-smiths, two white-lead, red-lead, and litharge manufactories, one castor-oil factory, twenty cabinet- and chair-factories, two establishments for manufacturing linseed-oil, three factories for the making of lead-pipe, fifteen tobacco and cigar manufactories, eleven coopers, nine hatters, twelve saddle, harness, and trunk manufactories, fifty-eight boot- and shoe-shops that manufactured, six grist-mills, six breweries, a glass-cutting establishment, a Britannia manufactory, a carpet manufactory, and an oil-cloth factory. There was also a sugar-refinery, a chemical and fancy soap manufactory, a pottery and stoneware manufactory, an establishment for cutting and beautifying marble, two tanneries, and several manufactories of plows and other agricultural implements." — Edwards' Great West, pp. 376-77.

Note from page 1215: 147. Adolphus Meier was born in the city of Bremen, Germany, on May 8, 1810. His father, Dr. G. Meier, occupied a very honorable and influential position, being a lawyer of that city and secretary of the Supreme Court. He gave his son Adolphus all the opportunities of an early education, which were ample in Bremen, and further to improve it sent him for some time to Switzerland.

After completing his education, Adolphus Meier spent three years in a large banking-house, where he became instructed in the business of banking, but wishing for a more active field engaged for some time in the shipping business. On May 9, 1831, he commenced business on his own account, and was successful from the outset; and feeling comfortable in life, on April 21, 1835, was married to Miss Anna R. Rust, daughter of a respectable merchant of his native city. Mr. Meier having freighted many vessels with emigrants at Bremen, and hearing much of the fertility of the great Mississippi valley, embarked at Bremen for New Orleans on Oct. 20, 1836, with his wife, child, and "household gods." After landing at New Orleans, Mr. Meier took passage for St. Louis, and arrived there on March 2, 1837. He opened a hardware-store in an old rickety building on the corner of Main and Chestnut Streets. He occupied this spot for many years, until the old building was torn down and a splendid edifice erected in its stead, where the firm of Adolphus Meier & Co. conducted their extensive operations. The firm at this time (1860) consisted of Adolphus Meier, his eldest son, and John C. Rust.

Note from page 1215: 148. The statement that Mr. Meier was the first to establish a cotton-factory in St. Louis is denied by a correspondent in the Republican of March 15, 1857, who says, "The first establishment of the kind (a cotton-batting factory) was put in operation by Mr. J. T. Dowdall, now of the firm of Dowdall, Markham & Co. The demand increased so rapidly that within twelve months from the commencement it required about two thousand pounds per day to fill the orders. The proprietors, Messrs. J. T. Dowdall & Co., when starting in St. Louis had connected a finishing-shop with their factory, and as the demand for machinery increased it became necessary to enlarge this branch of their business. The starting of a cotton-batting factory in St. Louis attracted the attention of persons wanting such descriptions of machinery, and a demand for cotton- and wool-carding machines having sprung up, they determined to dispose of their cotton-factory, and devote their entire attention to the manufacture of steam-engines, mill-work, and carding-machines. Messrs. Doan, King & Co. became the purchasers of the factory, and continued their business in connection with their jobbing trade until the latter became so large that they were compelled to dispose of the former, and sold to Messrs. Bredell & Baldwin. The demand by this time had greatly increased, and large quantities of the batting were sent to the cities and towns along the lake shore as far as Buffalo and New York. The death of Mr. Bredell closed their business. About one year after this the foreman of the factory commenced business on a very limited scale, and although he has since increased his works, still he cannot supply even the demand of the retail trade. There is now another factory to be started by Messrs. Essex & Block, which they hope will be able to supply not only the demand of our city, but ‘to ship a large amount to the Northern and Southern markets.’ This factory will be located on Green Street, between Seventh and Eighth, and within sixty days from this time the builders of their machinery, Messrs. Dowdall, Markham & Co., expect to put it in full operation."

Note from page 1217: 149. From a paper by Charles W. Knapp on "St. Louis: Past, Present, and Future," read before the "Hound Table Club," Oct. 14, 1882.

Note from page 1232: 150. A full account of the organization of the Millers' Exchange is given in connection with the Merchants' Exchange, with which it was afterwards incorporated.

Note from page 1234: 151. Burned August, 1882.

Note from page 1235: 152. Burned Aug. 12, 1881; rebuilt December, 1882.

Note from page 1235: 153. Burned Aug. 24, 1882.

Note from page 1235: 154. Burned February, 1882.

Note from page 1235: 155. Completed November, 1882.

Note from page 1247: 156. The old State tobacco warehouse, situated between Washington Avenue and Green and Fifth and Sixth Streets, was destroyed by fire on the 11th of August, 1873. The building was erected by the State for a tobacco warehouse in 1843, and after being used for that purpose for a few years was abandoned. It was closed for a long time, and about 1859 the State donated the use of the building to the city of St. Louis. While the old Lindell Hotel was in process of construction, the State ordered the sale of the ground and building, and they were purchased by Jamieson & Cotting, for the purpose of erecting an immense dry-goods house. This plan was afterwards abandoned, and the property was sold to John J. Roe, and belonged to his estate at the time of his death. It was afterwards purchased by John G. Copelin, Mr. Roe's son-in-law, for $190,000. The building was estimated to be worth not more than $4000. During the time it was in disuse for commercial purposes it was in great demand for parties, balls, drills, and large assemblages generally, its extensive floor-room rendering it at one time the most eligible place in the city for such purposes.

Note from page 1253: 157. The manufacture and sale of powder were also established in St. Louis at an early date. On the 15th of October, 1814, William Sullivan published the following advertisement:

"Owners of powder, take notice that I, the subscriber, have rented the powder magazine from its proprietor, and that from the date of the present advertisement I will charge twenty-five cents per month for storage on every keg, provided it does not contain more than one hundred pounds, and on every keg or barrel that contains more than one hundred pounds to pay at the rate of one dollar per hundred."

Maj. James Barry commenced the manufacture of powder in the neighborhood of St. Louis in 1823 (Republican, March 5, 1823), and in 1833 "Maj. Philips' Eagle Powder-Mills had just been put in operation" (Republican, July 9, 1833).

The latter mills were soon after destroyed by an explosion.

Note from page 1258: 158. Address by Charles P. Johnson, of St. Louis, before the State Immigration Convention, April 13, 1880.

Note from page 1264: 159. Franz Mayer was the first to cast bells in St. Louis, in 1851.

Note from page 1269: 160. Western Journal and Civilian, vol. xv. p. 202.

Note from page 1269: 161. Industrial Interests of Missouri, by Henry Cobb, 1870.

Note from page 1277: 162. Sept. 3, 1814, D. Stewart advertised his cut- and wrought-nail factory in Block 4.

Note from page 1280: 163. Edwards' Great West, p. 288.

Note from page 1286: 164. Pages 593-94.

Note from page 1287: 165. In November, 1817, the wages paid and the cost of living were set down as follows:

"Bricklayers, masons, and carpenters, per day, $3.00; making common shoes (each), everything found, $1.00; all other mechanical labor in proportion; white laborers $1.50 per day; negro laborers from $18 to $25 per month; female slaves hire out at from $5 to $15 per month; house-rent from $10 to $100 per month; beef from 4 to 8 cents per pound; pork, same; veal from 8 to 10 cents per pound; mutton, same; butter 25 to 37½ cents per pound; fowls 25 cents per piece; flour $10 per barrel; corn meal $1 per bushel; Orleans clayed sugar from 33 to 37½ cents per pound; loaf sugar 62½ cents per pound; coffee 50 cents per pound; all the necessaries of life in the same proportion."

Note from page 1287: 166. Edwards' Great West, p. 340.

Note from page 1287: 167. On the 27th of September, 1817, Charles Busron advertised that he would "give twenty-five cents per bushel for as much as one thousand bushels of stone coal."

Note from page 1287: 168. In 1846 a joint-stock company, with a capital of ten thousand dollars, was started in St. Louis for increasing the supply of coal.

Note from page 1288: 169. "Patent medicines" would seem to have formed an important part of the druggist's stock even at that day, for on the 31st of August, 1808, we find the following curious advertisement in the Missouri Gazette:

"Aaron Elliot & Son offer for sale at Ste. Genevieve a number of patent medicines, among which are Church's Cough Drops, Turlington's Balsam of Life, Bateman's Drops, British Oil, Steer's Opodeldoc, Hill's Balsam of Honey, Godfrey's Cordial, essence of peppermint, Lee's New London Bilious Pills, by the gross or less quantity, Anderson's Pills, Hooper's Female Pills, Liquid True Blue, Maccaboy and Cephalick snuff, chemical fire-boxes, one of the best inventions in the world for travelers; also stationery, blank books of various sizes, children's spelling-books, common writing and letter paper, Dutch quills, sealing-wax, wafers, a few steel spring truffles, thumb lancets, spring lancets, gum lancets, green goggles, etc."

Note from page 1291: 170. "It must not be understood by the reader that a merchant at that time approximated at all in his business relations to the merchant of to-day. A place occupying but a few feet square would contain all of their goods; and, indeed, during the period of the first growth of St. Louis a merchant kept all of his goods in a chest or box, which was opened whenever a purchaser would appear. Sugar, coffee, gunpowder, blankets, paint, spices, salt, knives, hatchets, guns, kitchen-ware, hunting-shirts, and every variety of coarse dry-goods were stored together.

"Owing to the tediousness of navigation, the prices demanded for all articles of importation were enormous. Sugar and coffee were each two dollars per pound, and everything else in proportion. Tea was almost unknown until the advent of the United States government. Articles now regarded as indispensable to human existence, and occupying a low position in the scale of human comfort, were then esteemed the greatest luxuries, and so expensive as to be enjoyed only on state occasions, and then with parsimony." — Edwards' Great West, p. 289.

Note from page 1306: 171. Edwards' Great West.

Note from page 1307: 172. Aug. 17, 1808, was published in the Missouri Gazette the advertisement of William Harris, hatter. August 24th, Calvin Burns, tailor, announced that he wanted two or three journeymen. Sept. 6, 1809, Bernard Lalande, merchant tailor from Bordeaux, advertised the latest Paris and London fashions. In July, 1817, Doun & McDaniel, tailors, were practicing their trade "on Main Street, opposite R. Paul." March 6, 1818, J. H. Boyer, "tailor from Europe," notified the public that he might be found at P. Chouteau's. Feb. 3, 1819, Joseph White & Co., hatters, had a store "below Hull's grocery." April 8, 1820, McKenna & Co., tailors from New York, announced that they had established themselves "in Mrs. Vincent's new frame, next to her residence, Main Street."

Note from page 1310: 173. In 1861 there was considerable dissatisfaction among the butchers of St. Louis owing to the existence of unlicensed shops for the sale of meat, and on the 26th of December a mass-meeting of the butchers was held at the Wedge House to take action in the premises.

"On motion of James Denny, W. Hohenschild was called to the chair, and William Grant appointed secretary. The following preamble and resolutions were unanimously adopted:

"WHEREAS, the butchers of St. Louis, lessees of stalls in the different public markets of the city, are heavily taxed by the city for said stalls to carry on a legitimate business; and whereas, unlicensed meat-shops for the sale of fresh meat, contrary to law, are in full operation and being opened in different parts of the city, directly interfering with our business in the markets; and whereas, it is an undeniable fact that the butchers in the different markets do more than any other class of men to alleviate the wants of the poor of the city and the different institutions for the support of the needy and oppressed; and whereas, the municipal authorities are opposed to such shops being opened or allowed; therefore,


"Resolved, That we would respectfully request the Board of Public Commissioners, in consideration of the above facts, to order the chief of police to cause all such persons selling fresh meats contrary to law to be arrested and punished accordingly.


"Resolved, That a committee of three from each market be appointed to confer with the butchers of their respective markets, composed if the following gentlemen:


"Christian Volz, Francis Mulhall, and John J. Puller, from Museum Market.


"Mr. Benson and Mr. Meisinger, from Gamble Market.


"Henry Springer, Wm. Mulhall, and Thomas O'Connor, from North Market.


"Hampton Woodruff, Augustus Berkley, Henry Weisel, and Mr. President, from Centre Market.


"Mr. Block, Augustus Meisebach, Henry Karmann, and George Lambrech, from South Market.


"Matthew O'Connor, Conrad Schnurr, and John Reeder, from City Market.


"Charles Schuchmann, Abraham Mack, and Timothy Clancy, from Carr Market.


"Eckart Gottschammer and Philip Schuchmann, from Biddle Market.


"John Schole and John Keller, from Sturgeon Market.


"Robert Dickey, William Grant, and John Burnett, from Lucas Market.


"August Geeser and Wm. Reifeis, from Soulard Market.


"William Murphy and Henry Pfeiffer, from Washington Market."

Note from page 1315: 174. "Forty dollars per ton," stated an advertisement in the Missouri Gazette of July 2, 1814, "will be given for well-saved shomac (sumac) at the subscriber's morocco manufactory in St. Louis."

Note from page 1316: 175. John Chandler & Co., saddle-, bridle-, and harness-makers, Main Street, advertised their business Feb. 1, 1812, and John Jacoby, saddler, informed his friends and the public generally, Dec. 14, 1816, that he had removed his shop from near Lexington, Ky., to St. Louis, "where he has opened a shop on Front Street, near Governor Clark's, and opposite T. Hunt's store." Aug. 23, 1820, T. Grimesley and William Stark conducted the saddlery and the harness in Jacoby's old stand, next below Neal & Liggett.

Note from page 1316: 176. Among the early boot and shoe makers of St. Louis were the following:

Young & Bright, who dissolved partnership March 22, 1810, the business being continued by John A. Bright.

Badgely & Stubblefield, "ladies' and gentlemen's shoe and boot makers," who announced on the 11th of April, 1811, that they had commenced business and "would carry on the various branches of their profession."

John Holbrook, boot and shoe maker, whose place of business (Feb. 8, 1820) was "his new brick house, South Main Street."

Note from page 1321: 177. Mr. Ladew was twice married. His first wife was Miss Catherine Leets, of New Jersey, and his second wife Mrs. Lizzie E. Clark, whom he married Sept. 3, 1856.

Note from page 1328: 178. In June, 1815, J. D. Russell carried on a chair-factory "between Kerr's store and the post-office," and in April, 1818, Isaac Allyn conducted a similar establishment on Second Street, three doors north of Shope.

Note from page 1329: 179. In 1848, Alexander Kayser, of St. Louis, offered three premiums of one hundred dollars each for the best specimens of Missouri wine, the vintage of three consecutive years. The first premium was awarded in 1849 for the vintage of 1848, the second in 1850 for the vintage of 1849. For the latter prize there were twenty-seven samples of wine produced for competition, but the premium was awarded to Jacob Romel, of Hermann, for "a wine of pure Catawba grapes."

Note from page 1332: 180. Report of Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Note from page 1336: 181. "At a meeting of the directors and stockholders of the ‘Missouri Paper Manufacturing Company,’ held at their office, No. 46 Chestnut Street, St. Louis, Tuesday, Oct. 30, 1860, the organization of the company, under the laws of the State of Missouri, was completed, and the following-named gentlemen confirmed as directors of the company for the first year from the 7th of July last, and the persons named in connection with the same elected officers for the same term.

"Directors, as named in the license from the State, R. H. Hubbell, E. Stafford, Bernard Poepping, George Spear, V. B. S. Reber; President, Hon. Bernard Poepping; Vice-President, Thomas H. Paschall, Esq.; Secretary, Edward Stafford, Esq." — Missouri Republican, Nov. 2, 1860.

Note from page 1339: 182. The eighty establishments classed as "miscellaneous industries" are grouped in order that the business of individual establishments may not be disclosed to the public. In this group are embraced artificial limbs; Babbitt-metal and solder; bags, other than paper; belting and hose, leather; billiard-tables and materials; bluing; bone-, ivory-, and lamp-black; bridges; carriages and sleds, children's; cordials and syrups; cork-cutting; explosives and fireworks; fertilizers; flavoring extracts; furniture; chairs; furs, dressed; iron-forgings; ice, patent process; jewelry and instrument cases; lard, refined; lead, bar, pipe, sheet, and shot; malt; mantels, slate, marble, and marbleized; oil, animal; oil, castor; oil, cotton-seed; oil, lubricating; paving materials; perfumery and cosmetics; photographic apparatus; plated and Britannia ware; regalias and society banners and emblems; safes, doors, and vaults, fire-proof; saws; silk and silk goods; silversmithing; sporting goods; stamped-ware; stationery goods; steam-fittings and heating apparatus; stereotyping and electrotyping; sugar and molasses, refined; surgical appliances; tar and turpentine; telegraph and telephone apparatus; terra-cotta ware; toys and games; type-founding; upholstering materials; washing-machines and clothes-wringers; watch-cases; window-blinds and shades; wire; wooden-ware; woolen goods.

Note from page 1345: 183. In his address at the opening of the new Exchange, Dec. 21, 1875, Mr. Wayman Crow, second president of the Chamber Commerce, said, "The Chamber rented the commodious room adjoining the St. Louis Insurance Company on Main Street, where they established a daily reading- and assembly-room with convenient arrangements. Subsequently they invited Millers' Exchange, which had just organized, to unite them and bring samples of grain, flour, etc., ‘on 'Change,’ — an important step of progress, for, if I am not mistaken, this was the pioneer Corn Exchange in this country, our Chamber taking the lead in thus bringing together the buyers and the sellers with their samples for the purpose of facilitating their daily intercourse and trade."

Note from page 1346: 184. Among those especially prominent in aiding the erection of the building were James H. Lucas and George R. Taylor.

Note from page 1347: 185. Missouri Republican, Jan. 9, 1862.

Note from page 1349: 186. The complication was aggravated by the dissemination of the following circular:

"CHAMBER OF COMMERCE,


"ST. LOUIS, Jan. 7, 1862.


