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Scharf, J. Thomas. History of Saint Louis City and County, From the Earliest Periods to the Present Day: Including Biographical Sketches of Representative Men. In Two Volumes, Illustrated. Volume II . Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts & Co., 1883. [format: book], [genre: biography; history; proceedings]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
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Chapter XL. Religious, Benevolent, Social, Secret, and Other Organizations.

ST. LOUIS has always been justly famed for its public and private philanthropy, and its history is distinguished by a multitude of class or religious organizations, having for their sole object the relief of the needy, the destitute, and the suffering; yet it was not until within the past twenty years that the city, officially, made any movement to supplement the good work that was being accomplished by religious denominations, associations, and private individuals. This, however, may be accounted for, in a great measure, by the fact that the system of philanthropy referred to has been of the most disinterested and the broadest character, and whenever the field was found to be in need of more extensive or general work, the citizens arose spontaneously and by energetic action and liberal charity met fully the requirements of the hour. So, all the way down from the second decade of the nineteenth century, we find at intervals evidences of this commendable spirit on the part of the citizens. The first instance of this kind occurs in 1824, the ladies of St. Louis banding themselves together for the purpose of "relieving the poor of every description in this city." This organization was called the "Female Charitable Society," and at its head as officers were —

Mrs. Hough, who was first directress; Mrs. Robinson, second directress; Mrs. Coursault, treasurer; Mrs. Agnes P. Spalding, secretary; Managers, Mrs. J. Smith, Mrs. R. Paul, Mrs. Wahrendorff, Mrs. Landreyville, Mrs. Brazeau, Mrs. Spencer, Mrs. O. C. Smith, Mrs. G. Paul, Mrs. Tracy, Mrs. Forsyth, Mrs. Shackford, Mrs. Papin.

Again, in the early part of 1838, when the sufferings of the poor demanded extraordinary recognition, the St. Louis Samaritan Society was formed. It embraced the ladies of the city, who associated themselves for the purpose of making up and supplying clothing free of cost to those who could not get it in any other way, and who were not cared for by any charitable institution. The officers of this society were: First Directress, Mrs. Jones; Second Directress, Miss Berrien; Secretary, Mrs. Ross; Treasurer, Mrs.

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Whitehill; Managers, Miss Page, Bliss Patterson, Miss Learned, Miss Strother, Miss Van Zandt, Miss Marks, Mrs. Nourse, Mrs. Nevitt, Mrs. Stibbs, Mrs. Ranlett, Mrs. Wiswell, and Miss Smith. On Feb. 6, 1840, a meeting, at which Beverly Allen presided, was held in the court-house for the purpose of devising means to relieve the suffering poor within the city, at which it was deemed expedient to take up a collection for the suffering poor of the city, and for this purpose a committee of three from each ward was appointed by the chair to obtain subscriptions, and a committee of five was appointed to properly distribute the moneys thus obtained. A few days later a "Society for the Diffusion of Alms" was formed, which announced that "We, the undersigned, do resolve ourselves into a society for the general diffusion of alms, and without heeding anything of the poor, save their honest poverty, do pledge our exertions to bestow our mite upon them with impartial observance." The officers of the society were —

M. P. Leduc, president; Christopher Garvey, first vice-president; Stewart Matthews, second rice-president; L. A. Benoist, treasurer; A. W. Manning, secretary. Collectors, First Ward, John Picher, Francis Mallet, John O'Rourke, and James P. Barry; Second Ward, Baptiste Belcour, Joseph W. Walsh, Michael Tesson, and L. V. Bogy; Third Ward, John Timon, Patrick Walsh, P. A. Berthold, and L. T. Lebeaume; Fourth Ward, Christopher Garvey, Matthew Lyon, M. Hogan, and John Walsh. Distributors, First Ward, H. O'Neil (chairman), R. A. Darst, John T. Mitchell, Peter Weizenecker; Second Ward, William Tighe (chairman), John McEvoy, J. C. Dinnis; Fourth Ward, Austin Piggot (chairman), Edward Walsh, Hugh O'Brien. Physicians, Dr. Vitali, Dr. Luthy, Dr. H. Lane. Counselors, B. Mullanphy, T. Polk.

In December, 1842, a public meeting for the relief of the poor was held at the court-house. Nathan Ranney presided, and Martin Thomas was secretary. The following committee was appointed to solicit donations: First Ward, William B. Wood, Henry C. Lynch, Phineas Bartlett; Second Ward, Matthias Steitz, H. L. Hoffman, Capt. W. Greene, Warrick Tunstall; Third Ward, Jesse Little, Robert B. Fife, Dr. Robert R. Simmons; Fourth Ward, Asa Wilgus, John C. Dinnis, Henry S. Coxe; Fifth Ward, Nathaniel Childs, T. O. Duncan, Martin Thomas, George K. Budd, John Whitehill, William C. Christy; Township, James H. Lucas, S. H. Robbins. The following committee was appointed on distribution, with James Clemens treasurer: First Ward, W. H. Wood; Second Ward, Thomas Cohen; Third Ward, D. D. Page; Fourth Ward, Wayman Crow; Fifth Ward, H. O'Brien; Township, Rev. N. Childs.

In the spring of 1844 the Mississippi overflowed its banks and rendered hundreds of families destitute and homeless. To relieve their suffering and destitution a meeting of citizens was held in front of the court-house, and on motion of A. B. Chambers, Bernard Pratte was called to the chair, and Henry B. Belt was appointed secretary. It was then resolved that a committee of twenty should be appointed to carry out the objects of the meeting, and the following gentlemen were appointed for the purpose, viz.: John M. Wimer, John Sefton, W. Glasgow, John Simonds, Ferdinand Kennett, T. B. Targee, Asa Wilgus, Réné Paul, A. Gamble, Charles C. Whittlesey, Dr. Simmons, A. B. Chambers, Frederick Kretschmar, W. Furness, Dr. Adreon, William Lowe, T. Polk, W. C. Jewett, W. R. Dawson, and Henry Singleton.

The committee, after consultation, recommended that application should be made to the City Council to appropriate some funds for the relief of the sufferers, and that a committee of five should be appointed to solicit subscriptions in each ward. The suggestions of the committee were acted upon, and the following gentlemen were nominated to collect gratuities:

For First Ward, Matthias Steitz, H. G. Soulard, John Dunn, William Horine, and John Withnell. For Second Ward, Hiram Shaw, S. M. Sill, J. G. Barry, George Morton, and John J. Anderson. For Third Ward, John B. Sarpy, J. B. Brua, A. L. Mills, T. B. Targee, and Gibson Corthron. For Fourth Ward, George A. Hyde, Col. George Mead, Robert P. Clark, J. B. Camden, and Jacob Hawkins. For Fifth Ward, N. Aldrich, A. Carr, John Leach, John Whitehill, and J. G. Shands. For Sixth Ward, Dennis Marks, W. Field, James Gordon, and T. O. Duncan. There was also a committee appointed to distribute among the sufferers the sums collected from private bounty.

On Dec. 3, 1845, another public meeting was held, at which George Collier presided, and Henry B. Belt was secretary. A committee, consisting of Hon. Bryan Mullanphy, Gen. Nathan Ranney, Unit Raisin, Capt. Connoly, Edward Bredell, H. D. Bacon, Edward Tracy, M. De Lange, Maj. A. Wetmore, Mr. Meyers, Alex. Kayser, Dr. R. P. Simmons, was appointed to inquire into the condition of the poor of the city. The committee reported to an adjourned meeting the following day that a supply of fuel was more needed than anything else, as that the article was selling at eight dollars per cord for wood, and twenty cents per bushel for coal. The following gentlemen were appointed for the several wards to inquire into the cases of suffering and want in the same:

First Ward, A. Wetmore; Second Ward, N. Ranney; Third Ward, Edward Tracy; Fourth Ward, Capt. Connolly; Fifth Ward, Alex. Kayser; Sixth Ward, B. Mullanphy.

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This led to provisions for ample relief at that time. A meeting of the citizens was held at the court-house Jan. 7, 1847, for the purpose of adopting some measures of relief for the suffering poor. John Simonds was called to the chair, and C. C. Cady appointed secretary. The meeting resulted in the appointment of a committee of seventy to take whatever measures were necessary for the relief of the destitute. The committee was composed of —

Sixth Ward, William Vandeventer, Col. A. P. Field, Peter Brooks, Gregory Byrne, Charles B. Anderson, D. W. Dixon, Dr. E. B. Smith, Calvin Case, Maj. Dobyns, John Sigerson, Larkin Denver, A. P. Ladew; Fifth Ward, Dr. Reuben Knox, Lyman Farwell, John Leaeh, John B. Carson, John Whitehill, Samuel Gaty, David Tatum, Capt. Sparhawk, Laurason Riggs, William Brannagan; Fourth Ward, George Collier, J. B. Brant, H. T. Darrah, C. B. Parsons, Samuel H. Peacke, Wm. T. Christy, Wayman Crow, William Nesbit, Asa Wilgus, Demetrius A. Magahan, N. B. Janney; Third Ward, Bernard Pratte, Dr. Anderson, Dr. Linton, Col. L. V. Bogy, H. L. Patterson, George K. McGunnegle, Edward Walsh, W. P. Fisher, P. B. Tiffany, Edward Bredell, Col. Keemle, Col. A. P. Field, B. Mullanphy; Second Ward, John Wolff, John Simonds, Patrick Ryder, Robert Campbell, Dr. Julius Henry, Charles S. Rannels, John H. Watson, D..D. Page, George R. Taylor, A. B. Chambers, Charles Jacoby; First Ward, Col. P. M. Dillon, H. Milkington, C. Urici, Charles Huth, Wm. Glasgow, Jr., Judge David Chambers, John Black, D. B. Hill, Matthias Steitz, John Dunn, D. D. Donovan; township, R. Barth, Ernest Angelrodt, Adolphus Meier, Col. J. P. Thompson, H. D. Bacon, Henry Chouteau, Neree Vallé, Isaac McHose, John Withnell, H. Paddleford.

This committee made collections, and a second committee was appointed on distribution, consisting of —

First Ward, David P. Hill, treasurer; Charles Huth, C. Ulrich, H. Pilkington, B. Soulard. Second Ward, G. H. Taylor, treasurer; Nathan Ranney, Charles S. Rannels, David Keith, Henry Keyser. Third Ward, Henry Von Phul, treasurer; Adain L. Mills, Charles R. Hall, J. C. Bredell, Henry T. Blow. Fourth Ward, William C. Christy, treasurer; Theron Barnum, Wayman Crow, H. R. Singleton, C. C. Whittlesey. Fifth Ward, Laurason Riggs, treasurer; Dr. R. Knox, John Whitehill, L. Farwell, Joshua Tucker. Sixth Ward, Dr. Donelson, treasurer; Col. William Chambers, A. P. Ladew, W. Vandeventer, G. Byrne. Township, Robert Barth, treasurer; Adolphus Meier, John Withnell, H. D. Bacon, Augustus H. Evans.

During the prevalence of the cholera in St. Louis in 1849, Mayor John M. Krum called a public mass-meeting to adopt measures for the relief of the sick and suffering poor, and later in the year another mass-meeting was held "for the relief of the children made destitute by the prevailing epidemic." At the latter meeting ample measures were adopted by a committee consisting of Hiram Shaw, John H. Gray, Waldemar Fisher, T. B. Hudson, W. W. Greene, W. D. Skillman, A. J. P. Garesché, John S. Blane, Edward Hale, Francis Toncray, John R. Hammond, Rudolph Bircher, A. Riddle, John R. Hammond, and Nathaniel Childs, who operated under the supervision of the Committee of Public Health, comprised of R. S. Blennerhassett, Trusteu Polk, G. Thomas, A. B. Chambers, Isaac A. Hedges J. M. Field, L. M. Kennett, Lewis Bach, William G. Clark, T. T. Gantt, H. L. Patterson, and Thomas Dennis.

The following extract from a local paper in 1852 shows the feeling existing among the citizens of St. Louis regarding charity and benevolence:

"The present year has been one of signal instances of noble-hearted contributions to objects of general utility and public benevolence. There was the subscription of twenty thousand dollars by H. D. Bacon to the Mercantile Library Association, then Col. O'Fallon built and donated to the Medical College the elegant edifice at the corner of Seventh and Spruce Streets, at a cost of more than twenty thousand dollars, for the purposes of a dispensary for the use of the poor. He has also made provision for the perpetual payment of one thousand dollars per annum for the support of the dispensary. Recently the lady of one of our citizens has been instrumental in securing ten thousand dollars for the purpose of erecting an asylum for poor widows, or a ‘widows home.’ In this ten thousand dollars there are six one-thousand-dollar subscriptions; and it may be mentioned, to the high honor of Col. O'Fallon, that in addition to a subscription of one thousand dollars to this object he subscribed fifteen acres of valuable land near the city to the same. It is a noticeable fact in St. Louis that our young men are among the most generous contributors to benevolent objects. Of the six who subscribed one thousand dollars each to the Widows' Home, three are among our young business men, Messrs. H. T. Blow, William Belcher, and H. D. Bacon. The same week that Mr. Belcher subscribed to this object he subscribed one thousand dollars to the church under charge of the Rev. Mr. Homes, and Mr. Bacon, as is well known to many, has, with unbounded liberality, entered into the same enterprise."

The general periodical movements on the part of the citizens culminated in the formation of the St. Louis Provident Association in 1862, with the object of looking after the interests of the poor of the city not otherwise provided for by churches or other benevolent bodies, of providing them with suitable employment when expedient, and of otherwise aiding them in such ways as might be deemed most judicious. As an organization it depended almost entirely for its support on public confidence in its directory and the principles upon which it was governed, which were, briefly, to relieve no case except upon personal investigation, and only through the visitor of the applicant's district, and then to give only necessary articles, to prevent interference with the sphere of churches and charitable associations, and to prevent applicants from receiving assistance from various charities at the a same time. In 1863 the association was incorporated by an act of the Legislature. During the epidemic which prevailed in the city in 1866 the calls upon the association greatly increased. The County Court, with

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commendable liberality, gave five thousand dollars to assist the poor, to be dispensed by the Provident Association. The officers of the association then were Joshua Cheever, president; William Downing, vice-president; S. A. Ranlett, treasurer; and J. W. McIntyre and Levin H. Baker, secretaries. The directors were William Downing, Levin H. Baker, Joshua Cheever, Henry C. Yeager, Thomas Morrison, James P. Fiske, J. W. McIntyre, John R. Lionberger, J. P. Doane, and D. K. Ferguson. The incorporators of the association in 1863 were M. M. Harrison, J. W. McIntyre, T. B. Edgar, R. I. Lockwood, John R. Lionberger, Joshua Cheever, Thomas Morrison, Edward D. Jones, William Downing, and Levin H. Baker. Its officers in 1882 were —

George Partridge, president; George H. Morgan, secretary; Directors, George Partridge, Henry S. Platt, John W. Donaldson, John W. Larimore, Charles Forthwein, R. M. Scruggs, Dwight Durkee, John R. Lionberger, George S. Drake, S. M. Dodd, Augustus Knight, Robert Dougherty, T. B. Chamberlain, John T. Davis, Charles W. Barstow, Joseph W. Branch, John C. Fischer, James M. Corbitt, G. Sessinghaus, George A. Baker.

The depot of the association is at No. 1416 Chambers Street. From its organization until Nov. 1, 1881, the association had expended for the poor of St. Louis $418,657.42.

In 1867 an association of Protestant ladies was organized in St. Louis for the gratuitous maintenance and liberal education of Southern female children whom the calamities of war have deprived of other means of education. The best schools of such different Protestant denominations as were desired by parents or guardians were selected, as near the respective homes of the pupils as eligible, and every care was taken to secure the welfare and happiness of those committed to the association. The officers of the association were: President, Mrs. Jane E. Lewis; Treasurer, Mrs. Archibald Robinson; Recording Secretary, Mrs. William N. Beall; Corresponding Secretary, Miss Pamela H. Cowan.

Bible and Tract Societies. — In the year 1814 two missionaries, Messrs. Mills and Smith, mentioned elsewhere, visited St. Louis and awakened an interest in the minds of several persons regarding the circulation of the Bible in the city and State, but at that time nothing was accomplished to this end. In 1817 the first Bible Society west of the Mississippi was established in Washington County, Mo. On Dec. 15, 1818, a meeting of the citizens of St. Louis was called at the court-house for the purpose of forming a Bible Society. It was largely attended, Col. Rufus Easton presiding, and John Simonds being secretary. A constitution was adopted declaring that, "impressed with the importance of a general circulation of the sacred Scriptures, we, the undersigned, agree to form ourselves into a society designated by the name of the Missouri Auxiliary Bible Society." On December 22d following an adjourned meeting of the society was held at the residence of Rev. Salmon Giddings, at which the following officers were chosen:

Nathaniel B. Tucker, president; Stephen Hempstead, Col. Alexander McNair, and Rev. James E. Welsh, vice-presidents; Col. Samuel Hammond, treasurer; Rev. S. Giddings, secretary; Col. Rufus Easton, Rufus Pettibone, Rev. John M. Peck, John Jacoby, Charles W. Hunter, John Simonds, Thomas Jones, directors.

In an annual report a few years later the executive of the society, referring to the original formation of the organization, said, —

"It is fully in the recollection of some present that at that period irreligious principles and contempt for the holy Scriptures were openly avowed. Societies for their circulation met with sneers and ridicule. Those who ventured forward in the Bible cause counted the cost. They enlisted with the determination to persevere."

In 1819 an auxiliary Bible Society was established at St. Charles, and accomplished good results in the country in the forks of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers, and "among the soldiers at Council Bluffs."

For several years the society, as stated at that time, did little more "than to be almoners of the bounty of the parent institution, and to circulate a box of Bibles, barely retaining its existence." In 1825 efforts were made to revive it, and the following well-known citizens were associated with it as officers:

Col. John O'Fallon, president; Rev. Andrew Monroe, Rev. Thomas Horrell, Hon. Thomas H. Benton, vice-presidents; Rev. James Keyte, secretary; Rev. J. M. Peck, assistant secretary; Rev. Salmon Giddings, treasurer; Charles S. Hempstead, Josiah Spalding, Joseph V. Garnier, Thomas Essex, Dr. H. L. Hoffman, Dr. John Young, managers.

The latter part of the following year found many of those who had been identified with the Bible Society interesting themselves in the formation of a tract society. This movement resulted in the organization, on Dec. 11, 1826, of the Missouri and Illinois Tract Society, auxiliary to the American Tract Society in New York, the object of which was "to promote evangelical religion and morality by the circulation of religious tracts, and to aid the parent society in extending its operation." The officers of this society for the first year were —

Rev. Thomas Horrell, president; William Collins, vice-president; Rev. S. Giddings, corresponding secretary; John Russell, recording secretary; Rev. James Keyte, treasurer and agent; Rev. J. M. Peck, Rev. John Drew, Stephen Hempstead, executive committee.

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In February, 1843, in accordance with a public notice read in the pulpits of the various Evangelical Churches, a meeting was held in the Fourth Street Methodist Church, having for its object the formation of an evangelical association. On motion of Rev. Dr. Bullard, Rev. Dr. Potts was called to the chair, and stated the object of the meeting and the character of the society to be formed. H. M. Field was chosen secretary. A committee, consisting of Messrs. Boyle, Bullard, and Wall, was appointed to report a constitution, which they did in a short time, and the title of "The Evangelical Society of St. Louis" was adopted, its objects as stated being to "promote the moral and spiritual interests of the inhabitants of the city by the distribution of Bibles, religious books and tracts, and personal visitation." The following officers were elected:

President, Capt. John Simonds; Vice-Presidents, Revs. A. Bullard, D. D., William S. Potts, D. D., I. T. Hinton, J. H. Linn, Joseph Boyle, H. M. Field, G. Smith, W. M. Rush, D. W. Pollock, L. S. Jacoby, G. W. Wall; Superintendent, Rev. Dr. Heath; Secretary, Moses M. Fallen, M. D.; Treasurers, S. A. Kellogg; Executive Committee, Rev. Nathaniel Childs, Jr., William M. McPherson, David Keith, J. A. Ross, R. R. Field, Seymour Kellogg, John Schoettler.

The society was in existence several years, and accomplished much good.

In 1847 the Missouri Bible Society was established, and among its promoters were Hon. Peter G. Gamden, Hon. Edward Bates, Trusten Polk, George K. Budd, J. B. Crockett, H. S. Geyer, Nathaniel Childs, David Keith.

The St. Louis Young Men's Christian Association. — On Thursday evening, Oct. 13, 1853, twenty-three young men from various churches of this city met in the lecture-room of the Second Baptist Church to deliberate upon the expediency of the formation of a St. Louis Young Men's Christian Association. At this meeting it was unanimously decided that an organization should be effected, and a committee of five, consisting of George W. Tracy, S. B. Johnson, Charles C. Salter, Henry W. Rice, and John T. Campbell, with the chairman, was appointed to draft a constitution and by-laws, to be presented at an adjourned meeting to be held one week thereafter in the lecture-room of the Second Presbyterian Church. This committee met from evening to evening in pursuance of its duty, and finally, on Oct. 1, 1853, permanently organized under the title of "The St. Louis Young Men's Christian Association," at the Westminster Church, by the election of E. W. Blatchford, president; A. Henry Forman, secretary; Isaac Wyman, treasurer. On Sunday evening, November 13th, the first public meeting was held in the Second Presbyterian Church. The evangelical churches throughout the city were closed, and the clergymen representing eight different denominations participated. The present association of the same name was permanently organized Dec. 16, 1875, after a preliminary meeting November 4th preceding in the pastor's study of the then Union Methodist Episcopal Church, now the property and home of the association. The original officers were H. C. Wright, president; F. L. Johnston and Dr. L. H. Laidley, vice-presidents; Charles C. Nicholls, recording secretary; S. J. Junkin, registering secretary; E. D. Shaw, corresponding secretary; E. Anson Moore, treasurer. The early meetings were held in a small room in a hotel corner of Twelfth and St. Charles Streets, kept by Mrs. L. H. Baker, until early in 1876, during the meetings conducted by Messrs. Whittle and Bliss at the Rink, and through their agency the association made such progress that on March 30, 1876, with a membership of one hundred and fifty, rooms were rented in the Singer Building, corner of Fifth and Locust Streets. Soon after this it became practicable to employ a general secretary, and Walter C. Douglass, then a young convert, was appointed to the position, which he continues to fill. In September, 1876, the growing membership and increasing work necessitated a second removal to 620 Locust Street, in which building were fitted up a pleasant reading-room, a large hall for prayer and business meetings, social gatherings, lectures, concerts, etc., and an office for the general secretary. The association was chartered Nov. 30, 1877, Messrs. E. Anson Moore, F. H. Bacon, and H. M. Blossom being the incorporators.

In January, 1878, a third removal was made into more commodious rooms at 704 Olive Street. As the result of efforts on the part of Rev. D. L. Moody, at the close of his labors in St. Louis during the winter of 1879-80, and through the aid of citizens, the association was enabled to purchase, May 4, 1880, from the trustees of the Union Methodist Episcopal Church, the property which it now occupies, at a cost of thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars.

The building was erected by the Union Presbyterian Church (an independent organization), and Messrs. Page & Bacon, then the leading bankers of the city, were the principal contributors to its erection, as well as to the support of Rev. Mr. Homes, its pastor; but when this banking firm failed, and Mr. Homes retired from the ministry, the congregation became disorganized and eventually dissolved. On March 14, 1862, they sold their church to the Methodists, who paid them for it thirty-seven thousand three hundred dollars. It had cost to build, including parsonage and furniture, ninety thousand dollars.

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The lot has a frontage on Eleventh Street of one hundred and two and a half feet by a depth of one hundred and twenty-one feet. The building fronts on Eleventh Street, and runs back on Locust Street the entire length of the lot. The square tower at the southeast corner of the building is one hundred and forty-five feet in height, and commands a fine view of the city. On the first floor of the building is a large and commodious reading-room. Directly in front of the main entrance and to the left of this are the offices of the general secretary, assistant secretary, and secretary of the German branch.

To the left of the side entrance to the building on Locust Street is a large, pleasant, airy hall, in which are held all the noon-meetings, the Sunday-school, etc. The upper floor, formerly the main auditorium of the church, is used for concerts, lectures, larger gospel meetings, and as a public hall for outside lectures. It is handsomely carpeted, and has a capacity for one thousand persons.

The former church parsonage, a building of ten rooms, adjoining the main building on the north, has been converted into a free dispensary for the relief of the indigent sick from all parts of the city. The German Young Men's Christian Association united with the general association on July 16, 1880, with a membership of one hundred and twenty-five. The association has two branches for railroad work, one in East St. Louis, where a handsome and commodious building has been erected on ground leased for a nominal sum from the Vandalia Railroad. The building was put up at a cost of two thousand dollars, which was defrayed by the several railroad and transportation companies centring here, and they also unite in providing for its maintenance. It contains a reading-room, wash-rooms, barber-shop, etc. The other branch is in the Union Depot building, where the association has established a reading-room, with checker-boards, dominoes, and chess.

E. Anson Moore was the second of the three presidents whom the association has thus far had. The present board of officers consists of F. L. Johnston, president; H. C. Wright and I. M. Mason, vice-presidents; H. H. Wright, recording secretary; H. E. Knox, registering secretary; W. H. Mason, corresponding secretary; E. P. V. Ritter, treasurer. Paid officers: Walter C. Douglass, general secretary; Geo. W. Jones, assistant secretary; Jacob Kessler, secretary German branch.

The St. Louis Women's Christian Association was organized November, 1868, and chartered Jan. 5, 1870, Jane E. Allen, Mary A. Edgar, Anna C. Moore, Clarice C. Partridge, Emily R. Stevens, and C. R. Springer being the incorporators. Its object was, at first, the care of young industrial women, but this care has since been extended to aged men and their wives. The Women's Christian Home was first located in rented rooms on the corner of Fifth and Poplar Streets. The corner-stone of the present building, No. 1812 Washington Avenue, was laid in May, 1876, and the building occupied in January, 1877. There is also a Branch Memorial Home at Grand and Magnolia Avenues. The presidents of the association have been Mrs. J. E. Allen, 1869 to 1875; Mrs. C. R. Springer, 1875 to 1882. The first board of directors consisted of Mrs. J. E. Allen, president; Mrs. A. H. Burlingham, corresponding secretary; Mrs. C. R. Springer, recording secretary; and six vice-presidents. The present board is composed of Mrs. C. R. Springer, president; Mrs. D. Arnold, corresponding secretary; Mrs. Q. J. Drake, recording secretary; and six vice-presidents.

Colonization Societies. — In March, 1825, a public meeting was held in the Methodist Episcopal Church to take into consideration the propriety of establishing in St. Louis an auxiliary to the American Colonization Society. Rev. Salmon Giddings was chairman, and Rev. James Keyte secretary. On motion of Hon. William Carr Lane, it was resolved that it was expedient to form the society, and Messrs. A. Monroe, S. Giddings, and J. Keyte were named as a committee to draft a constitution. The permanent organization was not, however, effected until 1828, when Hon. William C. Carr was chosen president; Col. John O'Fallon, Hon. James H. Peck, Dr. William Carr Lane, and Edward Bates, vice-presidents; Theodore Hunt, Edward Charless, Henry S. Geyer, Charles S. Hempstead, Thomas Cohen, Robert Wash, H. L. Hoffman, John Smith, Joseph C. Laveille, Salmon Giddings, John H. Gay, and John M. Peck, managers; Josiah Spalding, corresponding secretary; D. Hough, recording secretary; H. Von Phul, treasurer. The title of this organization was the St. Louis Colonization Society, auxiliary to the American Society. In 1831 the officers of the society were —

William C. Carr, president; William Carr Lane, first vice-president; Henry S. Geyer, second vice-president; A. McAlister, third vice-president; A. Gamble, fourth vice-president; Henry Von Puhl, treasurer; Beverly Allen, corresponding secretary; D. Hough, recording secretary; Managers, Henry S. Potts, Thomas Cohen, John Shackford, John Finney, J. V. Gamier, John H. Gay, H. R. Gamble, John K. Walker, A. L. Johnson, Edward Bates, N. Ranney, E. J. Phillips.

We find no further record of this organization. On the 26th of July, 1839, the friends of the American Colonization Society met, pursuant to adjournment, at the Methodist Church. The committee to which

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was assigned the duty of preparing a constitution for the Missouri State Colonization Society, and furnishing a list of candidates for the same by its chairman, Logan Hunton, presented a constitution and list of officers. The officers, who were unanimously elected by the meeting, were —

President, Beverly Allen; Vice-Presidents, Hon. William C. Carr, Eight Rev. Jackson Kemper, Rev. A. Bullard, Rev. William M. Daily, Rev. W. S. Potts, Hon. William Carr Lane, Gen. Ranney, of Cape Girardeau; Hon. D. Dunklin, Washington County; S. L. Hart, Jefferson City; Hon. David Todd, Boone County; Maj. W. Blakely, Marion County. Managers, H. R. Gamble, H. S. Geyer, P. G. Camden, John C. Dinnies, Rev. Joseph Tabor, George K. Budd, Wayman Crow, Josiah Spaiding; Treasurer, J. B. Camden; Secretary, Trusten Polk.

The Missouri State Colonization Society continued in existence for several years. Its annual meeting, held Nov. 14, 1844, in the Centenary Church, was addressed by Charles C. Whittlesey, Rev. R. S. Finley, Artemas Bullard. I. T. Hinton, Joseph Boyle, J. H. Linn, Mr. Heath, and Dr. P. Knox. Gen. N. Ranney presided, and the following officers were elected for the ensuing year:

President, Hon. Edward Bates; Vice-Presidents, Hon. J. C. Edwards, Gen. N. Ranney, Rev. A. Bullard, I. T. Hinton, William S. Potts, H. H. Johnson, Wesley Browning, — Goodrich, of Jefferson City; Right Rev. C. S. Hawks, Hon. James Young, and Abiel Leonard, of Howard County; Secretary, Rev. Robert S. Finley; Treasurer, Charles C. Whittlesey; Managers, Rev. James Boyle, H. H. Field, William G. Elfot, Wyllys King, John Camden, Archibald Gamble, William Burd, Trusten Polk, William M. McPherson, Thomas Shore, John Whitehill, Wm. M. Campbell.

On Jan. 11, 1848, we find that at the meeting of the Young Men's Colonization Society, held at the Unitarian Church, John F. Darby was called to the chair, and William Glasgow, Jr., appointed secretary. On motion of the Rev. Mr. Finley, a committee of three was appointed to nominate officers for the ensuing year; whereupon the following nominations were made and confirmed: President, Rev. William G. Eliot; Treasurer, H. S. Woods; Secretary, J. R. Barret; Board of Managers, Rev. Mr. Finley, Josiah Dent, Barton Bates, R. F. Barret, John Henderson, Mr. Jamison, William Warder, and C. Carroll.

The Erin Benevolent Society. — About the 1st of February, 1818, "a meeting of Irishmen to form a benevolent society" was held at the house of Jeremiah Conner, of which Thomas Brady was chairman, and Thomas Hanly, secretary. A committee on organization was appointed, consisting of Jeremiah Conner, John Mullanphy, James McGunnegle, Alexander Blackwell, and Arthur Maginnis. From this on to Oct. 10, 1819, no progress appears to be made. On that date another meeting was called at the office of Jeremiah Conner, who was called to the chair. James Nagle was chosen secretary. A committee of seven was appointed to draft a constitution for the "Erin Benevolent Society," for the "relief of those of our countrymen who may be in distress." The meeting then adjourned to the 15th, when the committee reported a constitution, which was adopted, and the following officers were elected:

President, Jeremiah Conner; Vice-President, Thomas Hanly; Treasurer, Hugh Rankin; Secretary, Lawrence Ryan; Standing Committee, Robert H. Catherwood, Thomas English, Hugh O'Neil, Joseph Charless, Sr., and James Timou; Visiting Committee, John Timon, Robert Rankin, and Francis Rochford.

The French Benevolent Society was established about 1840, and after languishing until April, 1851, was reorganized with M. Cortambert as president. It now meets at 408 Washington Avenue.

The St. Andrew's Society. — A meeting of the natives of Scotland resident in St. Louis was held in the school-room of Mr. Brown on the night of Sept. 31, 1839, for the purpose of forming a benevolent association. John S. Thompson presided, and T. T. Stewart was secretary, and on motion of T. S. Rutherford, an organization was effected under the title of "The St. Andrew's Society of St. Louis, the object of which will be not only to cherish and keep alive that kindly feeling which ought to subsist between natives of the same country, but also to render aid to those whose circumstances require it"

Mechanics' Benevolent Society. — An association of this name was organized April 10, 1817, with Joseph Charless, president; Abraham Keys, secretary.

The American Sunday-School Union, the main house of which is located at No. 1122 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, was first represented in St. Louis in 1867, when a branch house was established, with S. Paxson & Co. as agents. It was continued as the depository of the American Sunday-School Union until 1879, when a change was made in its management, and A. L. Paxson succeeded to the business as merely resident agent for the Union. Stephen Paxson, during his connection with the American Sunday-School Union for a period of thirty years, established thirteen hundred and fourteen Sunday-schools, containing eighty-one thousand teachers and scholars.

St. Louis Prison Discipline Society. — In 1848 a society of this name was organized, with the following officers: Hon. James B. Townsend, president; David N. Hall, vice-president; Charles H. Haven, corresponding secretary; Spencer Smith, recording secretary; Franklin Fisher, treasurer. It began its

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labors with a library of one hundred and fifty volumes in the county jail, and carried on a beneficial work among the prisoners.

The Catholic Orphan Association, of St. Louis, was founded Feb. 13, 1841, the founders being Angela Hughes, Frances McEnnis, Prudentia Dorsey, Winnifred Mullen, Milonel Doyle, and Bibiana O'Malley. The board of managers included John B. Sarpy, Edward Walsh, Bryan Mullanphy, Amadee Vallé, Joseph Murphy, John Haverty, Thomas Gray, Thomas Flaherty, and Patrick J. Ryder. Under this management it was incorporated in 1849 as the Roman Catholic Male and Female Orphan Asylum of St. Louis. On Sept. 17, 1849, the managers assembled for the purpose of organizing. John B. Sarpy was elected president; John Haverty, vice-president; Amadee Vallé, treasurer; and Thomas Flaherty, secretary. The first location of the asylum was on Walnut Street, near the Cathedral. The building was torn down in 1841, and a home for female orphans was established shortly after on a lot donated by Mrs. Ann Biddle, at Tenth and Biddle Streets. A male department was established at Fifteenth Street and Clark Avenue, in a house built by the managers. St. Bridget's Half-Orphans' Asylum for Girls was established on Lucas Avenue and Beaumont Street in 1858. Sister Seraphine is the present Superior of the latter house. Half-orphans from five to twelve years old are placed here by the surviving parent. In connection with the asylum there is a Catholic protectorate at Glencoe, under the management of the orphan board. Orphans over nine years old are sent there from the city institutions, and are taught farming and trades. The three asylums are under the management of the board, which meets on the second Thursday of each month. The present officers are Rev. P. J. Ryan, president; Rev. William Walsh, vice-president; Rev. Philip P. Brady, secretary; Joseph O'Neil, treasurer; Rev. James Henry, Rev. M. W. Tobin, Rev. John J. Hennessy, Rev. James McCaffrey, Rev. Andrew Eustace, Messrs. M. Dougherty, Alexander J. P. Garesché, Charles Slevin, J. B. C. Lucas, Patrick Fox, and John F. Gibbons, directors.

St. Vincent's Seminary, at Grand and Lucas Avenues, conducted by the Sisters of Charity, was established in 1843, at Tenth and St. Charles Streets, where it remained for many years. When the business portion of the city had spread beyond the seminary, and the number of pupils increased, the sisters sought another location, and the present site was chosen, and in November, 1875, the sisters moved into the extensive building which had been completed for them. Sister Olympia, who died in 1875, was the first Superior; she was succeeded by Sister Lucina. The office was next filled by the present incumbent, Sister Mary Elizabeth. The seminary is managed by twelve sisters, and is self-sustaining. The old building on St. Charles Street is owned by the sisters, and leased as a glass-factory.

The Convent of the Good Shepherd is located at Seventeenth and Pine Streets. The Sisterhood of Our Lady of Charity, better known as Sisters of the Good Shepherd, was organized in France some two hundred and fifty years ago by a band of ladies belonging to the nobility, and its members are drawn from the very flower of Catholic maidenhood, and must be in independent circumstances, for the work brings no pay. The work of the order in St. Louis was begun in January, 1849. Its first location was on Decatur and Marion Streets; the corner-stone of the present convent was laid in 1852, and it was dedicated in 1854, having since been enlarged by successive additions; the land on which it was built was donated by Mrs. L. Hunt. The objects of the institution are the reformation of fallen women and the preservation of young girls in danger. Its inmates are divided into four classes, which are kept entirely separate in occupation, recreation, worship, and living, as follows: (1) the Industrial Class, or orphans of respectable parentage; (2) the Class of Preservation, or young girls rescued from danger and the beginnings of evil; (3) the Penitents, or class of reformed women; (4) the Magdalens, or such of the reformed as choose to remain in the institution, some of whom have been there twenty and some even thirty years. The order in St. Louis was chartered under the name of Sisters of the Good Shepherd in 1869. Rev. Mother Provincial, Sister Mary of the Sacred Heart, has been in charge of the order since 1861; Sister Frances Patrick is her assistant. In the spring of 1882 they were divided as follows: inmates, First class, forty-two; second class, one hundred and twenty-one; third class, one hundred and seventy-five; fourth class, sixty-six. In all these classes industry, education, and religion are brought to bear.

The Convent of the Sisters of St. Mary was founded by Mother Odilia, who, with six sisters of the order of the Servants of the Divine Heart of Jesus, commonly called Sisters of St. Mary, arrived in St. Louis from Germany in November, 1872, and were chartered in 1873, under the corporate name of Servants of the Divine Heart of Jesus, Sisters Margaret Mary, Bernadine, Clara, Elizabeth, and others being the incorporators. The community is devoted to nursing and visiting the sick and poor in

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their own homes. The convent of the order is located at the corner of Third and Mulberry Streets; it was built in 1873 on a lot of ground donated by Archbishop Kenrick. They have also a hospital on Papin Street, between Fifteenth and Sixteenth Streets, known as St. Mary's Infirmary, which was established in 1877. The first president of the community was Mother Odilia, who died Oct. 17, 1880, and was succeeded by Mother Seraphia. The present board of officers consists of Mother Seraphia, president; Sister Margaret Mary, mother assistant and mistress of novices; Sister Cecilia, secretary and treasurer.

The House of the Guardian Angel. — In 1859, Archbishop Kenrick gave the Sisters of Charity a small two-story building on the corner of Marion and Menard Streets. In this little house, with four rooms, the sisters opened a female protectorate. In a few years their work extended, and a larger building was erected on the same lot. In 1882 another addition was made. There are about fifty children in the house. Sister Mary Rose is the Superior.

The Convent of Carmelite Nuns, at Second Carondelet Avenue and Victor Street, was built in the year 1877. This community was declared incorporated under the name and style of "The Carmel of St. Joseph" in the year 1873. The incorporators were Louise J. Roman, Jane B. Edwards, Mary J. Smith, Ella M. Boland, Elizabeth Dorsey, Mary Eliza Trémoulet, Anna M. Wise, and others. The corner-stone of the present building was laid in 1873. They had, previous to the year 1877, occupied the country residence of Archbishop Kenrick, west of Calvary Cemetery. They elect one of their own number as Prioress every three years. The present Mother Prioress is Mother Mary.

St. Vincent's German Orphan Asylum, on Twentieth Street, between O'Fallon Street and Cass Avenue, was organized June 13, 1851, and incorporated the same year. The incorporators were John Mountel, F. L. Stuver, Francis Sturwald, F. J. Heitkamp, J. H. Grefenkamp, Francis Saler, and S. F. Blattarr. The original officers were F. L. Stuver, president; Charles F. Blattarr, secretary; Francis Saler, treasurer. Present chief officers: Fred. Arndes, president of society; H. J. Spaunhorst, president of board of trustees. The corner-stone of the building was laid in September, 1850. The object of the asylum is to receive, maintain, and educate orphans of German parentage. The institution has one hundred and seventy-eight children, in charge of the Sisters of St. Joseph, who receive a small annual compensation from the society. The entire expense is borne by members of the St. Vincent's Society of German Catholics, and by semi-annual collections in the German Catholic Churches. The improvements and grounds cost over sixty thousand dollars. The boys receive two hundred dollars when they become of age, and the girls fifty dollars.

Western Female Guardian Society. — In May, 1866, a number of ladies resolved to establish a society, the object of which should be to protect the unprotected, house the homeless, save the erring, and help the tempted and destitute women in obtaining an honest livelihood. The society was to consist of those persons who would annually contribute one hundred dollars to its treasury, or give five years' faithful service to its board of managers. It was some time before a suitable location could be decided upon for such a home as was needed. In June the Weimar mansion, fronting on Brooklyn Street, near Twelfth, with a depth of one hundred and twenty-five feet and three stories high, was bought for the sum of fourteen thousand five hundred dollars, and nearly five thousand dollars more were spent upon it for repairs. Immediately after its opening the house was filled to its utmost capacity.

The Home of the Friendless, Carondelet road, south of Meramec Street, Mrs. Mary S. Burroughs, matron, had its origin in the circumstance of the death at the county poor-house of an elderly lady, who from a position of wealth and refinement had fallen into poverty. Thereupon Mrs. Joseph Charless undertook to establish a retreat for other ladies who might be similarly afflicted. She obtained from her husband five hundred dollars as a nucleus, and from Henry D. Bacon a subscription of one thousand dollars, conditioned on her securing a total subscription of ten thousand dollars. She did secure subscriptions to the amount of thirteen thousand dollars, whereupon the Home was organized and incorporated by charter bearing date Feb. 3, 1853, and designating as the corporation "all such persons of the female sex as heretofore have, or hereafter may, become contributors of pecuniary aid to said institution." As the managers are required to be corporators, the male sex is entirely excluded from active participation in the affairs of the Home. The first board of trustees consisted of Mary O. Darrah, first directress; Sarah B. Brant, second directress; Amanda M. Park, treasurer; Helen C. Annan, secretary; and Anna M. Perry, Mary S. Bennet, Julia A. Bacon, Mary H. Belcher, Sophia Gay, Charlotte T. Charless, Louisa Pratt, Angelica P. Lockwood, Minerva Blow, Rebecca M. Sire, Susan M. Simonds, Amelia J. Ranney, and Caroline O'Fallon, managers. The charter authorized the

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city of St. Louis to give to the Home thirty thousand dollars in land or bonds, and the county to give twenty thousand dollars in bonds. The county court did give the amount so authorized, and the present site of the Home was bought for eighteen thousand dollars, soon after the issue of the charter. The house had been built for a Swiss Protestant College, but the enterprise fell through. Two years ago an addition of twenty rooms was made to the original building; they were dedicated in December, 1880. They are largely the product of memorial offerings, and on the doors of many of them may be read the names of those who are thus memorialized.

