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Scharf, J. Thomas. History of Saint Louis City and County, From the Earliest Periods to the Present Day: Including Biographical Sketches of Representative Men. In Two Volumes, Illustrated. Volume II . Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts & Co., 1883. [format: book], [genre: biography; history; proceedings]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
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Chapter XXXIX. Religious Denominations. 284

The Catholic Church. — The Catholic missionaries were the first to preach the gospel in the territory now known as the State of Missouri, and, indeed, in that now actually comprised in the United States. Long before the "Mayflower" entered Massachusetts Bay the Franciscan missionaries had commenced their sacred labors on the coast of Maine. Side by side the cross and the fleur-de-lis moved into the wilderness, marching not to the sound of the drum, but to the solemn tones of the Gregorian chant. The Jesuits, succeeding the Franciscans, carried on the holy work, unchecked by snows or forests or torrents, until within a few years the vast basin of the St. Lawrence, from Quebec to Lake Superior, was dotted with rude chapels, in which the sacred wafer, "all that the church offered to the princes and nobles of Europe, was shared with the humblest savage neophytes." 285 And five years before Eliot, the Indian apostle of New England, had commenced his labors among the red men in the vicinity of Boston, the cross of the Catholic Church overlooked the valley of the Mississippi. The Indian proselyte loved the Catholic missionary. The man of learning, the scholar, and the gentleman became as a brother to the children of the wilderness. He lived in their wigwams, smoked their pipes, and ate of their venison. He shared their hardships and sympathized with their joys. In a word, acting upon the apostolic rule, "with the weak he became as weak, in order that he might gain the weak."

But it is not alone because the missionary adopted the Indian habits and became as one of the tribe he was proselyting that he was blessed with success. This but furnished him with his moral lever. Instead of demolishing the natural religion of the Indians, he directed its energy and inspired it with an object. In his eyes it was the rough block which he was to chisel into life and beauty. Nature furnished him with materials; it was his business to produce the image. And with true knowledge of the world and the human heart, he saw that the savages, possessing uncultivated intellects, could only be thoroughly impressed through the medium of their senses. Accustomed as they had been to the greatness of the material world, they could not at once become spiritual in their aspirations. He therefore charmed them with the fascinating powers of music, and took extraordinary pains in the embellishment of the church and the altar. Fragrant woods of the forest furnished materials, which his own ingenuity carved into seraphs and saints. Fields which had never been broken by the plow surrendered to his pious exertions wild flowers and evergreens. Sweet-smelling gums exuded from trees, "which spread an odor equally agreeable with that of

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incense." Simple art and more simple nature combined to decorate the log-built temple; and the rays of the morning sun, pouring through the window of the little chancel, both gilded and sanctified the holy work. "The Indians," says an eminent Protestant writer, "felt that the place was sacred; that the Great Spirit, though everywhere present in his creations, was peculiarly present here, invisible and holy; and that the cross, which was the soul of baptism and the sign of devotion, which was symbolized in every moment of danger or deliverance, on lying down and on rising up, which sparkled in every constellation of the heavens, was indeed a holy emblem, significant of the Great Sacrifice made far away in that Eastern land, from which they derived light both for body and soul. In this way the Jesuits succeeded in teaching European virtues, and not teaching European vices." 286

The same writer adds, —

"Let all honor, then, be paid to the memory of the Jesuit missionaries in America. They have set a noble example to their fellow-laborers in God's vineyard. They have illustrated by their lives the force of that thrilling command, ‘Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature;’ and the promise which accompanied the command was faithfully kept in every instance. Though ‘most of them were martyrs to their faith,’ God was with them in all their sufferings and trials, and their deaths were scenes of peaceful triumph. But the monuments of their labors are fast passing away. Where are the Hurons, the Mohawks, and the Abenakis? Where are the mighty war-chiefs of the Five Nations? The sun shines upon their graves; their tomahawks are forever buried; the fire of their calumets forever extinguished. The wild forests of America no longer resound with hymns to the Virgin, chanted in languages unknown to civilization. The little bell of the chapel no more rings matins and even-song by the shore of the inland lake. They have all fled, and with them has fled away the glory of the Jesuit missions. But wherever history is read, the names of Breboeuf and Jogues, Raymbault, Rasles, Marquette, Joliet, and Lallemand shall be mentioned with honor, and wherever the Catholic faith is promulgated these heroes shall have what they never sought, an earthly immortality." 287

As early as 1512 the Spanish missionaries preached the gospel to the Indians of Florida, but Father Marquette had the honor of first planting the cross in the Illinois country, after he had, in 1673, discovered and explored the Mississippi River. For two months he sailed down the river in his bark canoe, and the narrative of his extraordinary voyage, revealing to the world the fact that the St. Lawrence could communicate with the Gulf of Mexico by an almost uninterrupted chain of lakes, rivers, and streams, gave France the first idea of colonizing Louisiana. The Mississippi valley soon beheld missions rise among the Illinois, Miami, Yazoo, Arkansas, Natchez, and other tribes. Jesuits, Recollects, and priests of the foreign missions here shared the rude toil of converting the Indians, and the French missions of North America mingled and blended with those of the Spaniards of the South.