"SIR, — Inclosed you will find the nomination of officers for the St. Louis Chamber of Commerce for the present year, 1862. Unfortunately, a certain set of the members of said Chamber have sought to introduce politics into that organization, and we find an opposition, through which a violent secessionist, claiming to be a relative of Mr. Jefferson Davis, is presented for the important position of secretary simply upon the ground that the old incumbent has proved himself a loyal citizen. Such an issue cannot but work great evil to the interests of the Chamber, and we inclose the within ticket, asking your consideration to its, and trusting you will give it your cordial support."

Note from page 1350: 187. "The Merchants' Exchange building is emphatically running under the Stars and Stripes. An old American flag which had seen service in the war of 1812 was unfurled to the breeze yesterday from the Exchange." — Republican, Jan. 14, 1862.

Note from page 1356: 188. Among the most earnest promoters of the enterprise was James H. Lucas, who consented to conform the building to be erected on the Fourth Street front of the Exchange Square to the Exchange building. After the five hundred thousand dollars of stock had been subscribed, Mr. Lucas subscribed twenty thousand dollars, and made a deed for the property, yielding to the company the additional advantage of allowing the Exchange property to extend back so as to leave him a depth for his Fourth Street property of only ninety-five instead of ninety-six and a half feet. Ill health, however, prevented Mr. Lucas from taking an active part in the work, and from giving written pledges to build up the Fourth Street front in conformity to the Exchange plan. — Republican, Nov. 18, 1873.

Note from page 1356: 189. At this time the subscriptions to the stock amounted to eight hundred and fifty thousand dollars.

Note from page 1357: 190. In the course of his address Mr. Crow said, —

"Our organization, gentlemen, has witnessed in this city a growth and development almost unparalleled in modern times. Since the day of our incorporation a population of ten thousand has increased to nearly half a million. In a little more than half a century St. Louis has passed from a border trading-post, scarcely yet Americanized, to a metropolis which is already contending for a foremost rank among American cities. I can scarcely help feeling surprised when I look around me to find myself almost, if not quite, the oldest ‘business man’ of St. Louis, although in some communities I might claim to be a young man yet. But having been in business here more than forty years, I cannot recall to mind an individual now in commercial life who was engaged in mercantile pursuits at the time of my coming. You will pardon me, then, I am sure — seeing that I belong to the past more than to the present — if my thoughts revert to those early days and rest for a moment with the men who were my trusted co-laborers, and with those who immediately preceded us in our work. At least you will permit me to, bear witness to the high character, the commercial honor, the personal faithfulness of those who were the early founders of our prosperity, and who gave the tone and standard — not yet lost, and never, as we confidently hope, to be lost — to the daily business life of St. Louis. Those old-time workers may have been a little too conservative, sometimes timid, — ‘old fogies’ you would call them nowadays, — but they were scrupulously honest in their dealings, strict constructionists in their regard for contracts, men of untarnished integrity in meeting their engagements, and it is to their practice and example that the present high commercial credit of St. Louis, both at home and abroad, is greatly due. However strong and promising the present may be, I cannot, as your oldest member, say a better word than this, — that we should hold fast to the early traditions of the Chamber of Commerce, and maintain that high regard for honorable dealing which has characterized the past, so that to be a recognized member of the St. Louis Merchants' Exchange may always and everywhere be a passport to respect and confidence. Consider through what trials and difficulties we have thus far advanced. No city has suffered greater reverses by fire, pestilence, and flood, by financial crises, by internal dissensions and civil war; and yet we have passed through all, chiefly by the sturdy strength and steadfastness of our business men. At the present time, notwithstanding many disturbing influences and more ‘exceptions’ to the course of strict honesty than are necessary to ‘establish the rule,’ the prevailing tendencies are in the right direction. The future is clear and bright before us. To your hands, gentlemen, upon whom the burden and heat of the day must fall, the commercial destinies of our city are committed. Let the future be better than the past by as much as the magnificent building to which we go is better than that from which, almost reluctantly, we must now depart."

Note from page 1364: 191. Edwards' Great West, p. 365.

Note from page 1368: 192. Writing on this subject, Mr. Billon says, "The French word livre signifies in English a book, a pound-weight, and down to the date of the French Constitution of 1792 was the name of a coin of the value of eighteen and one-half cents of our currency, which for long centuries back, under the ancient monarchy of France, was established as the unit of that nation, in which all their money calculations were figured up and their account-books kept.

"The French Revolutionists, in their zeal to do away with everything that savored in the slightest of the ancien régime, abolished the livre and substituted therefor their new coin, the franc, which they made one mill, or the one-tenth of a cent, heavier than the livre, otherwise it would have been merely the same old thing with a new name, since which day the word livre, as applied to a money coin, has become obsolete, and is known but to few of the present age. The par value of five livres, by act of Congress, was ninety-two and one-half cents, United States currency, and that of five francs, ninety-three cents.

"As this term livre occurs in every French document on record in the archives relating to money matters, the persons who were employed to translate these papers into English some years back, being doubtless ignorant that there ever had been a coin of that designation, have almost invariably translated it into ‘pound,’ thereby making the document translated meaningless in its most essential particular, the consideration.

"Let it be understood that the above remarks in relation to the livre apply solely to the mode of keeping their accounts, there being but little of any coin seen in the country, the circulating medium being furs and peltries at a fixed price per pound, — forty cents for finest, thirty for medium, and twenty cents inferior. "Whether established by law or custom does not appear, but, unless otherwise stipulated by contract, all transactions were understood to be in the above medium. After the transfer to Spain the coin of that kingdom began to appear, but in very limited amounts, as we find a few transactions for ‘hard dollars,’ in contradistinction of the soft, or ‘fur dollars.’

"As to paper money, none had ever been seen in the country at that early day, and even had there been any, but few could have made out the denomination.

"Even after the transfer to the United States transactions were made in peltries, as we find that Judge John B. C. Lucas made his first purchase of a house for his residence from Pierre Duchouquette and wife, Dec. 14, 1807, for six hundred dollars in peltries."

Note from page 1368: 193. The following advertisements, taken from the files of the old Missouri Republican, show that barter currency was very generally in use in St. Louis at a late period:

Jan. 4, 1809. — "Have just received and offer for sale an assortment of dry-goods, consisting of the following, viz.: Coatings, flannels, blankets, velvets, cassimeres, linens, muslins checks, sannas, baftas, ginghams, cambrics, hose, handkerchiefs, threads, sewing-cotton, sewing-silk, buttons, shoes, hats paper, blank-books, pins, needles, etc.


"Also a small assortment of groceries, viz.:


"Young Hyson and Hyson skin teas, best green coffee at sixty-two cents, loaf and lump sugar at fifty cents, Muscovado sugar at fifty cents, black pepper, Spanish segars per box, hundred, or dozen, indigo, etc., with a general assortment of queen's penciled and enameled ware.


"The above goods were purchased in New York for cash, and will be sold as low as any in the Territory for cash, or lead at six dollars per hundred, delivered at Ste. Geneviere or Herculaneum.


"H. AUSTIN & CO.


"Ste. Genevieve."


Jan. 11, 1809. — "Just received and opened at the store of Bernard Pratte a complete assortment of dry-goods, groceries, liquors, iron, and steel, which will be disposed of at a moderate advance either for cash or pork."


Oct. 19, 1809. — "The subscriber respectfully informs the citizens of Ste. Genevieve that he has just opened at the new store, opposite the billiard-room, a handsome and general assortment of hardware and groceries, which he will sell wholesale on the most advantageous terms for cash, lead, or approved notes.


"JOHN GORDON."


Dec. 21, 1809. — "I wish to purchase a quantity of beef-hides of a good quality. A generous price will be given in cash or goods from those indebted to the subscriber. Hides will be taken in payment.


"GEORGE DALE."


April 26, 1810. — "The subscriber has just opened a quantity of bleached country linen, cotton cloth, cotton- and wool-cards, iron, German steel, smoothing-irons, ladies' silk bonnets, artificial flowers, etc. Also a handsome new gig, with plated harness, cable and cordelle rope, with a number of articles that suit this country. He will take in payment fur, hides, whiskey, country-made sugar, bacon, and beeswax.


"JOHN ARTHUR.


"P. S. — A negro girl eighteen years of age, a good house-servant, for sale."


May 2, 1811. — "The copartnership of Audubon & Rozier is this day dissolved by mutual consent. Those indebted are requested to make immediate payment to Ferdinand Rozier, who is duly authorized to settle all the business of said firm.


"JOHN AUDUBON.


"FERDINAND ROZIER."


"The subscriber begs leave to inform his friends and the public that he has purchased that valuable stock of goods formerly owned by Audubon & Rozier, on such terms as to enable him to dispose of them by wholesale or retail unusually low for cash, or to punctual customers on short dates. The best market price will be given for lead in exchange for goods.


"FERDINAND ROZIER.


"Ste. Genevieve, April 6, 1811."


Jan. 4, 1812. — "Look here! The subscriber has removed to the house adjoining Mr. Dongan's silversmith-shop, on Main Street, St. Louis. He has on hand a heap of whiskey, plenty of peach brandy, linsey, country linen, shoes, cut and hammered nails, cotton and cotton cloth, bed-cords, etc., which he will sell low for cash or beef-hides, delivered at the store or at Squire Moorehead's slaughter-yard.


"FRED. YIEZER.


"N. B. — No credit may be expected, as the subscriber has (unfortunately) never learned to write."

Note from page 1369: 194. On the 9th of January, 1818, the following notice appeared:

"St. Louis Exchange and Land Office. The undersigned having opened an office as broker for the Missouri and Illinois Territory, informs the public that he is now ready for the purchase and sale (on commission only) of houses and lands, United States stock, etc.
"S. R. WIGGINS."

Note from page 1369: 195. The Missouri Gazette of July 13, 1816, says, —

"The opulent town of St. Louis may boast of a capital of nearly one million, and has few manufactories, no respectable seminary, no place of worship for dissenters, no public edifices, no steam mill or boat, no bank, and (I was going to say) no effective police. Mr. Philipson has lately established an excellent brewery, where excellent beer and porter are made. Mr. Wilt erected a red and white lead manufactory, and threw into the market several tons of that useful article; his red lead has been admired as superior to that imported. Mr. Hunt's tanning establishment is of primary importance. Mr. Henderson's soap and candle manufactory would be of great utility if it only received that patronage the proprietor so richly merits.


"I have no doubt but that brickmakers and bricklayers, carpenters who could be satisfied with a moderate compensation for their labor, black- and whitesmiths, silversmiths, woolen-and cotton-carding and spinning-machines and managers, tobacconists, nailers, gunsmiths, coopers, pump-makers, stocking-weavers, wagon-makers, stone-cutters, boat-, barge-, and shipbuilders, rope-makers, cutlers and tool-makers, skin-dressers, and many other employments would do well here. A man of capital and enterprise would soon accumulate a large fortune by erecting a steam flour- and saw-mill in this place; wheat sells here at one dollar per bushel (abundance raised in the country), and good merchantable flour is sure to command from eight to ten dollars per barrel. Corn generally rates at from twenty-five to fifty cents, and will bring in meal from fifty to eighty-seven and one-half cents per bushel. Pine boards sell at four dollars, and oak and ash at two and three dollars per hundred feet. Saw-logs could be brought to town at one dollar each. Five thousand barrels of whiskey are annually received here from the Ohio, and sold at seventy-five cents per gallon, while thousands of bushels of grain are offered at a low price to any enterprising man who will commence a distillery."

Note from page 1370: 196. Page 43.

Note from page 1373: 197. Edwards' Great West.

Note from page 1373: 198. The gentlemen who obligated themselves to be thus responsible were George Collier, E. Tracy, Pierre Chouteau, John Walsh, William Glasgow, John Perry, Henry Von Phul, John Kerr, G. K. McGunnegle, Joseph C. Laveille, and John O'Fallon. — Edwards' Great West, p. 368.

Note from page 1374: 199. The Missouri Republican about this time discourses thus upon the financial situation:

"‘The Divorce,’ the Bank and the People. — A third and probably last notice from the State Bank of Missouri appears in to-day's paper. The first notice was the famous resolution of the 12th, contemplating a specie-paying business altogether, and another restricting the curtailment of renewable paper to five per cent. instead of ten, as had been the case. Under the first resolution specie was demanded in all eases, as well as upon collection, as discounted business and accommodation paper. The next day brought forth another set of resolutions requiring depositors of paper for collection, whether owned in the city or out of it, to withdraw the same from bank, and giving notice that no paper will be received hereafter for collection unless specie is expressed on the face. The third and last notice is that to which we have requested attention, and which is a free confession on the part of the bank that the measure which it contemplated on the 12th would operate harshly and oppressively, and its repeal is compassed in another way. By the last notice, for the next sixty days discounted business paper is made to assume the character of renewable paper, the drawer paying up one-tenth of the amount with interest, and although the arrangement is restricted to sixty days, we venture to prophesy that its character will not be changed, and that it will thereafter be renewed."

Note from page 1374: 200. The first bankruptcy law in this country was passed April 4, 1800, but was repealed Dec. 19, 1803. Another bankruptcy act was passed Aug. 19, 1841, and repealed Feb. 25, 1843. This was the period of "scrip," or "shinplaster" currency. The kinds of currency in use in the West were known as "bank scrip," "canal" and "railroad scrip," "white dog," "blue dog," "blue pup," etc.

Note from page 1374: 201. Professor William G. Sumner.

Note from page 1374: 202. The head of the firm was Daniel D. Page, of whom a biographical sketch is given in the municipal chapter. Henry D. Bacon, his partner, was born May 3, 1813, at East Granville, Mass. He entered early in life into commercial pursuit at Hartford, Conn., and in 1835 removed to the city St. Louis, where he soon engaged as partner in one of the leading dry-goods firms of the city. He then entered the iron trade, which he pursued with good results until his marriage in 1844 with Miss Julia Page, daughter of Daniel D. Page, when he became associated with him in the flour business. He was a very active and enterprising young man, and at his suggestion his father-in-law in 1848 consented to open a banking-house under the firm-name of Page & Bacon, leaving its management to the more experienced Bacon. The property of D. D. Page provided a strong backing to the concern, and the house prospered from the start. The known ability of Henry D. Bacon increased the confidence of the public, and as both were leading Democrats, they profited through the opportunity offered by the Mexican war, under the Democratic administration of President Polk, which made St. Louis the disbursing centre of large sums of money for the army. In 1850 they established a branch in California, and in 1854 their exchanges amounted to the immense sum of eighty millions of dollars.

Everything went on well with the firm, and as Duncan, Sherman & Co. were their New York agents, both firms made large gains. In 1849 and 1850, St. Louis took a sudden leap forward. An immense emigration from Europe, especially from Germany, forced across the ocean by the collapse of the revolution of 1848, settled either in St. Louis or in its vicinity. Most of them were people of means, and with the traditional desire of Germans to own land, they purchased real estate. The trade in building lots assumed enormous proportions, and values rose rapidly. Page & Bacon saw heavy profits in the movement, and at once started with building up the extensive property of Mr. Page, selling houses and lots with small cash payments and on long mortgages at great advantage, and using the funds of the Bank in buying more land. But in 1854 this upward tendency came to a sudden stop; sales of land gradually ceased, and Page & Bacon found themselves unexpectedly in difficulty to meet all the demands upon them. Early in the fall of that year the great sugar-refinery of Belcher Brothers in St. Louis, the largest establishment of its kind then in the country, suspended payment, and Page & Bacon held a large amount of their discredited paper. Distrust began to creep upon the commercial community of the city. Bacon saw the storm coming and burned to New York. He opened negotiations with Duncan, Sherman & Co., with whom he had been doing a lucrative business for seven years. The conference came to a conclusion on the third day at midnight in Bacon's room in the New York Hotel, and he was promised that his firm should have a credit of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars on the strength of the securities Bacon had to offer, valid mortgages on improved property in St. Louis. Henry Bacon returned home in bright spirits, but he was greatly alarmed a few days later when a telegram informed him that Duncan, Sherman & Co. could not help them, as they must first look out to protect themselves. "For God's sake," he telegraphed back, "do not desert us; if you do we are ruined, and half of St. Louis with us!" But the New York house was inexorable, and sent word that a banking-house had no right to risk its money in real estate or other speculations. Thereupon Page & Bacon closed their doors.

The banking of Messrs. Duncan, Sherman & Co. failed in New York in August, 1875, and, singular to note, their fate was precisely the same as that which overtook their St. Louis correspondents twenty years before. As in the case of Page & Bacon, Duncan, Sherman & Co., not six weeks before their failure, were told by their London correspondents that their credit would be protected and their paper honored. But on the 27th of July, 1875, they were told that they could not be accommodated, as a banking-house had no right to tie up its funds in cotton and railroad speculations. Like Page & Bacon, they were also forced to stop business.

Besides many public evidences of the liberality of the firm, Mr. Bacon showed his generosity personally in many ways. To his efforts in part is to be attributed the establishment of the Mercantile Library, which has proved to be of the greatest use to St. Louis. He contributed forty thousand dollars towards the erection and furnishing of the Union Presbyterian Church, and the Webster College and the Home of the Friendless were also beneficiaries of his bounty. He was among the first of the enterprising merchants of St. Louis who stepped forward prominently to aid in the construction of the Missouri Pacific Railroad when that magnificent enterprise was presented to the public. His first subscription was the liberal sum of thirty-three thousand dollars, and afterwards he made advances for the prosecution of the work to the amount of from one to two hundred thousand dollars. The Belleville and St. Louis Railroad was another evidence of the same liberality. He also assisted very materially in pushing forward to its destination the North Missouri Railroad. In advancing to the city and county of St. Louis large amounts of money to meet their bonds the firm of Page & Bacon at the time were regarded as public benefactors. In 1853, knowing the advantage a direct line through the rich bottom-land of Illinois would prove to St. Louis, they advanced the necessary sum for the completion of the greater portion of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad. This diverted an immense sum of money from their business, and a pressure shortly after taking place in the money market, as was have stated, the firm was compelled on Jan. 13, 1855, to suspend payment.