The Home now contains sixty-four rooms for inmates and six rooms for offices; the grounds contain over seven acres, and are beautifully laid out. Every comfort, almost every luxury, of life is provided for the inmates, who now number fifty-five; the location of the Home and the views from its windows are truly delightful. The rules provide that no one under the age of fifty (except such as are disabled) shall become an inmate; that all shall pay an admission fee of one hundred dollars, and shall further covenant to reimburse the Home for their maintenance in the case of their subsequently acquiring property. Since its establishment the Home has furnished shelter to six hundred old ladies; its total income last year was ten thousand two hundred and seventy-seven dollars and forty-three cents, of which five hundred and six dollars was from annual subscriptions of the corporators, seven hundred and fifty-nine dollars and seventy-seven cents from cash donations, and the balance from vested funds, legacies, etc. The principal subscribers to the original fund for the establishment of the Home were as follows: Subscribers of $1000, Henry D. Bacon, Henry T. Blow, William H. Belcher, Pierre Chouteau, John Gay, Wyllys King, William M. McPherson; subscribers of $500, Joseph Charless, Oliver Bennett, Edw. J. Gay, John Simonds, Bernard Pratte, William M. Morrison, Alfred Vinton, Ann M. Perry; of $300, Andrew Christy, R. J. Lockwood, D. A. January; of $250, J. B. Brant; of $200, Taylor Blow, W. H. Barksdale, Wayman Crow, O. D. Filley, James E. Yeatman, Loker, Renick & Co.; $150, George R. Robinson; the rest being subscribed in amounts of $100 and less. Other benefactions have been as follows: County of St. Louis, in September, 1853, bonds which sold at par $20,000, used in purchase of the Home; and the following legacies: 1862, Mrs. Jane Wilgus, $2500; 1867, Asa Wilgus, $5000; 1869, Andrew Christy, $500; 1874-82, Maj. William H. Bell (one-eighth of estate), $16,500; 1875, Mrs. R. W. Oliphant, $500; 1876, Hudson E. Bridge, $5000; 1876, Clara B. Ridgway, $6000; 1881, Mrs. Henrietta Jaccard, $1124.07. John O'Fallon and wife in 1858 gave to the Home fifteen arpens of land just west of the Fair Grounds, estimated value $15,000 to $20,000. The successive first directresses of the Home have been Mrs. Henry T. Darrah, February, 1853, to November, 1854; Mrs. Joseph Charless, to April, 1865; Mrs. George Partridge, to November, 1866; and Mrs. Charles Holmes, from November, 1866, to the present time. The second directresses have been Mrs. Sarah B. Brant, Mrs. George Partridge, Mrs. Rebecca M. Sire, Mrs. Charles Holmes, Mrs. George Partridge, Mrs. William Downing, Mrs. Henry T. Blow, Miss Martha Smith, Mrs. A. F. Shapleigh. Secretaries, Mrs. Helen C. Annan, Mrs. Henry T. Darrah, Mrs. George Banker, Mrs. James Fiske, Mrs. L. N. Bonham, Miss Martha Smith, Mrs. J. G. Chapman (since 1873). Treasurers, Mrs. Andrew Park, 1853 to 1864; Mrs. Samuel Copp, 1864 to the present time. There now sixty-two inmates. The officers are —

Mrs. Charles Holmes, first directress; Mrs. A. F. Shapleigh, second directress: Mrs. J. Gilbert Chapman, secretary; Mrs. Samuel Copp, treasurer; and Mrs. Henry Kennedy, Mrs. William Stobie, Mrs. Thomas Howard, Mrs. Gerard B. Allen, Mrs. E. C. Copelin, Mrs. E. A. Hitchcock, Mrs. E. E. Webster, Mrs. John C. Vogel, Mrs. S. F. Humphreys, Mrs. G. Mattison, Mrs. J. C. Krafft, Mrs. D. C. Young, Mrs. John T. Davis, Mrs. William H. Benton, Miss Jennie Glover, Mrs. L. M. Collier, Mrs. S. C. Cummins, board of trustees.

The Girls' Industrial Home. — In 1854 a number of the ladies of St. Louis established a charitable institution called "The Industrial School and Temporary Home for Destitute Children," for the purpose of reclaiming and teaching habits of industry to and educating orphan children and the children of destitute parents. In 1855, Mrs. Mary B. Homes, Mrs. Mary Ann Ranlett, Mrs. Mary B. Murray, and Mrs. Caroline E. Kasson, as incorporators, obtained from the Legislature a charter under the name of "The Girls' Industrial Home," by which name it has since been known. The Home is now situated at the corner of Nineteenth and Morgan Streets, to which place it was removed in 1867. Its first president was Mrs. Mary Ann Ranlett, but for the past twenty-five years Mrs. John S. Thomson has filled that position. Its present officers are —

Mrs. John S. Thomson, president; Mrs. Robert Anderson, first vice-president; Mrs. Jonathan Jones, second vice-president; Mrs. E. W. Clarke, recording secretary; Mrs. Edward Morrison, corresponding secretary; Mrs. W. A. Jones, treasurer. Managers, Mrs. Clara Barnard, Mrs. S. Cupples, Mrs. A. S. W. Goodwin, Mrs. J. M. Corbett, Miss M. P. Simmons, Mrs. E. A. Morse, Mrs. J. Arnot, Mrs. R. E. Briar, Mrs.

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George A. Madill, Mrs. M. C. Libby, Mrs. F. B. Chamberlain, Mrs. J. O. Talbot, Mrs. E. N. Leeds, Mrs. J. H. Alexander, Mrs. E. O. Stanard, Mrs. W. H. Gregg, Mrs. M. M. Buck, Miss Mary Ganse, Mrs, Charles H. Smith, Mrs. John A. Smithers, Mrs. S. Pepper, Mrs. H. D. Waterman, Mrs. William Mitchell, Mrs. W. F. Brinck, Mrs. E. G. Obear, Mrs. J. S. Dunham, Miss Anna Pulliam, Mrs. F. S. Waters, Mrs. G. L. Joy. Sewing Committee, Miss Ella Fairman, Miss Belle Anderson, Miss Laura Anderson, Miss Ewald. Advisory Committee, A. F. Shapleigh, S. Cupples, E. G. Obear, E. Morrison. Counsel, Henry Hitchcock, S. P. Gait. Physicians, J. F. Stevens, J. M. Stevens.

The Working Women's Home and Home for Blind Girls. — The Working Women's Home was organized in 1875, under the direction of the Western Sanitary Commission, comprising George Partridge, C. S. Greeley, James E. Yeatrnan, and J. B. Johnson. The object of this institution was to supply a home for working women and a day nursery. In connection with the Working Women's Home a Home for Blind Girls was established in 1879. The latter was founded because it was found that many of the girls on leaving the Missouri Institution for the Blind were left without a place of refuge. A society was organized among the blind girls of the institution, known as the Blind Girls' Band. At a meeting held by them for raising a fund the collections amounted to one dollar and sixty-two cents. The band went to work, and by their exertions, with a few donations, succeeded in raising a fund of six thousand five hundred dollars. The Western Sanitary Commission offered the band the use of a portion of the Working Women's Home free of charge, and they established an Industrial Home for the benefit of poor blind girls. Mrs. M. A. Evans has long presided over the management of the Home. The Home is on Twelfth Street, between Cass Avenue and O'Fallon Street. The buildings are owned by the Sanitary Fund.

The Worthy Woman's Aid, 1712 North Tenth Street, is a home institution, conducted by Mrs. Hariot for women who are out of employment. Shelter is given them, and situations are sought for worthy applicants. Mrs. Hariot conducts the Home, which has twenty inmates, without the aid of any organized charity.

The Methodist Orphans' Home. — In 1865, William H. Markham determined to establish an orphans' home. His object was to take care of the helpless orphan children of Methodist parents, and if able to receive and provide for any destitute orphans, without regard to the religion of the parents, to educate them at the public schools so far as necessary for business, trades, etc. Mr. Markham proposed to bear the responsibility for all necessary expenses, but no one was prohibited from contributing to the enterprise. In 1866 a building known as the Chamburg House, on the southwest corner of Twelfth and Monroe Streets, was rented and furnished. It was soon found that this house was too small, and the Dobyn mansion being then for sale, it was purchased by Mr Markham for about thirteen thousand dollars. The Home is located on the southwest corner of Twelfth and Brooklyn Streets, and both the house and the grounds are admirably adapted to its purpose. In 1867 the control of the Home was transferred to the keeping of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, by which it was reorganized, and went into operation with the following officers:

William H. Markham, president; Levin H. Baker, first vice-president; Hiram Shaw, second vice-president; Austin R. Moore, permanent secretary; and Hon. Trusten Polk, William T. Gay, Robert Baker, James Bissell, and John C. Bull, Mrs. William Finney, Mrs. J. G. Shelton, Mrs. William T. Gay, Mrs. C. C. Anderson, Mrs. Levin H. Baker, Mrs. P. H. Lockwood, Mrs. John O'Fallon, Mrs. Trusten Polk, Mrs. Samuel Cupples, Mrs. Edwards, Mrs. Jesse Arnot, Mrs. Dr. Bryant, Mrs. M. R. Collins, Mrs. Bissell, Mrs. Capt. Logan, Mrs. Jesse Boogher, Mrs. A. McCamant, Mrs. J. B. Coleman, Mrs. Nathan Coleman, Mrs. W. C. Goodwin, Mrs. Dr. William Johnston, Mrs. O. G. Rule, Mrs. James Merriman, Mrs. Barbee, Mrs. Mary Avis, Mrs. Higgins, Mrs. Jos. Patterson, Mrs. Gates, Mrs. W. L. Larimore, Mrs. Vandever, Mrs. T. F. Drake, Mrs. Smizer, Mrs. James Miller, Mrs. J. C. Bull, Mrs. McCausland, Mrs. Dr. Penn, directors.

After the reorganization the Home was removed to 3533 Laclede Avenue, its present location.

Mullanphy Emigrant Relief Fund. — Bryan Mullanphy, a philanthropic citizen of St. Louis, who died June 5, 1851, left the following will:

"I, BRYAN MULLANPHY, do make and declare the following to be my last will and testament:

"One equal undivided third of all my property, real, personal, and mixed, I leave to the city of St. Louis, in the State of Missouri, in trust, to be and constitute a fund to furnish relief to all poor emigrants and travelers coming to St. Louis, on their way, bona fide, to settle in the West.

"I do appoint FELIX COSTE and PETER G. CAMDEN executors of this my last will and testament, and of any other will or executory devise that I may leave; all and any such document will be found to be olograph, all in my own handwriting.

"In testimony whereof, witness my hand and seal.


"Witnesses present:





The city of St. Louis accepted the trust, but the will was contested by relatives of the deceased. After litigation for several years, the will was declared valid, and the terms of the instrument have been carried into effect. The fund consists of real estate altogether

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and the income from it, and it is now estimated at nearly $600,000. It is managed by a board of thirteen commissioners appointed by the City Council, the mayor being ex officio a member of the board. An immense amount of good is being done for poor emigrants and travelers through the distribution of this fund. Commissioners are appointed every three years, but their terms of office do not expire at the same time, three being chosen each year. The present board is composed of August Frank, president; Alexander Cameron, vice-president; G. H. Boeckenkamp, Dr. Frederick Hill, Adam Linck, H. C. Meyer, C. H. Miller, L. W. Mitchell, William Nichols, E. J. O'Connor, D. T. Parker, Philip Stock, and R. M. Scruggs. William H. Block is secretary of the board, and the general office is located at No. 807 Locust Street.

The Home for Aged and Infirm Israelites of St. Louis. — About twenty years ago the Hon. Isidor Bush and others endeavored to establish in St. Louis a Jewish hospital. The city authorities donated a block of ground near the Marine Hospital for that purpose, conditioned, however, that the hospital be erected within two years thereafter. The Jewish community being unable to raise the requisite means to build the hospital, and other difficulties arising, the property reverted to the city. No action was thereafter taken to further the object until Oct. 13, 1878, when at the suggestion of the late Bernard Singer, its president, the United Hebrew Relief Association of St. Louis subscribed sixteen hundred and twenty dollars in annual meeting in aid of a home for old and infirm Israelites, and appointed a committee, consisting of Rev. Dr. Sonneschein, Jacob Furth, and A. Binswanger, to draft an appeal to all Israelites of the city to meet at Harmonic Club Hall Oct. 27, 1878, for the purpose of organizing a Jewish Hospital Association. The appeal was issued; a large number of persons convened, and the association adopted as its name the title of "Jewish Infirmary and Hospital Association of St. Louis." At this meeting eight hundred and seventy dollars, additional to the sixteen hundred and twenty dollars before contributed, were subscribed, with the understanding that no part of said subscriptions were to be collected until the sum of five thousand dollars was subscribed. The association organized by electing Jacob Furth as president, William Goldstein as treasurer, and A. Binswanger as secretary. After this there appeared to be a lack of interest in the subject, and the Relief Association, in view of this fact, concluded to establish a home for aged and infirm persons, with a hospital as an appendage, thereby reversing the plan previously adopted, and making the hospital an appendage to "the Home." To carry out this purpose they annually set aside from the proceeds of grand charity balls of the Relief Association certain sums of money until the sum thus set apart amounted to seven thousand two hundred dollars. For about twenty years there had existed an association known as "The Ladies' Widows and Orphans Society," which had been organized to aid in establishing an orphan asylum here. The asylum being located at Cleveland, Ohio, under the auspices of the order of B'nai B'rith, the Ladies' Widows and Orphans Society kept its fund intact, but donated the interest thereof annually to the Cleveland Orphan Asylum. In 1882 it had a fund of ten thousand dollars in its treasury. The president of the Relief Association conceived the idea of persuading the society to donate its fund to establishing a home for aged and infirm persons, and after much deliberation the fund of the Ladies' Widows and Orphans Society was equally divided between the Cleveland Orphan Asylum and this association.

The Ladies' Zion Society, through its president, Mrs. Joseph Wolfort, was next enlisted in this behalf, and it generously promised to contribute fifteen hundred dollars. Then the young ladies of the city, under the leadership of Misses Flora Isaacs, Clara Maas, Josie Bush, Sophie Glaser, and Sarah Schiele, organized an association called the Young Ladies' Hospital Aid Society, whose chief purpose was to raise means to furnish the hospital when erected. They raised the handsome sum of fourteen hundred dollars, which was placed in the hands of Jacob Furth and Joseph Wolfort as trustees. The idea of establishing a hospital having been abandoned, they agreed to contribute this fund, which had swelled to the sum of eighteen hundred dollars, towards establishing a "Home." The property No. 3652 Jefferson Street was purchased in April, 1882, by the United Hebrew Relief Association, and a society was permanently organized as "The Home for Aged and Infirm Israelites of St. Louis," with B. Hysinger, president; A. Binswanger, secretary. The home was formally dedicated May 28, 1882. The contributors to the purchase and equipment of the institution were the United Hebrew Relief Association, $7777; the Ladies' Widow and Orphan Society with $5000; the Young Ladies' Aid Society with $2000; the Ladies' Pioneer Society with $1000; the Ladies' Zion Society with $1500; the Ladies' Hebrew Relief Society with $300; L. M. Hellman, $1000; Mrs. Lewis Beauman, $1000; Nicholas Scharff and wife, $500; Marcus Bernheimer and wife, $500; Albert Fischer, $250; M. Fraley, $100; and Albert Fishel, of Pittsfield,

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Ill., $50. The house and lot cost $10,500, the improvements necessary to fit the building for a home cost $2000, the furniture and carpet cost $3500, and other incidentals cost $500; total, $16,500. The grounds are two hundred and eighteen by two hundred and seventy-nine feet, and are tastefully laid out and carefully kept. The house is a brick structure, three stories in height with a basement. Fifty persons can be cared for in the Home, and only infirm Israelites over sixty years of age and of good moral standing are admitted. The present officers are B. Hysinger, president; Mrs. Albert Fischer, vice-president; August Binswanger, secretary; Benjamin Eiseman, treasurer; and L. M. Hellman, N. Scharff, Mrs. A. Frank, Miss B. Langsdorf, Mrs. J. Wolfort, Mrs. M. Fraley, W. Goldstein, Mrs. L. Stern, M. Loewenstein, directors.

The German General Protestant Orphans' Association of St. Louis was organized Feb. 13, 1877, and located on Natural Bridge road, near White Avenue. The names of the incorporators are Philip Krieger, Sr., Charles G. Stifel, Heinrich Hertz, Fritz Zelle, Francis H. Krenning, Glaus Kiehts, William Lefmann, John H. Conrades, Adolph Fischer, Gerhard Boeckenkamp, Ernst Knickmeyer, August Schulenberg, Nicholas Berg, Friedrick Dietroeger, Otto Peters, Casper Prange, William Reipschlaeger, Hugo Starkeoff, and John Woestmann. The object of the association is to receive, as far as possible, all poor orphans and educate them without charge, also to receive half-orphans and orphans with means provided by the surviving parent or guardian. The first president was Philip Krieger, Sr., who resigned May 26, 1879. His successor, who is now holding the office, is John H. C. Conrades. The cornerstone of the building was laid Sept. 6, 1877. On Oct. 20, 1878, it was dedicated, and occupied by the first orphans a few days after its dedication. The present officers are John H. C. Conrades, president; Charles G. Stifel, vice-president; Ernst Knickmeyer, secretary; Frederick Zelle, financial secretary; Francis Krenning, treasurer; Adolph Fischer, William Reipschlaeger, William Lefmann, William Noelker, Fredrich Dickroeger, H. Bloebaum, Gerhard Boeckenkamp, Theador Lessinghaus, Glaus Kiehts, Glaus Grote, H. W. Moermann, Conrad Fath, August Gehner, and C. Hager, directors.

The German Emigrant Aid Society was organized Feb. 6, 1851, and was chartered under an act of the Legislature of Missouri, Feb. 27, 1851. The original incorporators were Robert Banning, Arthur Olshausen, William Stumpf, Ferdinand Overstoltz, and others. Its object is the relief of German immigrants after their arrival in this country, by furnishing them with money, supplies, etc. The present officers are Arthur Olshausen, president; C. J. Stifel, vice-president; H. T. Wilde, recording secretary Dr. H. Kenney, corresponding secretary; and C. H. Fritsch, treasurer.

The Farmers' and Mechanics' Mutual Aid Association of St. Louis was incorporated Sept. 22, 1878, with J. F. C. Fagg, F. M. Doan, A. V. Cobb, J. S. Brown, F. K. Doan, S. R. Peters, and G. Hurt, incorporators, as a beneficial association. Its present officers are Hon. Thomas J. C. Fagg, president; Nathan Shumate, vice-president; F. M. Doan, secretary; J. S. Brown, treasurer; Frank K. Doan general manager; S. R. Peters, counsel; Garland Hurt, medical director.

Covenant Hall Association. — This organization was incorporated in December, 1877, by A. Kramer, Isidor Bush, S. Wolfenstein, H. Newland, Jacob Furth, and David Loewer, for the purpose of providing and furnishing a suitable meeting-place for the different Jewish benevolent societies. It is located in the Druid Hall building, corner of Ninth and Market Streets. Its present officers are H. Newland, president; and Isidor Bush, secretary and treasurer.

The Mullanphy Emigrant Home. — This building, situated on Fourteenth Street, between Mullanphy and Howard Streets, was erected in 1867, at a cost of thirty thousand dollars, partly supplied from the Mullanphy Fund. The Home was maintained until 1877, when the trustees, finding that it was less expensive to carry out the provisions of the i devisee in other ways, leased it to the school board, by whom it is now used for school purposes.

The St. Paul's Benevolent Society was incorporated May 16, 1868, by Frederick Arendes, Nicholas Helmbacher, G. L. Gretz, A. Geisel, Louis Metts, and others. The membership numbers nearly six hundred. The object of this society is to render aid to its members in case of sickness or death. The officers are Frederick Arendes, president; Julius Peterson, treasurer; P. W. Bergs, secretary.

Ancient Order of Hibernians. — In 1847 some Irish-Americans of New York City organized the Ancient Order of Hibernians, to relieve the distresses of the thousands of their countrymen who in that period were fleeing to this country to escape the horrors of the memorable famine in Ireland. It is said they patterned it after some of the numerous patriotic secret societies which for centuries have flourished on Irish soil. The order gradually spread to other States, and finally assumed a beneficial character.

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In St. Louis the first division was established in 1870 by John Tigh, Andrew Ferry, Peter Leonard. Patrick Coughlin, and others. Divisions 2 and 3 were organized during the same year, and others followed until at the present time every district in the city is supplied.

The order provides sick benefits, and a death benefit of one thousand dollars. Members must be Irish, or of Irish descent, and must also be Catholics. The opposition to the order on the part of the church authorities in some sections has never been manifested in St. Louis; on the contrary, it has always had their sanction and support.

In 1870 a State Division was also established. There are now sixteen divisions in Missouri, with about nine hundred members. The present State officers are: State Delegate, P. J. Kelley, St. Louis; State Secretary, John J. Granfield, Kansas City; State Treasurer, Charles Landers, St. Louis.

The affairs of the order in St. Louis are managed by a board of five officers from each subordinate division. The present County Delegate is James Garrigan; County Treasurer, J. A. Flynn.

The divisions in St. Louis are as follows:

Division No. 1 135
Division No. 2 120
Division No. 3 150
Division No. 4 80
Division No. 5 75
Division No. 6 58
Division No. 7 114
Division No. 8 119
Division No. 9 89
Division No. 10 100
Total 1040

The Helvetia Huelfs-Gesellschaft is an association of Swiss residents of St. Louis, organized in 1873 to relieve the distress of needy immigrants or travelers of that nationality, as well as the wants of any of its members. It has about fifty members. It is supported by fees and dues, and by appropriations from the Swiss government and Swiss cantons. The yearly receipts are about one thousand dollars. During the last year two hundred and forty-six persons were relieved. The officers are: President, Rev. J. G. Eberhard; Vice-President. F. T. Ledergerber; Secretary, H. Graf; Treasurer, Jacob Buff. While an independent body, it is in affiliation and correspondence with similar associations in Philadelphia, Chicago, and New Orleans.

Marine Engineers' Association, No. 6. — The Marine Engineers' Association, No. 6, was organized Feb. 25, 1875, for the purpose of the mutual improvement of its members. It obtained a charter April 25th of the same year. It was located at first on the corner of Eleventh Street and Franklin Avenue, but afterwards removed to No. 411 North Third Street, where it is now situated. Its presiding officers have been J. W. Shea, Hunt Owen, and Thomas H. Nelson. Its present secretary is James H. Harris. The association numbers three hundred and fifty members. There are thirty-four similar associations in the United States.

Millwrights' Assembly. — This assembly was organized March 7, 1880, for the purpose of improving the condition of its members and obtaining legitimately for their labor as high wages as possible. It was chartered in April, 1880, with Porter Pleasant, C. F. Metz, F. O. Semn, and J. O'Connell, incorporators, and located at No. 902 South Fourth Street. Its presiding officers have been, successively, A. Landgraf, P. Pleasant, J. McClure, and J. C. Booth. Its present officers and directors are A. Landgraf, A. J. Burns, C. F. Metz, F. Woehne, C. Schmidt, H. Bernch, and T. Hill, with Thomas Howard, secretary.

United Sons of Erin Benevolent Society. — This is an open association of Irishmen who are Catholics for mutual assistance. It was organized in 1866, and among the early members and promoters were Rev. James Henry, Francis Noonan, Dr. W. H. Brennan, James Bligh, and others. It is the only association of the name in St. Louis, is confined to the city, and has about two hundred members. It pays six dollars a week for sick benefits, and in the event of a member's death the heirs receive one dollar from each surviving member. The officers for 1882 were —

Spiritual Director, Rev. Father Henry; President, M. Whalen; Secretary, John Costello; Treasurer, Richard O'Neill; Medical Examiner, Dr. W. N. Brennan.

Gruetli Verein. — By 1845-48 quite a colony of Swiss had settled in St. Louis, and in 1848-49 (some say a year or two earlier) the "Swiss Benevolent Society" was formed. It appears to have been subordinate to the National Gruetli Verein, which was organized in 1848. About the same time the Gruetli Gesangverein was organized, and after some years the two societies consolidated. Both had good libraries, and the benevolent society had three hundred and fifty dollars. The association was known as the Gruetli Verein, and its objects were beneficiary. Ultimately the gong section withdrew and became the Swiss Maennerchor.

The Gruetli Verein was one of the first of the foreign societies to parade in St. Louis, and its appearance in public on the 4th of July and November 17th, when the "Gruetli Oath" was celebrated, occasioned much comment. One of its conspicuous members

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was John Bachman, who was dressed as William Tell, and whose gray beard fell to his knees.

In 1861 the Gruetli Verein was chartered, the incorporators being J. C. Brandenberger, Francis J. Ackerman, J. J. Kiburz, John Rudy, Gregor Meury, Ole F. Schneider, J. C. Kaiser, Noel Kiburz, and Charles Ehrmann.

During the war it lost many members who fought on the side of the Union. Since then its career has been without special incident. It has about one hundred and fifty members, and pays six dollars a week for sick benefits, and three hundred dollars in case of death. Of late years it has worked independently of any outside authority.

The present officers are: President, J. C. Mueller; Vice-President, John Meyer; Secretary, G. Hegg; Financial Secretary, John Grob; Treasurer, Conrad Hippenmeier; Librarian, J. Schlach.

Sons of Temperance. — This order originated in New York in 1842, and in February, 1844, A. Spalding, of St. Louis, petitioned the National Division for a charter for a division in St. Louis, which was granted, and St. Louis Division, No. 1, was organized, probably during the same year. In 1846, Henry Stagg, the Recording Scribe of the division (a well-known lawyer), and W. F. Chase represented Missouri in the National Division. On the 5th of May, 1847, the Grand Division of Missouri was instituted by William S. Stewart, Deputy M. W. P. Five divisions existed in Missouri, and Rev. C. B. Parsons, D. D., was the first Grand Worthy Patriarch. Among the prominent members of that body were Bernard Bryan, Ira Vail, J. R. Lackland, Rev. W. Z. Prottsman, Jonathan Jones, James Spore, John B. Higdon, William A. Lynch, Isaac N. Hedges, and T. H. Cavanaugh. William S. Stewart was a prominent Odd-Fellow, and had been Grand Master of the I. O. O. F. Grand Lodge.

The records of the Grand Division of Missouri are lost, and details of the progress of the order in the city are very meagre. Bernard Bryan represented the State in the National Division in 1848, and reported two thousand two hundred and eight members; in 1849 three thousand three hundred and seventy members were reported. At one period before the war there were one hundred divisions in the State, with perhaps fifteen thousand members, but the war nearly destroyed the order, leaving but eight or ten divisions, with only about two hundred members. In St. Louis there were ten divisions before the war, with a membership of one thousand to fifteen hundred. There is now but one St. Louis division, No. 1, about fifty members. There are six divisions in Missouri, with some three hundred members. The present Grand Division officers are —

G. W. P., P. R. Ridgeley, Palmyra; G. W. A., Miss R. E. Anderson, Palmyra; G. S., J. J. Garver, St. Louis; G. T., Mrs. F. E. Lane, Palmyra; G. Chap., Rev. M. M. Hawkins, Palmyra; G. Con., N. W. Dunn, Philadelphia; G. Sent., J. W. Tattman, Philadelphia; E. H. Hulin, Palmyra, P. G. W. P.

Catholic Total Abstinence and Benevolent Society. — This society was the pioneer of all the Catholic temperance societies which have sprung up within the past thirty years. It was organized on the 15th of August, 1848, by the Rev. John Higginbotham, a retired chaplain of the British army. He was the pastor of St. John's Catholic Church, and built the new St. John's Church, and remained at the head of the society until he left St. Louis, which was about 1855. He went to Halifax, N. S., and started a similar and flourishing society there, and then re-entered the British service. After some years he was retired, and is now living in England with the rank of colonel.

The second president of the society was Rev. James Bannon, who in 1861 or 1862 entered the Confederate service as chaplain, and after the war returned to Dublin, where he is living, a Jesuit Father, and regarded as one of the ablest preachers in Ireland. The third president was the Rev. James O'Brien, who in 1863 or 1864 was succeeded by the Rev. Father Henry, who has been the president uninterruptedly ever since. Father O'Brien is reported to be teaching in a college in Illinois.

The first officers of the society were —

President, Rev. John Higginbotham; Vice-President, Michael McEnnis; Secretary, Thomas Lawless; Treasurer, Michael Hogan; Grand Marshal, Col. Joseph Kelley.

Of these officers, Father Higginbotham, as previously stated, is still living. Mr. McEnnis is also still alive, and in 1881 was president of the Merchants' Exchange. He was succeeded by Dennis Kehoe, who is dead. James Mulholland was the second secretary, and the third secretary was Patrick Sullivan, who has filled that office for many years. Michael Hogan was treasurer for a number of years, and then Michael Whelan. Both are dead. The next treasurer was Edmund Burke, and the next was Michael E. Smith, who was succeeded by Michael Clary, who has held the office for nearly a decade.

Until the civil war the society had seasons of great prosperity, and at one time nearly one thousand members were enrolled. The war caused a serious division, and many of the members enlisted, some on the side of the Confederacy, but the great majority in the Union army. After the war the society was

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subjected to loss by reason of the establishment of numerous beneficiary orders, which attracted the young men; consequently it is now composed principally of middle-aged and old members. Originally established purely as a temperance society, relying on moral inducements, it was found expedient some years ago to adopt certain beneficiary features, viz.: Funeral benefits of one dollar per capita on the death of a member; seventy-five dollars on the death of a member's wife, and five dollars per week sick benefits. The society is not secret, and it is confined to Catholics. The present membership numbers nearly three hundred, and the present officers are —

President, Rev. Father James Henry; First Vice-President, Robert Kelleher; Second Vice-President, Thomas J. Donahue; Secretary, Patrick Sullivan; Treasurer, Michael Cleary; Marshal, James Duffy; Messenger, Dennis Daly.

In relieving distress and in assisting those of infirm will to escape the bondage of drink, the society has done an amount of good that cannot be estimated.

Independent Order of Good Templars. — This popular temperance organization originated in Central New York in 1852, and was the first society of any kind to admit women to every position of official dignity and honor on equal terms with men. The first lodge in Missouri was established at Booneville, April 25, 1854, by B. F. Mills, a prominent member of the Sons of Temperance, who during a visit to the East in the interest of that order was initiated into a Good Templars' lodge, and returned full of enthusiasm for this new temperance institution. The first lodge in St. Louis was instituted early in 1855, and soon after, in the order named, St. Louis Lodge, Lily of the Valley Lodge, and Mound Lodge were established. Mr. Mills was the instituting officer of all these.

On the 14th of March, 1855, the Grand Lodge of Missouri was established in St. Louis. So rapidly had the order grown that there were seventy-seven lodges and several hundred Good Templars in the State, yet at the institution of the Grand Lodge only eleven lodges were represented, located in Alexandria, Columbia, California, Farmington, Paris, Platte City, Springfield, Warsaw, two at Warrenton, and one (Mound Lodge) at St. Louis, the delegate from the latter being Mrs. Jane P. Moon, still a resident of St. Louis, who has been uninterruptedly a member of the order. The first Grand Worthy Chief Templar of Missouri was Col. William F. Switzler, of Columbia, and of the fifteen members of that Grand Lodge he and Mrs. Moon are believed to be the only survivors. The first officers of the Grand Lodge were —

Grand Worthy Chief Templar, Col. William F. Switzler, Columbia; Vice-Templar, Mrs. Jane Walker; Counselor, R. E. Blakeley; Secretary, B. H. Mills; Treasurer, E. E. Pleasant; Chaplain, Rev. W. M. Rush; Marshal, H. B. Callahan.

Up to the breaking out of the war the order flourished in St. Louis, and among its promoters were John F. Grandy (now dead), who became Grand Secretary and Grand Worthy Chief Templar; John Libby (now dead), who became Grand Secretary, and who at one time edited a temperance paper; John Campbell, now of Moberly Mound, who also became Grand Worthy Chief Templar; C. S. Barrett, a lumber merchant of Carondelet; R. R. Scott, still living, and for several years one of the most energetic Grand Secretaries the Grand Lodge ever had; and Timothy Parsons, an active member of several other temperance societies.

When the war broke out the Good Templars had nearly five hundred lodges in Missouri, but that contest nearly broke the order up, and when the first Grand Lodge met after the war only about twenty-five lodges responded to the call. In St. Louis, however, the order did not greatly suffer, as the lodges were recruited from the numerous bodies of soldiers in the city, and one of the most flourishing lodges was the one in connection with the camp at the Fair Grounds. The Good Templars reached their greatest prosperity in St. Louis after the war, when, under R. R. Scott's Grand Secretaryship, there were eleven lodges in the city, with about twelve hundred members. There are now eight lodges in St. Louis, as follows:

Anchor, No. 1; Lily of the Valley, No. 5; Resolute, No. 216; Our Neighbors, No. 233; Hope, No. 963; Western Star, No. 58; North Star, No. 904; Lone Star, No. 44; Meramec, No. 46.

The present officers of the Grand Lodge are as follows:

G. W. C. T., W. F. Switzler, Columbia, Mo.; G. W. C., J. Y. Nesbit, Paris, Mo.; G. W. V. T., Mrs. Mary J. Alexander, St. Louis; G. W. Sec., W. D. Crandall, Brookfield, Mo.; G. W. Treas., Mrs. Ann W. Broughton, Paris, Mo.; G. W. Chap., T. J. Hutchinson, Springfield, Mo.; G. M., R. Brookes, Fredericktown, Mo.; Supt. of Juvenile Templars, Mrs. Jane P. Moon, St. Louis.

Several attempts have been made to organize lodges among the colored people of St. Louis, but without much success.

The order has not been beneficial, but in 1881 the Grand Lodge authorized the organization of a Mutual Benefit Association, and in May, 1882, the "Good Templars' Mutual Benefit Association of America" was reported organized, with headquarters at Columbia, Mo. It embraces insurance for one thousand, two thousand, three thousand, four thousand, and five thousand dollars.

The Shamrock Society. — In the summer of

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1854 a riot occurred in St. Louis, continuing three days, and among the victims were many Irishmen. While engaged in caring for their injured countrymen, some of the leading Irishmen of that period projected the establishment of a permanent society to relieve the wants of their distressed compatriots, and in September, 1854, the Shamrock Society was organized. The meeting was held at the house of Patrick Moran, Eighth and Biddle Streets, and among those participating were M. J. Dolan, William Hughes, William Delehunt, Patrick O'Neill, Edward Lester, Martin Keary, and several others. Edward Lester was the first president. The object of the society was declared to be beneficial, embracing sick benefits of five dollars per week, and an assessment of one dollar per member in case of death. The society flourished up to the war, and at one time had nearly three hundred members. During the war it suffered from political divisions, but since that period has had a prosperous but unostentatious career, and now numbers about two hundred and twenty-five members. It is not a secret society. While exclusively a St. Louis organization, it is in correspondence with the Irish Catholic Benevolent Union, and traveling members receive help if needed. Safeguards, however, are provided for the protection of the society against fraud. The present officers are —

President, Patrick Monahan; Vice-President, Richard Reddy; Recording Secretary, Thomas Cullinane; Financial Secretary, John Walsh; Treasurer, John Hall.

Chapter of Temperance and Wisdom. — On Sept. 5, 1859, some young men who had been members of a temperance order for young people in Buffalo, N. Y., organized Mount Vernon Chapter of Temperance and Wisdom of St. Louis. The charter members were D. R. Mason, H. D. Moore, C. F. Parsons, M. Dole, David Daniels, M. D. Degge, Charles C. Lacey, Franklin Lacey, A. J. Fox, Henry Fox, and D. R. Mason was the first presiding officer (or king). In 1860 the Grand Chapter of Missouri was organized, the Grand King being Timothy Parsons. This chapter assumed supreme functions, and issued charters for chapters in Pittsburgh, Pa., and Springfield, Mo., besides organizing several chapters in St. Louis, — Perseverance Chapter, in 1870; North Star Chapter, in 1872; and Silver Star Chapter, in 1873. All these chapters were very successful for a season, and had at one time five hundred members in the aggregate, but eventually all died except one, which has about one hundred members. The order was specially designed for the young, and the ritual was showy and attractive. The existing chapter has the following officers:

Grand King, H. D. Moore; Grand Queen, Emma R. Barnes; Grand Marshal, J. W. Barnes; Grand Recorder, J. J. Garver; Grand Treasurer, Alexander McAllister.

The Catholic Knights of America, organized at Nashville, Tenn., about the year 1874, for mutual aid and support, is a beneficiary order, paying two thousand dollars death benefits, and sick benefits at the option of the subordinate branch. In St. Louis the first branch of the order was organized Sept. 4, 1879, by J. W. Mertz, J. W. Rooney, P. O'Brien, James Mullen, A. R. Rivet, Robert Parkinson, F. W. Stephens, J. P. Kane, and Daniel Gray. Among other prominent promoters of the order in St. Louis are J. St. Cyr, J. W. O'Connell, J. Guignon, P. Monahan, Dr. F. Lutz, M. J. Brennan, A. Finney, John J. O'Neill, J. Moran, M. Haughey, F. A. Rogers, Henry McCabe, M. W. Hogan, and others. There are thirteen branches in St. Louis, with about nine hundred members. The membership in Missouri is about fourteen hundred. The State Council was organized April 12, 1882, with the following officers:

Spiritual Director, Rev. W. H. Brantner, St. Louis; President, John J. Thompson, St. Louis; Vice-President, H. B. Denker, St. Charles; Secretary, P. O'Brien, St. Louis; Treasurer, James Glass, Sedalia.

The Band of Hope. — The Chapter of Temperance and Wisdom may justly be regarded as the parent of an important and useful organization among the young known as "Bands of Hope." To these youth of both sexes are admitted, and the pledge enjoins abstinence from tobacco, profanity, and intoxicating liquors. The first band was organized April 14, 1861, and the chief promoter was H. D. Moore, who had been a prominent worker in all the temperance orders of the period. Five small boys were all that could be mustered for charter members. One of them was chosen president, but soon Mr. Moore was elected to that position, and has occupied it continuously until the present. The society grew rapidly, and at intervals has had five hundred members, and for the past ten years has averaged three hundred. It has assisted in the organization of numerous societies of a similar character, many of which flourished for a season and finally died, but several still live and are doing well.

The band was organized at the corner of Washington Avenue and Fourth Street, over what was then Tichnor's clothing-store; it met here a year, and subsequently for six years at Dr. Post's church, Tenth and Locust Streets; it then made several changes, and occupied the "old Ebenezer Church," Seventh Street and Washington Avenue, where it was

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burned out. After one or two more removals it located in "Avenue Hall," northeast corner of Washington Avenue and Ninth Streets, in a building erected by Mr. Moore himself, but the Lindell Hotel having been destroyed by fire, and Washington Avenue greatly impaired for business purposes, Mr. Moore's investment proved a poor one, and the society had to abandon the hall and returned to Dr. Post's church, which it has occupied for ten or twelve years.

The society is claimed to have accomplished an immense amount of good. It is asserted that fully one-half of the members of the adult temperance societies are graduates from the Band of Hope. More than sixty of the female teachers in the St. Louis public schools were members of the band, and the boys who have graduated from the same organization are now numbered among the best of St. Louis' young business men, and are prominent in temperance and church work in the city, and in this and neighboring States.

The list of those who, as superintendents, have assisted Mr. Moore embraces the names of John Libby, a well-known citizen, now dead; Mrs. S. S. Gannett, a lady noted for her philanthropy; the Rev. Mr. Cofland; Dr. T. H. Hammond; H. Eberly, a prominent real estate broker, and J. W. Barnes, a well-known builder, the last of whom has been superintendent for several years.

In addition to Mount Vernon Band, which is the pioneer, there are five bands in various parts of the city. The full list is as follows:

Name and Number. Where Located. Membership.
Mount Vernon, No. 1 Central St. Louis 300
Fairmount, No. 2 Salisbury St. , North St. Louis 600
Anchor, No. 3 St. Louis Avenue and 18th St. 400
Central, No. 4 Twenty fourth and Morgan 300
Washington, No. 5 North St. Louis 450
Western Star, No. 6 Elleardsville, West St. Louis 250
Total   2300

Anchor Band of Hope is composed largely of youth of German parentage. Its superintendent is Charles Goessling, a young German.

Father Mathew Young Men's Total Abstinence and Benevolent Society. — The object of this association is to inculcate and encourage temperance, and provide a fund for the families of deceased members, etc. Members are pledged to total abstinence. It is named after Father Mathew, the distinguished Irish temperance apostle, who visited St. Louis in the spring of 1850, and its members are of Irish lineage. This society was instituted in St. Louis in 1870, and among the charter members were Thomas Fox, Edward Devoy, James Hagerty, John D. Hagerty, James McGraw, James J. McGeary, Francis Lacey, Charles F. Irving, and Martin Duddy. It is confined to St. Louis, and there is but one council of the order in the city. A benefit of two dollars from each member is paid on the death of a member. In 1873 the council was most prosperous, having thirteen hundred members; the membership now is about three hundred and fifty. The present officers are —

President, Jeremiah Sheehan; First Vice-President, Matthew Bond; Second Vice-President, James Heunessy; Recording Secretary, S. M. Ryan; Financial Secretary, James Hagerty; Treasurer, Patrick Cassidy.

United Hebrew Relief Association. — This association of the Hebrews of St. Louis originated in 1871, when the great fire in Chicago scattered thousands of the Jews of that city. Hundreds of them sought shelter in St. Louis. They found the Hebrews of the city totally unprepared to meet the unexpected draft upon their energies. Nevertheless a number of young unmarried Hebrews hastily organized a temporary relief committee, with Augustus Binswanger as chairman, and among the other members the names of Lewis Hutzler, Nathaniel Myers, and Simon Popper have been recorded. A call for a meeting to organize permanently to relieve the distressed Hebrews from Chicago was seconded by Abraham Kramer, president of Congregation Shaare Emeth; Adolph Isaac, president of United Hebrew Congregation; and L. R. Straub, president of Congregation B'nai El. Pursuant thereto a meeting was held Oct. 17, 1871, at the synagogue, then at the corner of St. Charles and Sixth Streets, and the United Hebrew Relief Association was organized. The officers were as follows:

President, B. Singer; Vice-President, A. Jacobs; Treasurer, William Goldstein; Secretary, Augustus Binswanger; Corresponding Secretary, Nathaniel Myers; Directors, William Keiler, Isaac Baer, Moses Fraley, Lewis Hutzler, Simon Popper, Joseph Baum.

The association pushed forward with great energy the work of relieving the needs of the Chicago sufferers, and took its place as one of the established and permanent Jewish institutions of the city, its province being to care for indigent Hebrews, whether transient or resident. It has also established and maintained an employment bureau, which has proved of great benefit. For the ten years from 1871 (when it was organized) until 1881 the association disbursed thirty-eight thousand one hundred and ninety dollars and thirty-five cents for relief, besides laying aside seven thousand two hundred dollars for a Home for Aged and Infirm Israelites.

During the winter of 1881-82 the association undertook the work of caring for such Hebrew refugees,

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the victims of Russian persecution, as might be sent thither, and afforded relief and found situations for a large number of immigrants.

The present officers of the association are —

President, B. Hysinger; Vice-President, L. M. Bellman; Secretary, Augustus Binswanger; Treasurer, M. Levy; Directors, B. Eisemann, A. Fisher, George Lewis, B. Cohen, A. Rosenthal, Rev. Dr. Rosenthal, Rev. Dr. M. Spitz, Rev. H. J. Messing, R. Weil; Superintendent, L. Wolfner; Medical Staff, Dr. Bernard Block, Dr. M. J. Epstein, Dr. J. Friedman, Dr. H. Tuholske, Dr. Moritz Block, Dr. W. E. Fischel, Dr. P. Kolbenheyer, Dr. S. Pollitzer.