Marquette was succeeded in the Illinois country by Father Claude Allouez, who labored under the direction of the Bishop of Quebec. He died about August, 1690. He was followed in 1680 by Father Gabriel de la Ribourde, the first Superior of the Recollects, who was slain by Kickapoo Indians, Sept. 19, 1680. Father Ribourde labored with Father Zenobius Membré, who arrived in June, 1675, and preached in the Illinois country in 1680. He was also murdered by the Indians in 1686 or 1687. The Jesuits now began their missions in the country, and Father James Gravier, S. J., who was killed about 1706, commenced his labors. He was in Illinois in 1687, and was followed by Father Sebastian Rale, who set out from Quebec in 1691, but who it is believed did not reach the country until the spring of the following year. After

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remaining two years he was transferred to the Abenakis, his original charge, and Father Gravier took his mission. Father Gravier was very successful with his missionary labors, but was soon recalled to Mackinaw.

He was succeeded by Fathers Julian Binneteau and Francis Pinet, the latter of whom founded the mission of Tamaroa, or Cahokia. In 1700, Father Gravier descended to the mouth of the Mississippi in order to obtain supplies from French vessels for the Kaskaskia mission, and apparently then returned to the mission. Father Lymoges, stationed at first among the Oumas in the lower Mississippi, is supposed to have ascended the river with Father Gravier. Fathers Pinet and Bovie also labored at the mission, but all of them, except Father Pinet, disappeared about 1703, and Pinet died in 1704. Gravier returned to Peoria and labored there, but descended to Mobile, where he died in January, 1706. About 1700 the care of the Illinois mission devolved upon Fathers Marest and James Mermet. In the previous year Francis J. de Montigny, vicar-general of Quebec, and Antoine Davion had proceeded to the Mississippi, and Tamaroa, or Cahokia, the mission of Father Pinet, was placed under their charge. The first of the clergymen sent to Cahokia was the Rev. John Bergier, but his health having failed, Father Marest, who was then stationed at Kaskaskia, joined, him. Father Bergier soon afterwards died. In addition to the Kaskaskia and Cahokia missions, there was one on the St. Joseph's River, of which Father John B. Chardon took charge in 1711.

At this time four missions were in active operation, — one on the St. Joseph's, one at Peoria, one at Kaskaskia, and one at Cahokia. At the last of these, Father Dominic Mary Varlet succeeded Father Bergier, about 1712, and remained for nearly six years, laboring zealously among the Illinois. On his return to Europe, about 1718, Father Varlet was made Coadjutor Bishop of Babylon, but having avowed Jansenistic opinions, was deposed and excommunicated by three successive popes. Contemporaneously with Father Varlet, the Rev. Philip Boucher is said to have labored in Illinois, chiefly at Fort St. Louis.

The influence of the missionaries upon the Indians was widespread and highly beneficial. "Before their conversion," writes Shea, "cruel and licentious to the most frightful degree, the Illinois had, under the influence of religion, softened their savage customs and became so pure in morals that the French settlers frequently chose wives from the Indian villages. These intermarriages are, indeed, represented as so frequent that we must consider the present French families of Indiana and Illinois as to some extent representing the Illinois Indians, whose blood flows so freely in their veins. The labors of the missionary here, as among the Abenakis of Maine, had two fields, — the villages at one season, the hunting- or fishing-ground at others, being thus partly fixed and partly nomadic."

In the mean time Spanish missionaries had been approaching from the southwest. Cabeza de Vaca, of the Narvaez expedition, succeeded in reaching the outposts of the Spaniards of Mexico in Sonora, and his accounts of the Indian tribes excited the religious zeal of Friar Mark, of Nice, who in 1539 determined to undertake a mission to them. His experiment failed, but in 1542 another expedition set out from Mexico, taking a course towards the northeast. After having reached the head-waters of the Arkansas River, the commander, Coronado, decided to turn back, and on reaching the Rio Grande to return to Mexico. Two Franciscan missionaries, Father Padilla and Brother John of the Cross, had accompanied Coronado, and they determined to remain in the country and undertake the conversion of the Indian tribes. While on their way to the town of Quivira they were both slain by the savages, and it was not until forty years later that the Franciscans penetrated into New Mexico, now the diocese of Santa Fé. De Courcy, in his sketch of the Catholic Church in the United States, says, "Before the English had formed a single settlement, either in Virginia or New England, all the tribes on the Rio Grande were converted and civilized; their towns, still remarkable for their peculiar structure, were decorated with churches and public edifices, which superficial travelers in our day ascribe to the everlasting Aztecs." Gradually the French and Spanish missionaries drew nearer to each other, until at length their efforts mingled and blended. In 1721, Father Charlevoix visited the missions on the Mississippi River. He found the Miamis and Pottawatomies nearly all Christians. Father Marest appears to have been recalled about this time, and his death occurred some years later. The chief missions were now established on the banks of the Mississippi River, — the Cahokias and Tamaroas under the priests of the foreign missions, the Kaskaskias, Peorias, and Metchigameas, the latter a tribe which Marquette had seen near the Arkansas, under the priests of the Society of Jesus. The mission of Cahokia was located on a small river, about a mile from the Mississippi, at a large Indian town, in which two tribes dwelt. At the time of Charlevoix's visit it was in charge of Fathers Dominic Thaumur de la Source and Le Mercier. The Kaskaskia mission had been divided into

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two distinct charges. One, said to have been the more numerous, was "about half a league above old Fort Chartres, within gunshot of the river," and was under the direction of Father Joseph Ignatius le Boulanger. The latter translated into the Illinois dialect the catechism and instructions for hearing mass and approaching the sacraments, and added for the use of the missionaries a literal translation into French of the Illinois versions. In 1721 he was assisted by Father De Kereben. At the French village below the fort Father De Beaubois was parish priest, and the second Kaskaskia mission, located at an Indian village about six miles inland, was under the charge of Father John Charles Guymonneau, who apparently was at that time Superior of the mission.