Note from page 1375: 203. Louis A. Benoist was born in St. Louis, Aug. 13, 1803. His father, Francois M. Benoist, was a native of Montreal, Can., and his mother was the daughter of Charles Sanguinette, an early settler. Francois M. Benoist was an Indian-trader, and removed to St. Louis in 1790. His son Louis A. attended early in life the school of Judge Tompkins, and at the age of fourteen went to St. Thomas' College, Kentucky, where he remained for two years. Returning to St. Louis, he commenced reading medicine with Dr. Todson. After a trial of two years he relinquished medicine and began the study of law in the office of Horatio Cozens. Soon after this he entered the office of Pierre Provench&eagrave;re, conveyancer, where he continued his studies. In 1823 he visited Europe to look after some family property, and on his return was wrecked in the Bay of Biscay, but reached St. Louis in safety, and opened a broker's office for the sale of property, loaning money, etc. He pursued this business for a short time, and in 1832 opened an exchange and lottery office. This, it is said, was the first banking-office established in St. Louis. In 1838 his business increased to such an extent that he established a branch in New Orleans under the firm-name of Benoist & Hackney, which was afterwards, in 1855, known as Benoist, Shaw & Co. In July, 1847, the St. Louis house of Benoist & Co. suspended payment, together with the Perpetual Savings Institution, owing to the tightness of the money market, and their "inability to convert their debts or funds into such currency as their depositors could use." Messrs. Benoist & Co., however, resumed payment thirty days afterwards. Mr. Benoist's banking career was a long one, and he amassed a very large estate, estimated in value at about three millions of dollars. He was thrice married, his first wife being Miss Barton, of Kaskaskia, Ill., his second Miss Hackney, of Pennsylvania, and the third Miss Sarah E. Wilson, daughter of John Wilson, of New Jersey. Mr. Benoist had twenty children, of whom thirteen survived him. He died in Havana on the 15th of January, 1869.

Note from page 1379: 204. On the 20th of September, 1861, the following notice was published:

"Subscriptions Invited to the National Loan. — Pursuant to instructions from the Secretary of the Treasury, a book will be opened on the 24th day of September, 1861, at the office of the assistant treasurer in St. Louis, for subscriptions, under my superintendence, for treasury notes, to be issued under the act of July 17, 1861.


BEN. FARRAR,


"Assistant Treasurer United States, St. Louis, Mo."

Note from page 1379: 205. The coin referred to was taken possession of by an officer of the army in the branch bank at Boonville, Ill., and was transferred by him into the hands of the United States Express Company, with instructions to deposit it with the sub-treasurer in St. Louis. The sub-treasurer refused to receive it, and the express officer then made a special deposit of it in the Mechanics' Bank, where it remained for some time, as none of the army officers were willing to take the responsibility of restoring it at this time to the bank. In a short time, however, the specie was returned to the owners.

Note from page 1380: 206. On the 31st of July, 1861, the assistant finance commissioner of the State made an official report on the condition of the State bank-note circulation, from which it appears that the entire outstanding circulation of all the banks in the State was $8,021,000. Of this account the discredited or partially discredited banks had a circulation of $4,609,405, divided as follows: St. Louis, $472,110; Mechanics', $831,635; Western, $597,045; Southern, $715,070; Union, $1,067,510; Farmers', $926,035. This would leave for the circulation of the remaining banks, Exchange, Merchants', and State Banks, $3,411,595, which was the local capital upon which the business of the city and State was conducted. The savings institutions (leaving out the brokers) had a deposit account of over $3,000,000.

Note from page 1380: 207. In consequence of the discovery of extensive gold deposits at Pike's Peak, in Colorado, and the Salmon River regions, a meeting was held on May 26, 1862, at the Union Merchants' Exchange, "to take into consideration measures for establishing in St. Louis a United States Branch Mint." Mr. Partridge called the meeting to order, when Clinton B. Fisk read a preamble and resolution, and the following memorial to Congress, which were adopted. The memorial was circulated throughout the city and State for signatures, and was afterwards submitted to Congress:

"To the President and Members of the Senate and House of Representatives, in Congress of the United States:


"Your memorialists would represent that since the recent discovery and partial development of the rich gold deposits at Pike's Peak and Colorado, and the Salmon River regions, St. Louis has become the depository of much of the crude products of these mines. Several organizations, with abundant supplies for the further exploration and development of said mines, are now en route for the northwest from this city and vicinity.


"The Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers afford accessible communication by steamboat to within one hundred and twenty miles of the richest mines of the Rocky Mountains. The Pacific Railroad, the early completion of which we now hope for, will open to St. Louis direct communication with the rich gold districts of the Sierra Nevada and Pike's Peak. The rich treasures of these mines will naturally flow back by these routes into the lap of St. Louis. Our great city, being situated in the geographical centre of this continent, reaching out her arms by her rivers and railroads to every extremity of the nation, makes her, by her providential location, not only the great centre of the commerce of the Mississippi valley, but of the United States.


"In view, therefore, of these considerations, and in order to the speedy convertibility of the crude products of these mines into coin, your memorialists pray your honorable body to establish a branch mint in the city of St. Louis, Mo., and, as in duty bound, your petitioners will ever pray."

Note from page 1380: 208. The following general order was issued in St. Louis in September, 1862:

"OFFICE OF THE PROVOST-MARSHAL-GENERAL,


"DISTRICT OF MISSOURI AND IOWA.


"ST. LOUIS, Sept. 15, 1862.


"GENERAL ORDER NO. 1.


"All banks, bankers, banking institutions, brokers, and all persons, natural or politic, doing a banking business, or any branch thereof, wholly or partially within this district, are hereby notified and warned that all transfers and assignments of stock, certificates in the nature of stock, certificates of deposit, money, or currency used as money, or any other credits or effects, made by the following persons, that is to say:


"1st. Persons holding any office, civil or military, under the government called the government of the Confederate States of America.


"2d. Persons holding any office, civil or military, under the government of any of said Confederate States.


"3d. Persons who have in any manner assisted or given aid and comfort to the said Confederate States, or any of them, during the present rebellion against the authority of the United States, are all absolutely null and void; and all banks, bankers, banking institutions, brokers, and all persons, natural or politic, doing a banking business, or any branch thereof, wholly or partially within this district, are forbidden to recognize or give any effect to any such transfer or assignment, or to pay any money, or transfer credit, by reason of any check, draft, bill of exchange, or order drawn or made by any person claiming to be proprietor, owner, or assignee of any such stock, money, credits, certificates, or effects, or the proceeds thereof.


"By order of Brig. Gen. SCHOFIELD.


(Signed)


"THOMAS T. GANTT, "Provost-Marshal-General."

Note from page 1381: 209. The case of Hepburn vs. Griswold, involving the constitutionality of the Legal Tender Act as to contracts made before its passage, was decided by the United States Supreme Court in conference Nov. 27, 1869, by the chief justice and seven associates. One of these, Judge Grier, resigned Feb. 1, 1870, and the decision against the constitutionality of the act as applied to the contracts mentioned was announced February 7th. Judge Strong was appointed Feb. 18, 1870, and Judge Bradley March 21, 1870. The re-argument of Knox vs. Lee, involving the decision just mentioned, took place in December, 1870. Judge Miller read the decision of the majority affirming the constitutionality of the law, Chase, Nelson, Clifford, and Field dissenting. — Professor William G. Sumner, "First Century of the Republic," p. 258; 8 Wallace, United States Reports, p. 626; 12 Wall. 457, and note, p. 528.

Note from page 1381: 210. The following is a copy of an act passed by the Legislature of Missouri, entitled "An Act relative to railroad directors or other officers, bank directors or other officers, and directors or other officers or trustees of any incorporated company or institution," approved March 23, 1863:

"Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Missouri as follows:


"SECTION 1. That all railroad directors and officers, bank directors and officers, and all officers of all incorporated companies, or of any incorporated institutions in this State, before entering upon their duties as such officers or directors, shall take and subscribe an oath in form as follows:


"‘I, A. B., do on oath (or affirmation) declare that I have not at any time since the 17th day of December, A. D. 1861, willfully taken up arms or levied war against the United States, nor against the provisional government of the State of Missouri, nor have willfully adhered to the enemies of either, whether domestic or foreign, by giving aid and comfort or countenance thereto, but have always in good faith opposed the same; and, further, I will support, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States, and of the State of Missouri, against all enemies and opposers, whether domestic or foreign, any ordinance, laws, or resolutions of any State Convention or Legislature, or of any order or organization, secret or otherwise, to the contrary notwithstanding; and that I do this with an honest purpose, pledge, and determination faithfully to perform the same without any mental reservation or evasion whatever, and that I will faithfully demean myself while in office,’ which said oath or affirmation shall be filed in the office of the clerk of the county court for the county where the said directors or other officers or trustees reside within ten days after taking said oath or affirmation.


"SEC. 2. All railroad directors and officers, bank directors and officers, all officers of all incorporated companies, or of any incorporated institution, who shall fail to take and subscribe to the foregoing oath or affirmation on or before the 1st day of April, A. D. 1863, shall vacate their office as said directors or officers, and the vacancy occasioned shall be filled by appointment or election under existing laws.


"SEC. 3. Any person who shall falsely take, or having taken, shall thereupon willfully violate the oath prescribed in the first section of this act, shall, upon conviction thereof by any court of competent jurisdiction, be adjudged guilty of the crime of perjury, and shall be punished therefor in accordance with existing laws. And it shall be the duty of the judges of all courts having criminal jurisdiction under the laws of this State specially to charge the grand juries in the counties in which said courts shall be held respectively, and of all grand juries, in the performance of their, duties under the laws of this State, specially to inquire concerning the commission of any act of perjury mentioned in the first section of this act. This act to take effect from and after its passage."

Note from page 1382: 211. In September, 1869, a corner in gold was made, which terminated in the panic of September 23d, known in history as "Black Friday," when the Secretary of the Treasury intervened by a sale of gold to put a stop to the proceedings of a clique of speculators.

Note from page 1382: 212. The committee appointed in accordance with the second resolution was as follows: John R. Lionberger, president Third National Bank; William H. Scudder, vice-president State Savings Institution; James H. Britton, president National Bank of Missouri; Robert Earth, of Angelrodt & Earth; C. D. Block, president Fourth National Bank; and R. J. Lackland, president Boatmen's Savings-Bank.

Note from page 1383: 213. In 1861 the city issued similar warrants, but it would have been better if they had never been issued. Seven years afterwards frauds connected with the issue were discovered, but the full extent of them was never completely developed. Some officials estimate that the city lost by the first transaction about one hundred thousand dollars.

Note from page 1386: 214. The directors of the Bank of St. Louis prior to the 8th of December, 1817, for that year were Samuel Hammond, Robert Simpson, Thompson Douglass, Justus Post, Thomas Wright, Risdon H. Price, Moses Austin, William Rector, Eli B. Clemson, J. B. N. Smith (cashier), Joshua Pilcher, Samuel Perry, Theodore Hunt, Elias Bates; after Dec. 8, 1817, until Feb. 11, 1818, Samuel Hammond, Justus Post, Joshua Pilcher, Walter Wilkinson, James Mason, Moses Austin, Elias Rector, Eli B. Clemson, Nathaniel B. Tucker, J. B. N. Smith (cashier), J. J. Wilkinson, Robert Collet, Elias Bates, Robert Simpson; Feb. 11, 1818, to Dec. 14, 1818, Samuel Hammond, Walter Wilkinson, Justus Post, Nathaniel B. Tucker, Eli B. Clemson, Theophilus W. Smith, James Mason, Rufus Easton (two vacancies), J. J. Wilkinson, Stephen F. Austin, Elias Bates, Theophilus W. Smith (cashier); from Dec. 14, 1818, Risdon H. Price (president), Stephen F. Austin, Rufus Easton, Frederick Dent, Jesse G. Lindell, Samuel Hammond, John Nivin, Samuel Perry, John Hall, Robert Simpson, Eli B. Clemson, James Clemens, Jr., Paul Anderson.

Note from page 1387: 215. The old Bank of Missouri was incorporated Feb. 1, 1817, as heretofore stated, but had only a brief existence.

Note from page 1397: 216. In 1859 there was inaugurated a war on the part of the State Bank of Missouri against the currency of neighboring States, which, being less easy to be presented for redemption, usurped the purposes of circulation and prevented the Bank of Missouri from getting its former advantage in this respect. A law was passed to prevent any chartered banking institution from carrying on the business of receiving and paying out foreign currency. In consequence of this the State Savings Institution gave up its charter, and the stockholders associated themselves as joint partners, and so continued doing business until Jan. 26, 1864, when a new charter was obtained, with all the privileges denied by the former Legislature, under which charter the bank is now doing business.

During its early history, in October, 1859, an attempt was made to rob the institution. A local account of the affair says, "For three or four days past it has been known in certain quarters that an attempt has been made to enter the State Savings Institution, corner of Vine and Main Streets, by an entrance through the Vine Street sewer, and an effort to tunnel through the rock that forms the foundation of the building."

Note from page 1400: 217. Sullivan Blood was born in the town of Windsor, Vt., April 24, 1795. His parents were natives of Massachusetts, but emigrated to Vermont, then a newly-admitted State, in 1793. They lived upon a farm, and both died about 1813, whereupon young Blood resolved to seek a home in the far West. About two years after their death he made his way to Olean, on the head-waters of the Allegheny, in Western New York, where a number of persons were awaiting the opening of navigation to descend in boats to the Ohio. On arriving at the Seneca reservation, Mr. Blood engaged for a year among the Indians in the lumber business, and having realized a small sum of money there, he descended the Allegheny, a distance of three hundred miles, to Pittsburgh. He then engaged on a flat-boat and worked his passage down the Ohio until he reached Cincinnati. From there he went to Cairo, where there was not a house, and from thence ascended the Mississippi in a keel-boat to St. Louis. He was greatly pleased with the activity of the place, and in 1817 took up his residence in the town, where he remained until his death. St. Louis was at that time just in the transition state between a village and a town, and in that year the first movement was made to protect the citizens by a regular force of watchmen. In 1818, Mr. Blood was appointed a member of the force, and before long was promoted to the position of captain, to which he was re-elected several consecutive years. In 1823, Capt. Blood revisited his native State, and during his visit was married to Miss Sophia Hall. After holding the position of captain of the watch for ten years, he became deputy sheriff. In 1833 he was elected and served as alderman from the then Second Ward for one term, at the end of which his political life ended, as he afterwards always declined to become a candidate for public office. It was at this period that he turned his attention to river matters, and became engaged as a steamboat captain in the St. Louis and New Orleans trade, in which he was quite successful. His boats, which were built under his own supervision and which he personally commanded, became extremely popular, and Capt. Blood during his period of service was one of the most skillful and successful pilots on the Mississippi. In the early part of 1847, when the Boatmen's Savings Institution was incorporated, Capt. Blood was appointed one of the directors. His executive abilities soon gave him such prominence in the board of directors that he was chosen president, a position which he filled with credit to himself and advantage to the institution until 1870, when he resigned for the purpose of allowing some younger and more active man to assume the laborious duties of the office. He still continued a director, and up to the time of his death, which occurred Nov. 27, 1875, notwithstanding his advanced age, made a daily visit to the institution and took an active part in its affairs. Capt. Blood left a wife, one son, Henry Blood, a merchant in Iowa, a married daughter, wife of James L. Sloss, of the firm of Gilkeson & Sloss, of St. Louis, and a daughter, Miss Anna Louisa Blood.

Note from page 1405: 218. Augustus Beneke, cashier of the United States Savings Institution, died suddenly in March, 1871. He had been a resident of St. Louis for twenty-two years, and was widely and favorably known.

Note from page 1407: 219. Henry S. Turner was born on the 1st of April, 1811, in King George's County, Va. In 1830 he was admitted as a cadet at West Point, and in June, 1834, graduated from that institution. He was at once appointed brevet second lieutenant in the First Regiment of Dragoons, then a new arm in the United States service. He served with his regiment on the frontier, his quarters being at Fort Des Moines, Iowa. He became second lieutenant in August, 1835, and was appointed adjutant at the regimental headquarters in July, 1836. He served in this capacity until November, 1838 (he became first lieutenant on the 3d of March, 1837), when he was appointed as aide-de-camp to Gen. Atkinson, and served as such until July, 1839, when he was sent by the War Department with two colleagues to the cavalry school of Saumur, France, to study cavalry tactics and prepare a manual of instruction for that arm of the service in the army of the United States.

On returning to the United States, two years later, he was married to Miss Julia M. Hunt, daughter of Theodore Hunt and Anne Lucas Hunt, and granddaughter of John B. C. Lucas.

After his marriage he was stationed at Fort Leavenworth, and served as adjutant of his regiment until June, 1846. In the interval between these dates he was on duty at Fort Gibson, at Jefferson Barracks, St. Louis, as well as Fort Leavenworth, as acting assistant adjutant-general of the Third Military Department from July, 1844, to September, 1846, during which time he was detailed on an expedition through the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains. When the Mexican war broke out Gen. Atkinson had died, and Col. Stephen W. Kearney, who had been appointed brigadier-general, was placed in command of the Army of the West, on an expedition to New Mexico and California. Maj. Turner, who had become captain of the First Dragoons in April, 1846, was the acting assistant adjutant-general of the army, and his services in the arduous campaign on which it immediately entered were brilliant and highly appreciated by his gallant commander. At San Pasqual, Cal., on the 6th of December, 1846, a fierce attack was made in the early morning on a portion of the United States forces by a swarm of mounted Mexican lancers, and in the combat which ensued Capt. Turner received a painful flesh-wound from a lance; but none of his comrades knew of his mishap until the enemy had been routed. He was in the saddle at the skirmish at San Bernardo on the following day, and participated in that action. The passage of the San Gabriel River was effected on the 8th of January, 1847. The skirmish on the plains of Mesa followed on the 9th of the same month, and for his gallant and meritorious services in these engagements he was breveted major, to date from the first of them.