Knights of Father Mathew. — This order was instituted on Ascension Thursday, May 9, 1872, under the title of "Knights of Father Mathew, St. Louis, Mo.," with Thomas Fox as president; Thomas E. Phelan, vice-president; John Rohlf, corresponding secretary; John McGrath, financial secretary; and John B. Haggerty, treasurer. Total abstinence was the corner-stone of the organization. All members were required to appear in uniform on public occasions, and to be thoroughly drilled. The organization continued in its original form for some nine years, with an average membership of about one hundred. On the 18th of July, 1881, the order was incorporated under the title of "Knights of Father Mathew of Missouri," with the following charter members: Rev. P. F. O'Reilly, Thomas Fox, Patrick Long, Daniel O'C. Tracy, John B. Haggerty, James Hagerty, Michael Larisey, Patrick Mulcahy, Michael J. Ratchford, James Walsh, John H. Gamble, James Meegan, James Hardy, Festus J. Wade. An insurance feature of two thousand dollars was added to the provisions requiring members to be Catholics and to practice total abstinence. The "new departure" proved immensely popular. Within a year the membership was increased to nearly one thousand, and but one death had occurred.

There are twelve councils in St. Louis, as follows:

St. Louis, No. 1; St. John's, No. 2; Annunciation, No. 3; St. Patrick's, No. 4; St. Lawrence O'Toole's, No. 5; St. Malachy's, No. 6; St. Teresa's, No. 7; St. Bridget's, No. 8; St. Mary and St. Joseph's, No. 9; Emerald, No. 10; Immaculate Conception, No. 11; Cathedral, No. 12.

Connected with the order is a literary and debating society, which holds frequent debates and other exercises. D. O'C. Tracy is its president. There is a ritual appropriate and special to the order. While the society is in no sense a secret one, as commony understood, it claims and exercises the right of legitimate privacy in all its affairs. Father John O'Neil, S. J., of the St. Louis University, was the first spiritual director. His successors were Father E. A. Noonan and Rev. Father P. F. O'Reilly. The following are the officers and members of the Supreme Council:

Supreme Chief Sir Knight, Rev. P. F. O'Reilly; Deputy Supreme Chief Sir Knight, Patrick Mulcahy; Supreme Recorder, Charles C. Concannon; Supreme Banker, John B. Haggerty; Supreme Financial Recorder, Thomas Morris; Supreme Medical Examiner, Dr. B. L. Feehan; Supreme Sentinel, Thomas Fox. Members of Executive Board, Daniel O'Connell Tracy John Clark, James Hennessy, Richard T. Sheehy. Members of Supreme Council, Festus J. Wade, Thomas P. Culkin, James Hardy, James Meegan, M. J. Ratchford, Michael Larisey Dennis Dunn, Thomas Carroll, John H. Gamble, James Haggerty, James Walsh, J. B. Hagerty, John W. O'Connell, John Marriner, Patrick Long, John Hunt, Thomas F. Doyle John Coughlin, James K. Grace, P. J. Harris, Thomas Horan.

The Central St. Louis Unterstuetzungs Verein is a secret benevolent society of German ladies, organized Jan. 28, 1878, and with one hundred and twenty-five members. The officers are —

President, Katrine Zilek; Vice-President, Marie Vindel; Secretary, Mrs. Sophia Krage; Financial Secretary, Mrs. Katrine Roesner; Treasurer, Mrs. Sophia Brown.

The Spiritual Association was incorporated in November, 1882, by John B. Crocker, president; C. H. Crocker, vice-president; E. M. Moore, secretary; and S. T. De Wolf, treasurer; Miss May Bangs, C. Burrows, E. E. Weber, August Wobe, and William F. Burrows. The objects of the association are to ameliorate all conditions of suffering and distress by establishing retreats for the infirm, and hygienic institutions for the prevention as well as cure of all physical diseases and moral disturbances, "to afford material aid and protection in the exercise of those spiritual gifts and mediumistic qualities with which its members may be endowed, and to guarantee the rights of private judgment, liberty of conscience, and universal toleration in matters of opinion." The Spiritualists established themselves in St. Louis in 1860. Their meetings are held at the Mercantile Library Hall. Charles Tuckett is the president.

The Liberal League was incorporated in 1871. The meetings are held in a hall on the corner of Eleventh and Olive Streets. The membership numbers about three hundred. Charles Kershaw is president; Mrs. Jackson, secretary; and John Pembling, treasurer.

The Turnverein. — As stated elsewhere, the failure of the German revolution of 1848 and the vehement persecution of the men engaged in it drove to this country thousands of the most advanced thinkers and most energetic spirits of Germany. Most of them had been schooled in the celebrated gymnasium (or turnschulen) of "Father Jahn," and they at once proceeded to establish that system of training in their adopted country.

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On the 12th of May, 1850, Carl Speck, F. Roeser, L. Barthels, Carl B. Dieckride, Johann Bolland, Theodor Hildebrandt, Wilhelm Meyer, Willibald Moll, and Wilhelm Grahl met and organized a gymnastic society (or turnverein), and called it Bestrebung (or Endeavor), but soon afterwards they gave it the name of St. Louis Turnverein. For two or three years the young society had modest quarters at or near Collins and Cherry Streets, but being cramped for room the leasehold of a lot on Tenth Street near Market was secured, a stock company was organized, and on the 12th of November, 1855, the corner-stone of the present Central Turnhalle was laid. In November, 1858, the building, a spacious one for those days and considering the size of the society, was dedicated.

In 1852 the Verein was divided, and the Missouri and Germania Associations were successively organized; but they were short-lived, and many of the seceders returned to the mother organization, which went into the new building with one hundred and fifty members.

When the war broke out five hundred names were enrolled, but on the first call for troops many of the members enlisted, and as the conflict progressed hardly enough Turners were left to keep the society in existence. The first Turner platform obligated every member to oppose slavery in every form with all his power, and it was therefore natural that the Turner should heartily espouse the cause of the Union. Long before hostilities were declared, their hall was a gathering-place where the members prepared for the contest which many felt was imminent, and their stanch advocacy of Union principles in those early days, as well as their readiness to go forth and fight for them, first directed general attention to the Turners and their system, and caused them to be regarded with much greater interest than had hitherto been the case. Whole companies of volunteers, and almost whole regiments, were composed of Turners, and among the most gallant of them was the famous Seventeenth Missouri, or the "Western Turners' Regiment."

When the war was over the Turnbund was organized. The St. Louis Verein again prospered, its only losses being the depletions it has sustained from the formation of six additional organizations.

This union has four hundred and sixteen members and a school of two hundred and fifty pupils. Its hall is valued at twenty-five thousand seven hundred dollars, and is clear of debt; and it has a library of two thousand one hundred and thirty-two volumes, and a song section of twenty-two voices.

The verein pays sick benefits of five dollars per week and funeral benefits of one hundred dollars.

The present officers are: President, C. A. Stifel, who has been a member since the second year; Vice-President, Henry Braun; Recording Secretary, Louis Kaufman; Corresponding Secretary, Herman Umrath; First Cashier, George Klein; Second Cashier, William Muegge; Librarian, Hugo Gollmer.

South St. Louis Turnverein. — In 1865 the verein established a turn-school in South St. Louis. During that year, through the exertions of Messrs. A. Krieckhaus, C. A. Stifel, and Charles Speck, money was raised to build a turnhalle, and in the fall the edifice was ready. It was located at the corner of Ninth and Julia Streets. For four years it served as the training-place for the youth of the St. Louis Turnverein. On Sunday, Sept. 12, 1869, some members of the parent verein assembled at the hall and formed a new turnverein, the second organized in this city. The number of members was fifty-one, and the first officers were: President, F. P. Becker; Vice-President, Jacob von Gerichten; Treasurer, F. Dietz; Recording Secretary, F. C. P. Tiedeman; Corresponding Secretary, John Mohrstadt. Of the original fifty-one only the following remain with the union: T. Faust, Henry Rauth, George Loebs, Theodore Rassieur, Jacob von Gerichten, C. H. Vortriede, F. P. Becker, and F. C. P. Tiedemann.

The society rapidly grew, and proved a great convenience to Turners, whom distance prevented from frequently visiting the Central Turnhalle. Eventually the need of a larger hall was felt, and finally a lot was bought at Tenth and Carroll Streets, and on May 15, 1881, the corner-stone of a new building was laid, and on May 6, 1882, the new hall was dedicated with appropriate exercises, most of the German societies in the city participating. The building is a stately one, and is one hundred and seventeen by eighty-four feet, two stories in front and four in the rear, has a large hall thirty feet high, with dressing-rooms, a billiard-room, etc., and cost twenty-one thousand dollars. It was built by stock subscription, and there is a debt of eight thousand dollars on the property.

The verein has two hundred and seventy-seven members and a school of three hundred and fifty-seven pupils. It maintains a fund for sick and distressed members.

The present officers are Francis P. Becker, president; Francis P. Troll, vice-president; F. C. P. Tiedemann, secretary; William Merkens, treasurer.

Socialer Turnverein. — On the 8th of October, 1872, a dozen Turners organized the Socialer Turnverein, the first president being Charles Wedig. For

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some years the society met at Sixteenth and Montgomery Streets, but had a struggling life until it gained prominence by the occupancy of Sturgeon Market Hall. On the 8th of September, 1878, it laid the cornerstone of a new hall at Thirteenth and Monroe Streets, and on Jan. 8, 1879, the building was dedicated. This is regarded as in some respects the finest building of the kind in the city. Its dimensions are eighty by one hundred and twelve feet, and its gymnasium and dance hall are noteworthy for being free from pillars and resting entirely on the walls, supported by trusses. The hall was built by a stock association. It cost about eighteen thousand dollars, and is free of debt. The society has also personal property amounting to nearly three thousand dollars. The membership numbers 217; scholars, 239; library, 240 volumes. It also has an excellent song section of some thirty voices. The society levies one dollar per member in case of death for the benefit of the heirs of the deceased.

The present officers are: President, Henry Overschelp; Vice-President, Mr. Lammersick; Recording Secretary, Mr. Knoch; Corresponding Secretary, Odo Stifel; Cashier, F. W. Wiesehahn; Second Cashier, Charles Link.

Concordia Turnverein. — In December, 1875, some thirty-two persons, mostly members of the Central Turnverein, but who lived too far from the Central Hall to conveniently attend the society, signed a call for a meeting to organize a turnverein in extreme Southern St. Louis, and on Jan. 8, 1875, the society was organized, with E. F. Schreiner, president; Nicholas Berg, vice-president; J. R. Ballinger, recording secretary; C. F. Groffman, corresponding secretary; and C. C. Goelde, treasurer. On June 1, 1875, articles of incorporation were granted C. Schreiner, R. Glaessner, J. H. Kassing, C. H. L. Hoffman, and Richard Fischer. On the 13th of October, 1876, the society was incorporated by William Hahn, G. W. Hall, C. F. Vogel, W. J. Lemp, Hermann Stamm, and C. C. Goedde, and on Jan. 24, 1877, the corner-stone of a new hall was laid at Arsenal and Carondelet Streets. On the 18th of November, 1877, the building was dedicated. It cost nineteen thousand five hundred dollars, on which a debt of two thousand dollars remains. The society has also personal property valued at two thousand three hundred and fifty dollars. The membership numbers 410; pupils, 445; library, 300 volumes; song section, 15; singing-school, 125.

The present officers are —

President, Oscar Hoefer; Vice-President, Julius Hertz; Recording Secretary, R. Bennecke; Corresponding Secretary, Bernhardt Keuss; Cashier, Jacob Walter; Treasurer, Nicholas Berg; Book-keeper, C. P. Laitner; Turnwart, Fred. Hahn; Second Turnwart, Alexander Lifka; Librarian, H. Ruppelt.

The Carondelet Turnverein was organized April 4, 1875, and the corner-stone of the present hall at Fourth and Taylor Streets, Carondelet, was laid Sept. 4, 1875. The building was dedicated March H 1876. The hall cost about eighteen thousand dollars on which is a debt of twelve thousand three hundred dollars. The verein has about twelve hundred and fifty dollars in personal property. The membership is eighty-five, pupils thirty-four, library about fifty books. Connected with the society is a very efficient ladies' and dramatic club.

The present officers are —

President, Herr Hinsmann; Vice-President, Christian Koeln; Recording Secretary, Charles Bruno; Corresponding Secretary, Rudolph Giebermann; Cashier, F. W. Dauth; Second Cashier, B. G. Hofmann; Turnwart, John Wette; Second Turnwart, Thomas Ahrens; Zeugwart, Martin Stein; Chairman of the Literary Committee, Dr. H. M. Stackloff.

Vorwaerts Turnverein. — This society was organized Dec. 21, 1878, and once had forty members. It never accomplished much, and after a flickering career was disbanded in 1881.

West St. Louis Turnverein. — For some years there flourished a "Schiller Club," at Franklin and Leffingwell Avenues, and during the summer of 1879 one hundred and twenty-eight of the members agreed to merge the society into a turnverein. An organization was effected Sept. 22, 1879, and Dec. 19, 1880, the corner-stone of the present hall was laid at Beaumont and Morgan Streets. The property was occupied by the Second Baptist Church as a mission, and the verein proceeded to put up an additional building, making the hall seventy-five by thirty-six feet. The building was dedicated May 8, 1881. It was erected by a stock association, of which J. J. Suller was president; A. W. Straub, vice-president; John Denberger, secretary; J. F. Conrad, treasurer; and J. H. Trorlicht, John Nies, J. L. Bernecker, F. W. Henze, John Schoenke, Julius Hirschfeld, and Louis J. Holthaus directors. The building and its equipments cost about five thousand dollars, on which a debt of less than one thousand dollars remains. The membership numbers five hundred, the largest in the city; pupils, four hundred and thirty-six; library, three hundred volumes; song section, twenty-five voices.

The present officers are —

President, Emil A. Becker; Vice-President, Adolph Braun; Recording Secretary, Christ. F. Hertwig; Corresponding Secretary, George Scherer; Cashier, L. H. Hasselbarth; Treasurer, J. F. Conrad; Turnwart, Otto Keil; Second Turnwart, George Powell; Zeugwart, Theodore Klipstein.

The membership of the St. Louis Turners' Association is classified as follows:

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  Members. Active Members. U. S. Citizens.
St. Louis Turnverein 416 149 366
South St. Louis Turnverein 277 140 241
Socialer Turnverein 217 120 190
Concordia Turnverein 410 39 410
West St. Louis Turnverein 506 200 475
North St. Louis Turnverein 185 125 180
Carondelet Turnverein 85 25 75
Total 2096 798 1937

The St. Louis associations, with those at Highland, Trenton, Belleville, Nashville, Alton, and Quincy (all in Illinois), constitute the "St. Louis Turn Circuit," which is the largest district, numerically, in the country, although several others own more property. St. Louis Turnbezirk has thirteen societies, with: Members, 2623; active Turners, 1102; citizens of the United States, 2431; scholars, boys, 1549; scholars, girls, 700; value of property, $158,485; debts, $41,670; excess of property over debts, $116,815; volumes in the libraries, 7302. Eleven of the societies own their halls.

The present officers of St. Louis Bezirk are —

President, Francis P. Becker; Vice-President, Emil Mueller; Recording Secretary, C. H. Hertwig; Treasurer, Ernst Eischmann; Turnwart, Mazzini Kruer; Directors, Herman Ruppelt, B. von Gerichten, Rudolph Geibermann, C. J. Trebers, John Schoenle.

The St. Louis Microscopical Society was organized in 1869, the officers consisting of Homer Judd, M. D., president; D. V. Dean, M. D., vice-president; W. H. Eames, D. D. S., treasurer; T. H. Hammond, M. D., recording secretary; T. F. Rumbold, M. D., corresponding secretary; H. Z. Gill, M. D., librarian, It was incorporated Aug. 17, 1872, with Drs. H. Z. Gill, Homer Judd, Thomas F. Rumbold, R. J. Steele, and D. V. Dean as the first officers under the act of incorporation. The society is still in existence, and has quite a sum of money in the treasury, but has not held regular meetings for two or more years.

The Western Rowing Club was organized in 1867, and chartered in 1870, with John F. Johnson, Jacob L. Reinhardt, Paul M. Hunt, Leo Rassieur, Charles Hilliker, Thomas Hilliker, and E. H. Vordtriede as incorporators, to cultivate the art of rowing. Its boat-house is located on the river front, between Harper and Dorcas Streets. Leo Rassieur has been the president since its formation. This club is the oldest of the kind in St. Louis, and is the parent of the half-dozen clubs now in existence. As far back as 1819, however, there is a record that Capt. George H. Kennerly, Alexander St. Cyr, the Arnold brothers, and others formed a boat club which had its house on the banks of Chouteau's Pond, about three hundred yards north of Chouteau's mill. The members of the club wore a uniform of Scotch plaid.

St. Louis Institute of Architects. — In January, 1870, a number of St. Louis architects met and decided to form an association for the purpose of "uniting in fellowship the architects of the city and vicinity, and combining their efforts so as to promote the artistic, scientific, and practical efficiency of the profession." As a result of this meeting the St. Louis Institute of Architects was incorporated during the same month by George I. Barnett, John F. Mitchell, J. C. Edgar, Thomas Walsh, A. Grable, G. W. Osborne, George D. Rand, J. W. Herthel, E. Jungenfeld, S. M. Randolph, C. B. Clark, and others. A permanent organization was immediately effected by the election of the following officers:

Thomas Walsh, president; George I. Barnett, M. Randolph, John F. Mitchell, trustees; R. Desbonne, treasurer; George D. Rand, secretary.

Since its inception the institute has been successfully sustained, and has been very influential in its operations. The meetings were first held in the office of Randolph Brothers, northwest corner Walnut and Fifth Streets. Subsequently rooms at 320½ North Third Street were occupied until an arrangement was made with the Board of Public Schools, whereby the session-room of the Polytechnic Building was secured, and has been used ever since. The several presidents of the institute have been Thomas Walsh, George I. Barnett, John F. Mitchell, J. C. Edgar, C. B. Clarke, J. W. Herthel, J. H. McNamara, F. W. Raeder, John Beattie, A. Druiding. The present officers are —

President, A. Druiding; Trustees, A. Grable, T. J. Furlong, J. H. McNamara; Treasurer, C. B. Clarke; Secretary, J. F. Mitchell; Board of Managers, A. Druiding, A. Grable, T. J. Furlong, J. H. McNamara, J. F. Mitchell, C. B. Clarke.

The North St. Louis Turnverein. — This society was organized in 1868 as the North St. Louis Turnschule and Kindergarten, reorganized Oct. 25, 1870, and in February, 1874, incorporated as the North St. Louis Turnverein. The society had their hall at first at the corner of Bremen Avenue and Broadway; and afterwards in a hall at the corner of Bremen Avenue and Fifteenth Street. In 1879 the society decided to have a permanent hall. A lot on the southeast corner of Salisbury and Fourteenth Streets was purchased for four thousand dollars, and a building sixty-five feet front on Salisbury Street, with a depth of one hundred and twenty-five feet on Fourteenth Street, was erected. The building, which cost eighteen thousand four hundred and twenty-five dollars, was erected under the supervision of H. W. Kirchner, architect. The board of directors and building committee of the society were as follows: Francis H. Brinkman, chairman; Charles E. Kircher, treasurer; Charles J. Doerr, secretary;

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and Henry Schmidt, Louis Hammer, Anthony Noake, J. F. Voyt, Charles Kohlberg, William Shreiber, Herman Schwartze, E. O. Haus, Aug. Allershausen, and Matthias Herman. The society has one hundred and eighty-five members, one hundred and forty pupils, a song section thirty strong, a ladies' dramatic section of about sixty, a corps of drummer-boys, and a library of about three hundred and fifty volumes. Its presidents have been L. Edward Witte, L. W. Tenteberg, Albert Haeseler, W. H. Inderwark, Herman Umrath, Louis K. Hammer, Francis H. Brinkman, Anthony Nacke, and Hugo Muench.

The officers in 1882 were —

President, Hugo Muench; Vice-President, Henry C. Schmidt; Recording Secretary, William Yost; Corresponding Secretary, Charles C. Trebers; Cashier, C. E. Kircher; Second Cashier, L. Kohlberg; Librarian, Charles Stoelting; Turnvart, L. Herbster; Second Turnwart, Charles Steiner; Zeugwart, Charles H. Blumentrill.

The Missouri Gymnastic Society. — This society was organized in 1857 by a few clerks in a small room in the old city buildings, Commercial Alley. The membership increased so rapidly that it was necessary to procure a larger hall, which they did at Fourth Street and Washington Avenue, from there they removed to Seventh Street and Washington Avenue. A stock company was then formed, and through the efforts of Joshua Cheever, James C. Maginniss, and others they secured, in 1867, on leased ground their present building, No. 814 St. Charles Street, which they entered with a debt of four thousand dollars, all of which has been paid. In 1877, John L. Stockwell was elected superintendent, and under his management the society at once became a success. In 1878 it was reincorporated under the same name by J. M. Chambers, J. A. Dillon, W. J. Blakely, J. D. Phillips, W. J. Gilbert, A. J. Hyde, M. L. Holman, J. Schaeffer, and J. L. Stockwell as incorporators. Its officers and board of directors in 1882 were —

James M. Chambers, president; J. A. St. Johns, vice-president; John D. Phillips, treasurer; John L. Stockwell, secretary and manager; Directors, W. J. Gilbert, John A. Dillon, R. A. Barret, M. L. Holman, Eug. Sailor.

The St. Louis Natatorium, corner of Nineteenth and Pine Streets, was built in May, 1881. The incorporators were George B. Thompson, Joseph Franklin, John T. Davis, Charles A. Fowee, E. C. Simmons, and W. L. Huse. The building is sixty-six feet front and two hundred and seventeen feet in length; bathing-pool forty feet wide and one hundred and forty feet long, with a depth of two to eleven feet. During the summer season it is a fashionable resort for those who are fond of aquatic sport, and in winter it is fitted up for roller-skating.

The St. Louis Long-Range Rifle Association was incorporated Dec. 26, 1882. The incorporators were William P. Schaaf, C. A. B. Battee, J. M. Battee, J. W. Rannels, Julian J. Laughlin, F. W. Rockwell, H. C. Bagby, J. P. Foster, C. B. Smith, W. F. de Cordova, E. H. Gorse, P. B. Leach, S. S. Blackwell, H. E. Weber, J. B. Martin, H. C. Pierce, August Bengel, and Henry Hitchcock. The object for which the association is formed is practice at rifle-shooting at long range. Phineas B. Leach is president; William F. de Cordova, secretary; C. B. Smith, treasurer; J. J. Laughlin, captain; and W. P. Schaaf, coacher. The association has at present forty-five members.

The Society of Pedagogy has for its object the free discussion of all educational topics.


Masonic Order. 312 — Before the acquisition of Louisiana by the United States, in 1804, there was nothing in the shape of organized Masonry in St. Louis, the early inhabitants being nearly all of French origin, and almost universally of the Catholic faith, which does not tolerate secret associations. There might have been, and no doubt was, among those who came from other places occasionally a member of the order; but not until after the transfer to the United States did there seem to arise any occasion for introducing it in an organized state.

Among the most prominent of the early Americans who came from other localities and established themselves in the three villages of Kaskaskia, Ste. Genevieve, and St. Louis were a number of members of the order, and these, shortly after the change of government, took the incipient steps to introduce it by the establishment of lodges.

On the 9th of March, 1805, a petition was presented to the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania of Ancient York Masons for a dispensation to open a lodge at Kaskaskia, Indiana Territory, signed by the following Master Masons: Robert McMahan, of Stanton Lodge, No. 13, Virginia; William Arundel, of St. Andrew's Lodge, No. 2, Quebec, Canada; James Edgar, of Lodge No. 9, Philadelphia; Michael Jones, of Lodge No. 45, Pittsburgh, Pa.; James Galbraith, of Lodge No. 79, Chambersburg, Pa.; Rufus Easton, of Roman Lodge, No. 82, Rome, N. Y.; Robert Robinson, of Stanton Lodge. No. 13, Virginia.

In compliance with the petition, the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, the Most Worshipful

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Israel, attested by the seal of the Grand Secretary, George A. Baker, issued his dispensation for six months, dated at the city of Philadelphia, Sept. 24, 1805, authorizing James Edgar, a Past Master, and his associates to open a lodge as prayed for; and on Saturday, Dec. 14, 1805, the persons named above assembled, and proceeded to open their new lodge, to which they gave the name of Western Star Lodge, Messrs. Jones and Robinson being appointed a committee to prepare a code of by-laws for its government. This lodge worked under the dispensation until the 24th of March, 1806, the date of its expiration, when the dispensation was returned, with a copy of the lodge's proceedings under it, to the Grand Lodge, which, having approved of the same, issued a charter, as follows:

"To Western Star Lodge, No. 107, registry of Pennsylvania, dated June 2, 1806, to James Edgar, Worshipful Master, Michael Jones, Senior Warden, and James Galbraith, Junior Warden, and their associates, etc., signed by Right Worshipful James Milnor, Grand Master, and attested by George A. Baker, Grand Secretary, with the seal of the Grand Lodge;" and on Saturday, Sept. 13, 1806, they held their first meeting under their charter.

The last meeting of this lodge, as appears from the record-book, was held on Dec. 9, 1820, and its last return to the parent Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania was in the year 1822, after which date it was stricken from the registry of that Grand Lodge.

This was the first Masonic lodge established in the upper portion of the valley of the Mississippi, there being two lodges in the city of New Orleans, Nos. 90 and 93, already in existence, established also by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.

Ste. Genevieve, being nearly opposite to Kaskaskia, and some thirty years older than St. Louis, was for many years the largest place on the west bank of the river, and even at the date of the transfer to the United States had a larger population. It was not until the period of the war with Great Britain, 1812-15, that St. Louis began to outstrip Ste. Genevieve, her growth resulting in a great measure from the large number of troops stationed at Bellefontaine, then the westernmost military post of the United States. The Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, upon the application of a number of Masons residing in and about Ste. Genevieve, granted them a charter for a new lodge to be held at that place, dated July 17, 1807, under the title of Louisiana Lodge, No. 109, appointing Aaron Elliott, Worshipful Master; Andrew Henry, Senior Warden; and George Bullitt, Junior Warden. But little or nothing is known at the present day of the work of this lodge, nothing to show who were the petitioners, date of dispensation, etc. The last return to the parent Grand Lodge was made in 1815.

The transfer of the upper portion of Louisiana to the United States took place on the 10th of March, 1804, at St. Louis. The few villages in the Territory at that time comprised St. Louis, St. Charles, Ste. Genevieve, Mine à Breton (now Potosi), Cape Girardeau, New Madrid, etc., the largest containing but a few hundred inhabitants. Before this time there was not a Masonic lodge in the country. The few merchants in those villages at that day usually procured their small stocks of goods from New Orleans; but after that period, having become citizens of the United States by the transfer, they commenced making annual visits to the city of Philadelphia to purchase their goods, and as they were mostly of French descent, several of them were made Masons in that city in the French Lodge l'Amenité, No. 73 of the registry of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. 313

In a few years, as the population of some of these places and the country generally gradually increased, the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania chartered several lodges in this then remote region, viz.: Western Star Lodge, No. 107, at Kaskaskia, Ill.; Louisiana Lodge, No. 109, at Ste. Genevieve; and St. Louis Lodge, No. 111, at St. Louis. After an existence of a few years these lodges, owing, doubtless, to the sparseness of the population, followed shortly after their organization by the war with England, in 1812, gradually ceased work, in a few years became extinct, and were erased from the registry of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.

The charter of St. Louis Lodge, No. 111, dated Sept. 15, 1808, was granted to Merriwether Lewis as Worshipful Master, Thomas Fiveash Riddick, Senior Warden, and Rufus Easton, Junior Warden, as the first officers, and to their associate brethren. This lodge comprised in its membership a number of the most prominent of the early citizens of the place, many of whom then and subsequently filled important official positions in the Territorial and State governments. Among them were

Capt. Merriwether Lewis, first Governor of Louisiana Territory, Worshipful Master.

Col. Thomas F. Riddick, who held various civil offices, Senior Warden.

Col. Rufus Easton, first postmaster and attorney-general, Junior Warden.

Joseph V. Garnier, clerk of the Supreme Court, Secretary.

Gen. William Clark, Territorial Governor and superintendent of Indian affairs.

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Frederick Bates, secretary of the Territory, recorder, Secretary of State, and Governor.

Col. Alexander McNair, first Governor of the State of Missouri.

Joseph Charless, editor and proprietor of the Missouri Gazette.

Jeremiah Conner, sheriff of St. Louis.

Maj. Wm. Christy, first register of lands.

Judge Wm. C. Carr, judge of Circuit Court.

Dr. Bernard G. Farrar, judge of the Court of Common Pleas.

Capt. Risdon H. Price, merchant.

Alexander Stuart, circuit judge.

Silas Bent, presiding judge Common Pleas and county clerk, as also a number of the United States military officers then stationed at the military post at Bellefontaine cantonment. 314

The lodge occupied an old French house of upright timbers of twenty by forty feet, one of the first in the village, built in 1765 by Jacques Denis, a joiner, for a billiard-room, and occupied as such during the whole of the Spanish régime. It was situated on the east side of Second Street, next below the corner of Walnut Street. The lodge was in existence but a few years, and made no return whatever to the parent Grand Lodge. This fact, in connection with the suicide of the Worshipful Master, Hon. Merriwether Lewis, in 1809, leads to the conclusion that it had accomplished but little, if anything, in the way of Masonic labor. After the death of its principal officer, the lodge gradually fell into decay, and was eventually stricken from the roll of the Grand Lodge about the time of the war of 1812.

The following advertisements in the Louisiana (afterwards Missouri) Gazette show that the lodge celebrated the Masonic festival of St. John the Baptist on at least two occasions with a public dinner:

"The St. Louis Lodge, No. 111, will celebrate the festival of St. John the Baptist on Saturday, the 24th instant, at their lodge-room in St. Louis. Such brethren (not members of the lodge) as may wish to join in the celebration of this festival are requested to attend.

"The procession will form at the lodge-room at twelve o'clock precisely, and march from thence to the church, where a Masonic oration will be delivered by a brother.

"Dinner on the table at three o'clock.

"By order of the lodge,

"JOSEPH V. GARNIER, Secretary.

"Jun 20, 1809."

"Monday, the 24th instant, being the festival of St. John the Baptist, such brethren (not members of the lodge) as are desirous to celebrate the above festival are notified that St. Louis Lodge, No. 111, will assemble at their room in the morning of said day, and march from thence to Brother Christy's, where a dinner will be provided for them.




"Committee of Arrangements.

"June 11, 1811."

There was also a celebration by this lodge of the festival of St. John the Evangelist, Dec. 27, 1811, at which was sung a Masonic ode composed expressly for the occasion by Lieut. Joseph Cross, 315 of the United States artillery, which is to be found in the Louisiana Gazette of Jan. 18, 1812.

No further notice of this lodge is found in the Gazette, and as the war broke out shortly afterwards, and nearly every man in the village was enrolled in the military service, the members became scattered, and, as stated above, the lodge became extinct.

During the continuance of the war the general government kept a large body of troops at St. Louis. Many of the officers and men were Masons, and at the termination of the war, and after the reduction of the army to the peace establishment, a large number of them remained and established themselves in and about St. Louis, which had at the close of the war reached a population of about fifteen hundred souls. The return of peace, therefore, found a large number of the Masonic fraternity from various localities identified with St. Louis, far the larger part of whom were gentlemen

-- 1777 --

of position, intelligence, and education. There being then no lodge in existence, it was determined to establish one, and accordingly a petition was presented to the Grand Lodge of Tennessee for a dispensation.

At a meeting of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee, held Oct. 3, 1815, a dispensation was issued to Joshua Norvell, 316 John Pilcher, and Thomas Brady to open a lodge in St. Louis to be called Missouri Lodge. This dispensation was signed by Robert Searcy, G. M.; James Trimble, S. G. W.; David Irwin, J. G. W.; Wilkins Tannehill, G. Sec.; J. C. McLemore, G. Treas.

On the 8th of October, 1816, the by-laws and proceedings of the lodge under the dispensation were received and approved, and a charter was issued by the Grand Lodge, — M. W. Robert Searcy, G. M.; O. B. Hayes, D. G. M. pro tem.; James Trimble, S. G. W.; and Wilkins Tannehill, Grand Sec., — dated Nashville, Oct. 8, 1816, which constituted Joshua Pilcher, W. M.; Thomas Brady, S. W.; and Jeremiah Conner, J. W., and their associated brethren into a regular lodge of Master Masons, to be held at the town of St. Louis, Territory of Missouri, under the name of "Missouri Lodge, No. 12."

The first secretary of No. 12 was Judge William C. Carr, the first records being in his handwriting. He had been initiated into the order in the old lodge, No. 111, the most of the members of which still remaining in the place affiliated themselves with the new lodge. Among them were Governor William Clark, Col. Thomas F. Riddick, Governor Frederick Bates, Judge Alexander Stuart, Judge Robert Wash, Joseph V. Garnier, William Christy, Alexander McNair, and others.

Missouri Lodge, No. 12, worked under this charter from Tennessee for about five years, until the establishment of the Grand Lodge of Missouri in 1821, when by the right of seniority it received charter No. 1 under the new jurisdiction of Missouri.

During these five years, owing to the great increase of population of the place after the war, the lodge was in a very flourishing condition, adding largely to its membership by initiations into the order and admissions of members from other localities. Among these were the following:

Maj. Thompson Douglass, Maryland, paymaster U. S. A.; Capt. Risdon H. Price, Eastern Shore, Md., merchant; Judge Nathaniel B. Tucker, Virginia, judge Circuit Court; Col. Thomas H. Benton, Nashville, Tenn., lawyer; Capt. Peter Ferguson, Norfolk, Va., afterwards judge of probate; Dr. Edward S. Gantt, surgeon U. S. A.; John Rice Jones, judge Supreme Court, Ste. Genevieve; Capt. Henry S. Geyer, Hagerstown, Md., lawyer; Sergeant Hall, Cincinnati, lawyer and editor; Jonathan Guest, Philadelphia, merchant; William H. Hopkins, Philadelphia, merchant; William Renshaw, Sr., Baltimore, merchant; David B. Hoffman, New York, merchant; Abraham Beck, Albany, N. Y., lawyer; Moses Scott, Ireland, justice of the peace; George H. C. Melody, Albany, N. Y.; Joseph C. Laveille, architect, Harrisburg, Pa.; Daniel C. Boss, Pittsburgh, Pa., merchant; William G. Pettus, Virginia.

Among those who received their degrees in Missouri, No. 12, were the following:

Edward Bates, Virginia, lawyer; Stephen Rector, surveyor; James Kennerly, Virginia, merchant; James Howard Penrose, Philadelphia; John F. Ruland, Detroit; Amos J. Bruce, Virginia; John D. Daggett, Massachusetts; George Morton, Scotland; Thomas Andrews, Pittsburgh; Thornton Grimsley, Kentucky; John Walls; Walter B. Alexander, Virginia; Joseph C. White; William L. Long, Gravois; William K. Rule, Kentucky; Robert P. Farris, Natick, Mass.; Isaac A. Letcher, Virginia; William Clarkson, Virginia; James F. Spencer; Thornton Grimsley, Kentucky; William Stark, Kentucky; John K. Tholozan, France; Peter Haldeinan, Kentucky; John Jones, David Kneeland, Hart Fellows, Henry Rollins, William Leneve, Philip Rocheblave, William Hughes, Joseph Walters, George Blanchard, John Hay, John Wallace, Phineas James, John J. Douberman, Zenas Smith, Thomas Berry, Moses B. Wall, Joseph M. Yard.

In 1816, Gen. William Clark built on the east side of Main Street (now in block No. 10, between Pine and Olive Streets) a two-story brick house, the sixth brick structure in St. Louis, of twenty-one feet front by about thirty-two deep. The lower floor was occupied by a store and counting-room, with a staircase in the southeast corner, and the second story was divided into two rooms. On this floor Missouri Lodge, No. 12, had its lodge-room for about two years, until its removal into "Douglass" new house," on Elm Street, late in 1817. This building had been erected during that year by Maj. Thompson Douglass, and was located on the north side of the present Elm Street, between Main and Second Streets, a two-story brick dwelling-house of about thirty-eight feet square, divided into four rooms on each floor. While the building was in progress of erection, the room then occupied by the lodge in Clark's house being poorly adapted for Masonic purposes and inconveniently located, Douglass, then Worshipful Master, and a zealous Mason, was induced to add an attic or third story for a lodge-room for No. 12. This room was used for Masonic purposes for about sixteen years, until the close of 1833, when Missouri Lodge, No. 1 (the successor of No. 12), under the pressure of circumstances, ceased its labors for a time, and the Grand Lodge was removed to Columbia, Boone Co.

In this room Missouri Royal Arch Chapter, No. 1,

-- 1778 --

was organized and commenced operations, as was also the Grand Lodge of Missouri, and it was here that on Friday, April 29, 1825, the Grand Lodge was honored by a visit from the distinguished Revolutionary soldier and French patriot, Gen. Lafayette.

Missouri Lodge, No. 12, unlike its predecessor, St. Louis Lodge, No. 111, did not as a rule make public displays on the occasion of the Masonic festivals of St. John. The only observance of which any record remains occurred Dec. 27, 1819, on which occasion there was a procession from the lodge-room to "the long room at Bennett's Hotel," where an oration was delivered. Among the Masonic interments in which No. 12 participated was that of Capt. Thomas Ramsay, Aug. 17, 1818, of the First Regiment United States Rifles, killed in a duel by Capt. Martin of the same regiment.

After the establishment of the Grand Lodge of Missouri, Missouri Lodge deposited its old charter, No. 12, with the new Grand Lodge, and being the senior of the three lodges that participated in the organization of the Grand Lodge, received a new charter, as heretofore stated, numbered one under the new jurisdiction, under which it continues to work.

The charter thus granted reads as follows:

"Sit Lux et Lux Fuit.

"The Most Worshipful

"Thomas F. Riddick, Esq., Grand Master.

"To all and every, our Right Worshipful and Loving Brethren, Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons in the State of Missouri, send greeting:

"Know ye, That we, at the petition of our Right Worshipful and well-beloved brethren, Edward Bates, John D. Daggett, and John Walls, and several other brethren residing at and near St. Louis, in the State of Missouri, do hereby constitute the said brethren into a regular lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, to be opened at St. Louis, by the name of ‘Missouri, No. 1,’ and do further, at the said petition and of the great trust and confidence reposed in the above-named three brethren, hereby appoint Edward Bates, Master; John D. Daggett, Senior Warden; and John Walls, Junior Warden, for opening the said lodge, and for such further time only as may be thought proper by the brethren thereof. It being our will that this our appointment shall in nowise affect any future election of officers of that lodge, but that the same shall be according to the regulations of the lodge, and consistent with the general laws of the society contained in the book of constitutions. And we do hereby require you, the said Edward Bates, to take special care that all and every of the said brethren are or have been regularly made Masons, and that they do perform, observe, and keep all the rules and orders contained in the book of constitutions, and also such as may from time to time be transmitted to you by us. And, further, that you do from time to time cause to be entered in a book to be kept for that purpose an account of your proceedings in the lodge, together with such regulations as shall be made for the good government thereof, a copy of which you are in nowise to omit laying before the Grand Lodge once in every year, together with a list of the members of the lodge. That you annually pay into the grand treasury the sum of — dollars towards the grand charity. And, moreover, we hereby will and require of you, the said worshipful Edward Bates, as soon as conveniently may be to send an account in writing of what shall be done by virtue of these presents.

"Given at St. Louis under our hand and seal of Masonry this fourth day of September, A. L. 5821, A. D. 1821.



"Grand Secretary.



"WILLIAM BATES, J. G. Warden."

The following is the roll of the members of Missouri Lodge, No. 12, at the date of the organization of the Grand Lodge of Missouri, April, 1821:

Edward Bates, W. M.; John O. Daggett, S. W.; John Walls, J. W.; Peter Haldeman, Treasurer: William K. Rule, Secretary; Isaac A. Letcher, S. D.; Thomas Andrews, J. D.; Joseph White, Steward; John C. Potter, Tyler; Thomas F. Riddick, Thomas H. Benton, William Renshaw, George H. C. Melody, John Jones, Stephen Rector, Hart Fellows, William Leneve, Risdon H. Price, Nathaniel B. Tucker, James Kennerly, David B. Hoffman, Joseph V. Gamier, William Clarkson, David Kneeland, Amos J. Bruce, Henry Rollins, Thornton Grimsley, Daniel C. Boss, William Stark, Joseph O. Laveille, Philip Rocheblave, Robert P. Farris, William Hughes, Joseph Walters, George Morton, James P. Spencer, Moses Scott, George Blanchard, John E. Tholozan, John Hay, William L. Long, Jonathan Guest, John Wallace, Phineas James, Zenas Smith, John J. Douberman, Thomas Berry, Moses B. Wall, Joseph M. Yard, Walter B. Alexander.

The following is a full list of all those who received degrees in old Missouri Lodge, No. 1, from June, 1821, to October, 1833, inclusive, with the date when "raised":

Walter B. Alexander, June 12, 1821; William Robertson, Oct. 16, 1821; James Conner, Oct. 30, 1821; Samuel Stebbins, Nov. 16, 1821; Paul M. Gratiot, Jan. 16, 1822; Lewis C. Beck, Jan. 22, 1822; Theodore L. McGill, Jan. 30, 1822; Francis Mason, March 23, 1822; Sullivan Blood, March 23, 1822; Daniel Blair, April 2, 1822; Richard Milligan, June 10, 1822; Asa Wheeler, April 4, 1823; Frederic L. Billon, Dec. 10, 1823; Lawrence Taliaferro, Feb. 3, 1824; James D. Earl, July 9, 1824; Charles Bent, Aug. 9, 1824; William Spickernagle, Aug. 2, 1825; Ewil Baker, Oct. 4, 1825; John Simonds, Sept. 30, 1826; Edward Klein, Sept. 30, 1826; Phineas Block, Sept. 10, 1827; John M. Causland, Feb. 22, 1828; Chris. M. Price, Feb. 22, 1828; Bernard Pratte, Jr., Feb. 22, 1828; Nicholas Warnock, Nov. 5, 1828; H. B. DeWitt, March 3, 1829; George Wilson, March 3, 1829; Washington Hood, March 28, 1829; David Waldo, May 5, 1829; Beriah Graham, June 24, 1829; John M. Pollock, Dec. 19, 1829; James R. Pullen, Dec. 4, 1830; Thomas H. West, Feb. 1, 1831; John B. D. Valois, Sept. 7, 1831; Ruel Bryant, Sept. 7, 1831; Alpha O. Abby, Sept. 8, 1832; Bernard McAnulty, Sept. 8, 1832.

Admitted to membership: Abram S. Platt, March 4, 1823; John Shackford, Feb. 5, 1822; Hamilton R. Gamble, Nov. 2, 1824; Jacob Cooper, Feb. 2, 1825; Robert Wash, Feb. 7, 1826; James S. Lane, April 8, 1826; Hardage Lane, July 8, 1826; David E. Cuyler, Aug. 1, 1826; John Russell, April 3, 1827;

-- 1779 --

Adam L. Mills, July 3, 1827; Augustin Kennerly, Jan. 12, 1828; George Maguire, Jan. 12, 1828; Dugald Ferguson, Jan. 12, 1828; William T. Smith, Jan. 12, 1828; George Knox, Jr., May 6, 1828; John Woolfolk, Dec. 14, 1830; R. W. Coan, Dec. 14, 1830; Cornelius Campbell, June 7, 1831; Archibald Gamble, Dec. 27, 1831; John Haverly, Jan. 3, 1832; John M. Raulston, Jan. 3, 1832; Jesse Little, May 1, 1832; J. G. A. MeKinney, May 1, 1832.