"Almost all the Illinois," we are told, "were now Christians, and greatly attached to the French. They cultivated the ground in their own way, and had become, under the influence of religion, very industrious, raising poultry and live-stock to sell to the French. The women were adroit, weaving of buffalo hair a fine glossy stuff, which they dyed of various colors and worked into dresses for themselves, manufacturing a fine thread with great ingenuity." About 1722 the Illinois of the Rock and Pimiteony, owing to the harassing attacks of the Foxes, determined to abandon their villages and join the other Illinois tribes on the Mississippi, where they were converted to Christianity. In the mean time the Jesuits had established themselves at New Orleans, and their Superior there, to whom it was transferred from the Superior at Quebec, had the superintendence of the Illinois mission. Priests were thenceforth supplied from New Orleans. In 1725, Fathers De Beaubois and De Ville ascended the river, followed in 1727 by Fathers Dumas, Tartarin, and Droutrelau. The Illinois mission now began to decline, owing to the mismanagement of the French government of Louisiana and the sale of liquor to the Indians at the fort in the Illinois country. In 1750 but two Indian missions remained, one of them embracing six hundred Indians, under Fathers Francis Xavier de Guienne and Louis Vivier, and the other, not so large, under Father Sebastian Louis Meurin, probably at Vincennes. The priests of the Seminary of Foreign Missions no longer ministered to the Indians, but remained at Cahokia as pastors for the French. In 1757 the French government expelled the Jesuits from their colleges, and subsequently the possessions of France were surrendered to England and Spain. The centre of the Illinois mission at New Orleans was suppressed in 1762, and the mission was thenceforth deprived of all external aid. A portion of the Jesuit property in the Illinois country was sold by the French government, and the means of the missionary priests were thus still further reduced. The Fathers generally remained at their missions as secular priests under the authority of the Bishop of Quebec until their death. Father Peter Potier, said to be the last survivor of the Jesuit missionaries in the West, was at St. Joseph's in 1751, and frequently visited the Illinois missions up to the time of his death, which occurred at Detroit in 1781.

The last of the Jesuit missionaries who resided regularly in the Illinois country was Father Sebastian L. Meurin, who arrived at Post Vincennes in 1749, and died after 1775. Father Meurin held services at the then recently founded town of St. Louis from May, 1766, to Feb. 7, 1769. Father Meurin's body was removed to St. Louis at a comparatively recent date. He was one of the most zealous and devoted of the early missionaries, who, if their labors were not crowned with that success for which they had so ardently striven, had the satisfaction of witnessing a great and beneficial change among the Illinois. "More than in any other part," writes Shea, "the settlers intermarried with the Indians, and there are few of the French families in Illinois and Missouri that cannot boast their descent from the noble tribe which has given its name to the former State." The Osages were frequently visited by the Illinois missionaries and, as we have seen, Father Gravier was invited to labor among them. In 1720 some of the Missouris went to France, and the chief's daughter embraced Christianity and married Sergeant Dubois. Soon after their return, however, they attacked a French post and massacred all its inhabitants. Father Meurin's successor at Vincennes was Father Vivier, after whom came Father Pierre Gibault, who officiated at St. Louis from June, 1770, to January, 1772, and who was present at the capture of Kaskaskia by Gen. Clark, on the 4th of July, 1778. Father Gibault was "vicar-general of the Bishop of Quebec for Illinois and the adjoining counties," and therefore had the supervision of all the missions in the Illinois country, including the French settlement of St. Louis. He appears to have returned to Canada about 1789. When Laclede and Choutcau arrived at the site of St. Louis, in 1764, Father Meurin was stationed at Cahokia. He crossed the river in a canoe, and having offered mass in the forest, blessed the settlers and their work. Laclede's companions were mostly French or of French descent, and subsequently were augmented by the immigration of Candians, Spaniards, Italians, and other nationalities. The population, therefore, was made up of people from Catholic countries, and the established religion, both under French and Spanish

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rule, was the Catholic. The slaves, both negroes and Indians, and the free Indians living in the town were also brought up in the Catholic Church. For some time after the settlement of Laclede's party at St. Louis the parish or mission was supplied by priests from Vincennes, Cahokia, and Kaskaskia, through the instrumentality most probably of St. Ange, the French commandant. Father Meurin, priest of "Our Lady of the Kahokias," it is said, while officiating at St. Louis, baptized three whites, twelve negroes, and five Indians. The first baptism by Father Meurin occurred in the early part of May, 1766. The record (in French) is partly obliterated, but in substance it reads as follows:

"In the year one thousand seven hundred and sixty-six, on the — undersigned, missionary priest in the county of the Illinois — St. Louis, in a tent, for want of a church, have baptized, under condition, Mary — day of the month of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty-five of the law — John Baptist Deschamps and of Mary Pion, her father and mother. The godfather is Mr. Réné Tiercerot (Kiercereaux), and the godmother Mary — —.