The Army of the West returned to the United States by the way of El Paso, in the summer of 1847, too late to engage in the operations under Gen. Scott near the city of Mexico. That place was captured in September, 1847. Maj. Turner, who was an essential witness at the trial by court-martial of Col. Fremont, was detained in attendance on that court at Washington City until the treaty of peace in 1848. In July of that year he resigned his commission and devoted himself to civil life. He cultivated a farm about nine miles from the city of St. Louis, and in 1850 was appointed assistant treasurer of the United States in this city. He performed the duties of his office until 1852, when he embarked in the business of banking, in partnership with the late James H. Lucas and Gen. W. T. Sherman. This partnership lasted until 1857. During part of this interval Maj. Turner, together with Gen. (then Capt.) Sherman, resided in San Francisco, where was established a branch of the bank of Lucas, Turner & Co.

The firm was dissolved in 1857, and Maj. Turner returned to his farm. In 1863 he was elected president of the Union National Bank, and served in that capacity until 1869, when he accepted the presidency of the Lucas Bank, which he held until 1874, when he insisted upon resigning the office and devoting his whole time to the care of his large property. In 1858 he had been elected to the House of Representatives of the State, and served most acceptably for two years, declining a re-election. In 1874, when a general uprising against municipal misrule brought about the active participation in city affairs of men who ordinarily refuse political duties, he was induced to become a candidate for a seat in the Common Council, and was elected by his fellow-citizens without distinction of party. The duties of this office he performed not perfunctorily but conscientiously and laboriously for two years, but then insisted on a discharge from further public service. Besides these public duties, he was repeatedly selected as the depository of the most important private trusts. Some of the largest estates that had ever been administered in St. Louis passed through his hands as executor. In every instance the performance of his duties was above all challenge.

During the trying days of 1877, when riotous mobs threatened the peace and good order of the leading cities of the Union, he was conspicuously energetic in organizing and arming the citizens for the suppression of disorder. Maj. Turner died on the 16th of December, 1881, universally regretted by the citizens.

Note from page 1416: 220. One of the most prominent officers of the Citizens' Company was William Renshaw, Sr., who died at the residence of his son at Fulton, Mo., on the 14th of March, 1864, aged seventy-two years. Mr. Renshaw removed to St. Louis in 1818, when the future great city was an unpretentious town, and first established himself in business as a member of the firm of Renshaw & Hoffman, which continued in existence for a number of years. At a later period he was made secretary and then president of the Citizens' Insurance Company, which under his management enjoyed, as it still enjoys, a large share of public favor.

Another active officer of this venerable company was Gen. W. D. Wood, who died in St. Louis on the 2d of February, 1867. Gen. Wood was a native of Pennsylvania, but for twenty years had been a citizen and resident of St. Louis. He was educated for the medical profession, but having a preference for business pursuits, became a partner in a hardware house in St. Louis. Subsequently and for several years prior to the war he was secretary of the Citizens' Insurance Company. In 1861, on the breaking out of hostilities, he was appointed a member of Governor Gamble's staff with the rank of colonel. He commanded a regiment in Missouri during the early years of the war, and in 1863 proceeded with the Union forces to Arkansas. He was given command of a regiment, and sometimes of a brigade, until the close of the war. After the surrender of the Confederate armies he was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general. In 1866 he obtained a charter for the Occidental Insurance Company, and was elected president of that corporation.

Note from page 1417: 221. John Kern died on the 27th of August, 1856, aged forty-two years. He had been a resident of St. Louis for about twenty years, and was one of its leading business men. In April, 1856, he was elected a member of the Board of Aldermen.

Note from page 1419: 222. Charles W. Horn, president of the German Life Insurance Company, died suddenly at his residence, 2426 Carr Street, St. Louis, in June, 1872. Mr. Horn had filled a number of important positions of trust and honor, and was regarded as being one of the representative citizens of St. Louis. He served in the City Council during the sessions of 1856, 1857, and 1858, and was an energetic member of the Board of Health. Mr. Horn was born in the Grand Duchy of Nassau, Germany, emigrated to this country when a young man, and died at the age of about fifty-six years.

Note from page 1421: 223. Samuel Ely Mack was prominently identified with the insurance interests of St. Louis for many years. He was a native of Westfield, Mass., and a son of Gen. Mack of that State. In 1858, when the Home Insurance Company of New York transferred its general Western agency from Cincinnati to St. Louis, he was sent to St. Louis to supervise the Western and Southern business of that company, and soon took rank among the business men of the city. He died in December, 1866.

Note from page 1421: 224. Samuel Pictorial St. Louis, p. 95.

Note from page 1428: 225. Following are the St. Louis Republican's accounts of various attempts to overcome the difficulties in the way of maintaining constant communication with the eastern bank of the Mississippi:

"In October of last year a wire was sunk from the shore, near the termination of the Biddle Street sewer, to the opposite side. This wire had been first insulated with gutta-percha, and afterwards placed at distances of every thirty feet in leaden cylinders eleven inches long by four inches in diameter, and weighing each about twenty-five pounds. These cylinders, the manufacture of Mr. E. W. Blatchford, while partially protecting the wire, afforded great resistance to the current, and weighed the wire securely to the bed of the river. In this manner the line had worked well for a time, when the agents of the city, in prosecuting some work on the Levee, broke the wire. It was taken up and the damage repaired, but a second accident again put a stop to its usefulness. Several plans of sub-river telegraphic connection were afterwards considered by the directors and agents of our companies, but the dangers of a swift current, of snags continually appearing, and the large quantities of sediment continually shifting its locality made it difficult to suggest one adapted to every emergency. The one finally adopted and put into use yesterday appears the best calculated for effective resistance to every obstacle, and will, we trust, afford a reliable means of communication. It is this: A wire of the ordinary size is encased in three heavy coats of gutta-percha, and the whole protected with a sheeting of lead — continuous, and water- and air-tight — a little less than the eighth of an inch in thickness.


"To cross the river twice at the point mentioned required six thousand five hundred and seventy feet of gutta-percha wire, allowing eighteen hundred feet for the irregularities of the bed of the river, drifting, etc. Mr. Blatchford encountered many serious and annoying difficulties in the accomplishment of his task, by the breakage of dies, etc.; but after an assiduous application he finally succeeded in manufacturing the whole. The lead sheeting was turned out in pieces sixty feet long, and afterwards turned and soldered on the gutta-percha and secured together. The weight of the whole when finished was ten thousand pounds.


"The wire was placed on a ferry-boat, and at an early hour in the day taken to the north end of the city, to be laid under the direction of Mr. J. N. Alvord, superintendent of the ‘Ohio and Mississippi’ Line, Mr. C. F. Johnson, of the ‘Illinois and Mississippi Company,’ and Mr. Blatchford. Numerous doubts existed as to the practicability of running the wire on the plan proposed, but the result has set them at rest. One end having been secured to the Missouri shore, the process of laying the first line commenced precisely at twelve o'clock, and was terminated at sixteen minutes past twelve. The boat then returned, and the second line was laid in precisely twelve minutes, no obstacle whatever having been experienced either time, and a little over three-fourths of the wire only having been used. To assure themselves that the wires had sustained no injury in depositing it, Mr. Alvord and Mr. Johnson, in the afternoon, communicated with them from the opposite shores with perfect success.


"The operators on the Northern and Eastern Telegraphic Lines have received and sent their reports to Illinoistown for the past ten months. The difficulty of sending or receiving reports after night has proven an annoyance to everyone. It is expected, and certainly it is much hoped, that this inconvenience is entirely removed." — St. Louis Republican, Dec. 5, 1851.


"The first lines that were constructed to this city were suspended across the river by the erection of high masts, but owing to the distance from shore to shore and consequent weight of the wire between the masts, they were constantly breaking from sleet, storms, and even by birds alighting thereon in great qualities. This plan has then, owing to its imperfection and expense, been abandoned, and the lines were laid across the bed of the river by wire insulated with gutta-percha, and sunk by means of leaden weights. This, too, soon failed, and at the time Mr. A. Wade came to the city for the purpose of finishing the Cincinnati and St. Louis line, all our telegraphing was done on the Illinois side and brought across by ferry. Since that time, however, there have been two wires laid across the river by the O'Reilly Telegraph Company, insulated with gutta-percha, and then inclosed in lead pipes, but from some unknown cause one of them has already failed.


"Amid all these discouraging circumstances Mr. Wade has devised and executed a plan which, in the opinion of scientific men and those best acquainted with telegraphing, will prove as effectual in resisting every obstacle with which it may have to contend as it has thus far proved perfect in its working, and if so, must supersede all others now in use. A No. 9 wire of the best quality, well connected and annealed, is covered with several coatings of gutta-percha to the thickness of about three-fourths of an inch. To protect this from driftwood, snags, floating ice, sand, chafing against rocks, and other like causes, the whole outer surface of the gutta-percha is covered with No. 10 annealed iron wire, running parallel with and confined thereto, in a round cable formed by iron-wire bands, within six or eight inches of each other, the whole weighing about eight thousand pounds to the mile, and possessing a strength equal to a three-quarter inch bar of solid iron.


"Great care has been taken to give to the outer wires the greatest tension, so as to protect the gutta-percha from any sudden wrench or strain. This cable is laid so as to touch the bed of the river in any part, and in such a way that should the channel become deeper at any one place than it now is, it will settle to the bottom.


"It is imbedded in the earth at each shore to the depth of six feet, extending from extreme low-water mark to a pole two hundred feet distant, where the inside wire alone is connected with the main wire of the line, while the outside wires are firmly attached to the pole. The length of this cable is but little over half a mile, and upwards of ten miles of wire were used in its construction." — St. Louis Republican, Dec. 20, 1852.

Note from page 1440: 226. At the time of the transfer of the province of Louisiana to the United States there were but two little French taverns in the town, one kept by Yostic, and the other by Landreville, chiefly to accommodate the courriers du bois (hunters) and the voyageurs (boatmen) of the Mississippi. Both of these taverns stood upon the corners of Main and Locust Streets. — Edwards' Great West, pp. 288-89.

Note from page 1442: 227. A curious circumstance connected with the land on which the Planters' Hotel was built is this: A Frenchman, Francois Gunell, in 1834, had the contract for grading Fourth Street four feet in front of the present court-house and Planters' Hotel. He had six yoke of oxen engaged to plow up the hard pan, for which he paid six dollars per hour; the fact that an hour or two's plowing loosened dirt enough to keep his hands at work shoveling the remainder of the day will account for the high price extorted for the labor of the oxen, as they were employed but a short time. He had a contract with Judge J. B. C. Lucas to fill up the gully on which the Planters' Hotel stands with the excavated dirt, for which he was to receive three cents per cubic yard. The hole was about thirty feet deep, and the dirt dumped in amounted to sixty dollars. When he came to settle up with Judge Lucas the latter offered him a deed to half the block on which the Planters' House now stands in lieu of the sixty dollars, which Mr. Gunell refused to accept, as he needed the money.

Note from page 1451: 228. For a full account of the proceedings of this court see Chapter XIV. of this work, vol. i. p. 331-34.

Note from page 1454: 229. Charles Carr, brother of Judge William C. Carr, and father of Walter C. Carr, at one time president of the Boatmen's Savings Institution, and R. E. Carr, at one time president of the Exchange Bank of St. Louis, died near Lexington, Ky., Nov. 14, 1868. He was born in Spottsylvania County, near Fredericksburg, Va., on the 29th of October, 1774. His father, following the footsteps of Daniel Boone, removed to the wilderness of Kentucky in 1777, leaving Charles, only three years old, with his relatives till 1785, when he accompanied a family over the mountains to his father's house, not far from Lexington, then containing only a few log cabins.

At the age of nineteen he volunteered as a soldier, in company with Samuel E. Combe and other neighbor boys, in a Kentucky regiment under Gen. Wayne, and was in all his operations against the Northwestern Indians, terminating in a bloody and decisive victory at the foot of the Maumee Rapids, some ten miles above the present city of Toledo. He was married in 1801 to Miss Elizabeth Todd, daughter of Gen. Levi Todd, also an early emigrant to Kentucky, and one of the most distinguished of her Indian-fighters and hunters. He was for some years a merchant in Lexington, and about the year 1808, in conjunction with William R. Morton, bought out the sheriff's office from the oldest magistrate for two years, and continued in that office for eight or ten years by successive purchases from senior justices, who had the right to sell, as the law then stood. In the discharge of his various official duties he was always polite and courteous.

While holding this office the disastrous battle of River Raisin was fought by Gen. Winchester on the 22d of January, 1813, in which so many gallant Kentuckians lost their lives. A call was made for more troops, and Mr. Carr was among the first to volunteer in Col. William Dudley's regiment. His high character and business habits induced Col. Dudley to appoint him paymaster, which office he held throughout the campaign and until the troops were paid off according to a special act of Congress. He was taken prisoner at Dudley's defeat opposite Fort Meigs, on the 5th of May, 1813, robbed of his hat and coat, as all the prisoners were, and forced to run the gauntlet into old Fort Maumee, long before given up by the British, and then rotted to the ground. In this terrible exploit many were killed and wounded, but Mr. Carr was fortunate in escaping without an injury. Mr. Carr returned home and resumed his official duties, in which he continued several years, and at the close was elected to the Legislature. In 1827 he removed to the farm on which he died.

Note from page 1454: 230. This Dr. Waldo, afterwards companion of the Bents and Sublettes, was an unusual man in an age of original characters. He was self-taught, but his acquirements would have been remarkable anywhere. At one time he was clerk of Circuit Court, ex officio recorder of deeds, clerk of the county court, justice of the peace, deputy sheriff, postmaster, major in the militia, and a practicing physician. He accumulated a large fortune, and was almost the idol of the community in which he lived.

Note from page 1454: 231. Alfred W. Carr, a nephew of Judge Carr, was born in 1804, in Kentucky graduated at Transylvania University, began practice in Missouri in 1828, in the St. Charles Circuit, Hon. Beverly Tucker judge, and soon became widely known, but died in his early manhood, leaving a young wife, daughter of Maj. Graves, of Kentucky. She afterwards married Col. Chambers, a lawyer, who became editor and part proprietor of the Missouri Republican.

Note from page 1458: 232. Charles, William W., and some of the younger brothers were among the bravest of the mountain men who fought Indians, led parties across the plains, pierced the loveliest valleys and climbed the steepest slopes of the Rocky Mountains. Their deeds are forever a part of those stormy days of warfare with Blackfoot, Comanche, and other tribes of fierce warriors. They rank with Milton Sublette and his brothers Andrew, Saul, and William, with St. Vrain and Bonneville. They were traders, explorers, heroes, and the men whom they led were absolutely fearless, infinitely fertile in resource. Capt. Charles Bent was once seen to charge alone and check fifty Indians. His genius in Indian warfare was of the first rank. In 1829, with sixty men, he defeated over fire hundred well-armed Indians on the Cimaron River. William W. Bent and two companions, while trapping beaver in New Mexico, were once attacked by two hundred warriors, but built a breastwork of stones, fought them for three days, and finally drove off their assailants. It was a time when the sons of the best families of St. Louis were on the frontiers. William W. Bent died in Colorado, May 19, 1869.

Note from page 1463: 233. This Richard S. Thomas reached Upper Louisiana in 1815. In 1817 he was appointed a circuit or district judge, but in 1824 was impeached and removed. He is said to have been disagreeable and tyrannical, and to have become very intemperate. Some years after his removal from office he was thrown from a horse and killed.

Note from page 1464: 234. It was related of the father of Mr. Bates that when Lord Cornwallis offered him British protection, he carefully folded up the papers and returned them, disdaining to accept the proffered advantage.

Note from page 1465: 235. Mr. Bates' labors in behalf of the public schools of St. Louis are especially worthy of mention, and are thus described by Col. T. T. Gantt in an address before the United States Court on the occasion of Mr. Bates' death:

"The first cases in the trial of which he became conspicuous in the eyes of the younger members of the bar, unfamiliar except by tradition with his merits as a barrister, were those which tested the title of the Board of President and Directors of the St. Louis Public Schools to lots of ground in the township of St. Louis equal in area to one-twentieth of all the land included in a survey comprising the town, its common fields and common. The litigation thus inaugurated was, from every point of view, most interesting, not only by reason of the immense value of the endowment given to the public schools of St. Louis by the act of 1812, but on account of the difficulty of the questions to be decided before the title could be settled: the subject engaged the attention of the profession as scarcely can be predicated of any other head of titles to land. The first decision on the title of the schools was given by our Supreme Court in 1843. Even at this day the school corporation is still engaged in the assertion of a doubtful claim to some lands in this city. But it is believed that all matters of substance in this connection were determined by the court of last resort in 1861. With the earlier, more difficult, and precarious strife of the first cases Mr. Bates was intimately connected. He was the leader of the counsel for the schools, and obtained from a court, one of the judges of which was irreclaimably hostile to the pretensions of that corporation, the decision which, after long dispute, has at length become the accepted law of the land. I shall not, I think, as long as I remember anything, forget the impression made upon me by the argument which Mr. Bates made before Judge Engle, then presiding in the Court of Common Pleas, upon the general merits of the school title to lots of ground in St. Louis under the act of 1812 and the acts supplementary to it. The theme was a vast one. The discussion was new to the judge before whom it was carried on, for, though a man of great learning and ability, he had been trained in a school which had not familiarized him with our peculiar system of land titles, and there was, especially at that day, a complexity about these which few, if any, were able to master who had not an acquaintance with our local history, impossible of attainment except after years of residence among us. The immense advantage of this perfect acquaintance was, of course, enjoyed by Mr. Bates, who had almost been an eye-witness of the most important events involved, and the matchless order in which he grouped these events and traced their bearing upon the case at the bar made an abiding impression upon a young lawyer who felt keenly his own want of the peculiar knowledge which enabled Mr. Bates to shine so brightly. After that argument it was my privilege to see and hear him over and over again, both at the bar of the Circuit and the Supreme Courts, sometimes exhibiting the tact which enabled him to extract from even unwilling witnesses the facts which it concerned his client to have in evidence, sometimes dealing, with an ability altogether his own, with a mass of conflicting testimony in his appeal to a jury, and sometimes wringing from a reluctant court, by irresistible argument, a reconsideration and overruling of a hasty decision."