Fellow-craftsmen: Edward Moore, March 9, 1822; John J. Lacroze, May 18, 1822; French Strother, Feb. 7, 1826; Richard H. Woolfolk, Dec. 4, 1827; Valon J. Peers, Dec. 4, 1827.

Entered apprentices: Otis Tiffany, Aug. 6, 1822; John P. A. Sanford, Dec. 16, 1825; William Orr, Sept. 3, 1822; Francis W. Hopkins, April 28, 1826; James Sterritt, Oct. 14, 1826; Peter R. Pratte, Aug. 22, 1829; Joseph Rudisell, Oct. 13, 1829; Charles Cabanné, May 8, 1830; E. T. Christy, June 31, 1831.

Up to October, 1833, the statistics were:

Members of old lodge, No. 12   49  
Admitted to membership 23 60  
Raised to Master Mason in No. 1 37  
Total of Master Masons     109
Demissions   37  
Stricken from roll   17  
Suspensions   3  
Interred   5  
Removals, etc.   19  
Total     81
Members remaining October, 1833     28

The officers of Missouri Lodge, No. 1, from 1821 to 1833 were --

  Worshipful Masters. Senior Wardens. Junior Wardens. Treasurers. Secretaries.
1820 Edward Bates. John C. Daggett. John Walls. Peter Haldeman. William K. Rule.
1821 Edward Bates. John Walls. Thomas Andrews. Thornton Grimsley. John D, Daggett.
1822 Edward Bates. Thornton Grimsley. Sullivan Blood. Joseph C. Laveille. John D. Daggett.
1823 Edward Bates. Thornton Grimsley. Sullivan Blood. Joseph C. Laveille. John D. Daggett.
1824 John D. Daggett. James P. Spencer. Daniel Blair. Thornton Grimsley. Frederic L. Billon.
1825 John D. Daggett. Frederic L. Billon. John J. Douberman. Thornton Grimsley. Ewel Baker.
1826 Hamilton R. Gamble. Frederic L. Billon. John J. Douberman. Thornton Grimsley. Theodore L. McGill.
1827 Hamilton R. Gamble. Frederic L. Billon. John J. Douberman. Thornton Grimsley. Theodore L. McGill.
1828 Frederic L. Billon. George Knox. John Simonds. Theodore L. McGill. Bernard Pratte, Jr.
1829 Edward Bates. Thomas Andrews. A. L. Mills. Theodore L. McGill. George Maguire.
1830 Edward Bates. Thomas Andrews. Bernard Pratte, Jr. Theodore L. McGill. Augustin Kennerly.
1831 Edward Bates. Thomas Andrews. James P. Spencer. Theodore L. McGill. John B. D. Valois.
1832 Edward Bates. Thomas Andrews. James P. Spencer. Theodore L. McGill. John B. D. Valois.

In the year 1824, Charles S. Hempstead, trustee of the estate of Jeremiah Conner, deceased, conveyed to John D. Daggett a lot or square of ground in Conner's addition, outside the then city limits (Seventh Street), and considered a long distance "in the country," and on April 2, 1824, John D. Daggett sold this lot to Missouri Lodge, No. 1, Edward Bates and Archibald Gamble, trustees, for four hundred dollars, for a Masonic burial-ground.

On the 12th of April, 1824, the body of Dr. Richard Mason, late of Philadelphia, was there interred by the lodge, the procession being escorted by Capt. Archibald Gamble's troop of City Cavalry, of which the deceased was a member. The ground being found too wet and swampy, and otherwise unsuitable for the purpose designed, the body was subsequently removed, and the trustees were instructed to dispose of the lot. This they accomplished after a few years, selling it to Peter Ferguson on Sept. 1, 1831, for the sum of seven hundred and fifty dollars, then a fair price for it. That lot is now "City Block No. 179," two hundred and seventy feet front on the south side of Washington Avenue, from Tenth to Eleventh, by one hundred and fifty deep, south to St. Charles Street, opposite the St. Louis University, and is now the property of Peter Ferguson's son, William F. Ferguson.

After many vicissitudes and fluctuations in the history of the lodge, resulting mainly from the political anti-Masonic excitement then existing in various portions of the Union, the few active remaining members arrived at the conclusion that it was best for the interests of the institution to suspend its labors, for a time at least.

On the 18th of October, 1831, the Grand Lodge submitted to the subordinate lodges a proposition to dissolve the grand and subordinate lodges in the State, and when the proposition came before this lodge on the evening of Dec. 12, 1832, the following was adopted:

"Resolved, That it is the wish of Missouri Lodge, No. 1, that the Worshipful Masters and Wardens of said lodge attend the Grand Lodge on the next Monday, the 19th, and that it is the sense and wish of this lodge that said Worshipful Masters and Wardens vote against the dissolution or suspension of said Grand Lodge, or the lodges subordinate thereto."

Edward Bates, Worshipful Master, offered the following:

"Whereas, Under existing circumstances, and in view of the high excitement which unhappily prevails in many parts of the United States on the subject of Freemasonry, many good and virtuous persons having been led to doubt whether the beneficent effects resulting from the exercise of our rules do more than counterbalance the evils inflicted upon society by the passions and prejudices brought into action by our continuing to act in an organized form; and while we feel an undiminished reverence for the excellent principles inculcated by the order, and an unshaken belief in the many and great services it has rendered mankind; nevertheless,

"Be it Resolved, That immediately after the close this evening this lodge shall cease to act as an organized body, and that its charter be surrendered and returned to the Grand Lodge."

-- 1780 --

Many of the members becoming dissatisfied with the course of the mover of this resolution during the preceding months, had already "demitted," and on the 5th of October, 1833, the lodge surrendered its charter to the Grand Lodge, and ceased its labors for the time.

Having nearly six hundred dollars, a large sum then, in the treasury, it made the following disposition of its surplus funds:

To the Sisters of Charity, who had then but recently erected their hospital building, at Fourth and Spruce Streets, two hundred dollars; to the St. Louis Library Association, then just set on foot, two hundred and fifty dollars. The balance, one hundred and twenty-eight dollars, was applied to the payment of rent, Grand Lodge dues, and other incidentals.

Following the return of the charter of Missouri Lodge, No. 1, to the Grand Lodge of Missouri, in October, 1833, some few of its members, in conjunction with others, in 1834 petitioned the Grand Lodge for a charter for a new lodge in St. Louis, to be called Lafayette. The Grand Lodge changed the name, and in 1836 granted a charter to the lodge as St. Louis, No. 20.

On Tuesday, Oct. 18, 1842, at the annual meeting of the Grand Lodge, Priestly H. McBride, M. W. G. M., —

"The petition of Brothers Jesse Little, Thornton Grimsley, William Renshaw, John D. Daggett, Augustin Kennedy, Thomas H. West, A. L. Mills, James S. Lane, George Wilson, and Frederic L. Billon, late members of Missouri Lodge, No. 1, praying that the Grand Lodge grant them the liberty of resuming their Masonic labors and the enjoyment of Masonic privileges, under and by virtue of their former charter, as a regular lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, was presented.

"Thereupon, upon motion of Brother Carnegy, it was unanimously ordered that the prayer of said petitioners be granted."

Pursuant to the above the following members of Missouri Lodge, No. 1, assembled at the hall Oct. 20, 1842, and proceeded to reopen Missouri Lodge, No. 1, viz.: Jesse Little, Thornton Grimsley, John Simonds, Adam L. Mills, Augustin Kennerly, George Wilson, S. W. B. Carnegy, P. G. M., Joseph Foster, S. G. W., John M. De Bolle and Esrom Owens; Joseph Foster as W. M.; John Simonds, S. W.; Thornton Grimsley, J. W.; Augustin Kennerly, Treas.; S. W. B. Carnegy, Sec.; George Wilson, S. D.; Jesse Little, J. D.; Esrom Owens, Tyler.

It was unanimously resolved to accept the privileges granted by the Grand Lodge, and the lodge then proceeded to an election of officers, which resulted in the choice of the following: John Simonds, W. M.; John D. Daggett, S. W.; Thornton Grimsley, J. W.; Frederic L. Billon, Sec.; Augustin Kennerly, Treas; George Wilson, appointed S. D.; Jesse Little, appointed J. D.; Esrom Owens, appointed Tyler. These officers were installed the same evening by P. G. Master S. W. B. Carnegy. The transaction of business was proceeded with, and thus the old lodge was revived.

Following is a list of the members initiated in Missouri Lodge, No. 1, from 1842 to 1848, inclusive:

  Initiated. Passed. Raised.
John M. Eager Dec. 1, 1842. Dec. 13, 1842. Feb. 8, 1843.
E. Carter Hutchinson Dec. 9, 1842. April 14, 1843. Oct. 11, 1843.
James M. Martien Dec. 9, 1842.    
Joseph B. Walker Jan. 26, 1843. March 10, 1843. April 7, 1843.
Henry Caldwell Feb. 6, 1843. March 10, 1843. April 6, 1843.
Anthony Bennett March 6, 1843.    
James Gresham Oct. 10, 1843. Oct. 24, 1843. Nov. 2, 1843.
Isaiah Forbes Dec. 7, 1843. Jan. 4, 1844. Feb. 1, 1844.
Edwin T. Denig Aug. 30, 1844.    
T. C. Hovaker Oct. 3, 1844. Nov. 16, 1844. Dec. 2, 1844.
Daniel Meloy Dec. 7, 1844. Jan. 2, 1845. Jan. 23, 1845.
David Levison Jan. 2, 1845. Jan. 23, 1845. Feb. 6, 1845.
Damascus Gezzi Feb. 12, 1845. March 6, 1845. April 11, 1845.
Wm. H. Merritt March 11, 1845. April 3, 1845. May 13, 1845.
Philip Ewald June 13, 1845.    
Gabriel Hains June 13, 1845. July 15, 1845. Aug. 28, 1845.
Erastus Wells July 3, 1845. Aug. 12, 1845. Oct. 8, 1845.
Thomas Davenport Sept. 4, 1845. Oct. 2, 1845. Dec. 22, 1845.
Gustavus W. Dreger Sept. 12, 1845.    
Napo'n Koscialowski March 5, 1846. April 24, 1846. Aug. 31, 1846.
Isaac H. Keim April 2, 1846. May 12, 1846. June 12, 1846.
Micajah Littleton April 19, 1846. April 20, 1846. April 20, 1846.
Lee Curtis May 7, 1846. July 3, 1848. July 6, 1848.
Ed. S. Polkowski May 7, 1846.    
Conrad Smith June 4, 1846.    
Thomas Dudman Aug. 6, 1846. Feb. 4, 1847.  
Theodore Baker Dec. 11, 1846. June 14, 1847. Aug. 23, 1847.
H. W. Leffingwell Jan. 12, 1847. Feb. 4, 1847. Feb. 27, 1847.
Wm. F. Chase Jan. 12, 1847. Feb. 4, 1847. Feb. 27, 1847.
Thomas Ryan April 16, 1847.    
B. Liverman Jan. 6, 1848. March 15, 1848. May 26, 1848.
John Libby April 6, 1848. Oct. 5, 1848. March 1, 1849.
William H. Latham Aug. 18, 1848.    
Isaac N. Barnes Sept. 7, 1848. Dec. 29, 1848. Dec. 29, 1848.
Edmund Flagg Sept. 7, 1848. Feb. 26, 1849. March 28, 1849.
Ed. C. Blackburn Nov. 2, 1848. Feb. 1, 1855.  

The elective officers of Missouri Lodge, No. 1, from 1842 to 1882, inclusive, have been:

  Worshipful Masters. Senior Wardens. Junior Wardens. Treasurers. Secretaries.
1842 John Simonds. John D. Daggett. Thornton Grimsley. Augustin Kennerly. Frederic L. Billon.
1843 John Simonds. John D. Daggett. Thornton Grimsley. Wm. Renshaw, Sr. Frederic L. Billon.
1844 Frederic L. Billon John D. Taylor. Jesse Little. Wm. Renshaw, Sr. James Gresham.
1845 John D. Taylor. Isaiah Forbes. James Gresham. Wm. Renshaw, Sr. Frederic L. Billon.
1846 John D. Taylor. Isiah Forbes. James Gresham. Wm. Renshaw, Sr. Frederic L. Billon.
1847 John D. Taylor. James Gresham. Isaac H. Keim. Wm. Renshaw, Sr. Frederic L. Billon.
1848 John D. Taylor. James Gresham. William F. Chase. Wm. Renshaw, Sr. Frederic L. Billon.
1849 James Gresham. Samuel F. Currie. Thos. Davenport. John D. Daggett. John D. Taylor.
1850 Isaiah Forbes. Samuel F. Currie. John B. Colernan. John D. Daggett. John D. Taylor.
1851 John D. Taylor. Samuel F. Currie. Clark Winsor. John D. Daggett. Isaiah Forbes.
1852 Samuel F. Currie. John Libbey. Wm. M. McLean. John D. Daggett. R. Peyinghaus.
1853 John Libbey and M. McLean. W. Win. M. McLean and C. M. Brooks. Bernard A. Pratte. John D. Daggett. John D. Taylor.
1854 Wm. H. McLean. C. M. Brooks. John B. Turnbull. John D. Daggett. John D. Taylor.
1855 John D. Taylor. Judah A. Hart. William Burden. John D. Daggett. Wm. McLean.
1856 John D. Taylor. Wm. Burden. John Goodin. John D. Daggett. R. S. Voorhis.
1857 John D. Taylor. John Goodin. Robert S. Voorhis. John D. Daggett. James O. Alter.
1858 John Goodin. Robt. S. Voorhis. A. Newmark. John J. Outley. Judah A. Hart.
1859 John Goodin. Robt. S. Voorhis. Francis Turnbull. John D. Daggett. John D. Taylor,
1860 Robert S. Voorhis. Henry Hudson. John Moyses. John D. Daggett. Wm. A. Prall.
1861 John Goodin. Henry Hudson. Judah A. Hart. John D. Daggett. G. S. Ensell.
1862 John Goodin. J. J. Outley. Judah A. Hart. Jos. Crawshaw, Sr. Edw. Crawshaw.
1863 Judah A. Hart. James O. Alter. D. N. Burgoyne. H. S. Lansdell. Geo. F. Couley.
1864 James O. Alter. D. N. Burgoyne. Rossington Elms. H. S. Lansdell. John McKittrick.
1865 D. N. Burgoyne. Geo. F. Gouley. John McKittrick. Judah A. Hart. Wm. A. Prall.
1866 Geo. F. Gouley. John McKittrick. Wm. A. Prall. Judah A. Hart. Geo. C. Deane.
1867 John McKittrick. Win. A. Prall. John D. Melvin. Judah A. Hart. Geo. W. Ferris.
1868 Wm. A. Frail. John D. Melvin. James H. Tolman. John D. Daggett. Geo. W. Ferris.
1869 John Goodin. James H. Tolman. Sol. B. Beliew. John D. Daggett. Geo. W. Ferris.
1870 James H. Tolman. John D. Melvin. Geo. J. King. John D. Daggett. Chas. F. Vogel.
1871 George T. King. Charles Garvin. David Goodfellow. John D. Daggett. Chas. F. Vogel.
1872 Charles N. Garvin. David Goodfellow. Jaines X. Allen. John D. Daggett. Chas. F. Vogel.
1873 David Goodfellow. James X. Allen. M. W. Eagan. John D. Daggett. Chas. F. Vogel.
1874 James X. Allen. M. W. Eagan. Joseph Nutt. John D. Daggett. Chas. F. Vogel.
1875 Michael W. Eagan. Wm. Douglas. H.S. Roebuck. Isaiah Forbes. Chas. F. Vogel.
1876 Wm. Douglas. Chas. F. Vogel. A. B. Pearson. Isaiah Forbes. Wm. H. Mayo.
1877 Chas. F. Vogel. Wm. H. Goodin. V. O. Saunders. Isaiah Forbes. Wm. H. Mayo.
1878 V. O. Saunders. Wm. H. Mayo. John H. Deems. Isaiah Forbes. Chas. F. Vogel.
1879 Wm. H. Mayo. John H. Deems. T. S. Funkhouser. Isaiah Forbes. Chas. F. Vogel.
1880 John H. Deems. Wm. Gillespie. V. S. Colbert. Isaiah Forbes. Wm. H. Mayo.
1881 John H. Deems. Wm. Gillespie. M. H. Beek. Chas. F. Vogel. Wm. H. Mayo.
1882 Wm. Gillespie. Henry L. Rogers. Alphonse F. Perrier. Chas. F. Vogel. Wm. H. Mayo.

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Missouri Lodge, No. 1, has recommended to the Grand Lodge of Missouri the granting of the following petitions for charters for new lodges in the city of St. Louis, viz.:

1845. Dec. 4th, petition of E. G. Simons and associates for a new lodge to be called "Polar Star."

1848. Oct. 5th, petition of William H. Merritt, Erastus Wells, and associates for a new lodge in the northern part of the city to be called Beacon Lodge.

1850. May 2d, petition of Mr. Baumgartner and associates for a new lodge in the southern part of the city to be called Irwin Lodge.

1854. Oct. 5th, petition of Messrs. Brennan, Brooks, Hall, and others for a new lodge to be called Tyrian Lodge.

1857. Jan. 15th, petition for a new lodge in the city to be called Pride of the West.

1865. March 16th, petition of Messrs. Wannell, Dozier, Shorn, and associates for Keystone Lodge.

1867. Sept. 5th, petition of Messrs. Gibson, Butts, and others for a new lodge to be called Aurora.

1868. Feb. 20th, petition of Messrs. Wolke, Sues, Sears, etc., Cosmos Lodge.

1869. Oct. 21st, petition of B. Goldschmidt, Charles Buechel, and J. Hafke, for Meridian Lodge; afterwards rescinded; no signatures to the petition.

1870. Feb. 17th, Petition of Thomas C. Ready and fifty others for Tuscan Lodge.

1871. June 15th, petition of R. A. Waters, B. A. Dozier, F. J. Rice, and others for Cache Lodge, at Carondelet.

1871. Sept. 21st, petition of Edward Nathan, J. J. Fischer, and Adolph Klemtepf, for Itaska Lodge.

1872. Feb. 15th, petition of C. C. Rainwater, Thomas R. Garrard, and R. M. Hubbard, for Anchor Lodge.

1872. March 7th, petition of John M. Collins, S. F. Ramsdell, and M. H. B. Atkins, for Westgate Lodge.

1872. June 20th, petition of A. B. Barbee, William T. McCutcheon, and James J. Denny, for Lambskin Lodge.

The fiftieth anniversary of the date of the charter to Missouri Lodge, No. 12, was celebrated by Missouri Lodge, No. 1, Oct. 8, 1866. The following account of the proceedings was obtained from the record book:

"A called communication of Missouri Lodge, No. 1, was held at Masonic Hall, northeast corner of Chestnut and Third Streets, on Oct. 8, 1866; present, George Frank Gouley, W. M.; John McKittrick, S. W.; William A. Pratt, J. W.; Judah A. Hart, Treas.; George C. Deane, Sec.; James H. Tollman, S. D.; Joseph Nutt, J. D.; George B. Brua, Tyler; John Goodin, P. M.; James O. Alter, P. M.; Ross Elms, John D. Melvin, George W. Ferris, William N. Morrison, John Geekie, J. M. Broomfield, Alonzo B. Pearson, William H. Goodin, J. J. Outley, R. M. Mather, D. L. M. Robinson, A. Newmark, L. Kingsland, Jacob Kuhn, James X. Allen, Richard L. Parker, John W. Reeder, Lewis Holden, John Brooke, Charles H. Rochow, thirty members, and the following visitors: J. A. H. Lampton, P. M. James Merry, John Glenny, T. H. Russell, S. D. Howard, J. K. Dalmas, William H. Stone, W. F. Dieterichs, Jr., of George Washington Lodge, No. 9; Theodore Nagle, William W. Worstall, of St. Louis Lodge, No. 20; John C. Bloomfleld, William B. Parker, of Napthali, No. 20; Henry Cupps, of Pride of the West Lodge, No. 179; J. B. Austin, W. M.; William B. Buckland, J. W.; A. B. M. Thompson, Sec.; Martin Collins, P. M.; William N. Loker, P. M.; William Bosbyshell, J. H. Case, John King, brevet major U. S. A.; W. W. Wallace, James Buckland, E. W. Klipstein, H. Silvester, Dr. George H. Blickhahn, Thomas Richeson, W. A. Miller, R. M. L. McEwen, James McArthur, of Occident Lodge, No. 163; Frederick Volmer, Sec.; B. H. Miles, of Keystone Lodge, No. 243; William C. Defriez, W. M.; John W. Luke, P. M.; William P. Curtis, Sec.; Charles C. Whittelsey, Samuel D. Hendel, of Polar Star, No. 79; Thomas Jessop, Hermitage Lodge, No. 356, Illinois; Morand Smith, Sacramento Lodge, No. 40, California; J. W. McDonald, W. M.; Kansas City Lodge, No. 220; L. Wright, Columbian Lodge, No. 484, New York; William M. Fisher, Kane Lodge, No. 454, New York; N. D. Rogers, Palmyra, No. 128, New York, seventy-three present.

"George F. Gouley, W. M., presiding, delivered an address, giving a brief history of the lodge for the fifty years of its existence, so far as he had been able to gather it from the limited sources of information in his possession as Grand Secretary (the records from 1816 to 1833, inclusive, have been lost or destroyed at the death of John B. D. Valois, the secretary, in 1834}."

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Among the public demonstrations in which Missouri Lodge, No. 1, has participated are the following:

1823. Dec. 27, St. John the Evangelist's day, observed by the installation of the officers in the lodge-room, and "a collation in the room on the second floor below."

1825. Dec. 27, St. John the Evangelist's day, procession to the First Presbyterian Church, northwest corner Fourth and St. Charles Streets; divine services by Revs. Salmon Giddings and J. M. Peck, and an oration by Hamilton R. Gamble.

1827. June 24, St. John the Baptist's day, procession to the Presbyterian Church, divine services, and an oration by Rev. Joshua T. Bradley (a member of the order), of the Episcopal Church, New York. Among those present was the distinguished officer, Maj.-Gen. Jacob Brown. 317

1828. Dec. 27, St. John the Evangelist's day, procession to the Presbyterian Church and a discourse by the pastor, Rev. William Potts, followed by the usual dinner.

1829. Dec. 27, St. John the Evangelist's day, procession to Christ Episcopal Church, where divine services were held.

1844. June 24, festival of St. John the Baptist, was observed by the four lodges of St. Louis — Missouri, No. 1; St. Louis, No. 20; Napthali, No. 25; and Coleman, No. 40 — by a procession to the Methodist Church, under the direction of Missouri, No. 1, as the senior lodge, where an oration was delivered by Willis L. Williams.

1847. Feb. 15, the eighty-third anniversary of the founding of St. Louis, was celebrated by the people of the city, the various societies, associations, and organizations, and the military of the place uniting in the affair, by a public display, a profession to the court-house, oration, firing of cannon, dinner, and ball, the Masonic bodies joining in the procession by special invitation from the authorities.

1852. Nov. 4, the centennial anniversary of the initiation of Gen. George Washington into the Masonic order, was publicly celebrated by the fraternity in St. Louis, under the auspices of Missouri Lodge, No. 1, by a procession to Centenary Methodist Church, northwest corner of Washington Avenue and Fourth Street, with exercises and ceremonies appropriate to the occasion.

The procession assembled at the hall, Third and Chestnut Streets, and formed with the right resting on Fourth and Chestnut Streets, in the following order:

Sixth Infantry Band.

Meridian Lodge, No. 12.

Irwin Lodge, No. 120.

Beacon Lodge, No. 3.

George Washington, No. 9.

Polar Star, No. 20.

Mount Moriah, No. 40.

Napthali, No. 25.

St. Louis Lodge, No. 79.

Missouri Lodge, No. 1.

Transient Brethren.

Alton Lodges.

Belleville Lodges.

Orator and Chaplain.

Royal Arch Chapters.

Knight Templar Encampments.

N. Wall, chief marshal; H. J. B. McKellops, aid; J. J. Anderson, assistant marshal; J. W. Crane, assistant marshal; Bernard Pratte, assistant marshal.

Arrived at the church, Past Grand Masters of the Grand Lodge of Missouri E. M. Ryland and A. B. Chambers presided. Rev. Mr. Newland opened the exercises with prayer, after which Rev. Mr. Kavanaugh delivered an address. R. W. G. C. Libby then pronounced the benediction. The procession again formed, and after marching through several streets returned to the lodge-room, where it was dismissed. At three o'clock a large number of the order, with many ladies, partook of a dinner at Odd-Fellows' Hall.

1864. Dec. 27, dedication of the hall of Occidental Lodge, No. 191, by a procession of the fraternity and appropriate ceremonies and exercises at the new hall.

1874. June 6, Missouri Lodge, No. 1, with the other city lodges, joined in the procession formed by the Grand Lodge of Missouri for the purpose of laying the corner-stone of the new Merchants' Exchange.

As may be seen from the foregoing pages, the early membership of the lodge included many of the leading citizens of St. Louis, some of whom occupied prominent and influential places in the councils of the nation. Among these may be mentioned Senator Thomas H. Benton, Hon. Hamilton R. Gamble, Governor of Missouri; Edward Bates, Attorney-General of the United States; Hon. John D. Daggett, mayor of St. Louis; James Kennedy, William Renshaw, Hardage Lane, Thornton Grimsley, Thomas Andrews, Archibald Gamble, Frederic L. Billon, William K. Rule, Thomas P. Riddick, Nathaniel B. Tucker, Joseph V. Gamier, Sullivan Blood, Jesse Little, and many others.

GRAND LODGE OF MISSOURI. — When Missouri was organized as a State (in 1820) there were three chartered lodges within the limits of her territory, all working under the Grand Lodge of Tennessee. These lodges were Missouri Lodge, No. 12, at St. Louis; Joachim Lodge, No. 25, at Herculaneum, Jefferson Co., and St. Charles Lodge, No. 28, at St. Charles.

It being deemed expedient to establish a Grand Lodge for the new State, and having the necessary number of lodges required by the ancient constitutions for the purpose, at the invitation of Missouri Lodge, No. 12, delegates from the three lodges met in convention at St. Louis on Thursday, Feb. 22, 1821, and appointed a committee of three — William Bates, of Joachim, No. 25; Nathaniel Simonds, of St. Charles, No. 28; and Edward Bates, of Missouri, No. 12 — to draft a constitution for the government of the new Grand Lodge, to be submitted to the lodges for

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their consideration. The lodges then adjourned to meet at the same place on the 23d of April following. Pursuant to this adjournment the three lodges again met, with the following representatives: Missouri Lodge, No. 12, Edward Bates and John D. Daggett; Joachim Lodge, No. 25, William Bates and T. F. Riddick; St. Charles Lodge, No. 28, A. S. Platt and H. Hunt, and decided to proceed with the organization of the Grand Lodge. After filling the various stations with officers pro tem., they opened in form, and on the following day elected the following officers:

Brother Thomas F. Riddick, M. W. Grand Master; Brother James Kennerly, R. W. G. Sr. Warden; Brother William Bates, R. W. G. Jr. Warden; Brother Archibald Gamble, W. G. Treasurer; Brother William Renshaw, W. G. Secretary.

On Friday, May 4, 1821, the first public demonstration of the new Grand Lodge took place, — a procession to the Baptist Church, where the officers were installed and the Grand Lodge duly consecrated by Thompson Douglass, of Missouri Lodge, No. 1.

On the 5th of May, 1821, the following persons were appointed a committee to draft a code of bylaws for the government of the Grand Lodge: Thompson Douglass, W. G. Pettus, and J. V. Gamier, which duty they performed, and on the same day the code presented by them was adopted.

On the evening of Oct. 10, 1821, the Grand Lodge being in session, a Past Master's Lodge was opened, and the M. W. Nathaniel B. Tucker was installed Grand Master of the Masons of the State of Missouri.

Having been placed in Supreme Masonic authority in the State of Missouri, the Grand Lodge proceeded to recharter the lodges under its jurisdiction, and Missouri Lodge being the oldest, received, as we have seen, first place as No. 1, pursuant to its new charter on the 4th of September, 1821; Joachim became No. 2, and Hiram, of St. Charles, No. 3.

In 1831 a resolution was offered, but afterwards withdrawn, to dissolve the grand and subordinate lodges in the State.

The following was unanimously adopted:

"Resolved, That the Grand Lodge in the State of Missouri will earnestly support the interest and dignity of the fraternity, and will strictly require of the subordinate lodges under this jurisdiction a vigilant and faithful discharge of their duties; and that it is inexpedient either to dissolve or suspend the grand and subordinate lodges."

In April, 1832, the Grand Lodge adopted a resolution that "hereafter this Grand Lodge shall hold one communication in the year."

Owing to the anti-Masonic agitation, which reached its climax in 1833, the Grand Lodge in October of that year changed its place of meeting to Columbia, Boone Co., Mo., the date fixed for its first meeting being December 2d, but when the storm had spent its fury the Grand Lodge, which had held three annual communications (in the years 1834, 1835, and 1836) at Columbia, found it expedient to remove back to St. Louis, which was accordingly done, and the annual meeting of Oct. 2, 1837, was held in St. Louis, — S. W. B. Carnegy, M. W. G. Master; John D. Daggett, R. W. Dep. G. Master; and Richard Dallam, G. Secretary.

The lodges chartered by the Grand Lodge of Missouri from its organization in 1821 to the date of its removal to Columbia, in October, 1833, were —

No. 1, Missouri, at St. Louis, 1821.

No. 2, Joachim, at Herculaneum, Jefferson Co., 1821.

No. 3, Hiram, at St. Charles, St. Charles Co., 1821.

No. 4, Harmony, at Louisiana, Pike Co., October, 1821.

No. 5, Olive Branch, at Alton, Ill., April 3, 1822.

No. 6, Unity, at Jackson, Cape Girardeau Co., April 3, 1822.

No. 7, Franklin Union, at Franklin, Howard Co., April 3, 1822. Charter forfeited December, 1831.

No. 8, Vandalia, at Vandalia, Ill., Oct. 8, 1822; Grand Lodge of Illinois, 1824. James M. Duncan, W. M.; J. Warnock, S. W.; W. Sec., D. Ewing, J. W. in district.

No. 9, Sangamon, at Springfield, Ill., Oct. 9, 1822.

No. 10, Union, at Jonesboro, Ill., Oct. 24, 1822.

No. 11, Eden, at Covington, Ill., Oct. 8, 1822.

No. 12, Tyro, at Caledonia, Washington Co., April, 1825.

No. 13, Tucker, at Ste. Genevieve, October, 1826.

No. 14, Booneville, at Boonville, April, 1827.

No. 15, Perseverance, at Louisiana, Pike Co., April, 1828.

No. 16, Columbia, at Columbia, Boone Co., October, 1830.

No. 17, Clarksville, at Clarksville, Pike Co., October, 1830.

No. 18, Palmyra, at Palmyra, Marion Co., April, 1831.

The following were the elected grand officers of the Grand Lodge of Missouri from 1821 to 1833:

  Grand Masters. G. Sr. Wardens. G. Jr. Wardens. Grand Treasurers. Grand Secretaries. Deputy G. Masters.
April, 1821 Thomas F. Riddick. James Kennerly. William Bates. Archibald Gamble. William Renshaw.  
Oct. 1821 Nathaniel B. Tucker. Edward Bates. William Bates. Archibald Gamble. William Renshaw. Thomas Douglass.
Oct. 1822 Nathaniel B. Tucker. Edward Bates. William G. Pettus. Archibald Gamble. William Renshaw. Thomas Douglass.
Oct. 1823 Nathaniel B. Tucker. Edward Bates. William G. Pettus. Archibald Gamble. Thomas Douglass. George H. C. Melody.
Oct. 1824 Nathaniel B. Tucker. William G. Pettus. Thornton Grimsley. Archibald Gamble. Thomas Douglass. George H. C. Melody.
Oct. 1826 Edward Bates. William G. Pettus. Thornton Grimsley. Archibald Gamble. John D. Daggett. George H. C. Melody.
Oct. 1826 Edward Bates. Martin Ruggles. John F. Ryland. Rich'd T. McKinney. John D. Daggett. Hardage Lane.
Oct. 1827 Edward Bates. Martin Ruggles. H. B. Gamble. Thornton Grimsley. John D. Daggett. Hardage Lane.
Oct. 1828 Hardage Lane. Ham. R. Gamble. Adam L. Mills. Thorton Grimsley. John D. Daggett. George H. C. Melody.
Oct. 1829 Hardage Lane. Ham. R. Gamble. Adam L. Mills. Bernard Pratte, Jr. John D. Daggett. Frederic L. Billon.
Oct. 1830 Hardage Lane. Sinclair Kirtley. Adam L. Mills. Thomas Andrews. F. L. Billon. George H. C. Melody.
Dec. 1831 Edward Bates. Oliver Parker. Aug. Jones. Thomas Andrews. F. L. Billon. George H. C. Melody.
Oct. 1832 Ham. R. Gamble. M. J. Noyes. Aug. Jones. Thomas Andrews. F. L. Billon. George H. C. Melody.
Oct. 1833 Sinclair Kirtley. John Wilson. G. A. Tuttle. G. H. C. Melody. John Garnett.  

Frederick Bates elected second Grand Master, October, 1822, declined.

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The Grand Masters of the Grand Lodge from 1834 to 1867, inclusive, were:

Sinclair Kirtley, Columbia Lodge, No. 16; elected December, 1833 and 1835.

A. B. Chambers, St. Louis Lodge, No. 20; elected November, 1834.

S. W. B. Carnegy, Palmyra Lodge, No. 18; elected October, 1836-38.

Priestly H. McBride, Paris, Union Lodge, No. 19; elected October, 1839-43.

J. W. S. Mitchell, Fayette Lodge, No. 47; elected October, 1844-45.

John Rails, New London Lodge, No. 21; elected October, 1846.

Joseph Foster, Napthali Lodge, No. 25; elected October, 1847-48.

John E. Ryland, Lafayette Lodge, No. 32; elected May, 1849-50.

Benjamin W. Grover, Johnson's Lodge, No. 85; elected May, 1851-52.

Wilson Brown, St. Mark's Lodge, No. 93; elected May, 1853.

L. S. Cornwell, Johnson Lodge, No. 85; elected May, 1854-55.

Benjamin Sharp, Danville Lodge, No. 72; elected May, 1856.

Samuel H. Saunders, Relief Lodge, No. 105; elected May, 1857-58.

Marcus Boyd, United Lodge, No. 5; elected May, 1859.

Marcus H. McFarland, Ashley Lodge, No. 75; elected May, 1860.

William R. Penick, St. Joseph Lodge, No. 78; elected May, 1861.

George Whitcomb, Constantine Lodge, No. 129; elected May, 1862.

John H. Turner, Fulton Lodge, No. 48; elected May, 1863.

John F. Houston, Wakauda Lodge, No. 78; elected May, 1864-65.

John D. Vincil, Hannibal Lodge, No. 188; elected May, 1866.

The Deputy Grand Masters from 1821 to 1867 were:

Thompson Douglass, St. Charles Lodge, No. 3; elected 1821-23.

George H. C. Melody, Missouri Lodge, No. 1; elected 1823-25, 1828, 1830-32.

Hardage Lane, Missouri Lodge, No. 1; elected 1826-27.

Frederic L. Billon, Missouri Lodge, No. 1; elected 1829, 1844.

A. B. Chambers, St. Louis Lodge, No. 20; elected 1833, 1835, 1839.

Sinclair Kirtley, Columbia Lodge, No. 16; elected 1834.

John D. Daggett, Missouri Lodge, No. 1; elected 1836-38.

Joseph Foster, Napthali Lodge, No. 25; elected 1840, 1843.

Joab Bernard, St. Louis Lodge, No. 20; elected 1841-42.

John D. Taylor, Missouri Lodge, No. 1; elected 1845-46.

B. S. Ruggles, Tyro Lodge, No. 12; elected 1847-49, 1851.

B. W. Grover, Johnson Lodge, No. 85; elected 1850.

Samuel F. Curry, Missouri Lodge, No. 1; elected 1852.

Love S. Cornwell, Johnson Lodge, No. 85; elected 1853.

D. P. Wallingford, Weston Lodge, No. 53; elected 1854.

O. F. Potter, Arrow Rock Lodge, No. 55; elected 1855.

W. A. Cunningham, St. Joseph Lodge, No. 78; elected 1856.

Philander Draper, Perseverance Lodge, No. 92; elected 1857.

Marcus Boyd, United Lodge, No. 5; elected 1858.

M. H. McFarland, Ashley Lodge, No. 75; elected 1859.

W. R. Penick, St. Joseph Lodge, No. 78; elected 1860.

John Decker, Napthali Lodge, No. 25; elected 1861.

John H. Turner, Livingston Lodge, No. 51; elected 1862.

William N. Loker, Occidental Lodge, No. 163; elected 1863.

John D. Vincil, Hannibal Lodge, No. 188; elected 1864-65.

Wm. B. Dunscomb, Jefferson Lodge, No. 43; elected 1866.

The Grand Lodge has participated in most of the important public demonstrations in St. Louis since its organization. Among the events of this character in its history may be mentioned the following:

On Aug. 31, 1823, the Grand Lodge laid the "foundation-stone" of a Presbyterian Church, G. M. N. B. Tucker presiding.

At a special meeting of the Grand Lodge, held on the 29th of April, 1825, present R. W. G. H. C. Melody, D. G. M. and G. M. P.; R. W. Thornton Grimsley, G. S. W.; Rt. W. John D. Daggett, G. J. W. P.; A. Gamble, G. Treasurer; Thompson Douglass, G. Secretary, and a large number of visiting brethren, the Grand Lodge opened in Third Degree in solemn form.

It being stated by the Grand Master that Gen. Lafayette, a brother Mason and officer of the Revolution, had arrived in the city, on motion of Bro. Gamble, it was "ordered that a ballot be now taken on the election of Brother Lafayette as an honorary member of this Grand Lodge," whereupon he was duly elected.

On motion of Brother Gamble, it was "ordered that a committee be appointed to wait upon Brother Lafayette, inform him of his election as an honorary member of this Grand Lodge, and solicit his attendance at the present meeting."

Brosthers Melody, Douglass, and Atwood were appointed the committee, and after a short absence returned, accompanied by Gen. Lafayette and his son, George Washington Lafayette, who were received by the lodge standing, and an address delivered by Archibald Gamble, to which Gen. Lafayette replied, and was then conducted to a chair in the east.

On motion of Brother Gamble, it was "ordered that the ballot be taken on the election of Brother George Washington Lafayette as an honorary member of this Grand Lodge, whereupon he was duly elected."

Gen. Lafayette then again addressed the lodge, and with his son withdrew.

On the 21st of October, 1839, at the request of the County Court, the Grand Lodge laid the corner-stone of the court-house in St. Louis, Col. A. B. Chambers, then D. G. Master, presiding.

In 1841 the Grand Lodge concluded to build a college, which was first started in Marion County, where it failed; subsequently it was removed to Lexington, where it again failed, and after years of disasters and troubles it was finally got rid of by being

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donated by the Grand Lodge to the State for a military school, for which purpose it was never used.

On the 9th day of May, 1842, the Grand Lodge laid the corner-stone of Methodist Episcopal Centenary Church, Rev. Joab Bernard, D. G. Master, presiding.

In February, 1843, the Grand Lodge was incorporated by the Legislature of the State. On the 28th of June, 1845, the Grand Lodge united with the citizens and public bodies in St. Louis, the Grand Lodge leading, in public ceremonies consequent upon the death of Gen. Andrew Jackson.

The subordinate lodges in St. Louis are —

Missouri Lodge, No. 1; Meridian Lodge, No. 2; Beacon Lodge, No. 3; George Washington Lodge, No. 9; St. Louis Lodge, No. 20; Napthali Lodge, No. 25; Mount Moriah Lodge, No. 40; Polar Star Lodge, No. 79; Erwin Lodge, No. 121; Occidental Lodge, No. 163; Orient Francais Lodge, No. 167; Pride of the West Lodge, No. 179; Good Hope Lodge, No. 218; Keystone Lodge, No. 243; Aurora Lodge, No. 267; Cosmos Lodge, No. 282; Corner-Stone Lodge, No. 323; Tuscan Lodge, No. 360; Cache Lodge, No. 416; Itaska Lodge, No. 420; Anchor Lodge, No. 443; West Gate Lodge, No. 445; Lambskin Lodge, No. 460.

ROYAL ARCH MASONS. — In the year 1820, a sufficient number of Royal Arch Masons being resident in St. Louis and its vicinity to constitute a chapter, a petition was sent to Hon. De Witt Clinton, General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter of the United States, at Albany, N. Y., praying a dispensation for that purpose. Their petition was granted, and he issued to them the following


"To all Royal Arch Masons to whom these presents shall come, greeting:

"Be it known that I, De Witt Clinton, General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the United States of America, do authorize and empower our worthy companions, Amos Wheeler, Thompson Douglass, Abraham Beck, Bennett Palmer, Justus Post, Abraham S. Platt, John G. Sawyer, Derrick Van Pelt, William H. Hopkins, and their associates, to form, open, and hold a chapter of Royal Arch Masons at St. Louis, in Missouri, until the next meeting of the General Grand Royal Arch Chapter, by the name of Missouri Chapter; and I do hereby appoint our worthy companion, Amos Wheeler, to be the first High Priest, Thompson Douglass to be the first King, and Abraham Beck to be the first Scribe of the said chapter, investing them with full powers to assemble upon proper occasions and advance Master Masons to the degrees of Mark Master, Past Master, and Most Excellent Master, and exalt them to that of a Royal Arch Mason; and also to do and perform all such acts as have been and ought to be done for the honor and advantage of the art, conforming in all their proceedings to the constitution of the General Grand Royal Arch Chapter, otherwise this power to be void.

"Given under my hand and privy seal, at the city of Albany, this 24th day of July, A. L. 5820.


In pursuance of the foregoing authority, a convocation of Royal Arch Masons was held on the 2d day of October, 1820, in the hall of Missouri Lodge, No. 12, when Companions Beck and Canfield were appointed a committee to procure quarters for the accommodation of the chapter. Oct. 14, 1820, a Mark Master's Lodge was opened, additional companions present being Clement B. Fletcher, David Lawrence, James C. Canfield, Samuel G. J. De Camp, and William G. Pettus. Companions Beck, Pettus, Lawrence, and Canfield were appointed a committee to prepare a code of by-laws and procure the necessary furniture and implements for a Mark Master's Lodge.

On the 6th of January, 1821, the committee reported a code of by-laws, which were severally read and adopted. The committee to procure rooms reported "that they had procured from Missouri Lodge, No. 12, the use of their rooms, the rent to commence on Dec. 20, 1820." Agreed to. On Oct. 30, 1821, the following officers were elected:

Thompson Douglass, H. P.; Amos Wheeler, King; George H. C. Melody, Scribe; Samuel G. J. De Camp, C. H.; William H. Hopkins, P. S.; William H. Pococke, R. A. C.; Daniel C. Boss, G. M. 3d V.; Hugh Rankin, G. M. 2d V.; Thomaa Bothick, G. M. 1st V.; William G. Pettus, Treas.; Archibald Gamble, Sec.; John C. Potter, Tyler and Steward.

There being some doubt as to the authority of the chapter to elect officers under their dispensation, it was thought best to address the General Grand High Priest for his opinion on the subject. He replied as follows:

"ALBANY, 7th December, 1821.

"E. C.:

"In answer to your letter, this moment received, I have to state that in my opinion you may hold your election under the dispensation, precisely in the same way as if you acted under a warrant or charter; the powers granted are the same, the only difference is as to duration. I think that the officers ought to be installed. For this purpose I annex an authority.