"In faith whereof, I have signed with the godfather.

"J. S. MEURIN, Priest."

The second child baptized by him was Antoine, son of Lisette, a Pawnee slave. This baptism was on the 9th of May, 1766. Owing to the non-residence of the priest in St. Louis, there is no record of his having officiated at interments, which appear to have been attended to by Réné Kiercereaux, the godfather of Mary Desebamps, a man of note in the community, whose name appears frequently in the French and Spanish civil records. After the first church was built he was for a long time "chantre," or singer of the church, and to the subsequent interments recorded by him he signed his name as "Chantre de cette éylise" ("chanter or singer of this church"). From October, 1770, to the 17th of March, 1772, Kiercereaux recorded the burial of nineteen whites, ten negroes, and five Indians. The next priest who visited St. Louis was Father Pierre Gibault, previously of Vincennes, who styled himself "Priest-Curate of the Immaculate Conception of Our Lady of the Kaskaskias, and Vicar-General of my Lord the Bishop of Quebec," who remained from June, 1770, to January, 1772. From February, 1772, until May of the same year Father Meurin also occasionally visited St. Louis, and during that time baptized two whites and three negroes.

Until 1770 the country was supposed to belong to France, and the clergy continued to act under the direction of the French Bishop of Quebec, but upon the arrival in that year of the Spanish Lieutenant-Governor, the ecclesiastical jurisdiction was transferred to the Spanish Bishop of Havana. The first priest who resided permanently at St. Louis seems to have been Father Valentin, a Capuchin friar, who in his official acts styled himself "priest of the parish of St. Louis and its dependencies." He remained from May, 1772, to June, 1775, and during that period baptized sixty-five whites, twenty-four negroes, and eighteen Indians. He also solemnized four marriages of whites, and officiated at the interment of forty-two whites, eleven negroes, and nineteen Indians. During Father Valentin's incumbency the body of the commandant, St. Ange, was buried, and the record, translated into English, reads, —

"In the year 1774, 27th December, I, the undersigned, have interred in the cemetery of this parish the body of Hon. Louis de St. Ange, captain attached to the battalion of Louisiana, administered of the sacraments of the church.


From June, 1775, to May, 1776, there does not appear to have been any stationary priest, but the parish was occasionally visited. During two days, the 4th and 5th of October, 1775, Father Meurin again officiated, and baptized four whites. On the 19th of March, 1776, Father Hilaire, a priest of the order of Capuchin friars, and apostolic prothonotary, baptized six whites and solemnized one marriage. In the absence of a priest, Réné Kircereaux, "singer of the church," recorded from July 7, 1775, to March 2, 1776, the burial of twenty-nine whites, five negroes, and two Indians. The certificate was subsequently attested and approved by Father Bernard de Limpach, who succeeded Father Valentin in the spring of 1776.

Father Bernard had been transferred from Cuba by Father Dagobert de Longwy, vicar-general of Louisiana. His appointment to the church at St. Louis reads as follows:

"Father Dagobert de Longwy, principal Capuchin priest and vicar-general of the mission of Louisiana, in the diocese of Havana de Cuba, to our very dear brother, the Reverend Father Bernard, de dix par, a professed friar of that order, in the province of Liege, and apostolic missionary of this mission, greeting:

"Well and sufficiently knowing your good habits and capacity, desirous also to conform in all things to the commands of his very Christian Majesty, by his letters patent, registered at the registry of the Superior Council of this colony to grant, in proper and due form, appointments as curate to our missionaries who merit it to those parishes and posts which the mission had formerly been deemed as entitled to, and to place them in legal possession, the patronage, emoluments, and all other arrangements being reserved to our position as the head until his Catholic Majesty should otherwise direct, we have therefore given and conferred, and by these presents do give and confer on you the curacy or parish church of St. Louis, of Illinois, post of Pain Court (short-bread), with all its rights and appendages, upon condition of actual personal residence there, and not otherwise, until a change or revocation by

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us or our successors; requiring in consequence the services of the deputy of the king's attorney to see you placed in actual possession of said curacy of the parish of St. Louis, of Illinois, in accordance and with the usual solemnities.

"Granted at our parsonage, under the seals of office, the 18th of February, in the year of grace one thousand seven hundred and seventy-six.

"FRIAR DAGOBERT, Vicar-General.


"I certify that this present document is an exact copy of the original appointment presented to us by the Reverend Father Bernard de Limpach, to be deposited for safe-keeping in the archives of this government office in St. Louis of the Illinois.


"May 19, 1776."