Note from page 1466: 236. No event in the criminal annals of St. Louis ever created such an intense feeling in the community as the Montesquieu murder, or City Hotel tragedy, as it was popularly called. On the morning of Sunday, Oct. 28, 1849, two young French noblemen, Gonsalve and Raymond de Montesquieu, arrived in St. Louis and stopped at Barnum's City Hotel. They had come to this country the preceding June for recreation and pleasure, and had traveled leisurely westward, Chicago having been the last stopping-place. Gonsalve was about twenty-eight years old, and his brother was two years his junior. Both were liberally supplied with money. Among their effects were capacious wardrobes, a number of guns, and an extensive hunting equipment. They were assigned a room situated on a hall leading from a back piazza. Directly opposite, but in a, room opening directly on the piazza, Albert Jones, H. M. Henderson, and Capt. Win. Huhbell slept, and in another room, the window of which overlooked the piazza, were T. Kirby Barnum, nephew of the proprietor of the hotel, and Mr. Macomber, the steward.

Between eleven and twelve o'clock on the night of Monday, October 29th, while young Barnum and Macomber were preparing for bed, they were startled by a tapping on the windowpane, and the curtains being drawn aside they saw the two young Frenchmen on the piazza, one of them armed with a gun. Simultaneously with the discovery one of the Frenchmen fired, the contents mortally wounding Barnum and giving Macomber a flesh-wound on the wrist.

Aroused by the report of the gun, Jones, Henderson, and Hubbell opened the door of their room, and were immediately fired upon, Jones being instantly killed, and the others slightly wounded. The brothers returned to their room after the shooting, and were subsequently arrested there.

The homicide was at first regarded as a mystery, as the Montesquieus were perfectly sober, and had had no intercourse or communication whatever with the five men who were shot. At the time of their arrest the younger brother stated that Gonsalve had recently displayed symptoms of insanity, and the latter, exculpating his brother from all blame, said he was controlled by an irresistible inclination to kill two men; that he started out to do so, and that his brother merely followed to prevent a tragedy, but it was consummated before he (Raymond) could interfere.

After the tragedy public indignation ran so high that the jail was surrounded, and efforts were made to obtain possession of the Montesquieu brothers, but these were foiled by the jailer and sheriff, who, between seven and eight o'clock on the evening of the day succeeding the homicide, and while the crowd were assembling around the jail walls, deeming it unsafe to keep the prisoners longer in jail, quietly took them from their cells, conveyed them over the back wall, through the churchyard to Fifth Street, where cabs were in waiting, and conveyed them to Jefferson Barracks. On the way to the barracks the elder of the two seemed perfectly composed, and when they reached the gate took advantage of the sheriff's absence from the cab, sprang from his seat, and made a slight effort to escape. The younger appeared very much frightened, and used every precaution while being conducted from the jail to avoid recognition. Between one and two o'clock A. M. on the Friday following they were returned to the jail.

At the time of their arrest the statements of the Montesquieus as to their birth and social position in France were received with incredulity, it being generally believed that they were desperadoes, but a few weeks later their claims were substantiated, as the following extract from the Missouri Republican will show:

"The deplorable and almost incomprehensible event which produced so much sensation in the public mind a few weeks ago, and so much grief in several families, seems to have excited equal sensation and grief in France. The last steamer brings out from Mr. Rives, our minister at Paris, a letter of his own to Senator Benton, with many letters and official documents to himself and others to Senator Benton, Senator Cass, and the Hon. Mr. Winthrop, on the subject of this most melancholy occurrence. The letters make known the fact that the father of these young gentlemen (the late Count Montesquieu) labored under insanity, and destroyed his own life two years ago, and that their elder brother is now insane in Paris, and hence raise the irresistible inference that inherited insanity must have broken out in the two brothers at St. Louis. All the letters speak of them in the same terms as being remarkable for the amiability of their characters and their ‘mild and inoffensive manners;’ that they came to the United States for information and recreation, and especially to see the Western country, and with ample means and credit. They descend from a family in France not only of great historic fame, but distinguished for private virtues.

"The celebrated Duke de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, author of the ‘Maxims,’ is their grandfather on the mother's side; the present Duke de la Rochefoucauld writes in their behalf as nephews; the Gen. Oudinot, Duke of Reggio, and Gen. Arrigri, Duke of Padua, also in their behalf as relations. The Count Montesquieu himself belonged to the distinguished family of that name. Many Americans in Paris, among them Mr. William H. Aspinwall, of New York, also writes, and with all the deep feeling which the view of the agonized condition of the unhappy mother and relations so naturally inspires. These letters and official attestations have all been forwarded to St. Louis, to have their effect in explaining a transaction which seemed to be incomprehensible."

In the latter part of December, 1849, Lewis Borg, vice-consul of France at the port of New York, and Justin Paillaird, of Paris, arrived at St. Louis, M. Borg being commissioned to investigate the Montesquieu tragedy, and his companion being an intimate friend of the young men involved in the melancholy affair. The effect of the letters from abroad and the visit of Messrs. Borg and Paillaird was to change public sentiment in regard to the guilt and character of the accused, and it was not strange that in each of two trials the juries failed to agree upon a verdict. In the first trial the jury stood seven for acquitting and five for convicting Gonsalve, and eight for acquitting and four for convicting Raymond. In the case of Gonsalve the jury divided upon his insanity, and in the case of Raymond they divided upon the dying declaration of Barnuin and Macomber's testimony as given before the coroner and recorder. Barnum and Macomber identified Raymond as the person who fired into their room, but the fact that at the time of the shooting Barnum and Macomber were in a lighted room, the defendants in the dark upon the piazza, and the alarm of the persons in the room when they saw a man approach the window with a gun in his hand, their hasty observation and precipitate retreat, the similarity in the appearance of the two brothers, the excitement of Barnum and Macomber at the time of recognition on the night of the occurrence, the fact that both were identified at different periods on that night as the "man" who shot, that but one gun, double-barreled, was discharged, and if both shot they would necessarily have had to use the same piece, that at the time of the arrest Raymond denied he had shot, and stated that his brother did it, that Gonsalve admitted he killed both men, and exonerated his brother, were all considered by the jury, and caused the division upon the conviction of Raymond. This first trial occupied four weeks, and was concluded April 20, 1850. On the next trial, which took place two weeks later, the jury, after being out forty hours, also disagreed, the vote being nine for conviction and three for acquittal in the cases of both of the brothers.

A few weeks after the second trial the Governor pardoned Gonsalve on the ground of his insanity at the time of committing the murder, and shortly thereafter he pardoned the younger brother on the ground of "a general belief that he did not participate in the homicide whereof he stands indicted, and that a further prosecution of these indictments will not accomplish any of the objects of public justice, but will result only in renewed trouble and increased expense to the State." The brothers Montesquieu sailed for France from New York immediately after being set free. Gonsalve afterwards died a raving maniac.

Note from page 1472: 237. Judge Leonard's grandfather, Rev. Abiel Leonard, graduated at Harvard, and preached at Woodstock, Conn. He wished to enter the army as chaplain when the Revolution broke out, but his church would not consent. The brave and persistent pastor then visited Washington's Cambridge camp, and procured a joint letter from Gens. Putnam and Washington (March 24, 1776), begging the "congregation of Woodstock to cheerfully give up to the public a gentleman so very useful," which they did without more ado. Nathaniel Leonard, his son, and Judge Leonard's father, was born in this ancient town in 1768. Serving in the war of 1812, he was commander of Fort Niagara when the British took that place.

Note from page 1474: 238. Hon. John F. Darby gives the following version of this interesting controversy: "Richard M. Johnson and his brother came here with some steamboats, which were seized for debt, and he could get no lawyer to defend him except Peck, who was not a regular lawyer. When Johnson went back to Washington he caused Peck to be appointed judge of the District Court. Peck soon after went blind, and would sit on the bench with a handkerchief over his eyes, an animated imitation of the heathen figure of justice. He passed upon the land claims presented, and Edward Bates was the United States district attorney. When the court met in the old building at the corner of Second and Walnut Streets, the people would come and present their claims. Judge Peck on one of these occasions asked some one to explain the modus operandi of proceeding. Judge Lucas undertook to explain to the judge. Lawless, who had filed a claim for ten thousand acres for the Soulards, protested against Lucas being allowed to make the explanation to the court. Judge Lucas said he was licensed by an act of heaven, which gave him a tongue to speak and explain; that he had taken his degree in France, his native country, and had been invited to emigrate to America by Franklin; that when Mr. Lawless had applied for admission to the bar he was one of the three to examine him, and had voted to pass him, while one of the others had voted against him, and it might be that he had done wrong in doing so. Lucas was very severe upon Lawless, who had acted as the second of Col. Benton in the duel with the son of Judge Lucas, and it was said that Lawless had fled from Ireland to escape the penalty inflicted upon those engaged in the rebellion. Judge Peck decided against the claim of Lawless, and the latter published an article in a newspaper reflecting upon the judge. Peck had the editor brought into court and made to divulge the name of the writer. Peck had Lawless arraigned for contempt, and fined and debarred him from practice. On his way to jail Lawless used the most violent language against Peck. For this conduct Congress impeached Peck, and he was prosecuted in the Senate by McDuffie, of South Carolina, and James Buchanan, of Pennsylvania, and was defended by William Wirt and Mr. Meredith, of Baltimore. Clay, Webster, Calhoun, and other senators of the day sat as the jury, and the trial was conducted without regard to political prejudices. Peck was acquitted because there was not a majority of two-thirds against him, but Congress passed the claim of Lawless for ten thousand acres of land, a matter of great exultation to him."

Note from page 1484: 239. A partner from 1849 till 1852 with Judge Lackland, and at various times since, was William C. Jamison, a resident of St. Louis since 1843. Born in Tennessee in 1822, of a family note in that State, and educated at Union College, Murfreesboro', he prosecuted his early law studies under Hon. John F. Darby, and later with Messrs. Todd & Krum. In 1846 he opened an office of his own, though licensed nearly two years before. His first partnership was with F. R. Dick. In 1849 it was Lackland & Jamison; in 1853, Cline & Jamison; in 1857, Lackland, Kline & Jamison. In 1863, Judge Lackland retired; in 1866, M. C. Day became a member. Mr. Jamison became administrator for some of the largest estates in St. Louis; and is a director in many prominent companies and associations. Both as lawyer and citizen he possesses high claims to regard. In 1865 he married Miss Mary E. Noe, of Norfolk, Va.

Note from page 1486: 240. A St. Louis journal of Aug. 18, 1866, thus notices Mr. Gantt's death:

"Col. Walter C. Gantt died very suddenly at his residence in this city yesterday, at two o'clock P. M., of cholera. He had attended a meeting at the court-house on Thursday night of the Society for the Preservation of Game, and participated in the proceedings by the delivery of a short speech, apparently in his usual good health. His wife and child were absent on a trip East. Col. Gantt was thirty-six years old, a lawyer of respectable standing at the St. Louis bar, and had been assistant circuit attorney since the fall of 1864. During the recent troubles he volunteered into the Third Missouri Cavalry, and was lieutenant-colonel of that regiment when it was mustered out of service."

Note from page 1488: 241. Judge Primm's mother, grandmother, and great-grandmother were born in St. Louis, and Col. A. R. Easton contributes the remarkable fact that lately enough to come within his distinct recollection they were all living in the city.

Note from page 1497: 242. The St. Louis Post-Dispatch of Feb. 3, 1882, thus notices the formal act of conferring the cross upon Mr. Gibson:

"The emperor of Austria-Hungary has celebrated the six hundredth anniversary of the reign of the Hapsburgs, so far as this country is concerned, by decorating Hon. Charles Gibson, his counsel in the case against Baron von Bechtolsheim, late Austro-Hungarian consul at St. Louis, as Knight Commander of the Order of Franz Joseph. The emperor himself is Chief, and the Commanders for the inner circle are next to himself in the order. The order itself is as high as any in the empire or in Europe. This is the highest honor, so far as we are informed, ever conferred by a great European sovereign on an American lawyer. After the dismissal of Baron von Bechtolsheim, Dr. Von Gerlich, the Imperial German consul, officiated as an international courtesy in his stead until to-day, when Mr. Diehm, the new consul, takes the office. The last and most pleasing act of Dr. Von Gerlich's administration was to wait upon Mr. Gibson at his residence last evening, and on behalf of the emperor to deliver to him the decree making the appointment, the official letter of Baron von Schaffer, Austro-Hungarian minister at Washington, and the high insignia of the order. The knights of the order wear their cross on the lappel of the coat, but the Commander's insignia is pendant to a silken collar around the neck, making it a very striking personal ornament. This order, and especially Mr. Gibson's position in it, is not merely a medallion or mark of commendation, but it is a rank, and one of the very highest honors in the empire. It was well and fairly earned by Mr. Gibson in the line of professional duty."

Note from page 1511: 243. The author endeavored without result to obtain the material for biographical sketches of Henry Hitchcock, Samuel T. Glover, and other leading members of the bar, whose modesty forbade them to supply the necessary facts.

Note from page 1515: 244. For the preparation of the greater part of this chapter the author is indebted to Dr. E. M. Nelson, editor of the St. Louis Courier of Medicine, who, we think it will be conceded, has discharged with great care and with painstaking and discriminating accuracy. The author is also under obligation to Dr. Nelson for many other kindnesses in the compilation of this work. A number of the biographical sketches contained in this chapter were prepared by him, and those contributed by other persons are indicated by foot-notes.

Note from page 1515: 245. The portion of this chapter relating to the physicians of St. Louis in the early French and Spanish days was prepared by Mr. Frederic L. Billon.

Note from page 1518: 246. Dr. Saugrain's oldest daughter, Mrs. Von Phul, states that there was very little sickness here in those days, and little occasion for calling upon a physician or taking any medicine. Every one was strong and healthy.

Note from page 1518: 247. "The undersigned having been politely favored by a friend with the genuine vaccine infection, has successfully communicated that inestimable preventive of the smallpox to a number of the inhabitants of St. Louis and its vicinity, and from a sincere wish which he entertains more widely to disseminate this blessing, he has taken the present occasion to inform such physicians and other intelligent persons as reside beyond the limits of his accustomed practice that he will with much pleasure, on application, furnish them with the vaccine infection. The following comparative view and certificate will sufficiently show the high estimation in which vaccination is holden by a number of the most learned and respectable physicians in our country. Persons in indigent circumstances, paupers, and Indians will be vaccinated and attended gratis on application to

"A. SAUGRAIN.

"ST. LOUIS, May 26, 1809."

"A comparative view of the natural smallpox, inoculated smallpox, and vaccination in their effects on individuals and society:

"1. It is attempting to cross a large and rapid stream by swimming, where one in six perish.

"2. It is passing the river in a boat subject to accidents, where one in three hundred perish, and one in forty suffer partially.

"3. It is passing over a safe bridge."

This was accompanied with a certificate of the value of vaccination from a large number of prominent physicians of Philadelphia and elsewhere.

Note from page 1518: 248. For the facts in regard to Dr. Farrar's life we are indebted to a paper by Dr. C. A. Pope, published in the St. Louis Medical and Surgical Journal, September, 1850.