"With my best wishes for the prosperity of your members, individually and collectively,

"I am yours, fraternally,



"ALBANY, 7th December, A. L. 5821.

"I, De Witt Clinton, General Grand High Priest, etc., do hereby authorize Edward Tyler, Jr., Esq., of Louisville Chapter, to install the officers of Missouri Chapter, and to act in my stead on this occasion with the same powers as I should exercise if I were personally present.


Upon the receipt of these documents the former election was declared informal, and Jan. 31, 1822, a new election took place, resulting as follows:

Thompson Douglass, H. P.; John Walls, King; George H. C. Melody, Scribe; William Arnold, C. H.; Thornton Grimsley, P. S.; James P. Spencer, K. A. C.; Hugh Rankin, G. M. 3d V.;

-- 1786 --

William H. Poeocke, G. M. 2d V.; Archibald Gamble, G. M. 1st V.; S. G. J. De Camp, Treas.; W. B. Alexander, Sec.; John C. Potter, Tyler and Steward.

Companion Thompson Douglass, High Priest elect, was installed April 29, 1822, as such, and duly anointed and received into the order of High Priesthood by Edward Tyler, Jr., High Priest of Louisville Chapter, No. 5, all the companions, except High Priests, having previously retired for that purpose, after which they returned to the chapter, and the remaining officers elect were duly installed.

In August, 1826, the time being near at hand for the Septennial Communication of the General Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the United States at New York, at which time the chapter's dispensation would expire, Hardage Lane was appointed to draft a memorial, and Frederic L. Billon to transcribe the proceedings to he submitted to that body. On Saturday, August 5th, Dr. Lane submitted his memorial and the following:

"Resolved, That the memorial presented by the committee appointed to that duty be received, and that a fair copy of it be made out and signed by the H. P. and forwarded to the Most Eminent General Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the United States.

"Resolved, That the companions of Missouri Royal Arch Chapter, No. 1, now working under dispensation, pray that a charter may be granted them, if upon examination of the transcript of their proceedings by the General Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the United States they shall be found worthy.

"Resolved, That a copy of the foregoing resolutions be forwarded, with the memorial, to the Most Eminent General Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the United States."

The memorial was approved and resolutions adopted, and George H. C. Melody was appointed to present the same to the General Grand Chapter.

On Monday, Aug. 7, 1826, the last meeting of the chapter under the dispensation was held.

The members of the chapter when it disbanded were —

Thornton Grimsley, H. P.; James P. Spencer, K.; Richard T. McKinney, S.; Thompson Douglass, P. S.; Isaac A. Letcher, R. A. C.; David Lawrence, G. M. 2d V.; F. L. Billon, George H. C. Melody, William M. Hopkins, George Morton, William McDonald, John D. Daggett; Sullivan Blood, Treas.

Mr. Melody was at the East a year with the charter in his possession. After his return a convocation of Royal Arch Masons was held in the chapter-room of Missouri Royal Arch Chapter, No. 1, on the 13th day of August, 1827, the following gentlemen being present:

Members, Thornton Grimsley, H. P.; James P. Spencer, King; Richard T. McKenney, Scribe; Thompson Douglass, P. S.; F. L. Billon, Sec.; George H. C. Melody, William H. Hopkins, William McDonald, John D. Daggett.

Visitors, Hardage Lane, E. H. Shepard, William H. Pococke, Rev. Joshua Bradley; A. L. Mills, Vincennes, No. 1; Phil. G. Randolph, Potomac, No. 8; William J. Freeland, Eureka, No. 10, Lynchburg, Va.

The chapter was opened in due and solemn form. A communication from Lebbeus Chapman, secretary of the General Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the United States, to Thornton Grimsley, High Priest of Missouri Chapter, informing him that a warrant or charter for the continuation of the chapter had been granted by said General Grand Royal Arch Chapter, was read; whereupon Mr. Melody informed the meeting that he was the bearer thereof, and was authorized by the Most Eminent De Witt Clinton, General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the United States, to install the officers of the said chapter, and producing his authority read as follows:

"We, the General Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the United States of America of the most ancient and honorable fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons, according to ancient usage, duly established, constituted, and organized for the said United States of America, agreeably to the resolutions and by authority of a General Grand Convention, held at Hartford, in the State of Connecticut, in the year of Masonry 5798, do hereby constitute and appoint our trusty and well-beloved companions, Thornton Grimsley, H. P.; James P. Spencer, King; and Richard T. McKinney, Scribe, of a new Royal Arch Chapter, by the name and style of Missouri Chapter, to be held at St. Louis, in the State of Missouri. And we do hereby authorize and empower our said trusty and well-beloved companions to hold their chapter at the place hereby directed and appointed at such times as they shall deem necessary and convenient, and agreeably to the General Grand Constitution of this General Grand Royal Arch Chapter, and to admit and advance regular Master Masons to the ancient and honorable degrees of Mark Masters, Past Masters, Most Excellent Masters, and exalt to the august and sublime degree of Royal Arch Masons according to the more ancient and honorable custom of the royal craft in all ages and nations throughout the known world.

"And we do further authorize and empower our said companions and their associates to hear and determine all and singular matters and things relating to the craft within the jurisdiction of the said Missouri Chapter, conforming in all things to the rules and regulations of our General Grand Constitution. And, further, we do hereby further authorize and empower our said trusty and well-beloved companions to install their successors in office, to whom they shall deliver the warrant, and invest them with all their powers and dignities as such, and in like manner their successors in office during the continuance of the said Royal Arch Chapter forever...

"Provided, always, that the said above-named companions and their successors shall do and faithfully perform all and every act and thing required by the General Grand Constitution of this General Grand Royal Arch Chapter, otherwise this warrant shall be void and of no effect.

"In testimony whereof, we, the General Grand Royal Arch Chapter aforesaid, have caused our seal to be hereunto affixed, and our most excellent General Grand High Priest to subscribe his name at the city of New York, this eighteenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty-six, and of Masonry 5826.



"LEBBEUS CHAPMAN, G. G. Secretary."

-- 1787 --

"To all Royal Arch Masons to whom these presents shall come, greeting:

"Be it known, that I, De Witt Clinton, General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the United States of America, by virtue of the high power in me vested by the third section of the fourth article of the constitution of the General Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the United States of America, do hereby authorize and empower our worthy companion, George H. C. Melody, to install the officers of Missouri Chapter, No. 1, holden in the city of St. Louis, and county of St. Louis, and State of Missouri, according to the constitution of the General Grand Royal Arch Chapter aforesaid; and I do hereby require of you to make due returns to me of your proceedings on or before the next meeting of the General Grand Chapter.

"Given under my hand and seal at the city of Albany, State of New York, this 23d day of January, A. L. 5827.


Thornton Grimsley was then duly invested by Mr. Melody with the degree of High Priest and installed as such, all but the High Priests having retired. After their return to the hall, Mr. Melody proceeded to install James F. Spencer, King, and Richard T. McKenney, Sribe.

On the death of De Witt Clinton, at Albany, N. Y., Feb. 11, 1828, the Royal Arch Missouri Chapter passed a series of resolutions, embodying their appreciation of his services and their veneration of his character, and determined to wear a badge of mourning for thirty days. They also recommended all Royal Arch Masons in the State to do the same, and requested the Rev. J. Bradley to deliver an appropriate address.

The following is a roll of the Companion Royal Arch Masons who took part in the first organization of the chapter under the "dispensation," in October, 1820:

Amos Wheeler, died June 8, 1822.

Thompson Douglass.

Abraham Beck, died Sept. 4, 1821.

Bennett Palmer, St. Charles, died Aug. 17, 1821.

Justus Post, never participated.

Abraham S. Platt, St. Charles, Tyler until April, 1825.

John Y. Sawyer, Edwardsville, demitted April 21, 1824.

Derrick Van Pelt, died in 1821 or 1822.

William H. Hopkins.

James C. Canfield, not found after February, 1821.

Samuel G. J. De Camp.

Clem. B. Fletcher, Herculaneum, demitted Jan. 10, 1824.

David Lawrence.

William G. Pettus, demitted April 21, 1824.

Archibald Gamble, demitted Dec. 13, 1823.

The last meeting held by the old chapter, No. 1, before its cessation consequent upon the anti-Masonic excitement of the day, was one convened especially for the advancement of Bernard Pratte, Jr.; on Monday, March 2, 1829, at which time he received the degrees of Mark and Past Masters. The roll of members had then been reduced to nineteen.

After this the chapter lay dormant for seven years and eight months, — no meeting during this time, — but revived in 1836, when the opposition to Masonry, which had assumed a political complexion in many of the States, had very materially subsided, and the institution began to flourish again. Some four or five of the members, with a few others who in the interval had become residents of St. Louis, revived the old chapter, winch was opened by J. D. Daggett, H. P., Nov. 5, 1836.

At this meeting G. W. Call, E. H. Shepard, and D. T. Lee were appointed a committee to report upon the propriety of a resumption of labor. That committee reported on the 10th substantially as follows, viz.:

"That under the charter granted by the General Grand Chapter in 1826 the chapter continued its labor until the shock which Freemasonry sustained in 1829 began to be severely felt in Missouri; that its operations ceased through the non-assembling of the craft for work, but without any definite action of the chapter as a body on the subject. No meeting was had from that time until the regular meeting on the 5th November, 1836, when it was opened in ancient and solemn form by Companion J. D. Daggett, High Priest thereof.

"That your committee have fully discussed the propriety of proceeding to work under the present charter, and are unanimously of the opinion that the chapter is competent and fully authorized to do so, and that the prosperity of Freemasonry in Missouri demands it."

This report was adopted, the chapter declared reorganized, and a copy of the report ordered to be sent to the General Grand Chapter, by whom it was subsequently approved.

The following is a list of the High Priests, Kings, Scribes, Secretaries, Treasurers, and Guards from 1820 to 1849, inclusive:

  High Priests. Kings. Scribes. Secretaries. Treasurers. Guard or Tylers.
1820 Amos Wheeler. Thompson Douglass. Abraham Beck.      
Jan. 1822 Thompson Douglass. John Walls. George H. C. Melody. W. B. Alexander. S. G. J. De Camp. John C. Potter.
Dec. 1822 William Arnold. T. Douglass. Thornton Grimsley. W. B. Alexander. G. H. C. Melody. Abram S. Platt.
Dec. 1823 W. H. Hopkins. G. H. C. Melody. W. B. Alexander. T. Douglass. S. P. Striker. Abram. S. Platt.
Feb. 1825 E. H. Shepard. George Morton. I. A. Letcher. F. L. Billon. James Douglass. Abram. S. Platt.
April, 1826 Thornton Grimsley. James P. Spencer. Richard T. McKinney. F. L. Billon. Sullivan Blood. Geo. H. C. Melody.
Dec. 1827 Thornton Grimsley. James P. Spencer. James S. Lane. F. L. Billon. Isaac A. Letcher. Benjamin Walker.
Feb. 1829 John D. Daggett. R. T. McKinney. Adam L. Mills. F. L. Billon. James S. Lane. Benjamin Walker.
Dec. 1837 John D. Daggett. George W. Call. Bernard Pratte, Jr. Richard B. Dallam. G. H. C. Melody. Esrom Owens.
Dec. 1838 John D. Daggett. B. Pratte, Jr. George W. Call. Richard B. Dallam. G. H. C. Melody. Esrom Owens.
Dec. 1839 Joseph Foster. John Simonds, Jr. Stephen Price. Richard B. Dallam. G. H. C. Melody. Esrom Owens.
Dec. 1840 Joseph Foster. E. H. Shepard. Joab Bernard. Richard B. Dallam. G. H. C. Melody. Esrom Owens.
Dec. 1841 Joab Bernard. Edward Klein. William S. Stewart. Richard B. Dallam. Louis Jaccard. Esrom Owens.
Dec. 1842 Gilbert Nourse. Joab Bernard. Henry L. Clark. Richard B. Dallam. Louis Jaccard. Esrom Owens.
Dec. 1843 Joseph Foster. John Simonds. John D. Daggett. Richard B. Dallam. Joab Bernard. Esrom Owens.
Dec. 1844 Joseph Foster. John S. Watson. John Hall. Richard B. Dallam. James L. Jamison. Esrom Owens.
Dec. 1845 John D. Stygl. John S. Watson. John Hall. Richard B. Dallam. F. L. Billon. Esrom Owens.
Dec. 1846 Rev. E. H. Cressy. John Hall. William H Gagle. F. L. Billon. Edward G. Simons. Esrom Owens.
E. H. Shepard.          
Dec. 1847 Rev. E. C. Hutchinson. B. B. Brown. Edward G. Simons. F. L. Billon. John S. Watson. Esrom Owens.
Dec. 1848 Joseph Foster. B. B. Brown. Joseph Rowe. F. L. Billon. John S. Watson. Esrom Owens.
Dec. 1849 Esrom Owens. John Shore. Joseph Rowe. John D. Taylor. John S. Watson. Charles Paynter.

-- 1788 --

The High Priests, Kings, and Scribes from 1850 to 1867, inclusive, were:

  High Priests. Kings. Scribes.
1850 John D. Tavlor. J. W. Crane. John Hall.
1851 J. W. Crane. J. D. Daggett. R. B. Dallam.
1852 John D. Taylor. Jeremiah McKay. J. Farrar.
1853 John D. Taylor. J. W. Crane. Jesse Little.
1854 John D. Taylor. James Harrison. G. B. Brua.
1855 William McLean. C. M. Brooks. G. B. Brua.
1856 H. Dusenbury. C. M. Brooks. Isaiah Forbes.
1857 Isaiah Forbes. John D. Taylor. F. Dings.
1858 John D. Taylor. William Burden. G. B. Brua.
1859 Joseph Foster. T. G. Comstock. Samuel Brown.
1860 William Burden. T. G. Comstock. F. Dings.
1861 William Burden. T. G. Comstock. F. Dings.
1862 William Burden. T. G. Comstock. F. Dings.
1863 William Burden. D. N. Burgoyne. G. W. Ford.
1864 Isaiah Forbes. M. L. Cohn. C. M. Brooks.
1865 D. N. Burgoyne. M. L. Cohn. G. Babcock.
1866 M. L. Cohn. J. O. Alter. A. Newmark.
1867 James O. Alter. James H. Tolman. Wm. A. Prall.

In October, 1838, the chapter and the two lodges then in St. Louis, Nos. 20 and 25, occupied the same rooms, each paying one-third of the rent. On the 21st of April, 1841, the recommendation of the chapter was given to the petition of Royal Arch Masons of St. Louis for a new chapter, to be called St. Louis Chapter. Feb. 8, 1847, the petition of Companions Nathaniel Childs, Henry L. Clark, J. W. Crane, Thomas H. Capers, Richard Bond, N. G. Berryman, I. I. Montgomery, Charles Levy, B. I. Vancourt, George Meyers, Alexander Vancourt, and J. W. S. Mitchell to the General Grand Chapter of the United States for the establishment of a new chapter, to be called St. Louis, was read asking the recommendation of the chapter, whereupon

"Resolved, That the chapter do recommend the same."

GRAND ROYAL ARCH CHAPTER OF MISSOURI. — Pursuant to an invitation from Missouri Chapter, No. 1, Royal Arch Masons, a convention of the several chapters in Missouri was held in St. Louis on the 16th of October, 1846, for the purpose of forming a Grand Chapter for the State.

At this convention were represented Missouri Chapter, No. 1, Boonville Chapter, No. 5, Palmyra Chapter, No. 2. Fayette Chapter, No. 6. Elihu H. Shepard, High Priest of Missouri. No. 1, presided, and Stanton Buckner, of No. 2, acted as secretary.

The convention upon being organized proceeded to the formation of a Grand Chapter by the adoption of the following resolution, presented by Companion Daggett:

"Resolved, That we, the officers and proxies of the chapters aforementioned, deeming it expedient and necessary for the better government of the craft, do now establish and constitute a Grand Royal Arch Chapter for the State of Missouri, agreeably to the constitution of the General Grand Chapter of the United States."

The Grand Chapter having been duly organized by the adoption of a constitution and by-laws, the following gentlemen were elected the first grand officers:
J. W. S. Mitchell, G. H. P.; William Hurley, Dep. G. H. P.; Parker Dudley, G. K.; Joseph Megquier, G. S.; Frederic L. Billon, G. Sec.; John S. Watson, G. Treas.; Rev. E. C. Hutchinson, G. Chap.; John D. Daggett, G. Marshal.

Consequent upon this action the allegiance of Missouri Chapter, No. 1, was transferred from the General to the State Grand Chapter. 318

The officers of the Grand Chapter elected in May, 1882, are —

Erwin Ellis, of Lebanon, G. H. P.; A. M. Dookery, of Gallatin, Dep. G. H. P.; C. C. Wood, of Kansas City, G. K.; Lee A. Hall, of St. Louis, G. S.; John W. Luke, of St. Louis, G. Treas.; William H. Mayo, of St. Louis, G. See.

Appointed officers:

Rev. George W. Perm, of Fulton, G. Chap.; R. F. Stevenson, of Clinton, G. Capt. of H.; Reuben Barney, of Chillicothe, G. P. S.; William B. Wilson, of Cape Girardeau, G. R. A. C.; James B. Austin, of St. Louis, G. M. 3d V.; Lewis Slaughter, of Richmond, G. M. 2d V.; J. C. Hearne, of Hannibal, G. M. 1st V.; J. W. Owen, of St. Louis, G. G.

The chapters of Royal Arch Masons in St. Louis in 1882, with their officers and the number of members, were:

-- 1789 --

Missouri, No. 1, Joseph Mountain, H. P.; William H. Mayo, Sec.; one hundred and eighteen members.

St. Louis, No. 8, Henry A. Krueger, H. P.; James Harrocks, Sec.; one hundred and eighty-nine members.

Bellefontaine, No. 25, John R. Parson, H. P.; E. V. Kyte, Sec.; one hundred and thirty-one members.

O'Sullivan, No. 40, E. W. League, H. P.; H. F. Hoppius, Sec.; seventy-seven members.

Kilwinning, No. 50, J. Percival Smith, H. P.; John T. McCoy, Sec.; one hundred and eighteen members.

Temple, No. 51, George Lawson, H. P.; John K. Bollinger, Sec.; fifty-one members.

Oriental, No. 78, R. Watson, H. P.; William Crouch, Sec.; fifty-seven members.

The membership of the chapters (eighty-seven in all) subordinate to the Grand Chapter of Missouri, as returned in 1882, numbered four thousand persons.

ORDER OF HIGH PRIESTHOOD. — Very little, if anything, was known of this impressive degree of Masonry in Missouri prior to 1853, in which year George H. C. Melody, P. G. H. P., received the work of the order from Robert P. Dunlap, of Maine, then General Grand High Priest of the General Grand Chapter of the United States. At a meeting of High Priests, held in the Masonic Hall, St. Louis, May 20, 1854, there were present George H. C. Melody, Thornton Grimsley, John D. Daggett, Hon. S. W. B. Carnegy, A. Patterson, John F. Ryland, Richard F. Rees, Joseph Foster, A. O'Sullivan. George H. C. Melody presided, and A. O'Sullivan acted as secretary. After the object of the meeting had been stated by the chairman, a resolution was adopted to the effect that a Convention of High Priests for Missouri be organized.

The following officers were then elected:

George H. C. Melody, president; Thornton Grimsley, vice-president; Joseph Foster, conductor; Richard R. Rees, marshal; A. O'Sullivan, secretary.

At a meeting held on the 26th of May, 1855, "a constitution for the Grand Convention of High Priests of the State of Missouri" was adopted, and under this permanent organization the following officers were elected:

M. E. Comp. George H. C. Melody, president; M. E. Comp. Archibald Patterson, vice-president; M. E. Comp. Rev. J. F. Truslow, chaplain; M. E. Comp. D. De Haven, herald; M. E. Comp. William McLane, steward; M. E. Comp. F. A. H. Garlichs, master of ceremonies; M. E. Comp. Solomon Houch, conductor; M. E. Comp. A. O'Sullivan, secretary; M. E. Comp. J. W. Chenoweth, guard.

The following is the first list of members of anointed High Priests of the State that could be found after careful search through all preceding records of the Grand Chapter of the State, viz.:

George H. C. Melody, Thornton Grimsley, John D. Daggett, S. W. B. Carnegy, A. Patterson, Hon. John F. Ryland, Joseph Foster, A. O'Sullivan, Richard R. Rees, Priestly H. McBride, T. E. Shepherd, Thomas Miller, D. P. Wallingford, Rev. J. F. Truslow, John W. Chenoweth, D. De Haven, Solomon Houch, F. A. H. Garlichs, William McLane, John S. Tisdale, Edward Lea, Marcus Boyd, W. A. Cunningham, Stephen Stafford, James Cloudsley, George A. Kise.

After May 25, 1866, a break occurs in the history of the order. The connecting link seems to have been lost, for diligent search and inquiry fail to properly connect it. There is no record of any meeting from May 25, 1866, until the record starts again, with new officers and several new names, Oct. 7, 1869.

From the best obtainable information it seems that after the death of Companion McDaniel, the president, and Companion O'Sullivan, the secretary of the convention, in 1866, no one had the work of the order until 1868, when Companion J. H. Fairchild, a Past High Priest, of New York, communicated the work to M. E. Companion Thomas E. Garrett and others, who conferred the order on several members, who held meetings during that year. M. E. Companion Garrett was elected president, which office he has held continuously ever since.

M. E. Companion George H. C. Melody was president from the organization until 1860, the year of his death. M. E. Companion Joseph Foster was president until 1865, and M. E. Companion James McDaniel was president in 1866; M. E. Companion D. T. Wainwright in 1867.

In 1882 the officers were —

Thomas E. Garrett, M. E. P.; Allan McDowell, E. V. P.; Isaiah Forbes, E. C.; John R. Parson, E. T.; William H. Mayo, E. R.; W. R. Stubblefleld, E. M. of C.; James B. Austin, E. Cond.; Joseph S. Browne, E. H.; William H. Dale, E. Steward; A. Newmark, E. Sentinel.


St. Louis Council, No. 1, John D. Vincil, M.; R. H. Mather, recorder.

Hiram Council, No. 10; John E. Jones, M.; L. J. Clark, recorder.

KNIGHTS TEMPLAR COMMANDERIES. — The Grand Commandery of Knights Templar in Missouri was organized by a convention which assembled on the 22d of May, 1860; Benjamin M. Runyan, president, and Ludwell R. Ringo, recorder. The officers of the Grand Commandery up to the present time (1882) have been —

-- 1790 --

Date. Grand Commanders. Deputy Grand Commanders. Grand Generalissimos. Grand Captain-Generals. Grand Prelates.
May, 1860 George W. Belt. R. M. Henderson. John W. Crane. Henry Flynt. Ludwell R. Ringo.
May, 1861 George W. Belt. W. R. Penick. Jacob C. Rinehard. John W. Crane. Edward S. Dulin.
May, 1863 319 George W. Belt. B. M. Runyan. William N. Loker. W. A. Cunningham. Thomas E. Garrett.
May, 1864 George W. Belt. Thomas M. Wannall. Geo. Frank Gouley. James F. Aglar. Thomas E. Garrett.
May, 1865 Thomas M. Wannall. Geo. Frank Gouley. Josiah Hunt. James F. Algar. John D. Vincil.
May, 1866 Geo. Frank Gouley. Lewis F. Weimer. James F. Aglar. James McDaniel. John D. Vincil.
Oct. 1867 Geo. Frank Gouley Lewis F. Weimer. James F. Algar. James Carr. P. M. Pinkard.
Oct. 1868 James F. Aglar. John D. Vincil. James Carr. D. P. Wallingford. P. M. Pinkard.
Oct. 1869 James F. Algar. John D. Vincil. James Carr. Samuel Russell. William M. Rush.
Oct. 1870 John D. Vincil. Joseph M. Fox. William H. Stone. Francis M. Tufts. William M. Rush.
Oct. 1871 Francis M. Tufts. Wilbur F. Tuttle. John Ure. Oren Root, Jr. John D. Vincil.
Oct. 1872 Oren Root, Jr. John Ure. Samuel A. Gilbert. John C. Bloomfield. R. L. M. McEwen.
Oct. 1873 John Ure. Samuel A. Gilbert. John C. Bloomfield. Frederick B. Young. William Wilmott.
Oct. 1874 Samuel A. Gilbert. John C. Bloomfield. Frederick B. Young. Wm. W. Anderson. C. H. Foote.
Oct. 1875 John C. Bloomfield. Frederick B. Young. Wm. W. Anderson. Thomas W. Park. George C. Betts.
Oct. 1876 Frederick B. Young. W. W. Anderson. Thomas W. Park. John R. Parson. George C. Betts.
Oct. 1877 John K. Parson. Thomas W. Park. James N. Burns. W. W. Garth. George C. Betts.
Oct. 1878 C. J. Atkins. W. W. Garth. John B. Maude. Wm. H. Hotchkiss. George C. Betts.
May, 1880 319 Sol. E. Waggoner. William G. Hall. William J. Terrell. John A. Sloan. George C. Betts.
May, 1881 William G. Hall. William J. Terrell. John A. Sloan. F. J. Tygard. George W. Penn.
May, 1882 William J. Terrell. R. E. Anderson. J. R. Hardy. F. J. Tygard. George W. Penn.
Date. Grand Senior Wardens. Grand Junior Wardens. Grand Treasurers. Grand Recorders. Grand Standard-Bearers.
May, 1860 William N. Loker. George W. Culver. John D. Daggett. E. G. Heriot. O. F. Potter.
May, 1861 Paris S. Pfouts. James H. Matheny. John D. Daggett. E. G. Heriot. Robert Hale.
May, 1863 319 James F. Aglar. E. O. Sayle. John D. Daggett. A. O'Sullivan. John E. Ryland.
May, 1864 D. N. Burgoyne. John Glenny. John D. Daggett. A. O'Sullivan. J. A. H. Lampton.
May, 1865 Martin Collins. J. A. H. Lampton. William N. Loker. A. O'Sullivan. Hampton Woodruff.
May, 1866 Martin Collins. B. F. Newhouse. William N. Loker. A. O'Sullivan. Hampton Woodruff.
Oct. 1867 Samuel Hardwick. B. F. Newhouse. William N. Loker. A. B. M. Thompson. Peter B. Grant.
Oct. 1868 Peter B. Grant. Washington Jones. William N. Loker. Geo. Frank Gouley. F. H. Lewis.
Oct. 1869 William K. Spinney. G. W. Tindall. William N. Loker. Geo. Frank Gouley. William Bosbyshell.
Oct. 1870 John Ure. D. W. Wells. William N. Loker. Geo. Frank Gouley. William Bosbyshell.
Oct. 1871 William Bosbyshell. J. J. McElwee. William N. Loker. Geo. Frank Gouley. John C. Bloomfield.
Oct. 1872 Frederick B. Young. Wm. W. Anderson. William N. Loker. Geo. Frank Gouley. Burwell G. Wilkerson.
Oct. 1873 Wm. W. Anderson. Burwell G.Wilkerson William N. Loker. Geo. Frank Gouley. John H. Brown.
Oct. 1874 Burwell G.Wilkerson. David Goodfellow. William N. Loker. Geo. Frank Gouley. John H. Brown.
Oct. 1875 Burwell G. Wilkerson. David Goodfellow. William N. Loker. Geo. Frank Gouley. John H. Brown.
Oct. 1876 Burwell G. Wilkerson. H. C. Frost. William N. Loker. Geo. Frank Gouley. S. E. Waggoner.
Oct. 1877 John B. Maude. Wm. H. Hotchkiss. William N. Loker. William H. Mayo. J. H. Brown.
Oct. 1878 Sol. E. Waggoner. J. R. Hardy. John R. Parson. William H. Mayo. William J. Terrell.
May, 1880 319 James Carroll. George Lambert. William P. Mullen. William H. Mayo. C. E. Ballard.
May, 1881 E. H. Mix. George F. Rogers. William P. Mullen. William H. Mayo. George J. Tyrrell.
May, 1882 E. H. Mix. George F. Rogers. William P. Mullen. William H. Mayo. William A. Hall.
Date. Grand Sword-Bearers. Grand Warders. Grand Sentinels. Foreign Correspondents. Grand Drill-Masters.
May, 1860 Samuel M. Hays. A. D. Hoy. H. T. Shlossner. A. O'Sullivan.  
May, 1861 George W. Beardslee. Joseph S. Browne. H. T. Shlossner. James N. Burns.  
May, 1863 319 Edward Dutton. D. N. Burgoyne. A. Stille. A. O'Sullivan. A. O'Sullivan.
May, 1864 Edward G. Brooke. W. T. Woods. A. Stille. A. O'Sullivan. A. O'Sullivan.
May, 1865 James McDaniel. William H. Stone. Thomas Harris. A. O'Sullivan. A. O'Sullivan.
May, 1866 William Bosbyshell. William H. Stone. Thomas Harris. A. O'Sullivan. A. O'Sullivan.
Oct. 1867 William Bosbyshell. William H. Stone. George B. Brua. A. B. M. Thompson. James F. Aglar.
Oct. 1868 William Bosbyshell. William H. Stone. John Geekie. Geo. Frank Gouley. John D. Vincil.
Oct. 1869 J. E. R. Miller. William H. Stone. John Geekie. Geo. Frank Gouley. John D. Vincil.
Oct. 1870 J. S. McElwee. Oren Root, Jr. John Geekie. Geo. Frank Gouley. C. B. Randolph.
Oct. 1871 Fred. B. Young. Wm. W. Anderson. John Geekie. Geo. Frank Gouley. William H. Stone.
Oct. 1872 J. A. Tyler. John A. Dollman. James X. Allen. Geo. Frank Gouley. C. B. Randolph.
Oct. 1873 William E. Whiting. Henry C. Frost. James X. Allen. Geo. Frank Gouley. C. B. Randolph.
Oct. 1874 T. W. Letton. John R. Parson. James X. Allen. Geo. Frank Gouley. C. B. Randolph.
Oct. 1875 Henry C. Frost. John R. Parson. James X. Allen. Geo. Frank Gouley. Thomas M. Wannall.
Oct. 1876 M. S. Clemmens. Jeff. W. Bedford. George Thorp. Geo. Frank Gouley. C. B. Randolph.
Oct. 1877 E. J. Nickerson. Sol. E. Waggoner. George Thorp. William H. Mayo. C. J. Atkins.
Oct. 1878 John A. Sloan. Robert McCulloch. George Thorp. William H. Mayo. E. J. Nickerson.
May, 1880 319 R. O. Carscadin. George F. Rogers. George Thorp. William H. Mayo. John R. Parson.
May, 1881 Erwin Ellis. H. C. Litchfield. John W. Owen. William H. Mayo. Allan McDowell.
May, 1882 Robert Taubman. John T. Ruffin. John W. Owen, William H. Mayo. John A. Sloan.

The Grand Commandery was incorporated under the style of "The Grand Commandery of Knights Templar and the Appendant Orders," on the petition of John D. Vincil, J. M. Fox, William H. Stone, Francis M. Tufts, William M. Rush, John Ure, D. W. Wells, William N. Loker, George Frank Gouley, William Bosbyshell, J. J. McEIwee, O. Root, Jr., and John Geekie, by the Circuit Court of St. Louis County at the June term of 1871.

The commanderies located in St. Louis in 1882, with their officers and membership, were —
St. Louis, No. 1, William H. Dale, Eminent Commander; John T. McCoy, Recorder; one hundred and twenty-one members.

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Ivanhoe, No. 8, H. L. Aldrich, Eminent Commander; R. M. L. McEwen, recorder; eighty-four members.

Ascalon, No. 16, John H. Krippen, Eminent Commander; Frederick Williamson, recorder; seventy-four members.

St. Aldemar, No. 18, William Richardson, Eminent Commander; James Bailey, recorder; eighty-one members.

COLORED FREEMASONS. — The colored people of the United States have a Masonic organization, distinct in its workings from that of other Masons of this country. Their charter was derived from York, England, in 1784, and a lodge was established in Boston. They are called "Free and Accepted Ancient York Masons." Other lodges were soon after started in Philadelphia and New York, and these three formed a Grand Lodge in Philadelphia. Lodges were formed in different parts of the country under the authority of this Grand Lodge until 1847, when delegations from different parts of the Union met in Boston and organized the national Grand Lodge. From that time the craft has prospered. The government of the order is on an independent basis, and vested in a national Grand Lodge, under which the State Grand Lodges work, and under these the subordinate lodges.

The first Grand Lodge in Missouri was established in St. Louis in 1865, with H. M. Alexander as Grand Master, and George Phillips as Junior and John Sexton as Senior Grand Wardens, though subordinate lodges had been working here under the Grand Lodge of Ohio for about twenty years. In 1869 there were seventeen lodges in Missouri, four of them in St. Louis, and also a Royal Arch Chapter (St. John's), working under the Grand Chapter of Pennsylvania, and Western Star Encampment of Sir Knights, working under authority from the Grand Encampment of Pennsylvania. In 1869 the order officiated at the laying of the cornerstone of a colored church, called Carondelet Chapel, in the then city of Carondelet. The officers of the Grand Lodge of Missouri then were —

Moses Dickinson, Q. M.; William P. Brooks, D. G. M.; Francis Robertson, Sr. G. W.; William Robertson, Jr. G. W.; R. O. Smith, G. Sec.; Alexander Clark, G. Treas.

There are now about ninety lodges in Missouri, with two thousand members, while in St. Louis there are six lodges. The present Grand Lodge officers are —

Grand Master, Willis N. Brent, Boonville, Mo.; Deputy Grand Master, J. M. M. Stokes, St. Louis; Senior Grand Warden, J. C. C. Owens, Hannibal, Mo.; Junior Grand Warden, W. H. Jones, St. Joseph, Mo.; Grand Treasurer, J. J. Bruce, Brunswick, Mo.; Grand Secretary, Robert O. Smith, St. Louis; Grand Chaplain, James Madison; Grand Lecturer, Rev. Moses Dickson, Higginsville, Mo.

There are four commanderies in St. Louis, with two hundred and fifty members. In 1881 a Grand Commandery was formed by the union of the "Grand Commandery of the State of Missouri" and the "African Grand Commandery," and the following officers were elected:

R. E. G. C., Milton F. Fields, St. Louis; V. E. D. G. C., William T. Mumford, St. Louis; E. G. Gen., Wm. T. Scott, Cairo, Ill.; E. G. C. G., Richard A. Barret, St. Louis; E. G. P., J. C. C. Owens, Hannibal, Mo.; E. G. S. W., James A. Johnson, St. Louis; E. G. J. W., Edward Mitchell, Kansas City; E. G. T., John Pride, St. Louis; E. G. R., Richard H. Cole, West St. Louis.

This Grand Lodge has established an endowment fund of one thousand dollars for the heirs of deceased members, and is gathering funds to establish a Grand Lodge library.

The Colored Masonic Hall is located at 409 Washington Avenue.

MASONIC HALL. — That a building was set apart and used for Masonic purposes at an early period appears from the fact that in the Missouri Gazette of July 5, 1809, an account was printed of a Fourth of July dinner given "by Capt. R. Webster in Lee's Orchard, and a ball at night in the Masonic Hall." On the 15th of March, 1817, there appeared in the same paper the following advertisement of a lottery to raise funds for the erection of a Masonic Hall:

"By authority: Scheme of a lottery for building a Masonic lodge in the town of St. Louis, —

1 prize of $5000 is $5,000
2 prizes of 1000 is 2,000
10 prizes of 600 is 6,000
20 prizes of 200 is 4,000
25 prizes of 100 is 2,500
200 prizes of 50 is 10,000
310 prizes of 20 is 6,200
1000 prizes of 10 is 10,000
2550 prizes of 6 is 15,300

"Less than two blanks to a prize. Part of the prizes to be determinate as follows, viz.:

"1st. Drawn number on the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth day's drawing, each to be entitled to one of the above six hundred dollar prizes, payable in part by one hundred tickets, beginning with No. 7001 to No. 8000 inclusive. The first one hundred tickets for the first drawn number on the first day, and so on in regular succession for the rest. All other prizes floating. Prizes subject to a deduction of fifteen per cent., payable in sixty days after the drawing is completed.

"To be drawn three times a week, five hundred tickets each day. Tickets in the above lottery may be had at the following places, viz.: At the stores of Kiddick & Pilcher, Th. Hanly, Simpson & Quarles, Moses Scott, and James Kennerly, St. Louis; E. A. Elliot, Ste. Genevieve; John Jones, Mine & Breton; William Bates, Herculaneum; at the office of Michael Jones, Esq.;

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Kaskaskia; at the office of John Hay, Esq., Cahokia, and at the store of John Rochester, St. Charles.

"J. Pilcher, T. Brady, T. Douglass, D. V. Walker, T. Hanly, commissioners appointed by the Legislature for superintending the drawing of the above lottery."

This scheme does not appear to have succeeded, for we find (as elsewhere stated) that the different Masonic bodies occupied the Clark building, and afterwards that erected by Maj. Thompson Douglass on the north side of the present Elm Street, between Main and Second Streets, until 1833. In 1822 committees were appointed by Missouri Royal Arch Chapter, and Missouri Lodge, No. 1, for the purpose of procuring funds to build a Masonic Hall, but this project also appears to have been a failure.

On the 18th of October, 1849, the fourth floor of the building at the corner of Third and Chestnut Streets was dedicated to Masonic uses. The Grand Lodge was opened by the Grand Master, and a prayer was offered by the Rev. Mr. Libby, which was followed by the customary exercises of the order, during which the exordium was delivered by the Rev. Mr. Libby. Subsequently the doors were closed upon all, excepting the members of the order, and the ceremony of dedicating the hall was performed. The procession then formed on Chestnut Street, and marched through the principal streets to Concert Hall, where the ceremonies were opened by prayer offered by the Grand Chaplain of the order. An ode was then sung by the choir of the Unitarian Society, who volunteered their services for the occasion, which was followed by the delivery of the oration by Judge Ryland, the Grand Master. An ode was then sung by the choir, which was followed by the benediction.

About 1853 it was determined to erect a hall which should be in keeping with the prosperity and strength of the order, and on the 12th of February, 1853, a perpetual charter was granted to John D. Daggett, Benjamin M. Runyan, John J. Anderson, William Renshaw, Jr., Daniel G. Taylor, J. R. Barret, David C. Tuttle, Joseph Foster, and T. B. Courtney, as corporators of an association organized to carry out that object.

The first board of directors elected consisted of B. M. Runyan, T. A. Buckland, D. G. Taylor, F. Dings, John W. Luke, Thomas Richeson, John A. Brownlee, James H. McCord, and A. B. Sheder. In June, 1858, the board purchased from Mrs. Anne L. Hunt for fifty-five thousand dollars, being a deduction by Mrs. Hunt of twenty thousand dollars from its estimated value, the lot on which the present building stands, measuring one hundred and nine feet on Seventh Street, and one hundred and thirty-five feet on Market Street. After various delays the money was secured for the purchase of the lot, and on the 30th of May, 1866, the corner-stone of the present edifice was laid by the Grand Lodge of the State. The cost of the building was about one hundred and ninety-five thousand dollars, which, with the lot, made a total cost of two hundred and forty thousand dollars.

The building was erected under the supervision of the following board of directors: Erastus Wells, president; Samuel Gaty, vice-president; William N. Loker, treasurer; Thomas Richeson, Daniel G. Taylor, John W. Luke, William H. Stone, John D. Daggett, T. A. Buckland. Much of the success of the undertaking was due to the active member of the building committee, William H. Stone, and the president, Mr. Wells.

The building stands on the northwest corner of Seventh and Market Streets. The front on the latter street is one hundred and thirty-five feet, and on Seventh eighty-four feet. It is four stories high, measuring ninety-six feet from the line of the sidewalk to the cornice. The general architectural design is after the Florentine Italian style. It is not heavily ornamented, but plain and substantial, and is built of Joliet marble, nearly white. Near the entrance on Seventh Street is the corner-stone of the building, on which there is the following inscription:

"To the glory of God, the Grand Architect of the Universe, to whom be all honor, praise, and glory: This foundation-stone of Freemasons' Hall was duly laid by the M. W. Grand Lodge of A. F. & A. M., May 30th, 1866, A. L. 5866. John F. Houston, M. W. Grand Master; A. O'Sullivan, G. S."

This inscription was written by the Grand Secretary, A. O'Sullivan, who was a leading spirit in the undertaking, but died before the building was completed.

The lower floor is occupied by stores; on the second floor is the office of the Grand Secretary of the State of Missouri and the library. This is a very handsomely-furnished room, and the ceiling is of unusual height. A flight of stairs leads up to a gallery on which the library cases open. There is also in this apartment a spacious fire-proof safe, for the preservation of the records of the State. One feature to be seen here are well-executed oil-paintings of the Grand Masters of the State from the time of organization. On this floor also is the audience-room or hall. It measures one hundred feet in length by sixty-five feet in width, and is twenty-two feet in height from the floor to the ceiling. Bight Corinthian columns support the ceiling, which is handsomely painted and ornamented. At the west end of the hall is a spacious stage, intended for speakers or other purposes.

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The third floor of the building is mainly occupied by the three degree rooms, attached to which are various committee-rooms and small halls, intended for Masonic festivities and other purposes. The fourth floor is divided somewhat similarly to that below, but the rooms are devoted to the administration of the higher degrees. The Royal Arch Chapter chamber is on this floor, and is the most costly and splendid room, in decoration and arrangement, of its character in the building. The ceiling is vaulted and colored blue, with other hues assisting in the ornamentation.

The building was erected under the supervision and direction of James H. McClaren, architect. The building committee was composed of the following gentlemen: Erastus Wells, ex officio, president; W. H. Stone, secretary; Thomas Richeson, and Samuel Gaty. Committee for furnishing the halls and carpets, etc.: William H. Stone, William N. Loker, and J. W. Luke.

The building was dedicated on the 14th of October, 1868, by the Grand Lodge of Missouri, W. E. Dunscomb, Grand Master, on which occasion an oration was delivered by Thomas E. Garrett. One of the principal features of the dedication was the procession, which was organized at the Occidental Hall, Seventeenth and Market Streets. The following was the order observed:

Headed by sixteen mounted police, Capt. Kohlhund.

Boehin's Band.

St. Louis Commandery, Knights Templar.

Ivanhoe Commandery, Knights Templar.

Herwig's Band.

Lodges in following order:

No. 243, Keystone Lodge, A. F. and A. M.

No. 218, Good Hope Lodge.

No. 179, Pride of the West Lodge.

No. 167, Orient Francais Lodge.

No. 163, Occidental Lodge.

No. 121, Erwin Lodge.

No. 80, Bridgeton Lodge.

No. 79, Polar Star Lodge.

No. 45, Bonhomme Lodge.

No. 40, Mount Moriah Lodge.

No. 25, Napthali Lodge.

No. 20, St. Louis Lodge.

No. 9, George Washington Lodge.

No. 3, Beacon Lodge.

No. 2, Meridian Lodge.

No. 1, Missouri Lodge.


Grand Lodge of the State of Missouri and Grand Officers.

Carriages, judges of courts, city and county officials, City Council, etc.

Grand Marshals, Col. James Coff, N. G. Elliott.

Aids, S. B. Stanard, George Rinkel, Jr., William Freadenau, A. W. Henry, James Denny.

After the dedication ceremonies the lodges, commanderies, etc., proceeded to Bellefontaine Cemetery to dedicate a monument to Anthony O'Sullivan, who had recently died. 320

The chairman of the Committee on Monument, Martin Collins, delivered the monument over to the Grand Lodge and reported the work done, whereupon Mr. Garret spoke as follows:

"BRETHREN OF THE GRAND LODGE OF MISSOURI, — We stand in this city of the dead, above the mouldering remains of many with whom we have associated in life, to unveil a monument erected to the memory of Anthony O'Sullivan, one of the fathers of Masonry in Missouri. The mortal part of one whom we knew and loved as a brother rests beneath this stone. We are now about to perform the last public ceremony of respect to departed worth, and inaugurate a monument commemorative of his virtues and the position he held in life."