Father Bernard was placed in possession of the parsonage and formally installed on the same day, as the following translation of the Lieutenant-Governor's certificate shows:

"In the town of St. Louis, at nine o'clock of the morning of Sunday, the nineteenth day of the month of May, in the year one thousand seven hundred and seventy-six, before me, Don Francisco Cruzat, captain of infantry and Lieutenant-Governor of these settlements of the Illinois, and the most distinguished parishioners of the parish of said town, all assembled together in church, the Reverend Father Friar Bernardo de Limpach, Capuchin priest, in virtue of the dispatch which he has brought and delivered from the Most Reverend Father Dagobert de Longwy, Capuchin priest, Superior and Grand Vicar-General of the mission of this province of Louisiana, bearing date the eighteenth of February last passed, and the letter of direction which I, the said Lieutenant-Governor, have received from the Senor Don Luis ne Unzaga y Ameraga, brigadier of the royal armies and Governor-General of this province, bearing date the 28th of February of the current year, in which he commands me to recognize the above-named Father Friar Bernard de Limpach as the curate of the said town of St. Louis. After having performed all the ceremonies that are usual and prescribed by his said Superior, the Most Reverend Father Dagobert, he has entered into and taken legal and formal possession of the cure of this parish of St. Louis of the Illinois; and I, the said Lieutenant-Governor, have caused him to be recognized publicly, as he is recognized by all the parishioners of said parish, and in order that the same may more fully appear and that no obstacle may at any time hereafter be interposed to the exercise of his ministry, there shall be deposited in the archives of this government under my charge the copy of this dispatch, together with this act, which the said Father Friar Bernardo de Limpach has signed with me, the said Lieutenant-Governor, and the most distinguished persons of this town, who by my command were assembled for this purpose, the same day, month, and year above mentioned, — P. F. Bernard, Dubreuil, Perrault, Benito Basquez, Hubert, Sarpy, Laclede Liguest, A. Berard, Ene. Barre, Labusci&eagrave;re, Chauvin, Conde, Jh. Conand, Francisco Cruzat."

Father Bernard officiated as priest from May, 1776, to November, 1789, during which time he baptized four hundred and ten whites, one hundred and six negroes, and ninety-two Indians; solemnized marriages of whites, one hundred and fifteen; negroes, one; Indians, two; mixed white and Indian, one; and buried two hundred and twenty-two whites, sixty negroes, and forty-four Indians.

On the 17th of April, 1780, during the administration of Leyba, he blessed "the first stone of the fort on the hill back of the church, and it was named Fort St. Charles, in honor of Charles III., king of Spain." This was the stone martello fort which stood as late as 1820 at the southwest corner of Walnut and Fourth Streets, where the Southern Hotel now stands. The barracks for the Spanish troops was a long low stone building on the north side of Walnut Street and immediately opposite the location of the hotel. After the change of government from Spain to the United States, the old fort was for a long time used as a jail.

On the church register, under date of June 28, 1780, appears the record of the burial of Fernando de Leyba, Lieutenant-Governor. The English version reads, —

"In the year 1780, the 28th of June, I, priest, Capuchin missionary, curate of St. Louis, country of the Illinois, province of Louisiana, bishopric of Cuba, have interred in this church, in front of the balustrade on the right, the body of Don Ferdinand Leyba, captain of infantry in the battalion of Louisiana, actual commandant of this post, administered of all the sacraments of our mother the Holy Church. In faith whereof, I have signed the day and year as above.

"F. BERNARD, Miss."

Father Bernard was much beloved by his congregation, and traditions are still preserved of his piety and zeal. His successor was the missionary priest Ledru, who continued to officiate from November, 1789, to September, 1793, during which period he baptized one hundred and sixty-eight whites, fifty-five negroes, and nineteen Indians; solemnized twenty-nine marriages of whites and two of Indians and whites, and officiated at the interment of seventy whites, thirty-five negroes, and three Indians.

On the 14th of March, 1792, he interred the bone of Pierre Gladu, whom he describes in the certificate of interment as "a Canadian, before then buried in the Little Prairie, killed by the Indians, ‘l'ann&eagrave;e du coup’ (in 1780), a good man and of known probity, according to public statement and report." 288

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Father Ledru was succeeded by Pierre Joseph Didier, a priest of the religious order of the Benedictines, of the congregation of St. Maur. He officiated from December, 1793, to April, 1799, during which period he baptized two hundred and twenty whites, seventy-nine negroes, and sixteen Indians. He solemnized seventy-three marriages of whites and one marriage of white and Indian, and buried eighty-five whites, sixty-one negroes, and nine Indians,

From October, 1793, to March, 1794, the interments were made by Jacques Clamorgan, who was acting charge warden, and Réné Kiercereaux. These, which are exclusive of the interments at which Father Didier officiated, numbered seven whites, four negroes, and two Indians. During the latter part of Father Didier's connection with the parish it appears that he did not officiate regularly, for the register shows that Leander Lusson, priest of "St. Charles of the Little Hills of the Missouri," and Jacques Maxwell, priest of Ste. Genevieve, occasionally officiated at St. Louis from July, 1798, to May, 1799, during which period there were baptized eight whites, one negro, and there was solemnized one marriage of whites. Father Lusson appears to have become the regular priest, serving from May 23, 1799, to March 23, 1800, during which time he baptized twelve whites, eight negroes, and five Indians, and solemnizing five marriages of whites. He was succeeded by Father Pierre Janin, who officiated from April 6, 1800, to Nov. 12, 1804, during which time he baptized two hundred and twenty-five whites, one hundred and fifteen negroes, and fifty-nine Indians; solemnized the marriages of thirty-four whites, and two whites and Indians, and buried one hundred and thirty-eight whites, fifty-eight negroes, and nineteen Indians.