Note from page 1521: 249. The following fee bill, found among the papers of Dr. William Carr Lane, was kindly loaned the author by Dr. Lane's grandson, Dr. William C. Glasgow, of St. Louis:

"At a meeting of the medical faculty of the city of St. Louis, held at the City Hall, on the twenty-third day of November, 1829, the following regulations for fees were unanimously entered into:


Charge    
No. 1. For the first visit in the city $1.00
No. 2. For two or more visits to regular patients, per day 2.00
No. 3. For a whole day's medical attention 10.00
No. 4. For a night visit (expressly), after nine o'clock 2.00
No. 5. For a whole night's medical attention 10.00
No. 6. For application or dressing vesicatories .50
No. 7. For any other simple dressing .50
No. 8. For visit in the country, per mile 1.00
No. 9. For consultation 5.00
No. 10. For writing a prescription 1.00
No. 11. For verbal prescription or advice 1.00
No. 12. For treating syphilis 20.00
No. 13. For treating gonorrhoea 10.00
No. 14. For natural labors, from $8.00 to 20.00
No. 15. For preternatural, difficult, etc., labors, from $30.00 to 40.00
No. 16. For amputating fingers, toes, and other small members $10.00
No. 17. For amputating arm, leg, or thigh 50.00
No. 18. For reducing luxation of the lower jaw 5.00
No. 19. For reducing luxation of the wrist 5.00
No. 20. For reducing luxation of the elbow-joint 25.00
No. 21. For reducing luxation of the shoulder-joint 20.00
No. 22. For reducing luxation of the ankle 20.00
No. 23. For reducing luxation of the knee 20.00
No. 24. For reducing luxation of the hip 50.00
No. 25. For reducing a simple fracture of the arm or leg 25.00
No. 26. For reducing a simple fracture of the thigh 40.00
No. 27. For reducing a simple fracture of the clavicle 20.00
No. 28. For reducing a simple fracture of the patella 20.00
No. 29. For operating with trephine 50.00
No. 30. For elevating the skull, when the trephine is not used $5.00 to 10.00
No. 31. For introducing catheter 5.00
No. 32. For vaccinating, under three persons, each 2.00
No. 33. For vaccinating, over three persons, each 1.00
No. 34. For extracting tooth 1.00
No. 35. For cupping 1.00
No. 36. For bleeding 1.00
No. 37. For opening abscess from $1.00 to 2.00
No. 38. For visit on the opposite side of the Mississippi River 3.00
No. 39 For giving an injection 1.00
No. 40. For every visit, per day, more than two .50
No. 41. For amputating carpus or tarsus 60.00
No. 42. For amputating the breast 50.00
No. 43. For extracting cataract 50.00
No. 44. For couching cataract 50.00
No. 45. For removing polypus from uterus $30.00 to 70.00
No. 46. For removing polypus from nares $10.00 to 20.00
No. 47. For extirpating testicle 30.00
No. 48. For operating for fistula in ano $30.00 to 50.00
No. 49. For aneurism $10.00 to 20.00
No. 50. For the operation of tracheotomy 25.00
No. 51. For the operation for paraphimosis 5.00
No. 52. For the operation for phimosis 5.00
No. 53. For the operation for hare-lip 25.00
No. 54. For the operation for strangulated hernia 60.00
No. 55. For reducing strangulated hernia by taxis 10.00
No. 56. For operating for hydrocele from $20.00 to 50.00
No. 57. For operating for lithotomy $100.00 to 200.00
No. 58. For applying a roller to the leg or arm 1.00
No. 59. For introducing seton, or caustic, or pea-issue. 1.00


CHARGES FOR MEDICINES.
Charge    
No. 1. For a simple dose of medicine $0.25
No. 2 For a compound cathartic or emetic .50
No. 3. For all tinctures, per ounce .50
No. 4. For syrups, mixtures, and compositions, per ounce .50
No. 5. For bark (common), flowers, and bitters, per ounce .50
No. 6. For diaphoretic and other powders, per dozen 1.00
No. 7. For pills, quinine, per dozen 1.00
No. 8. For pills, opii, per dozen .50
No. 9. For pills, common, per dozen .50
No. 10. For quinine solution (eight grains to the ounce), per ounce .50
No. 11. For blistering plasters from 25 cents to 1.00
No. 12. For strengthening plasters from 50 cents to 1.00
No. 13. For common ointment, per ounce .25
No. 14. For compound ointment, more costly, per oz. .50


"It was also unanimously


"Resolved, 1st. That in attending by the year the following charges be adopted:


For attending to one person $20.00
For attending two persons 25.00
For attending three persons 30.00
For attending four or five persons 40.00
All over five to ten, for each 5.00
All over ten, for each 3.00


"Resolved (secondly), That every practicing physician in the city of St. Louis annex his signature to the above bill of prices.


"We whose names are hereunto subscribed bind ourselves to observe the above regulations, under the penalty of being denounced as unworthy members of the medical faculty:


"Signed by Breton, D. M. M.; A. Moran, Docteur; B. Graham, Horace Gaither, Samuel Merry, C. Tiffin, G. Brun, Cornelius Campbell, Stephen W. Roszett, John Woolfolk, Hardage Lane by Samuel Merry, G. W. Call, W. M. Millington."

Note from page 1525: 250. Contributed by F. H. Burgess.

Note from page 1526: 251. See history of the Missouri Medical College, farther on in this chapter.

Note from page 1531: 252. Contributed by F. H. Burgess.

Note from page 1533: 253. Dr. Pollak says that Dr. Clark was the only physician in St. Louis who drove in a buggy when he came to the city; all the others rode on the horseback.

Note from page 1540: 254. Contributed by F. H. Burgess.

Note from page 1546: 255. Deceased.

Note from page 1547: 256. This institution, though having the same name, is entirely distinct from and independent of that just mentioned, which still has a legal though not an actual existence.

Note from page 1548: 257. "The opinion has long prevailed among the members of the medical profession and the body of apothecaries of St. Louis that some measure should be taken for the scientific development of pharmacy in this city by more highly educating the apothecaries' clerks, and protecting the interests of both classes against the baneful influence of illiterate men. At several preliminary meetings of physicians and apothecaries to consider the steps necessary for the above purpose an organization was perfected, and now we have established among us a College of Pharmacy. The institution, though yet in its infancy, bids fair to stand firmly, and, like similar institutions of Eastern cities, to exert a highly beneficial influence upon those whom it most nearly concerns. Already its list of members is large, and rapidly increasing from day to day." — Republican, April 1, 1865.

Note from page 1551: 258. The author is indebted for the greater part of the material from which this sketch is compiled to Dr. Henry W. Sawtelle, surgeon in charge of the United States Marine Hospital.

Note from page 1559: 259. Dr. Green's observations and writings on the subject of astigmatism have made his name known to the profession all through this country and in Europe as well.

Note from page 1559: 260. This work appeared first in the St. Louis Medical and Surgical Journal, under the title of Medical Essays, by L. Afterwards they were reprinted in a volume, and a small edition published for the benefit of his classes.

Note from page 1560: 261. These works are cited by all recent writers on gynecology and obstetrics as authorities on the subjects treated in them.

Note from page 1560: 262. Written for this work by Dr. F. T. Knox, of St. Louis.

Note from page 1561: 263. Prepared by F. H. Burgess.

Note from page 1562: 264. Prepared by F. H. Burgess.

Note from page 1566: 265. The writer of the foregoing outline of homoeopathy in St. Louis largely indebted to Vol. II. of "Transactions of the World's Homoeopathic Convention of 1876" for facts, as well as to various individuals for information furnished.

Note from page 1566: 266. The material for this sketch was furnished by Dr. A. B. Merrell.

Note from page 1567: 267. This sketch of the dental profession of St. Louis was prepared by Dr. Homer Judd, of Upper Alton, Ill.

Note from page 1571: 268. The above sketch of Dr. Judd was prepared by a friend of that gentleman, at the request of the author of this work.

Note from page 1572: 269. Eight months.

Note from page 1572: 270. Eleven months.

Note from page 1587: 271. The author is indebted to Professor H. H. Morgan for that portion of this chapter, indicated in the text, which treats of the contemporary period of literary growth and culture in St. Louis, beginning about 1857.

Note from page 1587: 272. Recollections of the West.

Note from page 273: 273. See that excellent manual, "Ethics; or Moral Philosophy," by Walter H. Hill, S. J., Professor of Philosophy in the St. Louis University. Professor Hill says in his preface that "those venerable philosophers of the olden times reached their conclusions by rigorous logic, and their conclusions were right and true because derived by necessary sequence from matter not subject to mutation....Indeed, there is little doubt that nothing is gained by theorists who reject the teachings and the axioms received as certain among those sagacious thinkers.

Note from page 274: 274. This sketch of Professor Morgan was prepared by James S. Garland.

Note from page 275: 275. To the above list may be added the names of Henry Boernstein, publisher of the Anzeiger des Westens, who has been quite prominent in connection with the German stage, both in Europe and in this country, having written many successful plays, and Laura C. Redden, who, under the pseudonym of "Howard Glyndon," has an extensive reputation as a magazinist and newspaper writer. Miss Redden was born in Somerset County, Md., but came to St. Louis early, assisted in editing the St. Louis Presbyterian, and wrote much for the Missouri Republican. Two of her books, "Notable Men of the Thirty-seventh Congress" and "Idyls of Battle," are well and favorably known. — J. T. S.

Note from page 276: 276. The more prominent journalists are indicated by a *.

Note from page 277: 277. The collections marked thus * have special value, and well represent the ancient and modern classics, art, dramatic literature, natural science, political history, English literature, Shakespeariana, French memoirs, books relating to Napoleon, philology, philosophy, theology, Americana, and illustrated works.

Note from page 278: 278. Contributed by F. H. Burgess.

Note from page 279: 279. This chapter is the joint work of Professor H. H. Morgan and W. M. Bryant. In giving it without material alteration, the author does not wish to be held responsible for all its conclusions, nor for the tone of some of its criticisms.

Note from page 280: 280. This scarcely does justice to the earlier inhabitants of St. Louis. They did not practice art to any great extent, but they did encourage it by securing pictures abroad and by having portraits painted at home. There were a number of very good portrait-painters in the country, who every year made winter tours to the South, and it was a favorite route with several of these to pass up the Hudson to Albany, across country to Olean, down the Allegheny to Pittsburgh, and thence to Cincinnati, Louisville, St. Louis, and New Orleans. A great number of the old portraits in St. Louis were painted by these itinerant limners. The first directory, that of 1821, mentions the fact that the town at that time contained "one portrait-painter, who would do credit to any country."

Gabriel Paul was then the architect and building the Cathedral, and the compiler of the directory takes great pride in claiming that "the Cathedral of St. Louis can boast of having no rival in the United States for the magnificence, the value and elegance of her sacred vases, ornaments, and paintings, and indeed few churches in Europe possess anything superior to it. It is a truly delightful sight to an American of taste to find in one of the remotest towns of the Union a church decorated with the original paintings of Rubens, Raphael, Guido, Paul Veronese, and a number of others by the first modern masters of the Italian, French, and Flemish schools. The ancient and precious gold embroideries which the St. Louis Cathedral possesses would certainly decorate any museum in the world. All this is due to the liberality of the Catholics of Europe, who presented these rich articles to Bishop Dubourg on his last tour through France, Italy, Sicily, and the Netherlands. Among the liberal benefactors could be named many princes and princesses, but we will only insert the names of Louis XVIII., the present king of France, and that of the Baroness La Candele de Ghysegham, a Flemish lady, to whose munificence the Cathedral is particularly indebted." Of course the paintings of the old masters are copies, not originals. The directory also makes mention of the fact that even at that early day drawing was part of the regular curriculum of St. Louis University (then called College). — J. T. S.

Note from page 281: 281. This sketch was contributed by F. H. Burgess.

Note from page 282: 282. Miss Sarah Middleton Peale lived in St. Louis for over thirty years, until 1878, when she returned to Philadelphia, in order to be near her surviving kinsfolk.

Miss Peale belongs to the historical family of that name, so prominent in the art history of the United States. She is the daughter of James Peale, the brother of Charles Wilson Peale, the founder of Peale's Museum in Philadelphia. Her uncle painted the first picture of Washington in 1772 as a Virginia colonel. He opened the first picture gallery in Philadelphia, and was for fifteen years the only portrait-painter in North America. On her mother's side Miss Peale's great-grandfather was a Claypole, and the grandson of Oliver Cromwell. John Claypole was one who carne over with William Penn to America in 1682, and his son, James Claypole, built the first brick house in Philadelphia.

Miss Peale arrived in St. Louis in 1847, from Baltimore, where she had spent several years with a cousin. She came to St. Louis at the request of Mr. Nathaniel Child, who had relatives in Baltimore. She visited Washington several times, and painted the portraits of Lafayette, Caleb Cushing, Dixon H. Lewis, of Alabama, Hon. Lewis F. Linn, of Missouri, Judge Abel P. Upshur, William R. King, Henry A. Wise, Senator Benton, and others. The portrait of Benton was purchased by a gentleman and presented by him to the Mercantile Library. The portrait of Dr. Linn was purchased by Mrs. Capt. Sears, a niece of the senator.

During her long sojourn in St. Louis, Miss Peale was devoted to her brush, and painted the portraits of several distinguished characters, among them that of Father Mathew, while on his visit here. She painted the portrait of Dr. J. B. Johnson and other leading citizens. The walls of her studio were hung with a number of original portraits and copies made by herself. Among them were Caleb Cushing, Dixon H. Lewis, and a few others. Latterly her skill was more especially devoted to the painting of fruit pieces. — J. T. S.

Note from page 283: 283. We wish to acknowledge our indebtedness for many important suggestions to Mrs. A. B. Thompson, and also to Mr. J. S. Garland, two of the most intelligent friends of art in the city.

Note from page 284: 284. For material assistance in preparing the sketches of the churches of St. Louis the author is greatly indebted to Rt. Rev. C. F. Robertson, D. D., Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Diocese of Missouri; Rt. Rev. P. J. Ryan, D. D., Coadjutor Bishop of the Catholic archdiocese; Rev. Walter H. Hill, S. J., of St. Louis University; Lewis E. Kline, of the Baptist Depository; Rev. J. W. Allen, D. D., of the Presbyterian Depository; Rev. Timothy Hill, D. D., of Kansas City, author of a "History of Presbyterianism in Missouri;" Rev. Benjamin St. James Fry, D. D., editor of the Central Christian Advocate, and his assistant, W. E. Barns; Rev. John E. Godbey, D. D., editor of the Southwestern Methodist; as well as to a "History of Methodism in Missouri," by Rev. Dr. D. R. McAnally; "Pictorial St. Louis," by Camille N. Dry, published by Compton & Co., 1876; and the St. Louis Spectator, in addition to the pastors of the various churches.

Note from page 285: 285. Bancroft.

Note from page 286: 286. Peter Oliver: Historical View of the Puritan Commonwealth.

Note from page 287: 287. Ibid. Also see on the same subject Hazard, vol. ii. pp. 313, 314, 393; Bancroft; Kip's Jesuit Missions; Hutchinson's History of Massachusetts, vol. i. p. 158, n.; Colden's Five Nations, vol. i. p. 60; Moore's Life of Eliot, p. 76; British Review, October, 1844; Wilberforce's American Church; Mercure de France, 1806; De Maistre's Essay on the Generative Principles of Human Government, translated in 1847 by a gentleman of Boston; and Shea's Catholic Missions.

Note from page 288: 288. In Hon. Wilson Primm's address before the Missouri Historical Society, delivered Sept. 1, 1867, to which the author is indebted for much valuable material concerning the early history of Catholicism in St. Louis, the following paragraph occurs:

"In connection with this interment, it was said by the old inhabitants who lived at the time and knew the facts that shortly before a man named Duquette came from Canada, sought out the grave of Gladu in the Little Prairie, and caused the remains to be disinterred. He then caused them to be buried in the graveyard of the town with all the solemnities and ceremonies of the Catholic Church. There was a large procession from the Prairie to the cemetery, Duquette walking near the coffin, bareheaded, and with a lighted taper in his hand. After the reinterment he caused to be placed at the head of the grave a large cross bearing the name of the deceased, and having fulfilled the last sad duties to the deceased he quit the country, leaving his connection with the deceased a mystery which the inhabitants never could solve."

Note from page 289: 289. The island stood a short distance above the Charbonni&eagrave;re, a bluff on the Missouri River some three hundred feet high, and so called from a layer of coal that underlies it, but which, being nearly on a level with the surface of the water and of inferior quality, has been little worked. Above the bluff there is visible, in low water, a bed of reddish stone, which extends far out into the river, and may have been the seat of the island. Possibly the concussions and disturbances caused by felling the trees precipitated the washing away of the land.

Note from page 290: 290. Charles Van Quickenborne, one of the prominent missionaries of Missouri, was born in the diocese of Ghent, Belgium, Jan. 21, 1786. He joined the Jesuit Society April 14, 1815, came to Maryland in 1817, and to St. Louis in 1823, nnd in the same year was made spiritual director of the Sacred Heart community at Florissant and pastor of the church there. Father Van Quickenborne died at Portage des Sioux, Aug. 17, 1837. Peter J. Timmermans was born in Belgium, July 20, 1783; joined the Jesuits Aug. 18, 1817; was made pastor of the churches at St. Charles and Portage des Sioux in June, 1823, and died June 1, 1824. Judocus F. Van Assche was born May 29, 1800, at St. Amand, near Antwerp. He came to Maryland and entered the Jesuit Novitiate at White Marsh, Oct. 6, 1821, an elder brother having preceded him thither in 1817. He remained at St. Stanlislaus Novitiate, near Florissant, when the other priests removed to St. Louis to establish their college, and after his ordination became pastor of the church there, continuing in its charge, excepting short absences, until he died, June 26, 1877. John A. Elet was born Feb. 19, 1802: was president of St. Louis University, and later of St. Xavier College, Cincinnati, and vice-provincial of Missouri, which position he resigned on account of ill health, and died Oct. 2, 1851. Peter J. Verhaegen was born June 21, 1800, and he was the most thoroughly educated of the original band of novices. He was pastor at St. Charles' in 1826, and successively the first president of St. Louis University, Superior, then vice-provincial of Missouri, provincial of Maryland, and president of St. Joseph's College in Kentucky. He died at St. Charles, Mo., July 21, 1868. Felix Verreydt was born Feb. 19, 1798; went to Portage des Sioux in 1831; to the Kickapoo mission near Fort Leavenworth in 1837; began a mission among the Pottawatomie Indians at Council Bluffs in 1838; went to Sugar Creek Indian mission in Kansas in 1841; moved with the Indians to St. Mary's mission in Kansas in 1848; was transferred to St. Louis in 1859, and resided at College Hill, North St. Louis, until 1869, when he went to St. Xavier College, Cincinnati, where he still lives (October, 1882), being now nearly eighty-five years old and the sole survivor of the original band. John B. Smedts was born April 11, 1801, and was stationed at St. Charles' from 1827 until Oct. 3, 1843, when he was made master of novices at St. Stanislaus Novitiate, near Florissant, where he remained until July 23, 1849, after which he resided successively at St. Charles', Florissant, and St. Louis University, where he died Feb. 19, 1855. Peter de Meyer was born Nov. 30, 1793; came to America with Father Nerinckx, and entered White Marsh Novitiate Aug. 5, 1817. He continued to reside as a lay brother at St. Stanislaus until he died there, Sept. 1, 1878. Henry Reisselman, also a lay brother, was born March 12, 1784, and came to the United States in 1807, and joined the Trappist monks in Casey County, Ky. He removed with them to Missouri in 1809; resided one year at Florissant, then moved to Monk's Mound, on Cahokia Creek, and when this station was abandoned joined the Jesuits at Georgetown, D. C., Nov. 5, 1813, and removed to Missouri in 1823. Subsequently he spent some time in Maryland, but returned to Missouri, and died at St. Stanislaus Novitiate, June 21, 1857.