The Grand Master then unveiled the monument, and Thomas E. Garrett, Grand Orator, delivered a eulogy on Mr. O'Sullivan's character.

The monument is of Italian marble, sixteen feet in height, consisting of a broken column standing on a pedestal of three steps, the first step representing the working tools of an entered apprentice; second, of the fellow-craft; third, of the Master Mason. On the front is the inscription, "Erected to the memory of Anthony O'Sullivan by the Grand Chapter and the Grand Lodge of Missouri." On the east side is the seal of the Grand Lodge, and on the west different

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Masonic emblems of different degrees. A Grand Secretary's jewel is suspended at the top of the broken column. The monument stands on the Masonic lot in the cemetery.

The following were the Grand Chapter Committee on Monument: Isaiah Forbes, William E. Glenn, E. E. Anderson, and Martin Collins, from the Grand Lodge; John D. Vincel, William N. Loker, John W. Luke, and C. A. Rowley. Martin Collins acted as chairman of the committee, and John W. Luke as secretary.

On the 10th of November. 1873, the property was sold under deed of trust, the Life Association of America becoming the purchaser. The ground and building brought one hundred and twenty-seven dollars, subject to a deed of trust for one hundred and forty thousand dollars, with accrued interest amounting to about eighteen thousand dollars. The one hundred and twenty-seven dollars was only intended to cover the expenses of the sale.

The property was again sold under a deed of trust on the 28th of April, 1881, by the trustee, Calvin F. Burnes. Auctioneer Lanham announced that the sale would be subject only to a lien for two years back taxes. Joel Wood, of Wood & Lee, and Mr. Carpenter, a real estate agent, who represented the Hon. Thomas Allen, were the most active bidders. The purchasing bid of seventy-one thousand two hundred dollars was made by Mr. Wood, who bid in the property for the majority bondholders, — Messrs. Joel Wood, W. H. Lee, M. A. Rosenblatt, and Mrs. Eugene Benoist. The purchase deed was made to George H. Goddard, cashier of the Valley National Bank, and Louis Bauman, as trustees. To the cost of Masonic Hall, erected by the Masonic fraternity in 1869, had been added twenty-five thousand dollars by the Life Association of America for the erection of an additional building on Seventh Street, together with steam elevator and steam-heating apparatus. There was a first mortgage of one hundred and forty thousand dollars, for which the sale was made. The building is still used by the various Masonic organizations.

On the 22d of October, 1868, the Odd-Fellows and Freemasons of St. Louis united in laying the foundation-stone of a new hall, to be built by the United Hall Association, at the corner of Benton Street and Broadway. The building (known as Union Hall) was dedicated by the Grand Lodge of Missouri, Oct. 13, 1869, having been erected for the joint use of Masons and Odd-Fellows. It is a three-story structure, stone front; the first story rented for stores and the second for offices, the hall and three ante-rooms being located in the third story. The dimensions of the hall are: Length, ninety feet; width, forty feet; height, twenty-two feet; and its cost, fifty thousand dollars. The lodges of the Independent Order of Odd-Fellows first using it were the Schiller and the Wingenund Lodges and the Mound City Encampment.

The lodges of Masons which met in it were Beacon, No. 3; Aurora, No. 267; and Bellefontaine Chapter, Royal Arch, No. 25.

The officers and directors of the Union Hall Association, which erected the building, were Joseph W. Branch, president; George H. Rice, vice-president; John Balmann, secretary; Directors, John H. Marquard, Philip Stremmel, W. K. Patrick, John Colonius, H. W. Coppleman, and Frank Wilmeyer.

Independent Order of Odd-Fellows. — The first lodge of the Independent Order of Odd-Fellows in St. Louis was established on the 3d of June, 1835, under a warrant granted by the Grand Lodge of the United States at its session held in Baltimore in September, 1834. There were seven petitioners for the warrant, made up from transient brethren of the order then residing in and about St. Louis. One of them was from London, England; two from Louisville, Ky.; three from Pittsburgh, Pa.; and one from Baltimore, Md. By the time the lodge was organized all these petitioners, except the first named, had disappeared and others were substituted. The commission to institute the lodge was committed to Samuel L. Miller, 321 a member of Harmony Lodge, No. 3, of Baltimore, who was about to remove to Alton, Ill.

Considerable delay occurred in finding a sufficient number of members of the order to supply the number of five requisite to constitute the lodge. This was not effected until June 3, 1835, when he instituted the lodge under the name of Traveler's Rest Lodge, No. 1. The original members were Thomas Maxwell, Henry Woolford (afterwards of Louisville, Ky.), William Pickett, John F. Nagle, George B. O'Connor, Matthias Obert, and Joseph Lespie. The place of the first meeting was in a small house situated on the

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north side of Olive Street, between Main and Second. A lodge-room was then fitted up on the east side of Main Street, between Olive and Locust, and in this room the lodge met for the first time on the first Saturday in June. At this meeting eight were added to the membership by initiation, and at the next meeting fourteen were initiated. The first officers of the lodge were Samuel L. Miller, N. G.; Thomas Maxwell, V. G.; B. B. Brown, Sec. and Treas. The place of meeting was changed in 1836 to the hall over the Central Engine House, south side of Chestnut Street, between Third and Fourth. Here the lodge continued to meet for about three years, and then moved to the southwest corner of Main and Olive Streets, over the book-store of J. C. Dinnies & Co.

The first public display of Odd-Fellows in St. Louis took place on the Fourth of July, 1836. After marching through the principal streets of the city in regalia, with emblems and music, the lodge proceeded to the Methodist Episcopal Church on the corner of Fourth Street and Washington Avenue, where an address was delivered by Col. Charles Keemle. An original ode, composed by Lewis T. Thomas, was sung on this occasion, and the celebration closed with a banquet. During the first year of its existence in St. Louis the order had increased to one hundred and fifteen members, and during the second year there was a small increase over this number.

In December, 1836, some of the members of Travelers' Lodge met to petition for a new lodge. John W. Paulding presided, and Charles Keemle, a well-known editor, was secretary. Their petition was signed by J. W. Paulding, Charles Keemle, Henry Lynde Sproat, Thomas S. Tucker, P. T. McSherry, B. B. Brown, W. D. Marrigan, Robert Allen, A. J. Corney, and Charles Soule. The request was granted by the Grand Lodge of 1837. In June, 1838, St. Louis had the honor of a visit from Thomas Wildey, the founder of the order. On June 12th he instituted Wildey Lodge, No. 2, with the following charter members: Charles Keemle, W. D. Marrigan, A. T. Corney, P. T. McSherry, B. B. Brown, Robert Allen, Charles Soule, and Thomas S. Tucker.

The original officers were —

Noble Grand, Robert Cathcart; Vice Grand, Benjamin F. McKinney; Secretary, Robert Breeze; Treasurer, Harris L. Sproat.

Among the early members of the lodge were William Blackburn, afterwards the second Grand Master of the State; William S. Stewart, third Grand Master, and later a prominent member of the Sons of Temperance; and Charles Pickering and Thomas M. Warmall. John Dawson, who subsequently became the first Grand Master, was book-keeper of both lodges. Within the first year the lodge had fifty-two members.

On June 13, 1838, the Grand Lodge of Missouri, composed of the past officers of the two lodges, was instituted by P. G. Sire Wildey, and the following were the first officers of that body: John Dawson, Grand Master; William Blackburn, Deputy Grand Master; Robert Catchcart, Grand Secretary; Benjamin M. Backensto, Grand Treasurer; William Metcalf, Grand Warden; Nimrod Snyder, Grand Conductor; William S. Stewart, Grand Chaplain.

At the close of the year 1839 the Grand Secretary reported to the Grand Lodge of the United States that during the previous year there had been seventy-five initiations, and that the membership was one hundred and ninety-nine in the two lodges in Missouri.

The room for holding lodge-meetings was in the following year changed to quarters in the buildings on the east side of Main Street, between Vine Street and Washington Avenue. On Nov. 30, 1838, a charter was granted for a degree lodge, and July 26, 1840, a new lodge was chartered in St. Louis, — Germania Lodge, No. 3. On Aug. 29, 1840, the first lodge outside of St. Louis was chartered — Far West Lodge, No. 4 — at Boonville. This year closed the first five years of the order in Missouri, and there were four lodges, with a membership of two hundred and sixty-one.

In May, 1841, a charter was asked for St. Louis Lodge, No. 5, but the lodge does not appear to have been organized immediately, for at the Grand Lodge session of June 30, 1841, four lodges were reported in the jurisdiction, namely: No. 1, with seventy-six members; No. 2, sixty-eight; No. 3, fifty-five; No. 4, thirty-two; total, two hundred and thirty-one members.

On the 1st of January, 1841, the Odd-Fellows of St. Louis held a celebration, consisting of a procession and ceremonies at the lodge. The route of the procession was from the lodge-room down Main Street to Elm, up Elm Street to Second, up Second to Market, up Market to Fourth, and up Fourth Street to the Methodist Church, where, after the rendering of an Odd-Fellows' hymn and ode and prayer, an oration was delivered by the Rev. Mr. Maffitt. An anthem was then sung and benediction pronounced, after which the procession returned to the lodge. The officers of the celebration were R. Cathcart, chief marshal; Committee of Arrangements, Benjamin F. McKinney, Louis T. Lebeaume, Jacob Smith, E. H. Shepard, B. M. Backensto, Esrom Owens, Robert Cathcart.

On Dec. 12, 1842, Western Light Lodge, No. 6,

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at Weston, was organized, and at this time the six lodges established in Missouri numbered three hundred and twenty-six members.

On April 26, 1843, the city lodges had a public parade in celebration of the anniversary of the founding of the order, and the Rev. J. H. Linn delivered an address.

On the 22d of February, 1843, the Legislature passed an act to charter the Grand Lodge. The list of incorporators embraced the names of Thomas B. Hudson, William S. Stewart, Louis T. Lebeaume, Gerard B. Allen, William H. Remington, Warren C. Corley, Robert Cathcart, W. M. McPherson, B. F. McKinney, William Blackburn, William Childs, and others.

In 1844 four more lodges were instituted in the State, one each at Lexington, Fayette, St. Louis, and Hannibal. In the succeeding year three lodges were organized, one each at Platte City, Weston, and Savannah. The end of this year was the close of the first decade of the order in Missouri. The one lodge had increased to fourteen, and the five original members to six hundred and sixty-six, and the outlook was hopeful and encouraging. In the next ten years there was an increase of seventy-three lodges, making in all eighty-seven lodges, with an aggregate membership of three thousand four hundred and nineteen. The total revenue, exclusive of interest on investments, was $238,664.01. The amount paid out for relief was $70,054.30.

On the 28th of April, 1843, the Grand Lodge began to agitate for the building of a new hall in St. Louis, and subscriptions were made by the lodges in the city. On the 28th of July, the same year, the committee was instructed to purchase a lot, forty by eighty feet, on the northwest corner of Fourth and Locust Streets, which was offered at ninety dollars per foot. About the same time Col. John O'Fallon, in order to forward the enterprise, gave the order a valuable lot on Seventh Street. It remained in possession of the Grand Lodge, and a source of considerable income for more than twenty years. 322

It was not, however, until the 10th of May, 1844, that it was deemed prudent to begin the building of the new hall. On that day the building committee advertised for proposals, and in August they were authorized to make a loan of five thousand dollars. The work then progressed rapidly, and on the 26th of April, 1845 (the anniversary of the order), the corner-stone of the edifice was laid with appropriate ceremonies. There was a grand procession, and the Rev. Mr. Chamberlain, the Presbyterian minister at St. Charles, delivered an address.

The hall was dedicated on the 27th of October, 1846. At nine o'clock the members of the order, in full regalia, assembled in the hall to receive a banner made by Mrs. Anna Maria Evans, and presented by the ladies of Centenary Church. The presentation was made on behalf of the donors by Hon. John Hogan, a well-known citizen of St. Louis, and the banner was received by Dr. John S. Moore. The ceremony having ended, the order, headed by Korpony's Band, moved up Fourth Street in procession to Morgan Street, and thence down Fifth Street to Centenary Church, where the exercises consisted of prayer and reading of the Scriptures by Rev. Mr. Pollock, the singing of an ode composed for the occasion, and an oration by Rev. Charles B. Parsons. Several national airs were then executed by the band, and the benediction was pronounced. After leaving the church the procession passed down Fifth Street to Myrtle, thence to Fourth Street, and up Fourth Street to the hall, where, in the presence of the members of the Grand Lodge, in secret conclave, the ceremonies of the dedication, performed by Elihu H. Shepard, Grand Master, took place. The new hall was situated at the corner of Fourth and Locust Streets, and formed the southern termination of "that fine block of buildings known as Glasgow's row," occupying that side of the square for its entire length. This was the loftiest block in the city at the time, and "the new temple," we are told, "towering as it does above the roofs of the adjoining structures, presents a prominent object in approaching the city, alike imposing and ornamental." The dimensions of the building were forty feet front on Fourth Street by eighty feet on Locust, and the extreme altitude from the pavement to the peak of the pediment was eighty-five feet. The order of architecture of the external edifice was Corinthian from the Temple of Tivoli, at Rome. The basement of the superstructure was about fifteen feet in height, and was constituted in front of stone-work neatly ornamented. The hall proper was two stories high, the walls strengthened by pilasters and ornamented with raised paneling in masonry, and the whole surmounted by a lofty attic rising above a heavy cornice. The window ledges and caps were of stone neatly sculptured, and the facade presented four pilasters ornamented with raised panels and surmounted by appropriate entablatures. In the centre, upon a stone tablet, was sculptured "Odd-Fellows' Hall," while upon the right and left on other tablets were inscribed

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"Instituted June 13, 1838," and "Incorporated Feb. 2, 1843."

On one of the walls were engraved in gold the words, "We command you to visit the sick, relieve the distressed," and on the other, likewise in gold, was the injunction, "Bury the dead, and educate the orphan."

The basement was leased by S. Rimrner for a confectionery establishment, known as the "Washington Saloon," and the second story was leased for a term of years to Monsieur Korpony, dancing-master, as a ball- and concert-room.

The third story was divided into three apartments, one of which was designed for a library and reading-room for the order, and the other for the meetings of the Grand Lodge of Missouri and the Encampment. In the fourth story was a large hall for the accommodation of the six subordinate lodges in St. Louis, one of which could assemble here each night of the week.

The cost of the building and lot was about nineteen thousand dollars. The erection of the hall was largely due to the energy of Gerard B. Allen, and it required much persistent work to push the project through, for when the agitation commenced there were but four lodges in the city, with only two hundred and sixty-three members, and most of these were poor. The building was a large and convenient one, and was a credit to the order and an ornament to the city. On the 31st of March, 1863, it was injured by fire. The upper portion was burned, and six lodges lost their charters. The damage was so great that the walls were taken down and the present building was erected, entailing a cost of $33,557.94 for rebuilding and refurnishing. The new edifice was occupied July 1, 1864.

In recognition of his labors in inaugurating this great work, Mr. Allen, who is still a leading and honored citizen of St. Louis, was in 1845 elected Grand Master, a position he held uninterruptedly for seventeen years.

Later lodges in St. Louis were organized as follows: Excelsior Lodge, No. 18, Sept. 9, 1846; Laclede Lodge, No. 22, May 4, 1847; Washington Lodge, No. 24, in South St. Louis, May 22, 1847; Wingenund Lodge, No. 27, Sept. 29, 1847.

During the fearful visitation of cholera in 1849 the order vindicated its claim to be considered one of the great philanthropic institutions of the city, and its members were foremost in performing the deeds of mercy which the appalling occasion demanded. Many of its members were stricken down, among them the Rev. Alexander Van Court, the gifted pastor of the Central Presbyterian Church, a true Odd-Fellow, and a gentleman of whom the most fragrant recollections are still cherished.

The Encampment Branch of the order in St. Louis dates from 1838, Wildey Encampment, No. 1, having been organized in that year.

On the 21st of October, 1853, Goethe Lodge, No. 59, of St. Louis, was chartered.

In 1849 the order celebrated at several central points in the State the fortieth anniversary of American Odd-Fellowship. At St. Louis an imposing pageant was presented by the order, and the oration was delivered by Past Grand Representative Hon. Schuyler Colfax, of Indiana.

In 1856 the order in St. Louis purchased a large lot in Bellefontaine Cemetery, some three hundred feet in diameter, for the burial of members of the order who might die in the city while visiting it. This lot is under the supervision of a joint relief committee of the lodges in St. Louis, whose duty it is to attend to the sick brethren from other towns who are taken sick in St. Louis, and bury them should they die.

The order in Missouri continued to prosper with unabated progress until the breaking out of the civil war. At the close of the year 1860 there had been organized one hundred and forty-eight lodges, with a membership of four thousand eight hundred and eighty, being an increase in five years of sixty-one lodges and one thousand four hundred and sixty-one members. In the succeeding four years no progress was made.

Many of the lodges were broken up and the members dispersed. Their lodge-rooms were burnt or were otherwise ruined, or were taken possession of by troops of the contending sides, and their papers were burned or lost. Some idea of the depression which resulted may be obtained from the fact that in 1863 there were only one hundred and thirty-eight initiations in the whole State. At the beginning of 1860 there were one hundred and thirty lodges in Missouri, with four thousand nine hundred and eighteen members; in 1864 there were but sixty-two that made returns, and only seventy-five that were regarded as in existence, with a nominal membership of two thousand six hundred and twenty-three. The war does not appear to have affected the St. Louis lodges to as great an extent. In 1860 there were eighteen lodges in the city and one at Bridgeton, with seventeen hundred and sixty-six members, and in 1864 there was but one less, and the membership was thirteen hundred and sixty-three.

Upon the conclusion of peace the order began to revive and to recover the ground lost during the war.

-- 1798 --

The Grand Sire, the national head of the order, was Isaac M. Veitch, a resident of St. Louis, and as soon as hostilities had ceased he issued a proclamation inviting the lodges in the troubled districts to put themselves at once into affiliation with the order, and assuring them of a fraternal greeting. The proclamation closed with the "hope that our brotherhood may come forth from the severe ordeal to which it has been subjected unscathed and reinvigorated by its trials, and that its great heart may ever vibrate in unison with the teachings of charity."

The year 1865 completed the third decade of Odd-Fellowship in Missouri. In the period of thirty years of its existence one hundred and forty-eight lodges had been chartered, the initiations footed up to 9955, and the remaining membership was 3915. The total receipts of lodges, not counting interest on investments, was $468,904.12. The amount paid out for benefits and relief to members was $101,810.73, and the amount of investments $88,879.65.

In 1867 was begun an agitation for a new hall, the present building being insufficient for the demands constantly made upon it. There were then in St. Louis nineteen lodges, with 1938 members. In 1871 a Grand Lodge committee reported having bought a lot at the southwest corner of Ninth and Olive Streets, fronting one hundred and twenty-seven and a half feet on Olive and eighty-six and two-thirds feet on Ninth. It was proposed to build thereon a splendid Odd-Fellows' Temple, but for various reasons the idea has not been carried out, although it is still the purpose to do so at some future time. Most of the stock for the enterprise has been taken. It is held by lodges No. 1, 2, 3, 5, 11, and 18, and Wildey Encampment, No. 1.

In 1868 the lodges in St. Louis established an Odd-Fellows' Library, which was endowed in 1871 by the Grand Lodge, which appropriated three hundred dollars yearly, and assessed each member fifty cents a year and each person initiated the same amount. The yearly revenues of the library are now nine hundred and seventy-seven dollars. There are three thousand three hundred and fifty-five books on the shelves, and the institution is governed by representatives from the several St. Louis lodges. The library officers for the current year are: Chairman, M. C. Libby; Secretary, M. Hoffman; Treasurer, J. H. Crane; Librarian, J. J. Archer.

This library is well patronized by Odd-Fellows, Daughters of Rebekah, and their families, and is one of the most useful institutions of the kind in the city. On the 4th of October, 1869, Union Hall, corner of Broadway and Benton Streets, was dedicated with the usual ceremonies by the Odd-Fellows of St. Louis. After the rendering of several musical selections and the singing of hymns, an oration was delivered by Charles G. Manro, P. G. M., followed by an oration in German by C. Evers, D. D., G. M., and the presentation of a banner by the Rebekah Society of Schiller Lodge. 323

The celebration of the Semi-Centennial of American Odd-Fellowship was very generally observed throughout Missouri on the 26th of April, 1869. At St. Louis the celebration was worthy of the occasion. Six lodges and encampments joined in the procession, composed of three thousand five hundred members in regalia. The city presented a holiday aspect, as the result of the mayor's proclamation suspending business. The exercises were at Jackson Place Rink, and the address was delivered by Hon. William Wallace, of Indiana. A large social gathering of the order and their families took place at the Southern Hotel in the evening.

The following table will show (in addition to other important particulars) the amounts expended for relief in 1881-82:

NAME AND NUMBER. Relief Paid. Money in Treasury. Investments. Membership.
Travelers' Rest, No. 1 $535.00 $224.63 $9,199.99 80
Wildey, No. 2 266.00   24,631.29 77
Germania, No. 3 2,308 75 113.14 8,180.00 201
St. Louis, No. 5 3,552.20 152.40 78,858.82 274
Missouri, No. 11 856.25 473 13 15,160.00 217
Excelsior, No. 18 350.00 157.67 15,660.00 60
Laclede, No. 22 440.00 720.57 300.00 103
Washington, No. 24 883.00 251.58 3,300.00 133
Wingenund, No. 27 360.00 1,203.25 1,000.00 90
Goethe, No. 59 1,594.50   4,000.00 97
Bellefontaine, No. 73 649.65 853.15   115
Schiller, No. 89 1,255.50 1,034.38 8,700.00 191
De Soto, No. 90 273.00 99.10 400.00 45
Golden Rule, 109 2,154.90 432.55 4,891.00 163
Carondelet, No. 114 1,082.70 387. 80 1,265.00 119
Jefferson, No. 119 254.00 1,191.75 1,375.60 80
Concordia, No. 128 1,360.40 163.35 2,380.00 132
Pride of the West, No. 138 1 175 55 268.30 2,000.00 138
Home, No. 158 317.45 188.86 300.00 59
Cosmos, No. 196 91.00 1,274.40   47
Keystone, No. 214 308.65 648.20 500.00 46
Benton, No. 275 1,115.65 261.15 1,950.00 86
Mound City, No. 276 560.80 106.80 1,100.00 103
Summit, No. 277 316.65 285.00 1,100.00 71
Aurora, No. 298 254.00 871.85 500.00 65
Anchor, No. 322 69.00 479.50 1,509.50 98
Arcadian, No. 332 101.50 448.70 200.00 51
Centennial, No. 352 406.00 247.80 150.00 32
Harmonie, No. 353 374.00 624.95 1,400.00 83
Templar, 388 181.00 372.30 800.00 98
Mechanics, No. 419 324       13
Total $23,417.15 $13,536.26 $190,811.20 3157

This does not, however, embrace all the relief afforded, for in St. Louis the various lodges are required to contribute to the maintenance of a board of relief, which cares for the wants of indigent Odd-Fellows, and yearly disburses a considerable sum.

-- 1799 --

As previously stated, the order owns a handsome lot in Bellefontaine cemetery, where homeless and friendless Odd-Fellows are buried. In May, 1881, the lodges in Carondelet (South St. Louis) dedicated a beautiful "Odd-Fellows' Cemetery," which is managed by the South St. Louis Odd-Fellows' Cemetery Association. But the glory of Odd-Fellowship is in its care for the suffering living, and in this respect the Odd-Fellows of St. Louis have not been behind any in the land.

The Odd-Fellows of Missouri have also been prompt to respond liberally to appeals for aid from abroad. In 1871 occurred the memorable conflagration in Chicago, Ill., and the order in Missouri evinced their ready liberality by substantial aid to the sufferers in large contributions of money. In 1874 the city of Memphis, Tenn., was devastated by the yellow fever, and in response to the appeal of the Grand Master of Missouri the lodges in the State contributed several thousand dollars for the relief of that city.

The lodges in St. Louis have been remarkably vigorous; not a single one that has ever been organized has been obliged to disband, and there is, it is thought, but one instance where a suspension has ever taken place, and that was but temporary.

During the forty-seven years of the order in Missouri there have been organized 426 lodges, with a present membership of 15,200. The initiations were 48,413; lodge revenue, $2,066,136.38; number of brothers relieved, 21,654; number of widowed families relieved, 6183; total amount of relief paid, $173,030.10.

In January, 1881, the lodges in the jurisdiction received a new impetus through the new ritual, new work, etc., which involved a reduction of degrees, and since then the order in this jurisdiction has greatly flourished. There are 351 lodges in Missouri, with a revenue in 1881-82 of $104,135.65, and $67,315.82 in the treasury, and $368,859.10 in investments. During the year $44,537.15 was paid in the relief of families, sick benefits, education of orphans, and burial of the dead. The present grand officers (1882-83) are —

M. W. G. M., T. B. Gannaway, Paris; R. W. Dep. G. M., C. D. Lucas, Kansas City; R. W. G. W., Henry Cadle, Princeton; R. W. G. Sec., B. M. Sloan, St. Louis; R. W. G. Treas., W. H. Thompson, St. Louis; R. W. G. Rep., James A. Price, Weston; R. W. G. Rep., W. H. Woodward, St. Louis; W. G. Chap., Rev. H. J. La Tour, Rockport; W. G. Marshal, J. T. Johnston, Clarkton; W. G. C., A. A. Wheeler, Miami; W. G. G., W. J. Missemer, St. Joseph; W. G. H., Charles Mulford, St. Louis; G. Lec., George C. Brown, Paris.

The subordinate lodges of St. Louis, with the list of officers of each, for 1881-82 were —

Traveler's Rest, No. 1. — A. G. Lawrence, N. G.; Guido D'Oench, V. G.; Samuel Hemingway, Sec.; William Bryan, Per. Sec.; W. P. Gettys, Treas.

Wildey, No. 2. — C. W. Fitch, N. G.; Lewis C. Lame, V. G.; Charles B. Branson, Sec.; Charles Mulford, Per. Sec.; B. Van Blarcorn, Treas.

Germania, No. 3. — D. Hasekamp, N. G.; W. H. Henselmeyer, V. G.; F. Rose, Sec.; W. H. Sabath, Per. Sec.; B. Rohde, Treas.

St. Louis, No. 5. — H. A. Barmeier, N. G.; J. J. W. Thursby, V. G.; Thomas W. Curley, Sec.; John R. Williams, Per. Sec.; William B. May, Treas.

Missouri, No. 11. — S. D. Conway, N. G.; Frank H. Meiser, V. G.; John Yerkes, Sec.; W. A. Hequembourg, Per. Sec.; Samuel R. Fairchild, Treas.

Excelsior, No. 18. — George W. Baumhogg, N. G.; William Bauer, V. G.; Robert L. Little, Sec.; Paul H. Bierman, Per. Sec.; David W. Sadler, Treas.

Laclede, No. 22. — Thomas H. Woody, N. G.; Cyrus Hall, V. G.; Conrad Farner, Sec.; P. C. Egan, Per. Sec.; J. A. J. Arnold, Treas.

Washington, No. 24. — M. E. Williamson, N. G.; Henry Walther, V. G.; John Nolde, Sec.; Otto Kung, Per. See.; John Deininger, Treas.

Wingenund, No. 27. — Frederick Packard, N. G.; Alexander Gillespie, V. G.; Thomas M. Grayson, See.; J. D. Shields, Per. Sec.; J. M. Bixler, Treas.

Goethe, No. 59. — Freiderich Herkert, N. G.; Edward Kaub, V. G.; Henry Norris, See.; Franz Krein, Treas.

Bellefontaine, No. 73. — J. T. Bagot, N. G.; George H. Ellis, V. G.; Joseph Simpson, Sec.; E. F. Smith, Per. Sec.; George Platt, Treas.

Schiller, No. 89. — John Stegmann, N. G.; Jacob Goeres, V. G.; William Friedrichs, Sec.; John Colonius, Per. Sec.; Justus Teuteberg, Treas.

De Soto, No. 90. — Paul Ertelt, N. G.; Adam Heinselmann, V. G.; J. L. Botticher, Sec.; Fred. Kramm, Per. Sec.; John Devoto, Treas.

Carondelet, No. 114. — David Hughes, N. G.; Alexander McKay, V. G.; John Gausmann, Sec.; Matthew Leen, Per. Sec.; W. S. Patrick, Treas.

Jefferson, No. 119. — Charles Meyer, N. G.; Fred. Bieger, V. G.; Emil Simon, Sec.; J. W. Linhardt, Per. Sec.; George Vogler, Treas.

Concordia, No. 128. — Max Brunjes, N. G.; Henry Engelking, V. G.; J. Herold, Sec.; Gustav Kunsemuller, Per. Sec.; John Olfermann, Treas.

Pride of the West, No. 138. — George Bobb, N. G.; August Krackauer, V. G.; William Seimens, Sec.; E. W. Evert, Per. Sec.; Fridolin Spraul, Treas.

Home, No. 158. — M. Keating, N. G.; W. M. Smith, V. G.; Benjamin Hurl, Sec.; James P. McKay, Per. Sec.; J. Ruppenthal, Treas.

Cosmos, No. 196. — J. J. Ehrhardt, N. G.; F. M. Easterday, V. G.; Richard Jones, Sec.; J. G. R. Wintermann, Per. Sec.; M. Hoffmann, Treas.

Benton, No. 275. — Herman Hover, N. G.; Louis Ost, V. G.; C. C. Goedde, Sec.; Nicholas Berg, Per. Sec.; Charles Reinhardt, Treas.

Mound City, No. 276. — Edwin S. Pike, N. G.; J. T. Even, V. G.; F. A. Kelber, Sec.; William C. MeCormaok, Per. Sec.; Charles E. Wulfert, Treas.

Summit, No. 277. — Robert Vernell, N. G.; Joseph Heine, V. G.; W. K. Hoffman, Sec.; Thomas Moore, Per. Sec.; Christopher Ehlen, Treas.

Anchor, No. 322. — John Reed, N. G.; John F. Pierson, V. G.;

-- 1800 --

Philip Schnurr, Sec.; J. W. Chapman, Per. Sec.; Alexander Kilpatrick, Treas.

Arcadian, No. 332. — John Green, N. G.; Henry Breemer, V. G.; John T. Boles, Sec.; John T. Bell, Per. Sec.; George W. Otto, Treas.

Harmonie, No. 353. — John Schmid, N. G.; U. Harder, V. G.; F. J. Wimmer, Sec.; F. C. Wolpert, Per. Sec.; J. C. Schulte, Treas.

Templar, No. 388. — F. W. Doering, N. G.; C. O. Fouke, V. G.; W. J. Metzgar, Sec.; Charles Beeke, Per. Sec.; J. J. Krehor, Treas.

There are also in St. Louis four degree lodges of the Daughters of Rebekah, — Naomi, No. 2, eighty-one members; Faith, No. 29 (South St. Louis); Lily of the West, No. 82, thirty-one members; Martha Washington, No. 45, eighty-six members. There are twenty-six Rebekah Lodges in the State, with one hundred and eighty-eight members. This feature of the order has not prospered in this jurisdiction as in others, and the Grand Lodge of 1882 directed that no more lodges of the kind be authorized.

There are also in St. Louis six encampments, a branch of the order quite independent of the Grand Lodge, and established for the conferring of the "Sublime Degrees." These are as follows:

Name and Number Membership.
Wildey, No. 1 108
St. Louis, No. 13 32
Washington, No. 18 58
Mound City, No. 19 65
Missouri, No. 59 27
Carondelet, No. 64 38
Total 328

The first encampment (Wildey, No. 1, of St. Louis) was instituted, as heretofore stated, by Mr. Wildey, in June, 1838; the second (Frontier Encampment, at Weston) in 1844. In 1845 a Grand Encampment was authorized, and the same was instituted Feb. 25, 1846. There are seventy-seven encampments in Missouri, with nineteen hundred and thirty-nine contributing members.

The headquarters of the Grand Encampment are in St. Louis, and the officers are —

M. W. G. P., G. D. Gray, Glenwood; M. B. G. P., Lewis L. L. Allen, Peirce City; R. W. G. S. W., A. J. Blackford, Clinton; R. W. G. S., C. C. Archer, St. Louis; R. W. G. Treas., M. C. Libby, St. Louis; R. W. G. J. W., H. H. Noland, Independence; R. W. G. Rep., J. C. Herms, Neosho; R. W. G. Rep., D. A. Shepherd, Brookfleld; W. G. M., D. A. Smith, Carthage; W. G. I. S., John H. Biggs, Canton; W. G. O. S., Charles A. Linck, St. Louis.

The Odd-Fellows' Mutual Aid Association of Missouri is an institution organized under the laws of the State, to afford members of the order safe and cheap insurance. It has about two thousand five hundred members.

Colored Odd-Fellows. — There is also extant in St. Louis an order of colored Odd-Fellows, with several lodges.

Independent Order of Good Fellows is a German beneficiary society, whose origin is involved in doubt, and which is supposed to have taken root in St. Louis in 1852. There are ten lodges in the city.

The Maccabees. — This order originated in London, Ontario, several years ago, and had several flourishing tents in St. Louis. Dissensions in the order caused a falling off, and now there are but one or two tents in the city.

The Iron Hall, a beneficiary secret order, originated in Indianapolis in April, 1881. There are several branches in St. Louis.

The Ancient Order of Druids originated in London, England, in 1771, and was introduced in this country by Thomas Wildey, the father of American Odd-Fellowship. The first grove in the West was organized at St. Louis, Sept. 11, 1848, by William Gebhardt, who had been a member in New York. It was called "Missouri Grove, No. 1," and the charter members were William Gebhardt, Philip Censor, Jacob Kothengatter, K. Pfennig, and Ch. Lohmann. This grove is still alive and vigorous. Among its earliest members, and probably the only one now living, was Philip Stremmel, then a leading German, and since prominent in public affairs. On the 9th of April, 1849, Herr Stremmel and a few others instituted "Teutonia Grove, No. 2." The objects of the order were of a social and benevolent character.

The next grove to organize was "United Brothers Grove, No. 3," and Aug. 17, 1850, delegates from these three groves assembled and instituted the Grand Grove of Missouri.

The order grew slowly. It met with much opposition, chiefly because, being secret, its objects were not understood. Some writer in the Herald des Glaubens attacked the order, and provoked a vigorous reply in a paper published at Belleville, Ill. The groves were in the habit of appearing in regalia and burying their dead members. Such a proceeding had never been known in St. Louis before, and caused considerable comment. Finally the opposition ceased, and the progress of the order was more rapid and satisfactory. In 1855 it was strong enough to undertake the erection of a hall. Stock was subscribed by the respective groves, and much interest was manifested. At a meeting held on the 15th of April, 1857, the Druids' Hall Association was organized, and on the 4th of May following the first election of directors was held at the hall corner of Second and Spruce Streets. On May 11th the board of directors elected

-- 1801 --

the following officers: John Keil, president; Louis Frey, vice-president; Frederick Spies, secretary; H. H. Freese, treasurer. On the 11th of June the shareholders voted to purchase from John Simonds the lot on the southeast corner of Ninth and Market Streets for twenty-one thousand dollars, and the purchase was ratified on the 1st of July, 1857. On the 29th of January, 1858, it was decided to erect a three-story building, to be used as a meeting hall for the different groves, and work was accordingly commenced, and the structure finished.

On the 5th of December, 1875, the board of directors resolved to build a new hall, the cost of which should not exceed fifty thousand dollars. The cornerstone of this structure was laid on the 17th of September, 1876. The officers of the association at the time were Henry Ziegenheim, president; E. H. Kortkamp, vice-president; Nicholas Berg, secretary; William Hahn, treasurer. The building committee consisted of Aug. Bohn, H. Heitman, and Hermann Holzgrebe. Louis Kledus was the architect and superintendent.

The building was completed and dedicated Dec. 16, 1877. It has a front of forty-three and one-half feet on Market, and one hundred and forty and one-half feet on Ninth Street, and is a stately structure of brick, four stories high, costing sixty thousand dollars, a splendid monument to the enterprise of the Druids of St. Louis.

Up to the commencement of the war the order continued to prosper, its membership being at one time two thousand three hundred; but the war scattered the members, and many of them fought and died in that conflict. Since the war the progress has been steady, but the former prosperity has not as yet returned. At present there are in existence the following groves:

Name and Number. Members.
Missouri, No. 1 48
Teutonia, No. 2 78
United Brothers, No. 3 74
George Washington, No. 6 36
Western, No. 7 49
St. Louis, No. 8 51
Laclede, No. 9 71
Franklin. No. 10 82
Excelsior, No. 11 70
Concordia, No. 12 38
De Soto, No. 14 44
Jackson, No. 15 127
Jefferson, No. 17 58
Union, No. 20 62
Schiller, No. 24 49
Lincoln, No. 26 44
Walhalla, No. 28 107
Oak, No. 30 53
Lessing, No. 31 43
Canton, No. 36 23
South St. Joseph, No. 37 29
Total 1236

The present officers of the Grand Grove are —

N. G. A., Henry Duve, St. Joseph; D. G. A., P. Schaffmitt, St. Louis; G. S., Henry Grape, St. Louis; G. T., H. Ziegenhein, St. Louis; G. G., J. Rueger, St. Louis; G. M., H. Koelkebeck, St. Louis; G. H., J. W. Wirth, Kansas City.

The present officers of Druids' Hall Association are —

President, E. F. Rethwilen; Vice-President, H. Ruppelt; Secretary, Henry Grupe; Treasurer, W. Hahn.

During the past year the order relieved one hundred and ninety-seven sick members, and paid them $4992.70 in benefits. During the same period $19,993.10 was paid to widows and orphans of deceased members. The groves have a capital of $37,626.50, besides owning Druids' Hall, which cost $60,000.

Knights of Pythias. — This order was established at Washington, D. C., in 1864. The first lodge in Missouri was instituted at Kansas City, May 5, 1870. The second was instituted at St. Louis May 7, 1870, by I. Q. Cross, P. C., and the charter members were J. Sare, R. S. Wallington, R. C. Silence, Joseph Schiller, Casper Brenner, John H. Weder, Samuel J. Ruoff, C. B. Vail, and Patrick Maher. The Grand Lodge of Missouri was instituted at St. Louis, July 7, 1871, seven lodges participating. Samuel Reed, Supreme Chancellor, was the instituting officer. W. H. H. Russell, a prominent lawyer of St. Louis, was elected Grand Chancellor. There are now fifty-four lodges in Missouri, with about three thousand four hundred members. The lodges in St. Louis are as follows:

Name and Number. When Instituted. Membership.
Missouri, No. 2 May 7, 1870 62
Germania, No. 6 March 10, 1871 113
St. Louis, No. 7 April 7, 1871 30
Crescent, No. 10 Oct. 19, 1871 30
Lincoln, No. 18 Feb. 9, 1872 39
Excelsior, No. 19 April 5, 1872 77
Pride of the West, No. 24 June 29, 1872 49
Damon, No. 28 Oct. 28, 1872 148
Red Cross, No. 54 July 5, 1878 82
Brilliant, No. 55 Aug. 11, 1878 101
Paragon, No. 58 Aug. 7, 1880 80
Golden Crown, No. 62 Aug. 19, 1880 114
Aurora, No. 64 May 13, 1881 23
Scandia, No. 67 Sept. 24, 1881 28
Monitor, No. 68 Jan. 31, 1882 43
Chevalier, No. 70 Feb. 24, 1882 52
Total   1071

This order has "endowment sections," paying death benefits of one thousand, two thousand, and three thousand dollars; and "uniform divisions," in which members enjoy the advantage of a rigid military drill. The present Grand Lodge officers are —

G. C., R. H. Maybury, Kansas City; G. V. C., W. A. Radcliffe, Sedalia; G. P., Rev. John Gierlow, St. Louis; G. K. of R., T. R. Gelwicks, St. Louis; G. M. of E., Adam Theis, Hannibal; Supreme Representatives, R. E. Cowan, Judge John A. Lacey.

-- 1802 --

Colored Knights of Pythias. — The first lodge of Knights of Pythias (colored) was organized in 1880, and the second in 1881. The membership of the two is about one hundred. There is but one other lodge in Missouri, at Kansas City; and there is no State Grand Lodge. The Supreme Lodge is represented by W. T. Mumford, Deputy Supreme Chancellor Commanding.

The Ancient Order of United Workmen, a secret beneficial organization, which pays two thousand dollars on the death of members, collected on the "cooperative" or "mutual assessment" plan of one dollar from each member, as may be needed, originated in Pennsylvania in 1868, and quite early found a foothold in St. Louis, the first lodge (St. Louis Lodge, No. 1) having been organized May 12, 1875, by R. L. Miller. Within the next year five more lodges were started in the city, and April 25, 1876, the "Grand Lodge of Missouri" was organized by R. L. Miller, D. D., S. M. W., six lodges participating. The first officers of the Grand Lodge were —

P. G. M. W., R. L. Miller; G. M. W., Hermann Kramer; G. G. F., E. Roband; G. O., William Brenneke; G. G., J. O. Hubler; G. R., William C. Richardson; G. Ree., E. F. Schreiner; G. W., R. L. Mueller; Trustees, C. W. Thiel, William Von Ahnen, F. Krage.

The object of the order is partly beneficiary and partly educational, and for the latter purpose the infant Grand Lodge proceeded to raise funds for establishing a library by enacting that one-tenth of its gross receipts should yearly be set aside for that object, and that each subordinate lodge should annually be assessed one dollar for every member for the same end. This project was ultimately abandoned, and the order confined itself chiefly to its benevolent aims and attained a great popularity, there being now in the Missouri jurisdiction about two hundred and forty-five lodges, with seven thousand nine hundred and ten members.

In August, 1878, the Missouri lodges, having attained a membership exceeding two thousand, were accorded "separate jurisdiction;" and in October, 1878, the Grand Lodge was legally chartered, the incorporators being Dr. William C. Richardson, A. Willhartitz, and William Brenneke. In order to afford members of the order insurance to an amount exceeding two thousand dollars, the Grand Legion of Select Knights, an endowment rank, was in March, 1880, organized; it allows three thousand dollars additional insurance, and there are twenty-four legions and about seven hundred and fifty members in this jurisdiction. Since the order was established in Missouri it has had two hundred and eight deaths, and has disbursed four hundred and sixteen thousand dollars to the widows and children of deceased members, at an average yearly cost of fifteen dollars and fifty cents per two thousand dollars insurance.

The present officers of the Grand Lodge of Missouri are —

G. M. W., H. L. Rogers, St. Louis; G. F., D. H. Shields, Hannibal; G. O., W. D. Crandall, Brookfield; G. Recorder, W. C. Richardson, St. Louis; G. Receiver, John D. Vineil, St. Louis; G. G., S. A. Underwood, Joplin; G. W., W. C. Smith, Holden; P. G. M. W., J. A. Brooks, Warrensburg; G. Med. Ex., William C. Richardson, M. D., St. Louis; G. L., P. P. Ellis, New Florence, Mo.; Reps, to Supreme Lodge, William C. Richardson, J. A. Brooks, H. L. Rogers.