The large number of interments recorded during Father Janin's pastorate is accounted for by the fact that the smallpox made its first appearance in St. Louis on the 15th of May, 1801. From the fact that no record of baptisms appears from Nov. 12, 1804, to March 2, 1806, it is to be presumed that the parish had no pastor during that period. Interments, however, were recorded by Jean Baptiste Trudeau. He was the schoolmaster of the village, and locally noted as a stern disciplinarian, and succeeded Réná Kiercereaux as singer of the church. The interments recorded by him numbered forty-five whites, sixteen negroes, and twelve Indians. After November, 1806, the church was supplied by priests from other parishes. From March 2, 1806, to the 29th of May of the same year Father Maxwell officiated, and on the 14th and 15th of September of the same year, Father Donatien Olivier, "missionary priest to the Illinois," officiated for baptisms only. Father Maxwell baptized forty-five whites, sixteen negroes, one Indian, and solemnized three marriages of whites. Father Olivier baptized eleven whites, five negroes, and one Indian.

The next registry of baptisms is dated Nov. 9, 1806, and the entry is made in a new volume, on the first page of which is the following:

"This register, containing ninety-two pages, including this one, marked and numbered, is intended for the inscription of the baptisms of the parish of St. Louis, country of the Illinois, under the domination of the United States of America, and of the bishopric of Baltimore. In faith whereof, we, Amos Stoddard, civil commandant of said place, have signed said register, the year and day 26th September, 1804.


"Capt. and First C. Comdt. U. Louisiana."

Thomas Flynn, of the religious order of Capuchins, exercised the functions of parish priest from Nov. 9, 1806, to June 2, 1808, during which time he baptized eighty-eight whites, eleven negroes, and one Indian, solemnized eleven marriages of whites, and buried thirty whites and nine negroes. From the 2d of June, 1808, to May, 1813, no regular priest was stationed at St. Louis, but the parish was visited by the following clergymen:

Father Maxwell, from 5th to 8th of June, 1808, baptizing 23 whites and 9 negroes.

Father Urbain Gruillet, a Trappist of the monastery of "Notre Dame de Bon Secours, near Kahokias, in the Territory of Illinois," from 20th July to 26th of August, 1808, baptizing 15 whites and 5 negroes.

Marie Joseph Dunand, priest and prior of the order of La Trappe, from 25th December, 1808, to January, 1809, baptizing 11 whites, 7 negroes, and 1 Indian.

Father Guillet again, from 24th to 31st December, 1809, the parish having been without a priest for nearly a year. He baptized 9 whites and 2 negroes.

Father Bernard, of whom mention has been made before, officiated from 6th February to 13th July, 1810, baptizing 49 whites and 9 negroes.

Father Maxwell again on the 30th of July, 1810, baptizing 3 whites and 1 negro.

Father Dunand again on the 5th August, 1810, baptizing 2 whites and 2 negroes.

Father Maxwell again, from 12th to 15th August, 1810, baptizing 12 whites and 1 negro.

Father Guillot again, from 2d November, 1810, to 23d June, 1811, baptizing 27 whites and 9 negroes.

Father Dunand again, from 30th July to 2d August, 1811, baptizing 6 whites.

Father Guillet again, from 9th August to 1st December, 1811, baptizing 15 whites, 8 negroes, and 1 Indian.

Father Savigne, from 11th December, 1811, to 15th December, 1812, baptizing 76 whites and 19 negroes.

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Father Dunand again on the 10th November, 1812, baptizing 2 whites.

Father Savigne again on the 11th February, 1813, baptizing 1 white.

Father Dunand again, and also Savigne, on the 14th March, 1813, each baptizing 1 white.

Father Dunand again on the 16th March, 1813, baptizing 2 negroes.

From the 18th of December, 1810, to the 12th of April, 1813, in the absence of officiating priests, Trudeau, as singer of the church, Jean Louis Marc, as sacristan, Samuel Solomon, Patrick Lee, and others, as church wardens, superintended and certified to the burial of the dead. The number of these interments was 165 whites, 61 negroes, and 11 Indians.

Father Savigne again appears to have exercised permanent functions as curate of St. Louis from the 12th of May, 1813, to Oct. 3, 1817, during which time he baptized 130 whites, 48 negroes, and 1 Indian; solemnized the marriages of 90 whites and 2 negroes, and interred 135 whites, 40 negroes, and 3 Indians.

It was during the ministry of Father Savigne that St. Louis was visited by Benoit Joseph Flaget, Bishop of Bardstown, Ky., who was received with great rejoicing by the Catholic population. During his stay he baptized the children of many of the leading families, among them Joseph Simpson, son of Dr. Robert Simpson. Father Savigne was the last priest of the Canadian mission sent to St. Louis by the Bishop of Quebec. He is described as having been "a man of fine presence, of amiable disposition, zealous in the performance of his duties, and especially kind to the poor and those in distress."

On the 5th of January, 1818, Louis Guillaume Valentin Dubourg, Bishop of Louisiana, accompanied by Bishop Flaget, of Kentucky, and a number of missionary priests, arrived at St. Louis, which was made the episcopal seat for the Territory of Missouri. Bishop Dubourg determined to remain in St. Louis until affairs had become settled in New Orleans, which was then in a disturbed condition. He continued to reside in St. Louis until 1824, and was actively assisted in the work of building this portion of his diocese by the priests who had accompanied him, Fathers De Andreis, Rosatti, Acqueroni, Ferrari, and Caretti, the first three of the Congregation of the Missions.