Of all the little band of missionaries the most illustrious perhaps, and certainly the best known, was Peter J. de Smet, eminent alike as a missionary of undaunted energy and zeal, and as a scholar of varied learning and many accomplishments. He was born at Dendermonde, in Belgium, on the 31st of January, 1801, and was educated with the view of devoting himself to the priesthood. In July, 1821, in company with a number of other novices, under the charge of Father De Nerinckx, he left his native land for the United States. By agreement they all met at Amsterdam, and having eluded the vigilance of the authorities, who had given strict orders for their arrest, they left Amsterdam in a small boat, and succeeded in reaching Texel, where they procured lodging in the house of a Catholic who had been notified of their coming. At last, on the 15th of August, they got on board the brig "Columbia," having gained the open sea in a small pilot-boat, which had passed out of the harbor without being observed by the police. After a voyage of forty days, De Smet and his companions arrived at Philadelphia, whence they proceeded to Baltimore and then to White Marsh, Maryland, where they began their novitiate. As previously stated, he formed one of the party of missionaries, led by Van Quickenborne, who in 1823 established the colony of Florissant, and immediately after their arrival at St. Louis, De Smet entered actively upon a career of missionary labors which, with brief intervals, were destined to extend over nearly half a century. After toiling at Florissant, and subsequently assisting in the founding of the St. Louis University, he was compelled in 1832 to return to Belgium for the benefit of his health. While in Europe he procured a number of valuable instruments for the department of physics in the St. Louis University, together with many volumes for the library, and a collection of minerals, which he presented to the college. His health having been restored he returned in 1837 to St. Louis, which he made his home for the remainder of his life. In 1838, Father De Smet began his wonderful career as a missionary among the Northwestern Indians. He first established a mission among the Pottawatomies, who then dwelt in the neighborhood of Council Bluffs, Iowa, opposite the city of Omaha. Two years later (1840) he made his first journey to the Rocky Mountains and through Oregon, preparing the way for the missionaries who were to take up his work in later years. Among both the Pottawatomies and the Sioux De Smet was received with kindness, but his journeys through the wilderness were marvels of ardent zeal and patient devotion. His progress among the Pottawatomies was particularly gratifying. A little chapel twenty-four feet square, with a steeple, was soon erected, and near by log huts were built for the residences of the missionaries. A school was opened, and the building, which could only accommodate thirty pupils, was soon thronged with Indians. In the first three months one hundred and eighteen were baptized. During his expedition to the Rocky Mountains he accompanied Gen. Harney on an expedition to the Flathead and Shoshone Indians on the Columbia River. The Indians had been committing depredations, and Gen. Harney's expedition was sent out with the expectation that war would ensue. Through the mediation of Father De Smet, however, the Indians were placated and peace was assured.

His journey to the Rocky Mountains in 1840 was made in connection with the annual expedition of the American Fur Company, which started from Westernport, Mo., and from this time until within a year of his death he continued to labor among the savage tribes, including among others the Shoshones, Blackfeet, Pawnees, Mandans, Pottawatomies, and Sampeetches. In Oregon, among the Flatheads, his mission was conspicuously successful. In the camp of Peter Valley sixteen hundred Flat heads and Ponderas assembled to receive him, and at the close of the day two thousand Indians congregated before the missionary's tent to recite an evening prayer and chant a hymn. On the second day of his sojourn among them, De Smet, with the assistance of an interpreter, translated the Lord's Prayer, the Creed, and the Commandments, and in two weeks the Flatheads had all learned to recite the prayer. Within two months six hundred of the tribe were baptized. On his return to St. Louis the dauntless missionary passed through the country of the Blackfeet, Gros Ventres, and Sioux, all of whom were hostile to the Flatheads. Upon one occasion he and his party were surrounded by a fierce band of Blackfeet, who, however, on seeing his crucifix and gown, expressed their joy at beholding a missionary, and carried him in state to their village. He was treated with great kindness, and permitted to resume his journey unmolested. In the spring of 1841, Father De Smet returned to Oregon, accompanied by two other priests and three lay brothers, and established the mission of St. Mary's among the Flatheads. He then labored among the Coeur d'Alenes, Kalispels, and Koetenays, baptizing one hundred and ninety persons, twenty-six of whom were adults. His work at the Flathead mission was then resumed with encouraging results, and when he started on the return to St. Louis sixteen hundred and fifty-four savages had been baptized. On reaching St. Louis, De Smet was instructed by his Superior to proceed to Europe in order to obtain assistance in the work of civilizing and Christianizing the Indian tribes. His success in Europe was unequivocal, and on the 12th of December, 1843, he sailed from Antwerp, accompanied by several priests and six Sisters of the Congregation of Our Lady, who had volunteered to assist him in his missionary work, and arrived at Fort Vancouver in 1844. The Oregon mission expanded rapidly, and De Smet transferred his labors to the water-shed of the Saskatchewan and Columbia, and obtained many converts among the far Northwestern tribes. Father De Smet made five journeys to the Rocky Mountains in the course of his eventful career, and crossed the ocean seven times to obtain in Europe assistance for his missionary work. On his last trip to Belgium he was created a knight of the Order of Leopold as a recognition of his great merits, the decoration of the order being bestowed by King Leopold the Second. For some years, and up to the time of his death, he held the position of treasurer of the province, which included all the Jesuit houses from the Alleghenies to the Rocky Mountains.

Father De Smet was a graceful and vigorous writer, and his letters giving an account of his adventures and labors among the savages are marked by great simplicity of style and force of expression. He published several works on the subject of Indian missions, the principal of which are "Western Missions and Missionaries," "Oregon Missions," and "Letters and Sketches." He was familiar with science and a proficient in botany, having classified the plants of St. Louis many years ago. He was also an excellent draughtsman and topographical engineer, and executed a number of maps and surveys of the Oregon and Rocky Mountain regions. While returning home from Europe in 1872, Father De Smet fell on shipboard and was injured internally, three of his ribs also being broken. He succeeded in reaching St. Louis, and lingered for more than a year, dying at the St. Louis University on the 23d of May, 1873.

Note from page 291: 291. The author is indebted to the "Historical Sketch of the St. Louis University," by Rev. Walter H. Hill, S. J., for valuable information concerning the labors of the Jesuit missionaries in Missouri.

Note from page 292: 292. "His mark."

Note from page 293: 293. "His mark."

Note from page 294: 294. The last stone on the belfry tower is said to have been placed in position by a colored man named William Johnson. None of the workmen cared to run the risk of performing this dangerous feat, and Johnson volunteered to undertake it. He accordingly ascended the tower and fixed the stone in its place, receiving on his descent the congratulations of the bishop.

Note from page 295: 295. The musical portion of the services was under the direction of Professor Marallano, then a famous teacher in St. Louis, who set an ode, composed by one of the city priests, and a hymn, "written by a local bard," to music for the occasion.

Note from page 296: 296. The Cathedral was entered by burglars early on the morning of Aug. 27, 1845, but they only succeeded in securing the contents of several charity boxes, amounting in all to about twenty-five dollars.

On the first Sunday of October, 1855, the first Provincial Council of St. Louis was opened at the Cathedral with imposing ceremonies. The bishops composing the Council were Archbishop Kenrick, of St. Louis, and Bishops Miles, of Nashville, O'Regan, of Chicago, Henni, of Milwaukee, Cretin, of Minnesota, and Loras, of Dubuque. After the mass, the music being rendered by a choir whose leading members were Miss Julia Pratte, Mrs. Ringling, Miss Maginnis, Dr. Boislini&eagrave;re, and Mr. Young, Rev. Father Murphy, vice-provincial of the Society of Jesus, preached the sermon.

The promoter of the Council was Very Rev. J. Duggan, V. G.; notary, Rev. E. Saulnier; secretary, Rev. J. Banmo; master of ceremony, Rev. P. J. Ryan; theologians of the archbishop and bishops, Rev. P. Patschouski, Rev. E. Rolando, Rev. Father Feehan, Rev. P. O'Brien, Rev. P. J. Ryan, Rev. E. Vignonet, Rev. J. Higginbotham, Rev. P. de Smet, Rev. A. Damen, Rev. P. Larkin, Rev. J. Heiss, Rev. W. Wheeler, Rev. J. Villars, Rev. P. R. Donelly.

Very Rev. D. Masenou represented the Lazarist religious congregation; Very Rev. Father Murphy, the Jesuits; Rev. Vincent Smyth, the Trappists; Rev. B. Jarboe, the Dominicans; and Rev. S. A. Paris, the Sisters of St. Joseph.

On the 3d of May, 1857, the Cathedral was the scene of another imposing ceremony, the consecration of the Right Rev. James Duggan, Bishop of Antigone in partibus infidelium, to be Coadjutor Bishop of Chicago, with right of succession, and the Right Rev. Clement Smyth, Bishop of Appanasia in partibus, to be coadjutor of the Bishop of Dubuque; and again in May, 1859, the occasion being the consecration of Right Rev. Dr. Whelan as coadjutor to the Bishop of Nashville, and Right Rev. Dr. O'Gorman as Vicar Apostolic of Nebraska. The ceremony was performed by Archbishop Kenriek, assisted by Bishops Miege, of Kansas, and Junker, of Alton. Bishop Smyth, of Dubuque, preached the sermon. Bishop Duggan, of Chicago, also participated in the services.

Note from page 297: 297. Father Cornelius F. Smarius was born on the 3d of March, 1823, in Tilburg, province of North Brabant, Holland. When yet a child his parents died, and his education was undertaken by his relatives, who at the proper time placed him in the smaller seminary of St. Michael's, Gestel, where he pursued his classical studies with zeal and industry. He early gave token of his wonderful oratorical powers, which appear to have been hereditary, his father having been an eminent speaker. The young student was even more distinguished for his piety and missionary zeal than for his genius. He was at the head of every pious association, and often gathered his fellow-students around him and exhorted them to the practice of virtue. Having completed his classical studies, he came to this country in 1841 to devote his life to missionary labor. After the customary trials of the Jesuit novitiate, he filled the office of a college professor in Cincinnati, and at the St. Louis University. Between these duties and the completion of the longer course j of studies usually performed by the Jesuits he spent his time up to 1858, when he was made pastor of St. Xavier's (College) Church. In 1860 he was sent to the missionary house of the Society of Jesus at Chicago, and died on the 1st of March, 1870.

Note from page 298: 298. A meeting of the Catholic societies was held in St. Patrick's school-house adjoining the church June 18, 1870, to arrange for the celebration on the following Sunday of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the coronation of Pope Pius IX. D. Donovan was president of the meeting, M. H. Phelan was secretary, and the following societies were represented: Holy Trinity Parish Benevolent Society, Young Men's Sodality of the College, St. Joseph Sodality of St. Xavier Church, Shamrock Benevolent Society, Father Mathew Young Men's Total Abstinence and Benevolent Society, Roman Catholic Total Abstinence and Benevolent Society, Hibernian Benevolent Society, United Sons of Erin Benevolent Society, St. Bridget's Young Men's Sodality, and St. Aloysius' Society of the Annunciation Church.

Note from page 299: 299. We are indebted to Mr. Kline for much valuable material in the preparation of this sketch of the Baptist denomination in St. Louis. In his "History of Missouri Baptists," R. S. Duncan accords to Mr. Kline the credit for the erection of the present headquarters, and also speaks in warm terms of his successful administration of the affairs of the depository.

Note from page 300: 300. This sketch and the portrait which accompanies it are a tribute of love and esteem from the personal friends of Mr. Kline, who have known him for years, who have watched his ever-growing influence with pride, and who sympathized with him in his manly efforts to overcome well-nigh insurmountable obstacles.

Note from page 301: 301. Edward Wills, one of the oldest preachers in St. Louis, born of a slave mother in 1811, on the farm of Willis Wills, in Logan County, Ky. In 1836 he was removed to Virginia and hired out to work, and two years later was brought to St. Louis. In 1853 he was licensed to preach, and officiated at different times at seven different churches, — the Garrison, Concord, Cold Water, Musick's, Kirkwood, Gravois, and Belleville (Ill.). He was fully ordained in September, 1866, and organized successively the Platte Creek Church, at Fish Lake, Ill.; Elder Wills' Church, in the American Bottom; University Church, St. Louis; and others in St. Charles and Brigham, Mo. After a pastorate of fourteen years the church in St. Louis not only turned from him, but sued him for possession of the property which he held as trustee.

Note from page 302: 302. Where two names appear in the same year the second is that of the pastor of the African Church, which was regarded as part of the Fourth Street charge.

Note from page 303: 303. Mr. Drummond died soon after taking charge of his work. He was a man of brilliant talents and fervent zeal.

Note from page 304: 304. D. K. McAnally was born in Granger County, Tenn., Feb. 17, 1810, and is descended from an old Scotch family which came to this country before the Revolution, and settled in Tennessee when it was still a wilderness. He worked occasionally on his father's farm, but received a good education at a private school. He commenced the study of law, but abandoned it for that of the ministry, and on the 31st of August, 1829, he was authorized to preach. In December, 1829, he was received on trial by the Annual Conference, and appointed to a circuit. In November, 1831, he was ordained with full powers of the ministry, and preached in Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, South Carolina, and other States until 1843, when he was appointed president of the East Tennessee Female Institute, at Knoxville. In 1851, at the invitation of the St. Louis and Missouri Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, Dr. McAnally removed to St. Louis in order to conduct the St. Louis Christian Advocate, and to take charge of the book publishing interests of his church. Dr. McAnally remained in the editorial management of the Advocate until the outbreak of the war in 1861. In May of that year the Advocate was suppressed and its editor imprisoned, as being inimical to the Union, by the military authorities. In July, 1881, he was tried by a court-martial, the verdict of which was sent to Washington but never returned, and during the remainder of the war he was kept on parole and forbidden to leave St. Louis County. He was frequently rearrested, imprisoned, and released. After the war the Advocate was revived, with Dr. McAnally in the editorial chair, and he remained in charge of the paper until just previous to the formation of the Southwestern Book and Publishing Company in 1869, when he resigned and engaged in an educational enterprise in Carondelet. The academy he established there proved successful, and assisted by several other teachers he maintained it for nearly four years. Dr. McAnally's successor in the editorship of the Advocate was the Rev. T. M. Finney, but in 1872 the Southwestern Book and Publishing Company recalled Dr. McAnally to the editorship, and he has remained in charge ever since. Dr. McAnally celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of his entrance into the ministry at the Carondelet Church on the 31st of August, 1879. He has written a number of works, among them being a biography of "Martha Lawrence Ramsay," "Life and Times of Mr. William Patton," "Sunday-School Manual," etc.

Note from page 305: 305. In January, 1866, a call was again extended to Rev. Dr. McPheeters, but, greatly to the regret of the congregation, was declined by him, owing to his illness.

Note from page 306: 306. Thomas Horrell was born in Calvert County, Md., Sept. 19, 1789, was educated at Charlotte Hall, and entered the ministry at the age of twenty-five years. He served as a minister in Maryland and Virginia, removed to Jackson, Mo., in 1824, and thence to St. Louis in 1825. He removed to Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1831, and afterwards to Columbia, Tenn., returned to St. Louis in 1842, and died there in February, 1850.

Note from page 307: 307. William Chaderton was born in the island of Barbadoes in 1788, was graduated at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, and was ordained deacon in 1813, and soon after priest. He returned to the West Indies, and held appointments successively in the islands of Antigua and Tortosa, then came to the United States, and was for a time assistant to Bishop White, of Philadelphia. He became rector of Christ Church, St. Louis, in October, 1832, resigned June 8, 1835, went to Northampton, Mass., and towards the close of 1836 was appointed by the Bishop of Montreal to the chaplaincy of St. Peter's in Quebec, where he died July 15, 1847. He was a man of rare zeal and devotion, but also of an equally rare, almost morbid, sensitiveness of conscience. He was obliged to leave the Danish island of Santa Cruz because he refused to accept unworthy persons as sponsors, preferring to wander as a poor missionary in a strange land. He also left Christ Church in St. Louis because he feared his ministrations were not productive of sufficient results, although the vestry were satisfied with him, his parishioners loved him, and he had infused new life into the parish and increased the number of its communicants from thirty to seventy.

Note from page 308: 308. F. F. Peake graduated at the Protestant Episcopal General Theological Seminary, New York, in 1836, and the same year went as missionary to Boonville, Mo., whence he was called to the rectorship of Christ Church in 1840. From St. Louis he went to Pensacola, Fla., where he built up a flourishing parish and established the West Florida Collegiate Institute. He died of consumption in 1846.

Note from page 309: 309. Montgomery Schuyler was born in New York City, Jan. 9, 1814. He is descended of old Dutch stock, his remote ancestor, Philip Pieterse Van Schuyler, having come from Holland soon after the establishment of the Dutch colony on the Hudson, and settled at where is now the city of Albany. "The Flats," first occupied by him, is still in the possession of the family, one of the oldest homesteads in the country. The present Dr. Schuyler entered Geneva (now Hobart) College, but was graduated at Union College, Schenectady, in 1834, after which he studied law for two years, then turned his attention to theology, and entered the ministry in 1841. He was for three years rector of Trinity Church, Marshall, Mich.; for a year and a half rector of Grace Church, Lyons, N. Y.; for nearly ten years rector of St. John's Church, Buffalo, N. Y.; and has been for over twenty-eight years rector of Christ Church, St. Louis. He has been twice married, first in 1843 and again in 1854, and has a large family. A son, Rev. Louis S. Schuyler, died in 1879, at the age of twenty-seven, a self-devoted victim of yellow fever, in Memphis, whither he had voluntarily hastened in response to the cry for ministerial help, dying as he had lived, a hero in the cause of religion and a martyr to his own zeal. During the civil war Dr. Schuyler promptly espoused the cause of the Union, in the face of unpopularity and the desertion of friends, ministering to the sick and wounded in the military hospitals, when such ministrations were regarded as evidences of antagonism to the South and resented as such by Southern sympathizers; but when Confederate soldiers began to fill the hospitals and prisons and Dr. Schuyler was found to be as zealous in his ministrations to them as to those of the Union armies, the nobility of his character began to be appreciated and the clouds of unpopularity broke away. During his pastorate in St. Louis he has been several times called to other fields and twice back to his old parish in Buffalo, but has always declined to abandon his post. There is probably to-day in St. Louis no pastor more thoroughly venerated or beloved by his congregation.