The following table gives a list of the lodges in St. Louis City and County, with date of institution, etc.:

Name and Number. When Instituted. Membership.
St. Louis, No. 1 May 12, 1875 83
Germania, No. 2 July, 1875 73
United, No. 3 October, 1875 89
Missouri, No. 4 March, 1876 72
Enterprise, No. 5 March, 1876 97
Washington, No. 6 March, 1876 70
Franklin, No. 8 May 15, 1876 47
Schiller, No. 9 August, 1876 73
American, No. 10 Oct. 15, 1876 46
Chouteau Valley, No. 11 Jan. 26, 1877 58
Concordia, No. 13 March 12, 1877 65
Jefferson, No. 14 March 9, 1877 203
Welcome, No. 16 March 27, 1877 94
Meta, No. 19 May 27, 1877 60
Union, No. 20 May 25, 1877 58
Security, No. 44 Jan. 18, 1875 87
Covenant, No. 50 Feb. 25; 1878 85
Prospect, No. 52 March 16, 1878 55
Globe, No. 54 March 30, 1878 263
Central, No. 57 April 23, 1878 110
Peateom, No. 59 June 5, 1878 78
Beckville, No. 66 July 8, 1878 28
Anvil, No. 75 Aug. 24, 1878 80
Standard, No. 80 Oct. 3, 1878 98
Fenton, No. 180 Feb. 11, 1880 21
Lindell, No. 211 Dec. 7, 1880 34
Lyon, No. 222 July 30, 1881 97
Helvetia, No. 234 Oct. 31, 1881 58
North Star, No. 245 March 24, 1882 36
Total   2318

Knights and Ladies of Honor. — This is a secret benevolent institution to assist the sick and distressed. It was organized at Louisville, Ky., in 1878, originally for the benefit of members of the Knights of Honor and their female relatives, but lately the restriction has been removed, and any persons of "reputable profession, business, or occupation" may be admitted. It pays death benefits ranging from one thousand dollars to three thousand dollars, and is believed to be the first society of its kind to admit female members to insurance on equal terms with men. The first lodge in St. Louis was organized Jan. 21, 1876, by T. W. Seymour, Supreme Deputy. The Grand Lodge of Missouri was instituted in August, 1878, with the following officers, all of St. Louis:

-- 1803 --

P. G. P., W. H. Haskell; G. P., Thomas R. Dunn; G. V. P., C. M. Riley; G. Sec., Robert Herries; G. Treas., W. H. Haskell; G. Chap., W. A. Halstead; G. G., W. L. Graydon; G. Guard, J. C. Zabriski; G. S., E. J. Williamson; G. Trustees, George Cochrane, Edw. C. Winter, F. D. Macbeth: Supreme Representatives, Freeman Wright, C. M. Riley.

The executive Grand Lodge officers are —

G. P., J. M. Thomas, St. Louis; G. Sec., Freeman Wright, St. Louis; G. Treas., Mrs. E. A. Graydon, St. Louis.

Freeman Wright, of St. Louis, is also Supreme Secretary, and Mrs. E. A. Graydon is also Supreme Chaplain.

There are twenty-four lodges in Missouri, with fourteen hundred and ninety-six members. St. Louis has the following:

Name and Number. When Instituted. Membership.
Initial, No. 1 Jan. 21, 1876 80
Protection, No. 19 Feb. 23, 1878 102
Rachel, No. 30 April 1, 1878 60
Concordia, No. 48 May 27, 1878 84
West Gate, No. 56 June 20, 1878 81
St. Ange, No. 172 Aug. 29, 1878 74
Germania, No. 210 Dec. 5, 1879 78
Amelia, No. 211 Dec. 13, 1879 34
Ivy, No. 237 Feb. 3, 1880 66
Eintracht, No. 316 May 27, 1880 316
Olive Branch, No. 319 May 14, 1881 47
Jewel of the West, No. 349 July 31, 1880 66
North Star, No. 392 Feb. 15, 1881 33
Victoria, No. 393 Feb. 21, 1881 92
Pride of St. Louis, No. 409 March 21, 1881 48
Era, No. 511 April 8, 1882 32
Garfield, No. 516 April 14, 1882 73
Martha Washington, No. 472 Jan. 27, 1881 79
Mutual, No. 529 April 7, 1882 33
Golden Crown, No. 531 April 28, 1882 62
Total   1540

Improved Order of Red Men. — The order of Red Men is peculiarly an American institution, originating, according to the records of the Great Council of the United States, in 1812, at Fort Mifflin, Pa., on the Delaware. This, however, is denied by Judge George W. Lindsay, of Baltimore, who claims that lodges of the society of Red Men existed in Annapolis, Md., as early as 1771. However this may be, the order ranks among the oldest protective and benevolent societies of the country. The Tammany Society, of Annapolis, Md., which is supposed to be the first society of Red Men, celebrates May 1st as the anniversary of the order. This society had its origin, or was an offshoot of a society known as the "Sons of Liberty," which took active part against the Stamp Act. May 1st was celebrated for many years by the Annapolis Red Men, and on these occasions it was the custom of the members to clothe themselves as children of the forest and perform the "war-dance" and imitate many other Indian customs. On the 20th of May, 1835, the Great Council of the Improved Order of Red Men of Maryland was organized, and in 1847 the Great Council of the United States first met.

The first tribe in Missouri (Minnehaha Tribe) was established in St. Louis about 1858, and Mohawk and Cherokee Tribes were soon after instituted. These seem to have been the only tribes until after the war. Two of them worked in the English tongue and the other in German. There is no record of any new tribes in the city until about 1870, when the existing lodges began to be instituted.

The present officers of the Great Tribe are —

Sachem, Eugene Hirsch, St. Louis; Senior Sagamore, Henry Strattman, St. Louis; Junior Sagamore, Jacob Frank, St. Louis; Prophet, C. A. Brennmehl, St. Louis; Record-Keeper, Joseph Witzel, St. Louis; Wampum-Keeper, Philip Neu, St. Louis.

There are nine tribes of this order in St. Louis, all working in German, and having about four hundred and fifty members. The society is beneficiary, with death and sick benefits.

Independent Order of Red Men. — This society was started by the withdrawal of certain members in Baltimore from the Improved Order of Red Men in 1850. The Grand Tribe of the Independent Order of Red Men was chartered June 11th of that year. At one period the order flourished in St. Louis, and within but a year or two there were perhaps a dozen lodges, but all traces have been lost.

American Legion of Honor. — This is a secret benevolent order, established at Boston, Mass., in 1878, and incorporated in 1879. It embraces a membership ranging from eighteen to sixty-five years, and pays death benefits of five hundred, one thousand, two thousand, three thousand, four thousand, and five thousand dollars. Assessments are graded according to age of candidate upon becoming a member. The order was introduced into St. Louis June 16, 1880, when the first council was instituted by Michael Brooks, of St. Louis, representative of the Supreme Council. On Sept. 19, 1881, the Grand Council of Missouri was instituted with the following charter members: Michael Brooks, Andrew B. Barbee, M. D., Wilber B. Cook, Thomas S. Hogan, James S. Hannan, Asa B. Ecoff, James J. Dockery, Edward F. Schulz, W. Mardorf, M. Tuhbesing, Charles J. Wendling, John C. Rivers, John M. Collins, and Dr. Edward W. Dewees. The first and present officers of the Grand Council are —

G. C., Michael Brooks, St. Louis; G. V. C., A. B. Barbee, M. D., Tower Grove; G. O., Wilbur B. Cook, St. Louis; G. Sec., Thomas S. Hogan, St. Louis; G. Treas., W. Mardorf, St. Louis; P. G. C., James S. Hannan, St. Louis; Trustees, John M. Collins, St. Louis; J. Walter Bayse, Bowling Green; Charles J. Wendling, St. Louis; Supreme Representative, Michael Brooks, St. Louis; Alternate, J. C. Rivers, St. Louis.

There are fourteen councils in St. Louis, all instituted by Michael Brooks:

-- 1804 --

Name and Number. When Instituted. Membership.
George Washington, No. 214 June 16, 1880 33
George Peabody, No. 269 Aug. 21, 1880 28
Tower Grove, No. 279 Sept. 4, 1880 29
Franklin, No. 295 Sept. 25, 1880 25
Stephen Girard, No. 340 Nov. 16, 1880 24
Lafayette, No. 392 Jan. 21, 1881 25
Humboldt, No. 495 April 4, 1881 32
Jefferson, No. 527 April 19, 1881 18
Marquette, No. 590 May 27, 1881 30
Columbia, No. 632 June 25, 1881 24
Daniel Webster, No. 678 Aug. 4, 1881 22
Exchange, No. 291 Jan. 26, 1882 56
Vidette, No. 853 Feb. 22, 1882 36
De Soto, No. 896 March 29, 1882 70
Total   452

Legion of Honor. — This is a society originating in St. Louis, and, considering its age, one of the most successful on record. It was organized in May, 1879, by John H. Terry, Henry Feuerbach, John W. Barnes, W. A. Edmonds, I. R. Trask, C. M. Whitney, George W. Simpkins, N. G. Pierce, James L. Carlisle, P. H. Cronin, A. S. Barnes, M. N. Burchard, and S. S. Scott, thirteen gentlemen who had been members of an order which had succumbed to bad management and the yellow fever losses of the preceding year. In July, 1879, these gentlemen obtained a charter and organized a Supreme Council, with the following officers:

S. C., John H. Terry; V. C., M. M. Burchard; S. R., James L. Carlisle; S. Treas., N. G. Pierce; S. Chap., P. H. Cronin; S. M. D., Dr. A. S. Barnes; S. O., J. W. Barnes; S. S., H. Feuerbach.

The order was established to provide a death benefit of two thousand dollars, and it was determined, by rigid examinations and closely guarding the admission to membership, to build up an order of high social character. In both respects its success has been beyond all precedent in the history of secret societies. In three years a membership of nearly three thousand has been obtained, embracing the foremost men of the city in every department of trade and every profession. Its roster contains the names of the mayor and most of the leading city officials, the most prominent members of the Merchants' Exchange, leading bankers, judges, lawyers, and clergymen, etc., and the society is composed substantially of all those elements that have made St. Louis what it is, and have given it prominence abroad. It is one of the city's representative institutions, and its reunions and other public entertainments prove that it is popularly so regarded. Its membership and operations are, and probably will be, confined to the city of St. Louis. It is now engaged in raising money for a new hall and Academy of Music, for council rooms and a general headquarters. This building will be situated at the corner of Olive Street and Garrison Avenue, will be sixty by one hundred and thirty-four feet, four stories high, and rising to an altitude of eighty-five feet. It will cost sixty-five thousand dollars.

The officers of the Supreme Council are —

S. C., C. M. Whitney; S. V. C., Charles E. Slayback; S. R., L. C. Haynes; S. Treas., I. R. Trask; S. M. Ex., R. J. Hill, M. D.; S. Chap., A. F. Harvey; S. G., F. A. Johann; S. O., A. G. Peterson; S. S., John E. Jones.

The following is a list of the Councils, with membership, etc.:

Name and Number. When Instituted. Membership.
Alpha, No. 1 May 19, 1879 299
Irving, No. 2 July 12, 1879 335
Carondelet, No. 3 Aug. 16, 1879 49
Hyde Park, No. 4 April 3, 1880 123
Franklin, No. 5 Sept. 17, 1879 97
St. Louis, No. 6 Sept. 23, 1879 481
West End, No. 7 Nov. 26, 1880 169
Kirkwood, No. 8 Oct. 6, 1879 89
Compton Hill, No. 9 Oct. 22, 1879 235
Victoria, No. 10 April 6, 1881 156
Empire, No. 11 Dec. 11, 1879 194
Grove, No. 12 Dec. 15, 1879 33
Commercial, No. 13 Jan. 7, 1880 136
Stella, No. 14 Jan. 17, 1880 103
Bonaparte, No. 15 Feb. 27, 1880 212
Shakespeare, No. 16 Feb. 28, 1880 102
Excelsior, No. 17 Jan. 3, 1882 42
Ivanhoe, No. 18 Jan. 16, 1882 24
Total   2879

Deutsch Orden Harugari. — The German order Harugari originated in the East about 1846 with some German-Americans, and its object is officially declared to be "to preserve and diffuse the German tongue in the United States, and wherever the order directs, and to afford the German-speaking citizens of the country opportunity to advance their mental and material interests, and to elevate and ennoble their social conditions." This is sought to be accomplished by the fraternity of the lodges. There is a beneficiary department, offering death benefits of $500, $1000, and $2000, also $200 upon death of the wife of a member, and five dollars per week in case of sickness.

The Grand Lodge of the United States was organized in 1847, but the first lodge in Missouri does not seem to have been organized until some ten years later.

There are now thirty-three subordinate lodges in this jurisdiction, two degree lodges, and one Grand Lodge. The total membership is 2176. In 1881-82 death benefits amounting to $28,800 were paid, and $6745.80 in sick benefits. The revenues of the lodges were $32,428.15, and they had a reserve fund of $16,020.57. The officers of the Grand Lodge are —

G. B., Wilhelm Weiler, St. Louis; D. G. B., Charles Thomas, Kansas City; G. Auf., Paul Yoschen, St. Louis; G. Sec., Ernst Knickmeyer, St. Louis; G. Treas., Gottfried Guckes, St. Louis; G. Chap., C. Seibert, St. Louis; G. Marshal, P. Gundlack, Jr., St. Louis; G. Rep., Henry Hiemanz, Ernest Knickmeyer; Trustees, Henry Hiemenz, Wilhelm Knickmeyer, Jacob Gruen.

-- 1805 --

In St. Louis there are twenty-nine lodges, as follows: Germania, No. 70; Hermann, No. 73; Columbus, No. 112; St. Louis, No. 113; Harmony, No. 125; Goethe, No. 158; Concordia, No. 164; Humboldt, No. 170; Teutonia, No. 174; Lincoln, No. 190; Cimbria, No. 204; Walhalla, No. 236; Schiller, No. 240; Allemania, No. 248; Bavaria, No. 261; Eintracht, No. 263; Washington, No. 274; Arndt, No. 311; Barbarossa, No. 331; Fortschritt, No. 341; Deutsche Eiche, No. 366; Hertha, No. 370; Pestalozzi, No. 412; Far West, No. 456; Schiller Degree Lodge, No. 16; Cherusker Degree Lodge, No. 50; Gutenberg Mannie, No. 32; Robert Blum Mannie, No. 49.

Seven Wise Men is the name of a secret benevolent order which originated in New Orleans about 1852, and was established in St. Louis in 1853 or 1854 by Henry Bishop, who had been a member in the former city. Several conclaves were instituted, and in 1859 the Grand Lodge was organized. At one time there were from five hundred to one thousand members in St. Louis. During the war the membership greatly diminished, and communication with New Orleans being cut off, the Northern conclaves declared their independence, and have since refused allegiance to the Southern fountain head. The present membership is mainly in New York, Pennsylvania, etc., and is estimated at about ten thousand. There are three conclaves in St. Louis, the only ones in Missouri:

Name and Number. Membership.
St. Louis, No. 74 75
George Washington, No. 48 50
Harmonic, No. 51 45
Total 170

The present officers of the Grand Conclave of Missouri are —

G. M., Edward Holtz; G. C., Joseph Kolb; G. P., August Warnecke; G. Sec., Henry Koch; G. Treas., John H. Koch; G. H., Fred. Mence; G. G., Charles Taake.

The order pays a sick benefit of from three to five dollars per week, and a death benefit of five hundred dollars.

Ancient Order of Foresters. — This order originated in England in 1745, and is established in most English-speaking parts of the world. Its object is the protection and assistance of its members in sickness and distress, the burial of members and their wives, and the payment of five hundred dollars or one thousand dollars to the surviving families of deceased members. Benefits are collected on the "mutual assessment" plan. It has been established in America some thirty years, and was introduced into St. Louis in 1875, when the first court was organized by John Waters, of St. Louis, who represented the Sub-High Court of the United States. Among the early promoters of the order were Gardner Hepburn, Robert Herries, J. J. Gower, Dr. Hamilton, and others. In 1877 the District Court, comprising Missouri, Kansas, and a portion of Illinois, was organized, with headquarters in St. Louis. The district officers are —

D. C. R., Gardner Hepburn, St. Louis; Sub. D. C. R., A. M. Osborn, St. Louis; D. C. Sec., T. I. Rankin, St. Louis; D. C. Treas., J. M. Parks, St. Louis.

There are thirteen courts in this jurisdiction, ten of them in St. Louis, as follows:

Court and Number. Membership.
Pioneer of the West, No. 5925 138
Missouri, No. 6179 68
St. Louis, No. 6204 124
George Washington, No. 6259 60
Berlin, No. 6346 90
Hope of the West, No. 6347 46
Edwin Forrest, No. 6455 94
Benton, No. 6456 96
Future Great, No. 6461 58
Diana, 6801 62
Total 836

The Sons of Herman is a secret society composed exclusively of Germans, which was established in New York in 1840. Its object is social and beneficial, and to afford German-speaking people in the United States assistance in advancing their material and moral interests. The first lodge in St. Louis was not instituted until 1867, and the charter members were Alexander Bergfeld, Hermann Huss, L. Kusehagen, Heinrich Wiecke, and A. M. Beck.

The Grand Lodge of Missouri was founded Feb. 28, 1868, with the following officers from the three St. Louis lodges then existing: Grand President, A. Bergfeld; Grand Vice-President, H. W. Lindemann; Grand Secretary, W. H. Mueller; Grand Treasurer, F. Zoll; Grand Guide, Hermann Huss; Grand Sentinel, Louis Kusehagen.

The present Grand Lodge officers are as follows:

Matthew Buchler, Grand President; Henry Alewei, Grand Vice-President; Louis Schafer, Grand Treasurer; F. Diekroeger, Grand Secretary; C. H. Offer, G. Con.; John Meir, G. I. T.; Chris. Thiemers, G. O. T.; John Kreh, Phil. Bamberger, and H. H. Schwartze, Grand Trustees.

The order pays sick benefits, and seven hundred dollars death benefits. There are twenty-two lodges in Missouri, with fourteen hundred and thirteen, members. The receipts of the Grand Lodge (as per report of 1882) were $13,109.99; $19,210 was paid in death benefits, and $4965 for sick benefits. The Grand Lodge has a reserve fund of $8489.15.

The St. Louis lodges are as follows:

-- 1806 --

Name and Number. When Instituted. Membership.
St. Louis, No. 1 June 7, 1867 110
Pride of the West, No. 2 July 18, 1867 97
Humboldt, No. 3 Feb. 21, 1868 147
Walhalla, No. 4   101
Teutoberg, No. 5 Nov. 22, 1872 121
Armin, No. 6 March 12, 1871 66
Germania, No. 7 Oct. 11, 1871 58
Schiller, No. 8 March 6, 1872 78
Harmonie, No. 9 April 11, 1872 48
Eintracht, No. 10 May 29, 1872 62
Freundschaft, No. 11 Sept. 28, 1872 34
Felaen, No. 12 Oct. 26, 1872 25
Fortschritt, No. 13 Jan. 11, 1873 138
Teutonia, No. 14 Feb. 19, 1873 53
Einigkeit, No. 15 April 11, 1873 67
Goethe, No. 16 May 27, 1873 26
Hansa, No. 18 Sept. 23, 1873 69
Arndt, No. 22 Dec. 22, 1873 39
Barbarossa, No. 24 June 30, 1874 21
Total   1360

Order of Mutual Protection. — This is a secret society which originated in St. Louis, and was incorporated Dec. 16, 1878, by Theo. H. Thomas, Frank D. Macbeth, George W. Hall, W. A. Edmonds, and J. M. Thomas. Its object is to provide for insurance in sums of one thousand, two thousand, three thousand, and four thousand dollars, collectable by assessment. It has now about fifteen hundred members in good standing in Missouri, Kansas, Iowa, Illinois, and Pennsylvania. The present supreme officers are —

Supreme President, Dr. O. A. Wall, St. Louis; Supreme Vice-President, J. H. Cook, Ottawa, Kan.; Supreme Secretary, G. L. Kennedy, St. Louis; Supreme Treasurer, R. A. Long, Holden, Mo.; Supreme Medical Examiner, Dr. T. E. Holland, St. Louis; Supreme Supervisors, Freeman Wright, St. Louis; W. A. Brawner, St. Louis; Asa Maddox, Kansas City.

The St. Louis lodges are as follows:

Name and Number. Membership.
Misouri, No. 2 31
St. Louis, No. 3 63
Concordia, No. 4 49
Lyon, No. 5 52
Star, No. 6 118
Washington, No. 8 32
Lafayette, No. 10 83
Wayne, No. 13 41
Jefferson, No. 17 28
Lincoln, No. 22 37
Garfield, No. 23 30
Italia, No. 26 29
Garrison, No. 37 33
Benton, No. 41 20
Mount Olive, No. 42 53
Total 699

Knights of Labor. — This is a secret colored social organization, whose origin dates from 1855 at Galena, Ill. It has recently been reorganized so as to embrace a death benefit of two thousand dollars. The membership is mainly in Missouri and the neighboring Southern States. There are nearly eighty temples and tabernacles in Missouri, and the aggregate membership in the one hundred and eight temples and one hundred and twenty-six tabernacles under the supreme supervision is about seven thousand. The head of the order is Rev. Moses Dickson, Chief Grand Mentor, at Higginsville, Mo. Both sexes are admitted, the men as Knights of Labor, associated in temples, and the women as Daughters of the Tabernacle, meeting in tabernacles. The first temple in St. Louis was established in 1878, and the first tabernacle in May, 1878. There are eight temples and seventeen tabernacles in the city, with a membership of two thousand five hundred. This is the most popular colored society in the city.

The Independent Order Free Sons of Israel is a secret beneficiary organization which originated in New York about 1853. Membership is exclusively confined to Hebrews. The order pays one thousand dollars to the heirs of deceased members, and such sick and funeral benefits are paid as individual lodges may determine.

The order flourished mainly in the East until after the war. The first society in St. Louis was established in 1872. There are four lodges in St. Louis, embracing the most prominent and progressive Hebrews of the city. There is also a ladies' lodge, differing from the male lodges in paying no death benefits. The lodges in St. Louis are as follows:

Name and Number. When Instituted. Membership.
Progress, No. 53 Sept. 6, 1872 120
Judah Tomo, No. 4 April 15, 1873 75
George Washington, No. 82 Jan. 14, 1877 37
Pride of the West, No. 96 Dec. 14, 1881 26
Total   258

The ladies' lodge, Fortschritts Tochter, or "Daughters of Progress," was instituted April 27, 1873, and has twenty-six members. The only other lodge of this character in the West is at Chicago.

The lodges in Missouri belong to Grand Lodge District No. 2, embracing Indiana and the States west and north. The District Grand Lodge was instituted Oct. 8, 1876, and the present Grand Lodge officers are —

G. M., Philip Stein, Chicago; Dep. G. M., William Katzenstein, Milwaukee; Dep. Treas., Israel Von Baalen, Chicago; Dep. Sec., William Deutsch, St. Louis; Dep. W., Morris Levy, Chicago; Dep. Tyler, George Jacoby, Minneapolis.

In the interim between the Grand Lodge sessions the order is governed by a general committee, composed of Anthony Lichtenhein and Louis J. Lippett, of St. Louis, and Simon Greenebaum, Morris Oesterreicher, and Hermann Goldsmith, of Chicago. There are about eleven hundred members in this district, and nearly ten thousand members in all.

-- 1807 --

Knights of the Golden Rule. — This is a secret beneficiary order which originated at Louisville, Ky., in 1879, and was incorporated in that State August 16th of that year, and in St. Louis November 18th of the same year. There were then two castles in St. Louis. It provides insurance ranging from five hundred dollars to six thousand five hundred dollars; and there is also a "Degree of Ruth" for ladies, with an endowment of two thousand dollars. There are seven castles in Missouri, with about three hundred and seventy members. The St. Louis castles are

Name and Number. When Instituted. Membership.
Washington, No. 4 Aug. 26, 1879 95
Excaliber, No. 7 Aug. 29, 1879 93
St. Louis, No. 117 March 16, 1881 81
Yeteve, No. 200 Jan. 20, 1882 29
Total   298

The entire membership of the order is about eight thousand in twenty-five different States. There is no Grand Lodge in Missouri, but the functions of such a body are performed by William C. Streetor, of St. Louis, Grand Commander. Sir Knight Frank D. Macbeth, of St. Louis, is the Supreme Secretary of the order, and Dr. E. J. Williamson, also of St. Louis, is one of the Supreme Trustees. The membership in St. Louis embraces some of the leading men of the city.

The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks was established in New York City, Feb. 16, 1868, by a number of members of the theatrical profession, who modeled it after the analogous order of Buffaloes in England. There had been a social club previous to this known as the "Jolly Corks," and from them the nucleus of the order of the Elks was obtained. The main object of the Elks was the cultivation of sociability among its members, but in about six months the feature of benevolence was introduced, and has since been carried to a high degree of perfection. Sick and death benefits are paid, and traveling members who are in distress are relieved. It was originally confined to members of the theatrical and kindred professions, but subsequently was enlarged to admit members of any profession.

On March 10, 1871, the Legislature of New York granted a charter for a Grand Lodge, and subsequently the order spread rapidly throughout the country, and one or more lodges was established in every city of prominence. St. Louis Lodge, No. 9, was founded in June, 1878, and has been one of the most successful and progressive lodges in the order. On the 5th of December, 1878, it was chartered. Its first meetings were held at the Olympic Theatre; subsequently the sessions were held at Druids' Hall, and on Sept. 25, 1881, the lodge occupied its present beautiful quarters, "Elks' Hall," in the People's Theatre building. The first presiding officer (Exalted Ruler) was Thomas E. Garrett, the dramatic editor of the Republican, who served for two terms; then Joseph A. Robertson served one term, and John W. Norton is serving his second term.

The St. Louis representative of the order in the Grand Lodge is Thomas E. Garrett, who enjoys the honor of having been elected the first Exalted Grand Ruler of that body after it became a delegated body. He was elected in December, 1880, and was re-elected in December, 1881.

The charity fund of the order is recruited by annual benefits and balls, which are given under the auspices of the prominent members of the theatrical profession. Among the actors who are or have been members may be mentioned John McCullough, Lawrence Barrett, T. W. Keene, Nat Goodwin, the late Charles R. Thome, Jr., James O'Neil, and Baker and Farron, besides a host of others who are known throughout the country.

The career of the order has been one of unprecedented success, a success almost entirely due to the happy blending of benevolence and sociability which distinguishes it. The following is a tabulated list of the lodges and their members:

Name and Number. Membership.
New York, No. 1 500
Philadelphia, No. 2 250
San Francisco, No. 3 175
Chicago, No. 4 175
Cincinnati, No. 5 125
Baltimore, No. 7 150
St. Louis, No. 9 300
Boston, No. 10 350
Pittsburgh, No. 11 125
California, No. 12 175
Indianapolis, No. 13 200
Providence, No. 14 150
Washington, No. 15 125
Illinois, No. 16 75
Denver, No. 17 110
Total (about) 2985

This list represents only those in active affiliation. If the inactive members were included they would bring the number up to over three thousand one hundred.

The Knights of Honor, a secret beneficial organization, paying a death benefit of two thousand dollars, collected on the mutual or co-operative assessment plan, was established at Louisville, Ky., June 30, 1873. The first lodge in Missouri was St. Louis Lodge, No. 13, instituted March 12, 1874. The Grand Lodge of Missouri was instituted in St. Louis, Sept. 10, 1875, and in 1876 was incorporated, the following being the charter members: Thomas W. Seymour, W. F. Conner, W. H. Rudolph, Francis

-- 1808 --

Paule, Peter Kieffer, Philip Hantke, C. Helmund, A. L. Aubin, C. Randow, R. Hodgins, Thomas Haynes, J. N. Ayres, V. J. Matthews, Charles W. Van Dillen. There are eighty-eight lodges in this jurisdiction, with five thousand six hundred and fifty members. One hundred and forty-one deaths have occurred, involving the disbursement of two hundred and eighty-one thousand dollars benefits. The average cost of insurance has been eight dollars and thirty-one cents per thousand dollars. The officers of the Grand Lodge of Missouri are —

A. C. Sheldon, Louisiana, G. D.; E. W. Fowler, Edina, A. D.; J. L. Torrey, St. Louis, G. V. D.; Peter Kieffer, St. Louis, G. R.; S. C. Bunn, St. Louis, G. Treas.; Rev. J. C. Maple, Marshall, G. Chap.; E. S, Hill, St. Louis, G. G.; W. W. Nail, Ironton, G. Guard; W. H. Hawkins, Springfield, G. Sent.; T. E. Holland, M. D., St. Louis, G. M. Ex.; Grand Trustees, David Thomas, D. S. Harriman, M. B. Merriman; Representatives to Supreme Lodge, Joseph W. Branch, Judge N. M. Givan.

The following is a list of lodges, etc., in St. Louis City and County:

Lodge and Number. When Instituted. Membership.
St. Louis, No. 13 March 12, 1874 317
Germania, No. 17 April 6, 1874 123
Oak, No. 100 April 16, 1875 174
Seymour, No. 118 June 7, 1875 206
Anchor, No. 114 Aug. 7, 1875 130
Missouri, No. 227 Feb. 12, 1876 118
Bremen, No. 254 March 24, 1876 186
Unity, No. 351 Sept. 2, 1876 65
Washington, No. 361 Sept. 26, 1876 178
Schiller, No. 400 Nov. 27, 1876 87
Lafayette, No. 415 Dec. 23, 1876 173
Centennial, No. 417 Dec. 28, 1876 202
Lincoln, No. 430 Jan. 23, 1877 186
Manchester, No. 435 Jan. 29, 1877 45
Ludwig, No. 456 Feb. 9, 1877 205
Olive Branch, No. 812 Nov. 26, 1877 151
Mount Olive, No. 848 Jan. 14, 1878 243
Bellefontaine, No. 1278 Dec. 11, 1878 104
Banner, No. 1466 March 12, 1879 146
Webster Grove, No. 1729 Aug. 21, 1879 56
Humboldt, No. 1735 Aug. 26, 1879 107
Benton, No. 1822 Oct. 20, 1879 101
Jupiter, No. 1843 Oct. 31, 1879 69
Laclede, No. 2392 March 18, 1881 68
West End, No. 2398 March 24, 1881 35
Aurora, No. 2719 April 11, 1882 26
Total   3501

Scottish Clans. — In May, 1878, James McCash, with two or three other Scotchmen of St. Louis, formed the nucleus of an organization to mould into one homogeneous whole the scattered independent Scottish clubs in every part of the United States and Canada, and, finally, on St. Andrew's day (November 30th), 1878, the Royal (or Supreme) Scottish Clan was instituted. The object of the association was declared to be to unite Scotchmen and descendants of Scotchmen, embracing all who could claim Scottish ancestry within a reasonable limit; to cultivate fond recollections of Scotland, its customs and amusements; "to be subject to the laws of God and of the land in which we live," and to establish a fund for the benefit of the heirs of deceased members, death benefits being fixed at one and two thousand dollars. The first Royal Chieftain was James McCash, the second was Hon. George Bain, one of the most prominent Scotchmen of the West. Dugald Crawford, a leading merchant of St. Louis, was elected Vice-Royal Chieftain. The present supreme officers are —

R. C., George Bain, St. Louis; V. R. C., P. H. Lawson, Massachusetts; R. Chap., Peter C. Peterkin, St. Louis: R. Sec., Richard A. Skues, Kansas City; R. Treas., John D. Cruikshanks, St. Louis.

On Dec. 13, 1878, the Grand Clan of Missouri was organized. The present officers are —

G. C., John W. Mitchell, St. Louis; V. G. C., James C. Kenneth, St. Louis; P. G. C., Robert R. Scott, St. Louis; G. Chap., James C. Dodds, St. Louis; G. Sec., Robert N. Brodie, St. Louis; G. Treas., Peter C. Peterkin, St. Louis.

There are two subordinate clans in St. Louis, — Clan Campbell, No. 1, instituted Dec. 20, 1878, which has one hundred and thirty-one members; and Clan Douglas, No. 3, instituted Feb. 27, 1880, which has sixty-six members.

Independent Order of Chosen Friends. — A secret benevolent order with the above name originated at Indianapolis, Ind., in 1879. It pays one thousand, two thousand, and three thousand dollars death benefits, and admits women on the same footing as men. The first council in St. Louis was instituted March 5, 1881, by Freeman Wright, of St. Louis, the present Supreme Secretary of the Knights and Ladies of Honor. It was named St. Louis Council, No. 2. Freeman Wright was the first Chief Councilor, and J. H. Williamson the first Secretary. During 1881 four more councils were established; but Banner Council (instituted August 24th) has dissolved. The councils existing in St. Louis are —

Name and Number. When Instituted. Membership.
St. Louis, No. 2 March 5, 1881 92
Benton, No. 5 May 7, 1881 80
Missouri, No. 7 Nov. 5, 1881 41
Garfield, No. 8 Nov. 5, 1881 52
Total   265

There is no Grand Council in the State; the Supreme Council is represented by H. G. Wilson, Deputy Supreme Councilor.

American Protestant Association. — This is a secret society, originating in Philadelphia about 1850. Its primary object is the promotion of Protestantism, and hence the membership is restricted to Protestants. The society advocates civil and religious liberty and the public school system, and antagonizes foreign interference in the affairs of the United States government. It pays sick benefits, and five hundred dollars on the

-- 1809 --

death of members, collected by assessments. The first lodge in St. Louis was instituted July 26, 1856, and the Grand Lodge of Missouri was organized in St. Louis, July 4, 1863, with the following charter members: James C. Campbell, Charles Myer, August Heusnerr, Julius C. Schmidt, Frederick Damschroeder, Frank Hussmann, Charles E. Boehmer, Ernest Koenig, August Timke, John Conzelmen, Fred. Steinbrecher, and Henry Gerhold. Some fifteen lodges with about eleven hundred members were established, but the interest declined to some extent, and there are now but eight lodges working in Missouri. Latterly the membership in St. Louis has been restricted to the Germans, and the lodges work in the German language. The officers of the Grand Lodge for 1882-83 are —

G. M., William Wrieden, St. Louis; W. V. G. M., Louis G. Hoffman, St. Louis; G. Sec., G. C. T. Seidlitz, St. Louis; G. A. Sec., Henry Kassing, St. Louis; G. Treas., H. G. Grote, St. Louis; G. Chap., A. Grund, St. Louis.

The councils in St. Louis are —

Name and Number. When Instituted. Membership.
Union, No. 1 July 26, 1856 74
Von Hutten, No. 2 Nov. 27, 1856 47
Gustavus Adolphus, No. 3 Feb. 4, 1861 58
Washington, No. 4 Feb. 20, 1861 64
Martin Luther, No. 5 Feb. 27, 1861 88
John Huss, No. 10 Aug. 17, 1867 77
Jefferson, No. 12 Dec. 17, 1874 30
St. Louis, No. 14 Nov. 18, 1874 34
Total   472

Last year the Grand Lodge disbursed six thousand dollars in death benefits and nine hundred dollars in sick benefits. It owns a four-story building and hall, at the corner of Fourteenth Street and Franklin Avenue, St. Louis, managed by the American Protestant Hall Association, chartered April 12, 1869, the incorporators being C. F. Seidlitz, William Stindler, George Wingman, and others. The property cost twenty-three thousand dollars, but is now worth much more, and is entirely free from incumbrance. St. Louis has furnished two Grand Masters to the National Lodge, James C. Campbell and F. Diekroeger.

Good Ladies. — Freundschafts Versamlung, A. O. K. L., is the title of a secret society of German women, popularly known as Good Ladies. The order originated in Philadelphia, and the first lodge in St. Louis was established in 1859 by Herr August Etling, a well-known German of that period. Several lodges soon sprang up, embracing both German- and English-speaking ladies, but the Freundschafts Versamlung is the only one remaining. It uses the German language, but long ago declared its independence of any foreign authority, and is thought to be the only surviving lodge of an order once quite strong. It pays four dollars a week sick benefits and fifty dollars funeral expenses, and now has nearly fifty members. The present officers are —

G. M., Mrs. Elizabeth Krone; V. G. M., Miss Elizabeth Delport; Sec., Mrs. Sophia Krage; Treas., Mrs. Marie Meyer; F. S., Mrs. Katrine Roesner; Chap., Mrs. Louise Klaus.

United States Benevolent Fraternity. — A secret benevolent order under the above title was instituted at Baltimore, Md., Feb. 22, 1881. It pays death benefits ranging from one thousand to five-thousand dollars. There are three councils in St. Louis, — Pride of the West Council, No. 7, instituted Oct. 15, 1881, with twenty-four charter members; George Washington Council, No. 16, instituted March 2, 1882, with twenty-three charter members; and St. Louis Council, No. 21, instituted May 20, 1882, with twenty-three charter members, all instituted by Michael Brooks, Deputy Supreme President, who represents the Supreme Council, there being no Grand Council in Missouri.

Royal Templars of Temperance is the name of a society organized in Buffalo, N. Y., Feb. 3, 1877, to assist in the suppression of the liquor traffic and to furnish members with insurance. Benefits are collected by assessments, and two thousand dollars is on the death of a male member and one thousand dollars on the death of a female member. An endowment degree, recently added, allows these sums to be doubled. There are about fifteen select councils in Missouri, with an aggregate membership of about five hundred. The first Missouri council was St. Louis Council, No. 1, instituted Jan. 12, 1880, by Thomas Kerns, Supreme Lecturer of Illinois, with the following charter members: Robert Herries, Thomas B. Kerwin, Dr. B. M. King, Adam Woerthage, Charles Scollay, George Cochrane, James H. Dailey, William Parks, Larkin D. Price, Gardner Hepburn, C. J. Helms, H. W. Spreen, F. W. Still, William Galloway, and others. Councils in St. Louis are as follows:

Name and Number. When Instituted. Membership.
St. Louis, No. 1 Jan. 12, 1880  
Star of the West, No. 3 Feb. 13, 1880 66
Selah, No. 7 March, 1880  
Martha Washington, No. 14 Sept. 10, 1880  

Many of the St. Louis Royal Templars are also prominent and active members of the Temple of Honor, Sons of Temperance, and Good Templars.

United Foresters. — A disagreement among the Ancient Order of Foresters resulted in the establishment of the Independent Foresters, Court No. 1 being instituted at St. Joseph, Mo., early in 1876, and Mound

-- 1810 --

City Court, No. 2, of St. Louis, in April, 1876. The High Court of Missouri was chartered in September, 1878, with some sixteen courts and about five hundred members. In September, 1881, the Supreme body changed the name to the "United Foresters." There are now twenty-one courts in the Missouri jurisdiction. The St. Louis courts are —

Name and Number. Membership.
Mound City, No. 16 82
Cech, No. 47 33
Bellefontaine, No. 64 30
Pike, No. 85 112
Unity, No. 87 62
Benton, No. 91 16
St. Louis, No. 95 179
Robin Hood, No. 97 40
Ben Franklin, No. 108 74
Sherwood, No. 129 65
Concordia, No. 136 23
Future City, No. 138 64
Emerald, No. 142 54
Progress, No. 147 24
Lafayette, No. 149 33
Harmony, No. 152 26
Total 917

The Grand Court officers for 1882-83 are —

H. C. R., James A. McMillan; H. V. C. R., J. J. Isaacs; H. Sec., C. A. Sargent; H. Treas., H. M. Paul; H. P., Dr. W. O. Young; Reps, to Supreme Court, Louis A. Steber; Alternate, A. S. Partridge.

This order is beneficial. It pays death benefits of one thousand, two thousand, and three thousand dollars.

Patriotic Sons of America. — This order originated in Philadelphia in 1847, and had a large membership in St. Louis before the war. During the war it declined in St. Louis, and was not revived until Dec. 9, 1881, when Camp Washington, No. 1, was instituted. It has about sixty members, and is the only camp of this order in Missouri. Dr. J. C. Nidelet is president, and J. H. Moore is secretary. Its principal object is the cultivation of patriotism. Members must be native-born, and must favor free education, and oppose the union of the church and State and foreign interference in the affairs of this government. It also provides death benefits of five hundred, one thousand, and one thousand five hundred dollars.

B'nai B'rith. — Fraternal organizations (chevroth) had their origin with the dispersed children of Israel a great many centuries ago. In every country, in every town where ten or more of them dwelt, they formed a "chewrah" (fraternity) for mutual aid, for attending the sick, burying the dead, and providing for their widows and orphans. Coming to New York from the various countries of Europe, and dispersing thence over the wide territory of the United States, they had long felt the desire to form one great fraternal union, organized similar to those of the Masons, Odd-Fellows, and like charitable organizations, whereby the Israelites, regardless of former nationalities or liturgical differences, could be united for charitable purposes, and better promote their interests and those of humanity. Thus the order B'nai B'rith (Sons of the Covenant) was organized about forty years ago in New York City, and slowly but steadily extended its lodges over the country, now embracing three hundred and thirty lodges, with about twenty-five thousand members, sub-divided into seven District Grand Lodges, Missouri belongs to District Grand Lodge No. 2, which was organized just thirty years ago, with its seat at Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1855 the first lodge of this order in St. Louis was instituted under the name of Missouri Lodge, No. 22; it has now one hundred and fifty members. In 1863 the second lodge in St. Louis, Ebn Ezra, No. 47, was established; its present membership is one hundred. It was followed in 1872 by Achim Lodge, No. 175, and in 1873 by Julius First Lodge, No. 196. There are now four lodges, with about four hundred members, in St. Louis. Three more lodges of this order are now in the State of Missouri, viz.: one each in Kansas City, Sedalia, and Louisiana, Pike Co., with about one hundred and twenty-five members in all; yet, small as this number is, the work accomplished and amount of charities bestowed by the little band of brethren are remarkable.

The Widows' and Orphans' Fund of this district, giving to the family of each member, in case of his death, one thousand dollars, to no one more or less, and to which every member contributes fifteen dollars annually, has now a reserve of one hundred and twenty thousand dollars. It pays annually over thirty thousand dollars to its members' widows, etc., besides large amounts of other benefits and donations to non-members and other charities. The district has now three thousand members, and consists of the seven States of Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico. It has its orphans' asylum, located at Cleveland, which was established in 1868, and is now sheltering and educating two hundred and sixty-four orphans, irrespective of membership or non-membership of the deceased parent. This institution is acknowledged to be the model orphan asylum of the country, and is often liberally endowed by legacies.

Among the promoters and prominent members of the order are the following grand officers from St. Louis:

Isidor Bush, member of the executive committee of the National or Constitution Grand Lodge, which

-- 1811 --

consists of one member only from each of the seven districts. He has been a member of this order since 1849, was president of the Grand Lodge in 1872, was one of the founders of the orphan asylum, and is chairman of the endowment fund of the district.

Abraham Kramer, one of the first members of Missouri Lodge, its representative to the District Grand Lodge, whose president he also was in 1878, and for several years trustee of the orphan asylum.

Jacob Furth, comparatively a young member, but already distinguished by his activity and influence in promoting the work of the order. He is the present trustee of the Cleveland Orphan Asylum from St. Louis. Mrs. Goldschmidt and Mrs. A. Fisher are St. Louis directresses of the same institution.

Dr. S. Wolfenstein, the efficient superintendent of that asylum, is also a St. Louisan. I. Koperlik, a past president of Missouri Lodge, and for twenty years its secretary, has also been secretary of the endowment fund of the District Grand Lodge since its organization. Rev. Dr. S. H. Sonneschein is also one of the prominent St. Louis members of this order.