Louis Guillaume Dubourg was born at Cape Francois, island of San Domingo, Feb. 14, 1766, was educated in France, and studied theology at the Seminary of St. Sulpice. Subsequently he was placed in charge of a new Sulpitian institute at Issy, near Paris, but was driven from France by the revolution of 1792, and fled to Spain, whence he went to Baltimore, where he arrived in December, 1794. In the following year he became a priest of the Order of St. Sulpice, and in 1796 was made president of St. Mary's Ecclesiastical Seminary in Baltimore, which, in January, 1805, he raised to the rank of a university, having also previously established colleges in Havana and New Orleans, which were broken up by political disturbances. He established the Sisters of Charity in Baltimore in 1809, and in 1811 founded what is still the mother-house of the order for the United States at Emrnitsburg, Md. In October, 1812, he was appointed administrator apostolic of the Territory of Louisiana, and arrived in New Orleans towards the close of the year. In 1815 he went to Rome, and was there consecrated Bishop of Upper and Lower Louisiana, Sept. 24, 1815. On his return he brought with him five Lazarist priests (among whom were Fathers De Andreis and Rosatti) and twenty-six young men belonging to the same order. He arrived in the United States Sept. 14, 1817, and proceeded to St. Thomas' Seminary at Bardstown, Ky., where the priests remained until they had acquired proficiency in the English language. He reached Ste. Genevieve Dec. 27, 1817, in company with Bishop Flaget, who had previously visited Ste. Genevieve and St. Louis for the purpose of determining which was the more eligible site for a seminary. It was finally decided that St. Louis should be made the seat of the episcopal residence, and on the 5th of January, 1818, the two bishops reached St. Louis. Bishop Dubourg at once established his episcopal residence in St. Louis, and continued to live there until 1824, on March 25th of which year he consecrated Father Rosatti Coadjutor Bishop of St. Louis, after which he went to New Orleans to reside. In 1815 he founded in America the Society for the Propagation of the Faith, and in 1818 established, under the charge of the Lazarist Fathers, St. Mary's College and Seminary at the Barrens, which in 1838 was transferred to Cape Girardeau, where it still flourishes. Before leaving Europe in 1817 he had applied to the Superior-General of the Order of the Sacred Heart, Madame Barat, for a colony of religious ladies to establish a house of the order at St. Louis. The request was complied with, and in August, 1818, the ladies of the order arrived in St. Louis. During Bishop Dubourg's administration the Sisters of Loretto organized schools in Missouri, and in 1819 the College of St. Louis, attached to the Cathedral, was established. He was also active in establishing missionary schools among the Indians, and introduced Jesuits from Maryland into his diocese for that purpose. In June, 1826, Bishop Dubourg left New Orleans for the See of Montauban, in France, and in February, 1833, was made Archbishop of Besanyon. He died Oct. 10, 1833. It is said by his biographer that he was a San Domingan by birth, a Frenchman in education, an American in principle,

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and a priest by vocation. Bishop Dubourg was a man of singular energy and untiring zeal, and contributed greatly to the growth of Catholicism in the West and Southwest.

At this time (1818) there were in the whole of Upper Louisiana only four priests and seven chapels and about eight thousand Catholics. The chapels were at Ste. Genevieve, Kaskaskia, St. Louis, Florissant, Prairie du Rocher, Cahokia, and New Madrid. During Bishop Dubourg's connection with the St. Louis Church, from 1818 to 1826, Fathers Pratte, De Neckere, De Andreis, Cellini, Rosatti, Acqueroni, Ferrari, Saulnier, Niel, Dahrnen, Tichitoli, Jean-Jean, and others officiated at the Cathedral. Of these, Father De Andreis was retained as vicar-general in St. Louis by Bishop Dubourg, and died in 1820, and Father De Neckere became Bishop of New Orleans in 1829, succeeding Bishop Dubourg. He died in 1833 of yellow fever.

Joseph Rosatti was born at Sora, kingdom of Naples, Jan. 30, 1789, and entered, at Rome, the novitiate of the "Congregation of the Priests of the Mission of St. Vincent de Paul," commonly known as the Lazarists. He was induced by Bishop Dubourg to come to America, whither he preceded the bishop, and arrived in Baltimore July 26, 1816. He then repaired to St. Joseph's College, at Bardstown, Ky., to perfect himself in the knowledge of English, and arrived in St. Louis Oct. 17, 1817. In the year following he took charge of St. Mary's College, which had just been established by Bishop Dubourg at what was then known as "the Barrens," in Perry County, Mo. This region had originally been settled in 1797 by Catholics from Maryland and Kentucky, who gave it the name "Barrens," applied to the prairie land of Southwestern Kentucky, but which did not imply an absence of fertility in the soil in Perry County. Here the Lazarist Fathers with their own hands built themselves a rude home, and founded St. Mary's College, which was transferred to Cape Girardeau in 1838, when the establishment in Perry County was made a preparatory seminary. In 1820, Father De Andreis died, and was succeeded as superior of the Lazarists by Father Rosatti, who had been his pupil in Rome. Father Rosatti was consecrated Bishop of Tenegra in partibus, March 25, 1824, and made coadjutor to Bishop Dubourg, being left in charge of Upper Louisiana, with his residence in St. Louis, when Bishop Dubourg left for New Orleans. Bishop Rosatti transferred his residence to New Orleans in 1826, when Bishop Dubourg left for France, but returned to St. Louis in 1827 as Bishop of Upper Louisiana. He established in St. Louis the Jesuits, from Florissant, in 1829; the Sisters of St. Joseph, in 1836, from Lyons, France, the first of their order in America; the Ladies of the Sacred Heart, in 1827; the Sisters of the Visitation, and the Sisters of Charity, for whom he founded St. Louis Hospital. He also established two colleges for young men, three academies for young ladies, and the first orphan asylum in the city. He was an active member of the first four Provincial Councils of Baltimore, held in 1829, 1833, 1837, and 1840, and his pastoral letters and sermons there awakened wide admiration in Europe as well as America by their learning and eloquence. In 1840 he was called to Rome, and sent to Hayti by the Holy See on a diplomatic mission to settle questions growing out of the Haytien revolution. Before his departure for Rome, Bishop Rosatti consecrated, in 1841, Archbishop Kenrick, and settled him as coadjutor over the diocese of St. Louis. Bishop Rosatti's diplomatic success in Hayti was so signal that he was reappointed on other missions, in the discharge of which he continued until his death in Rome, Sept. 25, 1843. He was buried at Monte Citario, in a chapel dedicated to St. Vincent de Paul, whose order he had so highly adorned, in the Church of the Lazarists.