Note from page 310: 310. A controversy having arisen as to the mode in which Henry Clay, the Whig statesman, was baptized, the Rev. Mr. Berkley, who had officiated at that ceremony and who also read the funeral service at the interment of Clay at Lexington, Ky., was appealed to by W. A. Beil, of Paducah, Ky., for information on the subject. Mr. Berkley replied that Mr. Clay was baptized in his parlor at Ashland on the 22d of June, 1847, in the form ordinarily observed in the Episcopal Church, — i. e., "by pouring a handful of water on his head in the name of the Holy Trinity." One of his daughters-in-law and four of his granddaughters were baptized in the same way. It had been asserted that Mr. Clay had been baptized by immersion, but this statement was specifically denied by Mr. Berkley.

Note from page 311: 311. The initials U. A. C. are an abbreviation of the term Unaltered Augsburg Confession, used to distinguish this particular branch of Lutherans.

Note from page 312: 312. For the accompanying sketch of the Masonic order in St. Louis the author is largely indebted to Frederic L. Billon.

Note from page 313: 313. Among the well-known early residents of St. Louis who received their degrees in this lodge were Charles F. Billon and Gabriel and Réné Paul.

Note from page 314: 314. Shortly after the acquisition of the country, "one William Massey sold to Gen. James Wilkinson, for the United States, April 20, 1806, for two hundred and fifty dollars, five acres of land at Bellefontaine, on the Missouri River, including the old Indian factory and buildings and the use for five years of the adjoining land, on which troops were then cantoned. On this tract the United States subsequently erected barracks for the troops, and it was for a number of years the westernmost military post of the United States. Of the United States military at Bellefontaine cantonment, several officers of rank died during these years, and doubtless some of them were Masons, as was pretty much the case with army officers during and after the Revolution. Among those who died there were Maj. Russell Bissell, commandant, who died in 1807; Col. Thomas Hunt, First Regiment, commanding the fort, an officer of the Revolution, who died July 17, 1808 (his wife died six months after him, in January, 1809); Lieut. Joseph Dorr, died Dec. 31, 1808 (his wife two months previously); and others whose names are not to be found on record at this day.

Note from page 315: 315. Joseph Cross was born about 1776, and entered the United States army in 1797, being attached to the First Regiment of Artillery. About the close of 1807, Lieuts. Joseph Cross and Hannibal M. Allen, of Vermont (a graduate of West Point in 1807), were married at Niagara, N. Y., to two sisters, the Misses Ann and Catharine Lowe, who, it is thought by Rev. R. P. Farris, of St. Louis, a grandson of Capt. Cross, were born in Westmoreland County, Pa. Capt. Cross' first child, Catharine Ann, was born in Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh), in 1808. He came to St. Louis with troops for Bellefontaine in 1810, went below in the fall to Natchez, where the United States troops were concentrating for the purpose of taking forcible possession of Baton Rouge, illegally withheld by the Spanish authorities, and went around by sea to the East. He came a second time to St. Louis in 1811, where his second child, the late H. N. Cross, was born in that year. During Capt. Cross' sojourn in St. Louis, being a Mason, he participated in the transactions of old St. Louis Lodge, No. 111. He left the service of the United States in 1813, with the rank of captain of artillery.

Note from page 316: 316. Joshua Norvell removed from Nashville to St. Louis in 1815 to conduct the Western Journal in opposition to Charless' Gazette.

Note from page 317: 317. "Maj.-Gen. Jacob Brown, accompanied by his aid, Lieut. Vinton, of the United States artillery, arrived at Jefferson Barracks on June 20, 1827, on a tour of inspection of the military posts of the United States. On the 22d he reviewed the troops there, — six companies of the First Regiment, six of the Third, and the whole of the Sixth Regiment, — twenty-two companies. On the 23d, with Gen. Atkinson, he visited the arsenal at Bellefontaine. On Sunday, the 24th, he attended divine service at the Presbyterian Church on the occasion of the anniversary of St. John the Baptist. On the 25th a dinner was given by the officers at the barracks. He left on the 27th, in the ‘Herald’ for Louisville." — Republican, June 28, 1827.

Note from page 318: 318. On the 22d of February, 1882, at the Laclede Hotel, St. Louis, occurred the death of Samuel H. Owens, Grand High Priest and Past Grand Master of Masons. He was born in May, 1835, near Springfield, Ill. During his infancy his parents removed to Missouri, and he was raised to manhood on a farm in Cole County, near Jefferson City. He was educated at the State University at Columbia, Mo. His profession was that of the law, and it is no usual compliment to him to say that he honored his profession. This he did by study, energy, ability to grasp intricate questions, and above all by his high sense of honor in the practice of his profession. He never sought to deceive the court, or do a wrong that he might win his case. As a Mason, he had risen gradually from the humblest position to that of Grand Master of Masons, to which he was chosen in 1872. His administration was eminently successful and practically beneficial to the craft. Subsequently he was chairman of the Committee on Grievance in the grand body. No decision of his was ever reversed, and his reports contributed much to the Masonic standing of Missouri in other grand jurisdictions. In 1881 he was unanimously elected M. E. Grand High Priest of the Grand Chapter.

Note from page 319: 319. No conclave in 1862 or 1879.

Note from page 320: 320. Anthony O'Sullivan was born in the county of Kerry, Ireland, on Nov. 29, 1808, emigrated to America, about the year 1838, and resided in New York City one year, when he removed to New Orleans, where he was married, Jan. 30, 1841. He removed to Missouri and settled in Arrow Rock, Saline Co., March 17, 1841. He was initiated in Arrow Rock Lodge, No. 55, on May 9, 1846, and raised June 30th the same year. He was exalted a Royal Arch Mason in Boonville Chapter, No. 5, Boonville, Cooper Co., Mo., in 1849, and received the degree of Royal and Select Master in the same chapter. He was created a Knight Templar in St. Louis Commandery, No. 1, on the 1st of August, 1852, and received the degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish rite in the Southern jurisdiction in 1859; at a meeting called in Chicago, Ill. He was then made a 33d, and Sovereign Grand Inspector-General of Missouri and bordering States. In the year 1852 he removed to St. Louis, where he resided until 1860, when he removed to Springfield, Mo., and remained there until 1863, in which year he returned to St. Louis and remained till the close of his life. He was elected Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Missouri in May, 1852; Grand Secretary of the Grand Royal Arch Chapter in April, 1854; Grand Recorder of the Grand Commandery in May, 1863; and Grand Puissant of the Grand Council in May, 1864. From the organization of the order of High Priesthood he was its secretary. All these offices he held until the day of his death. He was Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge under fourteen Grand Masters, always re-elected with scarcely any opposition, and sometimes by acclamation. He was also Grand Lecturer of the lodge and chapter during most of these years, and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Correspondence, in which field he particularly distinguished himself, and attracted the attention of the fraternity at large.

Note from page 321: 321. Samuel L. Miller settled in Madison County, Ill., in 1835, and lived there until his death, July 25, 1879. He became an Odd-Fellow in 1830, joining Harmony Lodge, No. 3, Baltimore, Md., and in 1836 became a charter member of Western Star Lodge, at Alton, Ill. At the time of his death he was doubtless the oldest Odd-Fellow in the West. He instituted the first Odd-Fellow's Lodge west of the Mississippi, and lived to see three hundred and thirty-one lodges in Missouri, and sixteen hundred lodges west of the "Father of Waters," with a membership of eighty thousand, comprising fully one-sixth of all the Odd-Fellows in the world.

Note from page 322: 322. On the 8th of August, 1843, a charter was granted to Covenant Lodge, No. 7, at Warsaw; and Nov. 15, 1844, Missouri Lodge, No. 11 (the fifth lodge in St. Louis), was chartered.

Note from page 323: 323. The Odd-Fellows' Hall at Elleardsville was dedicated Jan. 7, 1875.

Note from page 324: 324. Instituted in 1881.

Note from page 325: 325. At the time of Lafayette's visit to St. Louis there was an old Frenchman living there named Alexander Bellisime, who had been a soldier under Lafayette in the Revolutionary war. Bellisime made himself known to his old commander, who embraced him with much feeling, and the scene which ensued is described as very affecting.

Note from page 326: 326. "The morning," says the St. Louis Republican of February 17th, "opened mild, with a hazy and dense atmosphere, not unlike a morning in Indian summer, and the streets generally were dry and the walking pleasant. Nature seemed to have given just such a day as suited the occasion."

Note from page 327: 327. This vessel, commanded by Capt. Jacob Reed, arrived at St. Louis in July, 1817. The miniature representation was about twenty feet long, and its hull was that of a barge. The wheels were exposed, and she was propelled by a low-pressure engine, with a single chimney and a large walking-beam. The crew were supplied with poles, and when the current was too strong for the vessel's steam-motor they used the poles to assist in propelling her. The model was mounted on wheels and drawn by eight horses, and was manned by a crew of steamboat captains. Capt. Throckmorton paced the deck, telescope in hand, and directed the movements of the little vessel. From the log-book of the "voyage" it appears that the crew was made up as follows:

J. Throckmorton, master; George Ransom, mate; Thomas Nelson, pilot; Charles La Barge, steersman; J. C. Burkinbine, starboard deck hand; Charles Connoyer, larboard deck hand; John Lee and N. J. Eaton, firemen on the first watch; and Hugh Campbell and John Shaw, firemen on the second watch.

Note from page 328: 328. For the account of the Medical College riot the author is indebted to Dr. E. M. Nelson.

Note from page 329: 329. The accompanying sketch of Carondelet was mainly prepared by Frederic L. Billon.

Note from page 330: 330. The nickname "Vide-Poche" (empty pocket), as we have before stated, was derived from the general poverty of its inhabitants, whose sole supply of ready cash with which to pay for the two most important items in their current expenditures, "coffee and fiddle-strings," was obtained by the sale of firewood in St. Louis, with which they were abundantly supplied for long years for miles around.

Note from page 331: 331. Contributed by Frederic L. Billon.

Note from page 332: 332. For materials used in the preparation of this sketch the author is indebted to a "History of East St. Louis," by Robert A. Tyson, and to a lecture delivered by Dr. Isaac N. Piggott before the Historical Society of East St. Louis.

Note from page 333: 333. For a full description and history of this ferry the reader is referred to the sub-chapter on ferries in another portion of this work.

Note from page 334: 334. Dr. Isaac N. Piggott. The petition referred to above was addressed to Governor St. Clair, and was as follows:

"GREAT RUN, May 23, 1790.


"TO HIS EXCELLENCY ARTHUR ST. CLAIR, ESQ., Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Territory of the United States northwest of the River Ohio:


"We, your petitioners, beg leave to represent to your Excellency the state and circumstances of a number of distressed but faithful subjects of the United States of America, wherein we wish to continue, and that under your immediate government; but unless our principal grievance can be removed by your Excellency's encouragement, we shall despair of holding a residence in the State we love. The Indians, who have not failed one year in four past to kill our people and steal our horses, and at times have killed and drove off numbers of our horned cattle, render it impossible for us to live in the country any way but in forts and villages, which we find very sickly in the Mississippi bottom. Neither can we cultivate our land but with a guard of our own inhabitants equipped with arms; nor have we more tillable land for the support of seventeen families than what might easily be tilled by four of us; and as those lands whereon we live are the property of two individuals, it is uncertain how long we may enjoy the scanty privileges we have here; nor do we find by your Excellency's proclamation that those of us, which are the major part, who came to the country since the year 1783 are entitled to the land improved at the risk of our lives with the design to live on. These, with many other difficulties, which your Excellency may be better informed of by our reverend friend, James Smith, hath very much gloomed the aspect of a number of the free and loyal subjects of the United States. In consideration of which your petitioners humbly request that by your Excellency's command there may be a village, with in-lots and out-lots, sufficient for families to subsist on, laid out and established in or near the Prairie de Morivay. We know the other American settlers near the Mississippi to be in equally deplorable circumstances with ourselves, and consequently would be equally benefited by the privileges we ask. And that those of us who came to the country and improved land since 1783 may be confirmed in a right of pre-emption to their improvements is the humble request of your petitioners. And we, as in duty bound, shall ever pray.


"JAMES PIGGOTT,


"and forty -five others."

Note from page 335: 335. History of East St. Louis, p. 24.

Note from page 336: 336. This portion of this chapter, relating to the early agriculture of St. Louis County, was prepared for this work by Professor S. Waterhouse.

Note from page 337: 337. In the neighborhood of the Meramec, "Thomas Tyler had eighty arpens under fence, forty planted with tobacco and corn, then (about 1790) considered the largest farm in the country." — John Boli, July 30, 1860, Commissioners' Minutes, vol. i. p. 438.

Note from page 338: 338. Reynolds' My Own Times, pp. 14-38, 71. According to this authority goods woven by machinery were not introduced into the Illinois settlements till about 1818.

"Sixty years ago Gervais cultivated tobacco in the Little Prairie." — Aug. Chouteau, June 1, 1825, Hunt's Minutes, vol. ii. p. 4.

Note from page 339: 339. "Since ten years ago John Boli made sugar every year on the Meramec River." — Jacques Glamorgan, July 17, 1806, Commissioners' Minutes, vol. i. p. 410.

"In 1799 there was a sugar-camp established on Soulard's land, on the Missouri River, and sugar (maple) made." — Gregoire Sarpy, Sept. 7, 1806, Ib., vol. ii. p. 7.

Note from page 340: 340. Hunt's Minutes, vol. ii. p. 109.

Note from page 341: 341. Reynolds, speaking of the Illinois colonists, says, "The French scarcely ever troubled themselves with milking cows, but turned the calves out with the other cattle, and made little or no butter." — My Own Times, p. 91.

From the similarity of the French methods of farming in the different settlements, it is probable that the same indifference to milk and butter existed in St. Louis.

Note from page 342: 342. Reynolds' My Own Times, p. 38. It is a singular fact that while the first settlers of St. Louis were mostly hunters, boatmen, or traders, the inhabitants of Carondelet were all farmers. "About twenty-five years ago there were about thirty families of farming people in Carondelet who had no other pursuit." — Auguste Chouteau, July 9, 1808, Commissioners' Minutes, vol. iii. p. 217.

"Carondelet contained, twenty-five years ago, about forty families, all farmers." — J. B. Provenche, July 9, 1808, Ib., p. 218.

Note from page 343: 343. Reynolds: My Own Times, p. 38.

Note from page 344: 344. One of the farmers had an ingenious device. By a portable lodge he provided convenient quarters for himself and a place of security for his tools. "Nic Barsaloux cultivated a piece of land south of Mill Creek. Barsaloux had a small house built upon wheels, and used to have it hauled on said piece of land when he wanted to work on the same." — Réné Dodier, March 5, 1803, Commissioners' Minutes, vol. vi. p. 110.

Note from page 345: 345. Reynolds' My Own Times, p. 38.

Note from page 346: 346. Ibid., p. 39.

Note from page 347: 347. It was the duty of the villagers alternately to guard their growing crops. "The inhabitants in those days (forty years ago) who had a common field lot had a fence to beep the cattle of the town from injuring their grain growing in their field lots. It was the custom of the inhabitants of the town to take it in turns to go out and tend their cattle and beep them from doing injury to the same." — Baptiste Rivi&eagrave;re, Jr., July 30, 1825, Hunt's Minutes, vol. ii. p. 113; Monette's History of the Mississippi Valley, vol. i. p. 184.

Note from page 348: 348. "The common was first fenced in the year 1764, at the expense of the inhabitants, who always kept it in repair, and every person, inhabitant of the village, was in the habit of pasturing his cattle in the same and cutting wood." — Auguste Chouteau, May 10, 1806, Commissioners' Minutes, vol. i. p. 289.

Note from page 349: 349. "In 1790 there was a common fence that connected with the common field fence of Carondelet, and extended so as to go round and include Prairie des Noyes, Cul de Sac, and the Big Prairie, and the land inclosed within this was generally cultivated." — Auguste Chouteau, June 1, 1825, Hunt's Minutes, vol. ii. p. 4.

"When he first came to St. Louis the common extended to the River des Peres, but after that, when Carondelet was laid out, there was an agreement between the inhabitants of St. Louis and the inhabitants of Carondelet that the common field fence of St. Louis should join the common field of Carondelet." — John Baptiste Lorain, Sr., Nov. 23, 1825, Hunt's Minutes, vol. iii. pp. 82-85.

Note from page 350: 350. Monette's Hist, of the Mississippi Valley, vol. i. p. 184.

Note from page 351: 351. St. Louis Republican, May 10 and 22, 1878.

Note from page 352: 352. With acknowledgments to John F. Long and Thomas J. Sappington for valuable assistance.

Note from page 353: 353. Pioneer history furnished by J. F. Long.

Note from page 354: 354. Information furnished by Daniel O'Madigan, present superintendent.

Note from page 355: 355. General history of Bridgeton by D. V. Baber.

Note from page 356: 356. Data for early history furnished by John Shotwell.

Note from page 357: 357. This sketch of this town was prepared by W. S. Stewart in 1875, and embraces the main facts in its history to that time.

Note from page 358: 358. Written especially for this work by William Muir.

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Scharf, J. Thomas. History of Saint Louis City and County, From the Earliest Periods to the Present Day: Including Biographical Sketches of Representative Men. In Two Volumes, Illustrated. Volume II . Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts & Co., 1883. [format: book], [genre: biography; history; proceedings]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
Persistent link to this document: http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/file.php?file=scharf2.html
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