Royal Arcanum. — A secret benevolent order, known as the Royal Arcanum, was organized in Boston, Mass., June 23, 1877. It pays a death benefit of three thousand dollars, collected from members in proportion to age. There is no Grand Lodge in Missouri, but the Supreme Lodge is represented by W. E. Robinson and L. A. Steber, of St. Louis, Deputy Supreme Regents. There are eight councils in Missouri, with from six to seven hundred members. The councils in St. Louis are —

Name and Number. When Instituted. Membership.
Missouri, No. 107 June 17, 1878 110
Benton, No. 183 Sept. 7, 1878 80
Valley, No. 446 Feb. 20, 1880 325
Compton Hill, No. 535 Jan. 27, 1881 30
Victoria, No. 446 Feb. 11, 1882 25
Laclede, No. 665 April 3, 1882 30
Kirkwood, No. 666 April 4, 1882 20
Carr Lane, No. 668 April 10, 1882 25
Total   645

The Cosmopolitans. — There is one lodge of this order in St. Louis, Mound City Lodge, No. 1, established May 7, 1882. Dr. Daniel White is W. G. D. C. C. The society originated in New England several years ago, and has lodges in all parts of the world. Its object is semi-religious, being the investigation of spiritism. No member is admitted who does not subscribe to a belief in communion with the "so-called dead." It is beneficial to the extent that local lodges may provide for the relief of sick or distressed members, either its own or traveling ones.

Treu Bund. — The society from which the Independent Order Treu Bund descended is of great antiquity; it originated when the Swiss were organizing to resist the tyranny of Albert I., emperor of Austria, and took the world-famous "Gruetti oath." The new order spread all over Europe under different names and generally having a political purpose. It was introduced into America in 1858 by George Ackers, an enthusiastic member of the European order, and St. Louis was the birthplace. The only lodges are in Missouri and Illinois, and the aggregate membership is about one thousand. The objects are social and beneficiary; five hundred dollars is paid on the death of a member, and one hundred dollars for funeral benefits in case the wife of a member dies. Sick benefits are also permitted. There are fourteen lodges in Missouri, and eleven in St. Louis, the latter as follows:

Name and Number. Membership.
Washington, No, 2 65
Lincoln, No. 3 38
Liberty, No. 4 61
Union, No. 6 52
Pride of the West, No. 8 68
Wilhelm Tell, No. 9 19
Central St. Louis, No. 11 25
Goethe, No. 18 50
Jefferson, No. 20 56
Germania, No. 36 43
South St. Louis, No. 37 49
Total 526

There is a Grand Lodge, with headquarters at St. Louis.

G. T. M., John Diren, St. Louis; G. Sec., Hermann Weiterer, St. Louis; G. Treas., George P. Schnur, St. Louis.

Cesko-Slovansky Podporujici Spolek. — The "Bohemian-Slavonic Benevolent Association" is a secret order, originating among the Bohemians of St. Louis in 1854. For eighteen years there was but one lodge in the city, and then (1872), under the Supreme Secretaryship of Anthony Klobasa, a very intelligent man of that nationality, the order grew rapidly, and now has over seventy lodges distributed in all the large cities of the country. The total membership numbers about four thousand. The order pays seven hundred and fifty dollars death benefits, and sick benefits of five dollars a week. The supreme-officers of the order are —

President, James Svojse, Chicago; Vice-President, Joseph Stankovsky, St. Louis; Sec., F. Hrabacka, St. Louis; Financial Sec., Anthony Klobasa, St. Louis; Treas., William Kleisner, St. Louis.

There are five lodges in St. Louis as follows:

Name and Number. Members.
Slovan, No. 1 60
Missouri, No. 2 95
Washington, No. 11 52
Sumavan, No. 21 23
Sokol, No. 23 48
Total 278

-- 1812 --

National Americans. — This society was established in St. Louis in 1878, and was incorporated in January, 1879, by Rosswell D. Grant, Dr. Francis O. Drake, John C. Ralston, Dr. Albert Merrell, Dr. W. S. Wartman, Lorenzo Browning, and others, residents of that city. It is composed of native-born American citizens only, and has death benefits of one thousand and two thousand dollars, collected by assessments. Subordinate associations have been established in several States. Those in St. Louis are —

Name and Number. When Instituted. Membership.
Columbia, No. 1 Feb. 1, 1879 54
Continental, No. 2 January, 1880 58
Washington, No. 3 Feb. 27, 1880 33
Mount Vernon, No. 5 Feb. 13. 1880 33
American, No, 9 April 27, 1880 24
Fulton, No. 14 Jan. 20, 1881 62
Putnam, No. 17 April 9, 1881 71
Florissant Valley, No. 19   17
Bunker Hill, No. 27 April 18, 1882 26
Carondelet, No. 28   15
Total   393

The officers of the National Association for 1882-83 are as follows:

National President, J. C. Ralston, St. Louis; National Vice-President, John D. Vincil, St. Louis; National Advocate, A. B. Parson, St. Louis; National Sec., Lorenzo Browning, St. Louis; National Treas., Dr. F. O. Drake, St. Louis; National Chap., Dr. W. S. Wortman, St. Louis; National Med. Exam.-in-Chief, Dr. Albert Merrell, St. Louis; National Trustees, William Riley, William Hamilton, E. E. Allen.

In July. 1882, the American Nationalist, an organ of the order, was established.

Kosmos. — In September, 1882, certain members of the order of the Knights of the Golden Rule withdrew from that fraternity and organized a new beneficiary order called "Kosmos." Its officers are —

S. C., J. M.Webster; S. V. C., Z. C. Lavat; S. Sec., Francis D. Macbeth; S. Treas., S. F. Silence; S. G., C. Niehouse; S. Guard, Alexander Gillanders; S. S., E. O. Bartholomew; P. S. C., Judge W. C. Jones.

During the winter of 1882-83 several lodges were instituted.

Kesher Shell Barzell is the name of a Hebrew secret beneficial order which originated in the East about 1868. It was introduced into St. Louis some four years later, Lebanon Lodge, No. 10, being the first to organize. There are six lodges in Missouri, all in St. Louis, as follows:

Name. Membership.
Lebanon, No. 10 70
Isaac, No. 70 65
Ben Jacob, No. 94 100
St. Louis, No. 115 50
Missouri, No. 126 40
Wessely, No. 128 45
Total 370

These lodges are governed by "District Grand Lodge No. 4," embracing most of the Western States, with headquarters at Cleveland. This body has established a Home for Aged and Infirm Israelites at Cleveland, at a cost of twenty-five thousand dollars. Rev. Dr. Sonneschein, of St. Louis, is one of the trustees of the institution.

Temple of Honor. — This order was established in 1845 by some members of the Sons of Temperance in New York as an exalted degree of that order, but the National Division refused to recognize it. It was then maintained independently, and the excellence of its work and the worth of its teachings gave it for many years great popularity. The exact date of its introduction into St. Louis is not known, but is supposed to be about 1853, as in June, 1854, a Grand Temple was organized with four temples, namely: Louisiana Temple, No. 1, of Louisiana, Mo.; Union Temple, No. 2, of St. Louis; Bard Temple, No. 4, of Hannibal; and Carroll Temple, No. 8, of Carrolton, Mo. W. A. Lynch, of St. Louis, was the instituting officer. The first grand officers were —

G. W. T., William A. Lynch, St. Louis; G. W. V. T., J. H. Harris, Hannibal; G. W. R., J. D. Guiley, Louisiana; G. W. T., J. S. Markley, Louisiana; G. W. Chaplain, B. F. Rankin, Carrolton.

There were present from St. Louis on this occasion G. W. Lynch, W. A. Lynch, J. B. Higdon, Richard Ivers, and T. S. Warne.

The growth of the order was greatest just after the war, when there were seven temples in St. Louis. Of late years the interest has declined, and now there are but six temples in the State, one each at Hannibal, Springfield, and St. Joseph, and three in St. Louis, viz.:

Name and Number. Membership.
Union, No. 2 17
Franklin, No. 3 51
Mount Olive, No. 4 15
Total 83

The Grand Temple (July, 1882) elected the following officers:

G. W. T., George W. Salter, St. Louis; G. W. V. T., William Hartrey, St. Louis; G. W. R., J. J. Garver, St. Louis; G. W. T., Robert Herries, St. Louis; G. W. Chap., Garden Hepburn, St. Louis; G. W. U., Fred. M. Easterday, St. Louis; G. W. G., Alfred Appleton, St. Louis; P. G. W. T., Timothy Parsons.

Lasalle Frauen Unterstuetzungs Verein is an association of German ladies which pays death benefits of fifty dollars on the death of a member or a member's husband, and sick benefits of four dollars a week. The officers are: President, Miss Anstedt; Vice-President, Julia Reier; Secretary, Consadine Kreutzberg.

-- 1813 --


Fairs or exhibitions of agricultural and mechanical objects were held in St. Louis at irregular intervals for many years prior to 1855, when an organization was formed for the purpose of holding annual exhibitions. Agricultural societies had existed from time to time, beginning as early as 1822, but none of them were permanent. At first agricultural and "mechanics'" fairs were distinct and separate, but on the formation of the Agricultural and Mechanical Association the two interests were merged, and subsequently the exhibitions were held together. On the first Tuesday of November, 1841, the fair of the Agricultural Society of St. Louis County was opened at the St. Louis race-course, and on the 24th of the same month the Mechanics' Fair was inaugurated "in the buildings recently occupied by Mr. Lucas, on Fourth Street, in front of the Planters' House," continuing three days. The committee of arrangements was composed of William Bird, S. V. Farnsworth, C. Pullis, D. Weston, J. W. McMurray, T. B. Edgar, N. Phillips, Joseph Charless, D. L. Holbrook, D. B. Smith, George Wool, O. M. Vinton, D. Woodman.

For some time prior to 1855 the subject of combining the agricultural and mechanical interests of St. Louis for the purpose of holding annual fairs was agitated, and among those who were especially active in support of the proposition were Hon. J. R. Barret, Henry T. Blow, Col. Thornton Grimsley, Henry C. Hart, T. T. January, Charles Todd, Charles L. Hunt, Andrew Harper, John Withnell, Benjamin O'Fallon, Henry S. Turner, Thomas B. Hudson, John Sappington, John M. Chambers, Frederick Dings, and Norman J. Coleman. It was finally decided to organize a society, and Hon. J. R. Barret procured the passage by the Missouri Legislature, of which he was a member, of an act incorporating the St. Louis Agricultural and Mechanical Association, which was approved Dec. 7, 1855. The incorporators were Andrew Harper, John O'Fallon, Martin Hanna, Walter H. Dorsett, Robert Martin, Olly Williams, John Sigerson, Andrew Christy, John M. Chambers, John Hartnett, Thornton Grimsley, H. I. Bodley, Henry C. Hart, Thomas T. January, John Renfrew, John Withnell, Gerard B. Allen, John Sappington, and William C. Jenks.

The objects of the association were declared to be the promotion of improvements in all the various departments of agriculture, including not only the great staples of industry and trade, but also fruits, vegetables, and ornamental gardening, the promotion of the mechanic arts in all their various branches, the improvement of breeds of all useful and domestic animals, the general advancement of rural economy and household manufactures, and the dissemination of useful knowledge upon these subjects.

At a meeting of persons interested in the enterprise, which was held on the 4th of February, 1856, it was decided that books should be prepared at once, and the public invited to take the stock of the corporation. All the stock was soon subscribed for, and on the 4th of May the following persons were elected the first board of directors: Andrew Harper, Thomas T. January, Henry C. Hart, John Withnell, Thornton Grimsley, Frederick Dings, James M. Hughes, Henry S. Turner, Charles L. Hunt, John M. Chambers, Henry T. Blow, Norman J. Coleman, and J. R. Barret.

On the following day the board elected the following officers: President, J. R. Barret; Vice-Presidents, Thornton Grimsley, Andrew Harper, and Henry Clay Hart; Treasurer, Henry S. Turner; General Agent and Recording Secretary, G. O. Kalb; Corresponding Secretary, O. W. Collet. P. McAndrew was appointed superintendent. It was determined to hold a fair some time during the following autumn, but considerable delay was experienced in choosing a location for the grounds. Finally, however, fifty acres of land at the northwest corner of Grand Avenue and Natural Bridge plank-road, about three miles from the court-house, was purchased from Col. John O'Fallon for fifty thousand dollars, the company being given twelve years in which to pay the principal, the first two years' interest to be taken in stock. The grounds possessed natural advantages for the purpose, and being contiguous to the water-works, were conveniently located for obtaining an abundant supply of water. A fence nine feet high inclosing them was speedily erected, and although the plans for the buildings were not matured until July, the work was pushed forward so vigorously that the managers were enabled to open the fair on the 13th of October. In the short space of three months the grounds were graded, walks and avenues laid out, and a number of buildings erected. The latter included an amphitheatre, a building for the mechanical department, a floral hall, and a machine-shop, together with three hundred and fifty horse and cattle stalls and a number of pens for sheep and swine. Water from the reservoir was also introduced, and the grounds were ornamented with a number of fountains. For the purchase of the ground and erection of the buildings the sum of thirty thousand dollars, afterwards increased to forty thousand dollars, was appropriated by the directors. The building committee was composed of J. R. Barret, Henry

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C. Hart, Henry T. Blow, and Andrew Harper, assisted by A. L. Lyle.

The fair opened Oct. 13, 1856, and the attendance was very large, notwithstanding the fact that the weather was inclement. At eleven o'clock the National Guards arrived on the grounds, and were followed by the Washington Guards and the Grays. Hon. Sterling Price, Governor of Missouri, who was present on horseback, reviewed these organizations, after which there were track exhibitions of horses. T. T. January was superintendent of the fair on the opening day, and the committees on awards consisted of gentlemen from different States. The premium list amounted to ten thousand dollars, and the receipts from the gate, entrance fees, and other sources, to twenty-five thousand dollars. The success of the fair was very marked, and as it was in great measure due to the labors of Hon. J. R. Barret, president of the association, those most interested decided to present him with a testimonial of his services. Accordingly in December following a handsome silver service was purchased and presented to Mr. Barret.

In 1857 the second fair of the association was held, and was even more successful than the first one. The premiums were increased to sixteen thousand dollars, and the receipts amounted to over twenty-eight thousand dollars. A handsome Gothic structure, known as the Fine Art Hall, for the exhibition of statuary and paintings, and a gallinarium of wire network, three stories high, and divided into ninety compartments, were erected for this exhibition. At the third annual fair, which began on the 7th of September, the attendance was greater than at either of its predecessors, and St. Louis was visited by a concourse of strangers greater than it ever witnessed before. From the report of the secretary of the association from its organization to Dec. 1, 1858, it appears that the capital stock was sixty-nine thousand one hundred and fifty dollars, and the sum of sixty-eight thousand six hundred and fifty-five dollars and ninety-six cents had been expended for improvements on the grounds. The contract with Col. O'Fallon gave the association twelve years in which to pay for the land, but as there was a surplus the directors made a payment Nov. 30, 1858, of ten thousand dollars. The dimensions of the buildings then on the ground were: Amphitheatre, diameter, three hundred and five feet; circumference, nine hundred and fifteen feet; arena within the amphitheatre, diameter, two hundred and twenty-five feet; circumference, six hundred and seventy-five feet. Floral Hall, diameter, seventy-six feet; circumference, two hundred and twenty-eight feet. Art Hall, an oval building, eighty-five feet in length. Agricultural Department, two hundred by thirty feet. Mechanical Department, seventy-nine by thirty-one and a half feet. Machinery Department, two hundred by forty feet. Pagoda, forty-five feet in height, and divided into three stories, the pole around which it was built being one hundred and fifty feet high.

In addition to these structures there were a number of other buildings, including a large carriage department, a gallinarium, and a handsome Gothic cottage, with reception-rooms for ladies. The amphitheatre seated twelve thousand persons, and the two promenades, one at the base and the other at the top of the seats, afforded accommodations for twenty-four thousand more.

The exercises at the opening of the fair of 1858 were accompanied as usual by a parade of the military organizations of St, Louis, commanded by Brig.-Gen. D. M. Frost, and including the Light Artillery Battalion, Col. Henry Almstedt; the Mounted Rifle Battalion, Maj. Schaeffer; the First Regiment of Infantry, commanded by Col. J. M. Pritchard, and composed of six companies, viz.: St. Louis Grays, Capt. John Knapp; Missouri Guard, Capt. George W. West; the Washington Guards, Capt. Patrick Gorman; the National Guard, Capt. John B. Gray; the Emmet Guards, Capt. Thomas F. Smith; and the Washington Blues, Capt. Joseph Kelley; and the Rifle Battalion, under the command of Maj. John C. Smith, composed of two companies, the Union Rifles, Capt, Kohr, and the Missouri Rifles, Capt. Schultz.

The premium list was enlarged from year to year until, in 1860, it aggregated the sum of twenty-five thousand dollars, but the receipts continued to increase, and in that year amounted to forty-five thousand dollars. During the civil war the exhibitions were suspended, but in 1866, through the efforts of the president, A. B. Barret, and others, they were resumed.

In October of that year a fair was held, and premiums amounting to thirty thousand dollars were awarded. Since then the association has continued to grow and prosper until it has now become one of the greatest, if not the greatest, organizations of its kind in the country. One of the characteristic features of the association is that its stock does not, nor was it ever intended to, pay any dividends. The stock amounts to eighty-two thousand and fifty dollars, and is so well distributed (the individual holders numbering one thousand and fifty-seven) that on the average no single holder has more than two shares. The only privilege that stockholders have is that of free admission to the grounds at all times.

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In this way the association is enabled out of its surplus to improve and embellish its grounds and erect the necessary buildings. The amphitheatre, which was first built, was reconstructed in 1870, and devoted to the display of manufactured goods and textile fabrics until 1876, when it was taken down, and a new mechanical hall, one hundred and fifty feet wide and two hundred and fifty feet long, having two spans of forty-five feet each, and a central span of sixty feet, was erected. These improvements were completed in 1877, when an exposition was combined with the usual annual fair, and proved a success beyond the expectations of the most sanguine. The building is lighted by large skylights running through the centre. The interior diameter of the new amphitheatre, in which stock displays are made, is four hundred and fifty feet. The track is half a mile in length. The original fifty acres have been increased to eighty-three and fifty-six-hundredths acres, costing over one hundred thousand dollars, and in 1876 a brick building, covering an area of twenty thousand square feet, was built for the floral department, and a zoological garden was erected at a cost of one hundred thousand dollars, in connection with which a school of drawing was established. The grounds of the association, when first purchased, were embellished with fine trees of natural growth, and to their attractions have been added handsome buildings, and all the beauties that can be created by the highest art of the landscape gardener and horticulturist. The imposing structures and handsome surroundings make up a picture of unusual attractiveness and beauty. The grounds are eligibly located on Grand Avenue, within the city limits, and are easy of access from all quarters.

The association has proved one of the most important of the factors in the industrial growth of St. Louis, and, indeed, in the development of the agricultural and mechanical resources of the entire State. During the twenty-six years of its existence it has expanded beyond the most sanguine expectations of its founders, and at the present time enjoys a national reputation.

The money expended on improvements since 1856 amounts to over one million dollars, and the buildings thus erected are the most commodious and the most conveniently arranged structures of their kind to be found in any fair inclosure in the United States, every class of exhibition being located in a separate hall or inclosure especially adapted to the purpose for which it is intended. The Zoological Garden is constantly increasing in size and attractiveness, every year witnessing the erection of new buildings for the reception of additions to the collection. The grounds are kept in admirable condition during the entire year, and the spacious drives make them one of the popular resorts of the city, even when not occupied by the annual fair, which occurs in October, lasting six days. The premium list of the Fair Association has always been generous, and is constantly increasing, and the lively competition thus created has raised the standard of stock and productions of all kinds, not only in the State of Missouri, but throughout the entire Mississippi valley.

The attendance at the Fair Grounds during fair week averages forty thousand daily, and fifty thousand dollars is distributed in premiums.

The chief officers of the society from 1856 to 1875 were —

1856-59. J. Richard Barret, president, and Henry S. Turner, treasurer. G. O. Kalb, the present secretary, has been acting in that capacity since 1856.

1860. A. Harper, president.

1861-65. Charles Todd, president; Benjamin O'Fallon, treasurer for 1861, and D. G. Taylor from 1862 to 1866.

1866-73. A. B. Barret, president; with Benjamin Sanford, treasurer for 1867-68, and B. M. Chambers from 1869 to 1873.

1874. Julius S. Walsh, president; E. M. Lackland, treasurer.

The present officers are —

Charles Green, president; R. P. Tansey, first vice-president; E. A. Filley, second vice-president; Hercules L. Dousman, third vice-president; John J. Menges, treasurer; and G. O. Kalb, secretary and superintendent. The present directors are A. B. Pendleton, Julius S. Walsh, Charles Green, James O. Edwards, R. P. Tansey, Johnston Beggs, M. Fraley, George Bain, David Clarkson, John G. Prather, L. M. Rurnsey, John J. Menges, Ed. Harrison, D. P. Rowland, Hercules L. Dousman, John Scullin, S. M. Dodd, E. A. Filley, A. B. Ewing, William W. Withnell, and James S. Farrar.

From the secretary's report for the fiscal year beginning Dec. 1, 1880, and ending Dec. 1, 1881, it appears that the value of the improvements was $204,897.95, and that of the real estate $135,880.16. Stock had been issued to the amount of $82,050, and bonds to the amount of $160,000. The total assets of the company amounted to $459,768.32.

In 1874, Charles Green became a leading stockholder in the St. Louis Agricultural and Mechanical Association, and served as director until January, 1880, when he was elected president. He has been re-elected to this position every year since. Under his management the St. Louis Fair has increased in attractiveness, and has taken so strong a hold upon public favor that it is hardly an exaggeration to say that it has become the great yearly festival of the Southwest.

Charles Green was born near Ballinasloe, County Galway, Ireland, in 1838. His family possessed a

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large landed estate, including the historically celebrated Green Hills, one of the most beautiful places in the Emerald Isle, and cherished with pardonable family pride the traditions of their ancestral home and of its profuse hospitality. Young Green was sent to school at a neighboring town, and at the age of fifteen entered the college at Galway, making his home with a gentleman named Rochford, a distinguished lawyer of that region. He remained at Galway about two years, and in the intervals of study read law.

When he was seventeen his father died, involving a change in his fortunes. He relinquished the elegant surroundings to which he had been accustomed, and in 1857 emigrated to America, and, in response to an invitation from his brother Thomas, settled in St. Louis, where his brother was established in mercantile business. He was placed by Thomas in the St. Louis University, where he finished his education. It was intended that he should study law, but his health failed under the severe course at the university, and when he left that institution he accepted a position in the post-office under Peter L. Foy. He remained in this capacity about a year, and then for four years filled the position of book-keeper in the State Savings Association. When the Merchants' Union Express Company established itself in St. Louis, he was offered and accepted the position of cashier, but in about a year relinquished it to engage in business on his own account. In 1866 he established the real estate firm of Green & La Motte, which is still the title of the house, although his partner, F. X. La Motte, a college friend, died in 1868.

Mr. Green's fidelity to all trusts reposed in him, and his prompt and energetic method of transacting business commended him to the favor of the public, and soon brought him a prosperous and continuously increasing patronage. He has, perhaps, been intrusted with the administration of more large estates than any other citizen. He was commissioner for the Benoist estate, and is now the executor of the estate of John Withnell. In his will Mr. Withnell expressly stipulated that Mr. Green should not be required to give bond. These trusts, and many similar ones, he has so managed as to earn the gratitude of those whom he has served.

His clear and exact knowledge of real estate values was recognized by the County Court of St. Louis County in 1873, when he was elected by that body president of the Board of Assessors. In this delicate and responsible position, requiring such nice and careful exercise of judgment, and so much firmness, he reduced the business of the office to one of perfect system, and such a spirit of fairness characterized his administration as to win for him the good will and esteem of the public. The popular estimate of his services appears from the fact that he was unanimously re-elected to the same position for four successive terms.

Mr. Green has also served the public in other important capacities. He was a commissioner for the condemnation of the Forest Park property and of the Northern Park, and was also commissioner to value the property of the Columbia Life Insurance Company. He was appointed receiver of the Central Savings-Bank, and the next day filed his bond for one hundred thousand dollars, on which occasion the court (Judge Krekel) praised the promptness with which the document had been prepared, and the extraordinary high character of the names it bore, and complimented Mr. Green upon the high financial and social standing which enabled him to furnish a bond for so large an amount in so short a time, with such exceptional indorsements.

A similar but even more creditable experience was his when, a year or two since, he was elected assignee of the Keokuk and Northern Line Packet Company. He was notified of his appointment on Saturday, and on the following Monday morning his bond for three hundred and seventy-six thousand dollars was filed and approved. Besides the several interests mentioned above, Mr. Green has charge of many estates owned by the wealthiest citizens of St. Louis, and the confidence reposed in him is almost unbounded. Not only has he managed the estates of others with success and to their perfect satisfaction, but he has invested his own means in real estate so judiciously that he has gained a fortune.

As a public-spirited and enterprising citizen, Mr. Green occupies a foremost rank. He was a large subscriber to the company that built the Chamber of Commerce, one of the city's chief ornaments, and has been a director therein since 1875. He has also a large interest in the various street railway companies, and is a director in several of these corporations. He aided prominently in the organization of the Real Estate Exchange, and has been its president since April, 1880. In 1879 he formed one of a syndicate that bought the Carondelet Gas Company, and is the vice-president of the corporation.

In 1868, Mr. Green was married to Miss Henrietta Prenatt, the daughter of a prominent merchant of Madison, Ind., by whom he has had seven children.

Mr. Green's personal characteristics are a firm determination, keen foresight, a rigid integrity, and a steady judgment. Although born rich, he inherited no fortune, but beginning life as a poor boy, he easily

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amassed a competence, and at the same time won the honor and respect of his fellow-citizens.

The St. Louis Jockey Club. — Horse-racing was very popular in St. Louis at an early period of the city's history, and to the pony contests of the colonial period succeeded the trials of speed between thoroughbreds, which attracted large assemblages to the "prairie horse-track" on the north side of the St. Charles Rock road, immediately opposite the ground on which the Abbey track was subsequently established by Henry Doyer. One of the famous races on this course was the four-mile heat race in 1848 between the runners "Doubloon" and "Emily," which was won by the latter, ridden by the well-known jockey Gilpatrick. A jockey club was organized in 1828, and the races of that year commenced on Thursday, October 9th, and continued three days, — first day, three miles and repeat, for a purse of two hundred dollars; second day, two miles and repeat, for a purse of one hundred and fifty dollars; third day, one mile and repeat, for a purse of one hundred dollars, free for any horse, mare, or gelding. The racing was governed by the rules and regulations of the association, of which Benjamin Ames was the secretary.

On the 23d of September, 1848, a new jockey club was organized at the Prairie House. Among the prominent patrons of the turf about this time were George W. Goode, Col. D. D. Mitchell, William L. Sublette, Henry Shacklett, Col. A. B. Chambers, of the Republican; Capt. White, of St. Charles, trainer of the race-horse "St. Louis;" Thomas Moore, Benjamin Ames, proprietor of the track; James Bissell, Benjamin Payne, the importer of "Altorf;" Charles Keemle, of the Reveille; Gen. Bernard Pratte, Charles L. Hunt, Archibald and William C. Taylor, Matthew Shaffner, Robert O'Blenis, George Marshall, Dr. William Hammond, U. S. A., Maj. R. E. Lee, U. S. A., Thornton Grimsley, B. W. Alexander, Gen. Ruland, Basil Duke, Walter Dorset, Thomas J. Payne, Ferdinand Kennett, Charles Gilpin, Clay Taylor, Leonidas Walker, Col. Samuel B. Churchill, Howard Christy, Judge Wash, Uriel Wright, Church Blackburn, Judge James B. Bowlin, and Gen. William Milburn.

A track was laid out in an inclosure of eighty acres, three miles from St. Louis, on the macadamized road to Manchester, and bounded on the south by the Pacific Railroad. The races on this track commenced on the 8th of October, 1848.

The present St. Louis Jockey Club Company was organized in 1877, with a capital stock of fifty thousand dollars, the charter having been granted on the 27th of August of that year. The incorporators were John M. Harney, H. L. Dousman, J. B. McCullough, Julius S. Walsh, William Patrick, Edwin Harrison, Ellis Wainwright, C. B. Greeley, and Samuel Ecker. About forty-five thousand dollars of the stock was promptly subscribed, and the ground afterwards known as the Côte Brilliante track was purchased and adapted to the purposes of racing, at a cost of seventy thousand dollars. The track was opened to the public on the 4th of June, 1877. Trotting races were given at intervals, but did not prove financially successful, the St. Louis public preferring the running contests. The company was reorganized in February, 1880, and another charter was granted in February, 1882. The club is one of the leading turf organizations of the country, and has done much to elevate the standard of racing in the West. Its membership comprises many representative citizens of St. Louis, and the association is now in a flourishing condition.

Its rooms are located at No. 18 South Fifth Street, and the track is situated on Lucas and Hunt's addition to Côte Brilliante, bounded on the north by the St. Charles Rock road, on the south by Page Avenue, on the west by Union Avenue, and on the east by King's Highway. The grounds are within the city limits, about four and one-half miles west of the court-house. The race-track is a full mile in circumference, and is said to be very fast. The grand stand is capable of seating six thousand persons. The stables are located both inside and outside of the inclosure, and contain stalls for the accommodation of two hundred horses. The grounds and surroundings are very handsome, and are said to surpass any racing grounds in the country. Annual meetings are held, lasting from seven to eight days, in June.

The officers of the association are —

John M. Harney, president; H. L. Dousman and J. B. McCullough, vice-presidents; Ellis Wainwright, treasurer; and Lewis A. Clarke, secretary; Directors, John M. Harney, J. B. McCullough, H. L. Dousman, Julius S. Walsh, William Patrick, Edwin Harrison, Ellis Wainwright, C. B. Greeley, and Samuel Ecker.


The Harmonie Club is an association of Hebrews, organized in 1857 for the promotion of social intercourse. Among the founders and promoters were M. Bellman, Julius Klyman, B. Singer, and L. Hellmann. The original membership numbered about twenty-five, but it comprised the leading men of the race then living in the city, and the club has always been a representative Hebrew society. M. Hellman was the first president, and his successors were L. Hellmann, L. Steinberger, A. Langsdorf, August

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Frank, and Nathan Frank. August Frank was president the longest period, six years.

For fifteen years the club had rooms on Market Street, between Fourth and Fifth, and for ten years it has occupied quarters on Fourth Street, between Plum and Myrtle; but lately the desire for a more central location has led to the purchase of a lot, eighty by one hundred and thirty-five feet on the northeast corner of Eighteenth and Olive Streets, and the club is now erecting a building which is designed, when completed, to be one of the finest structures of the sort in the country outside of New York. It will be a three-story pressed-brick building, with stone cappings, will cost nearly fifty thousand dollars, and is intended to be an architectural ornament to the city and a monument of the enterprise and taste of the Hebrews of St. Louis.

The present membership of the club numbers about one hundred and ten. The officers are —

President, Nathan Frank; Vice-President, A. Langsdorf; Secretary, M. Linz; Treasurer, J. Meyberg; Directors, J. L. Singer, S. Meyer, W. Hernstien, M. Kahn, M. Michels, J. Frank, H. Binswanger.

The Concordia Club. — When the Harmonie Club selected its new location in Western St. Louis, it was seen that the change would inconvenience many of the members living in the southern part of the city; consequently in the spring of 1882 a number of its members seceded, and on the 26th of May the Concordia Club was organized with some thirty members and the following officers:

President, Leopold Steinberger; Vice-President, Albert Frankenthal; Secretary, Samuel Steiner; Treasurer, L. B. Green; Directors, Dr. M. Spitz, Frank Block, M. H. Holzman, S. A. River, R. Weil.

The University Club. — In January, 1872, some twenty college-bred men met and organized "The University Club." Among the incorporators were Thomas C. Reynolds, James S. Garland, Charles Branch, Edward Wyman, John W. Noble, S. Waterhouse, Charles H. Goodman, C. C. Whittlesey, Alexander Martin, J. S. Fullerton, Thomas Davidson, Charles A. Todd, John A. Dillon, E. H. Carvier, Frank J. Donovan, D. J. Snider, and George S. Edgell.

The articles of association declare the purpose of the society to be "to promote literature, science, and art, and secure a closer union and co-operation of college and university men and graduates, with a view to a broader and higher culture," etc. At first the idea of a large club, with those concomitants which the word "club" implies, was not suggested, but the organization prospered to such an extent that a building was soon felt to be an imperative necessity. In like manner it was found expedient to abolish the restriction making a collegiate education the test of membership. Still the club, while becoming more of a social institution than was perhaps contemplated, has always been under the control of former collegians, and has preserved the traditions of its early life in the high character of its members. If now embraces in its membership the leading professional and business men of the city. The first officers were: President, Hon. Thomas Allen; Vice-Presidents, Thomas C. Reynolds, Albert Todd, Samuel Treat, Dr. M. M. Fallen, Dr. J. B. Johnson, Lewis B. Parsons; Secretary, James S. Garland; Treasurer, M. Dwight Collier; Directors, Edward Wyman, Charles H. Goodman, Charles Branch, Newton Crane, Thomas Davidson, J. S. Fullerton, E. T. Merrick, John W. Noble, Sylvester Waterhouse.

Of the above officers, the Hon. Thomas Allen served continuously as president until his death at Washington, March, 1882, while a member of Congress, and Mr. Garland has been secretary for the whole period, one year excepted.

For three years the club occupied quarters at 911 Olive Street. It then removed to 1125 Washington Avenue, where it has had a well-arranged, well-furnished, and very commodious building. For two or three years past there has been a growing feeling that the club was too far "out of town" for the convenience of the members, and during the winter of 1881-82 these views formally prevailed, and quarters are being prepared in the large building on the northeast corner of Fifth and Olive Streets, on a scale commensurate with the standing and means of the club.

At the annual meeting in January, 1882, Prof. M. S. Snow, secretary of the board of directors, gave an interesting sketch of the history of the club. The beginnings were modest, — ten dollars initiation fee and ten dollars yearly dues disclose the unambitious character of the society. Few of the members had any idea of the nature and functions of a club. But in spite of various drawbacks and the constant raising of the fees and dues until they are now about one hundred dollars a year, the active and useful membership has constantly increased, and now numbers about three hundred and fifty, with applications constantly being received.

The present officers of the University Club are —

President, Samuel M. Breckinridge; Vice-Presidents, William H. Pulsifer, Charles Speck, Marshall S. Snow, Heber Livermore, Allan B. Pendleton, Arthur Lee; Secretary, James S. Garland; Treasurer, Huntington Smith; Directors, Estill McHenry,

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John O. F. Delaney, N. S. Chouteau, R. S. Brookings, Joseph S. Fullerton, S. E. Hoffman, D. F. Colville, Newton Crane, Henry S. Potter.

St. Louis Commercial Club. — This club was organized in October, 1880, and was modeled after the Boston Commercial Club, which was the first of its class. Its objects are purely social, the design being to cultivate a feeling of fraternity among all classes of business men, and, by affiliating with similar clubs elsewhere, to promote a feeling of fellowship among the business men of widely-separated sections. The membership is limited to sixty persons, who embrace the representative men of St. Louis in the various departments of trade and manufactures, and meetings are held monthly, at which, with a banquet, are discussed matters pertaining to the commercial advancement of the city. In October, 1882, the club entertained the Commercial Clubs of Boston, Chicago, and Cincinnati. The following have been the officers of the club from its foundation:

President, Gerard B. Allen; Vice-President, E. O. Stanard; Treasurer, Joseph Franklin; Secretary, Newton Crane; Executive Committee, Edwin Harrison, E. C. Simmons, S. M. Dodd.

Germania Association. — The Germania Association was chartered Feb. 16, 1865, by special act of the Legislature, the incorporators being James Taussig, Charles F. Meyer, Charles Enslin, Julius Conrad, Louis Holm, Charles F. Eggers, William D'Oench, J. F. Zisemann, William Hunicke, August Waldauer, Charles Bulmer, Ignatius A. Day, and Moritz H. Lemcke. The first directors were Julius Conrad, C. F. Meyer, Felix Coste, Charles De Greek, William D'Oench, John L. Fiala, Louis Holm, William J. Romyn, F. W. Rosenthal, James Taussig, and J. F. Zisemann. The first officers were: President, Charles F. Meyer; Vice-President, Louis Holm; Secretary, Charles De Greek; Treasurer, William Hunicke.

Mr. Meyer has been president uninterruptedly up to the present time, and there have been few changes in the rest of the officers, who are now as follows:

President, Charles F. Meyer; Vice-President, Julius Conrad; Secretary, Rudolph Fritsch; Treasurer, E. C. Priber.

In 1865-66 the association built a club-house at the corner of Eighth and Gratiot Street, and furnished it elegantly at a total cost, for building, grounds, etc., of $110,000. The association has always embraced the leading Germans of the city, and in intelligence and refinement has always been recognized as a representative German institution. Its objects are social recreation and esthetic and scientific culture, and these are prosecuted by singing, lectures, dramatic entertainments, dancing, games, etc. In order more satisfactorily to accomplish these objects the association in 1881 was remodeled, the old organization retaining its corporate existence and ownership of the hall, and the new, the Germania Club and Association (Gesellschaft), having charge of the social and educational features. The result was immediately seen in a very large increase of membership. There are now about four hundred and twenty members. The officers of the club and association are —

President, Charles Speck; Secretary, E. C. Priber; Treasurer, B. T. Eisenhardt; Directors, R. Schulenhurg, B. D. Meier, E. C. Priber, Charles Nagel, Dr. Frerichs, I. G. Kappner, Charles Schmieding, L. Methudy, N. Eisenhardt, C. R. Fritsch, R. D'Oench, and W. D. Orthwein.

The Mercantile Club. — During 1881 it began to be apparent that the existing club-houses were not situated at points convenient for the numerous business men who might otherwise be disposed to patronize their facilities, and a "down-town" club was advocated. With this in view the Mercantile Club was organized, the incorporators being A. G. Peterson, T. B. Boyd, C. M. Adams, W. B. Dean, D. M. Houser, William McMillan, W. H. Gardner. Melville Sawyer, O. L. Brigham, S. G. Scarritt, George T. Parker, George B. Thomson, Charles A. Fowle, E. Hayden, A. A. Paton, S. M. Kennard, Jr., J. R. Holmes, and I. R. Trask, well-known and enterprising business men of the city. The officers were —

President, Edwin Hayden; Vice-President, George B. Thompson; Secretary, S. G. Scarritt; Treasurer, A. G. Peterson; Directors, Edwin Hayden, G. B. Thompson, S. G. Scarritt, T. B. Boyd, S. M. Kennard, William McMillan, C. M. Adams, M. Sawyer, A. G. Peterson.

During the succeeding winter the club secured quarters in the "Sumner Building," on Locust Street, between Seventh and Eighth Streets, and after expending about eighteen thousand dollars in remodeling the edifice and furnishing it, held an informal "opening" on the evening of May 12, 1882. The rooms embrace gentlemen's and ladies' parlors, dining-rooms, reading-rooms, a billiard hall, etc., and are decorated and furnished in the most elegant and attractive manner. A novel feature of the club is the admission of the wives of members to its privileges, — a departure from the ordinary usage of clubs that has already become very popular. Although scarcely six months had elapsed from the organization of the club to the opening of the house, the membership limitation to four hundred residents of St. Louis had been reached, — a rapidity of growth that has seldom, if ever, been equaled in the history of similar organizations. The officers for 1882-83 are —

President, S. M. Kennard; Vice-President, George B. Thompson; Secretary, S. G. Scarritt; Treasurer, William McMillan; Directors, S. M. Kennard, G. B. Thompson, S. G. Scarritt, William

-- 1820 --

McMillan, Ewing Hill, W. C. Steigers, E. S. Warner, A. G. Peterson, I. R. Trask.

St. Louis Club. — In 1878 some enterprising young business men of St. Louis conceived the idea of establishing another club, and in the fall of that year organized the St. Louis Club. The first officers were as follows: President, George H. Rae; Vice-President, Gen. John W. Noble; Secretary, A. B. Chever; Treasurer, Thomas A. Stoddard. The club secured as its quarters the "old Finney mansion," at 1532 Washington Avenue, and fitted up one of the finest club-houses in the country, the building being spacious and conveniently arranged, and the grounds roomy and attractive. The appointments of the house were and continue to be of the most elaborate and elegant character. The establishment was opened Sept. 23, 1879, with a public reception and an address by the Hon. J. W. Noble. The subsequent career of the club has been prosperous, and the membership numbers over three hundred. The present officers are as follows:

President, John T. Davis; Vice-President, E. C. Simmons; Secretary, E. S. Scranton; Treasurer, A. B. Thompson; Directors, John T. Davis, E. C. Simmons, Joseph Franklin, Geo. B. Hopkins, Dwight Tredway, Daniel Catlin, G. J. Plant.

Spanish-American Club. — El Club Comercial Hispano-Americano was organized in February, 1882, the inspiring mind being John F. Cahill, editor of El Comercio del Valle, the Spanish-American paper. Mr. Cahill was the first president, but soon resigned. The officers of the club for 1882 are —

President, Thomas Howard; Secretary, J. L. Corrigan; Treasurer, E. C. Smith; Executive Committee, Pedro Leon, Frank Trayer, Richard Smith, Emilio Guignon, E. R. Quarles.

The objects of the club are the promotion of good-fellowship and sociability among those interested in the trade with Mexico, Central America, and other Spanish-speaking countries of America, and to encourage intercourse with those lands in every legitimate way.

The Century Club is the principal literary association of St. Louis. Among the prominent members are Hon. Henry L. Rogers, Mrs. Virginia L. Minor, J. R. Meeker, W. G. Eliot, D. D., Albert Todd, A. C. Bernays, M. D., Mrs. E. P. Johnson, Louis C. Haynes, Professor E. L. McDowell, J. C. Learned, D. D., Mrs. N. E. A. Rogers, C. W. Stevens, M. D., Miss Fannie Isabella Sherrick, D. W. Blount, M. D., and Francis Minor. The executive officers for the season of 1882-83 are F. F. Hilder, president; Miss Ida E. Dyer, vice-president; Hannibal Loevy, treasurer; and E. W. Banister, secretary. The board of directors is composed of these officers, and Misses Thekla M. Bernays and Mary E. Thorn, and Messrs. C. M. Whitney, George W. Lewis, George C. Haekstaff, F. E. Cook, J. M. Jordan, D. F. Hulburt, and F. W. Ruckstuhl. The direct management of the club is entrusted to the programme committee, which consists of Hannibal Loevy, chairman, in charge of essays and readings, and Miss Julia F. Lynch and F. W. Ruckstuhl, in charge of music. Among those who have delivered essays before the club are Hon. Henry L. Rogers, Hon. C. M. Whitney, Rev. John Snyder, Mrs. Virginia L. Minor, Professor John H. Tice, Rev. S. H. Sonneschein, J. M. Jordan, Rev. W. W. Boyd, Rev. P. G. Robert, Mrs. E. P. Johnson, Professor Denton J. Snider, Hon. Nathaniel Holmes, Professor H. H. Morgan, Rev. C. E. Felton, Professor B. B. Minor, F. E. Cook, Rev. M. W. Willis, J. R. Meeker, Francis Minor, James Richardson, Dr. Charles O. Curtman, F. F. Hilder, Hon. A. W. Alexander, and Professor C. M. Woodward.

Deaf Mute Club. — In the summer of 1882 the Deaf Mute Social Club was organized, with D. A. Simpson, president; W. E. Guss, vice-president; J. J. Smith, secretary; A. H. Kohinetz, treasurer; J. H. Wolf, sergeant-at-arms. Its rooms are located at 420 Market Street.

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Scharf, J. Thomas. History of Saint Louis City and County, From the Earliest Periods to the Present Day: Including Biographical Sketches of Representative Men. In Two Volumes, Illustrated. Volume II . Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts & Co., 1883. [format: book], [genre: biography; history; proceedings]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
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