In 1843, Rt. Rev. Peter Richard Kenrick, D. D., succeeded as bishop of the diocese. Archbishop Kenrick was born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1806, and was educated at Maynooth College, near that city. He was ordained in Dublin in 1831, by Archbishop Murray, and served as curate in Dublin, and subsequently as president of the Theological Seminary, and vicar-general in Philadelphia. On the 9th of December, 1841, he was consecrated at St. Mary's Church, St. Louis, Bishop of Drasis, and coadjutor to the Bishop of St. Louis. There were four bishops present, — Bishop England, Bishop Rosatti, Bishop Kenrick, and Bishop Lefevre, — besides Archbishop Dubois, of Baltimore. Bishop Rosatti officiated as consecrator, and Bishop England preached the sermon. Bishop Kenrick succeeded Bishop Rosatti in 1843, and on the erection of the diocese of St. Louis into an archdiocese became archbishop.

Archbishop Kenrick is one of the most distinguished prelates in the American Church, a learned theologian, an able administrator, and a man of the greatest generosity and benevolence. In 1858 he received a handsome bequest, but used it, or a great part of it, in endowing the hospital of the Sisters of Charity, and making it free to all, regardless of creed or color. At the Ecumenical Council of 1868 he took strong ground against the definition of papal infallibility, and his speech, prepared for the occasion, was published

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in Naples in 1870, and in New York in 1872. He subsequently, however, acquiesced in the dogma, and promulgated it in his archdiocese. He is the author of a work on "Anglican Ordinations," which is regarded as the leading authority on the subject, also of the "Month of Mary," which has been republished in London, with an introduction by the celebrated Father Faber, besides translations and devotional works. He is an accomplished linguist, knowing well the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, German, Italian, and Spanish languages, and an excellent scientific scholar. During his administration of the diocese, and subsequently of the archdiocese of St. Louis, he has been called upon to deal with three great crises, — the cholera epidemic of 1849, the civil war, and the Fenian agitation of 1865. His course throughout all these trying periods was courageous, but conservative and prudent, and his guidance, both of clergy and people, firm and unfaltering. On the 12th of January, 1861, the following notice was published:

"To the Roman Catholics of St. Louis: Beloved brethren, in the present distressed state of the public mind, we feel it our duty to recommend you to avoid all occasions of public excitement, to obey the laws, to respect the rights of all citizens, and to keep away, as much as possible, from all assemblages where the indiscretion of a word or the impetuosity of a momentary passion might endanger public tranquillity. Obey the injunction of the Apostle St. Peter, ‘Follow peace with all men, and holiness, without which no man can see God.’


"Archbishop of St. Louis."

The archbishop's course with regard to the Fenian movement was outspoken and unequivocal, as is shown by the following:

"To the Roman Catholics of St. Louis: The undersigned has read in the Republican of this morning an announcement of a funeral to take place next Sunday from St. Patrick's Church, in this city, of a deceased member of the Fenian Brotherhood, who died at St. Paul, Minn., on the 24th instant. The occasion is evidently made for a display on the part of those in St. Louis who are members of that association, hence the deferred interment, and the pageant which is to accompany the burial. The connection of St. Patrick's Church, where the religious service is announced as to take place, and where, without any authority from the pastor of that church, it would appear, an oration, by a gentleman of this city, is to be delivered, imposes on me the obligation of forbidding, as I have done, the pastor of that church to permit any funeral service or other religious ceremony, to take place on that occasion. I hare furthermore directed the superintendent of the Calvary Cemetery not to admit any procession of men or women bearing insignia of Fenianism within the gate of the cemetery. I use this occasion to state publicly, what I have uniformly stated in private conversation, that the members of the Fenian Brotherhood, men or women, are not admissible to the sacraments of the church as long as they are united with that association, which I have always regarded as immoral in its object, the exciting of rebellion in Ireland, and unlawful and unlegal in its means, a quasi military organization in this country while at peace with England, to be made effective in the event of war with that power.


Archbishop of St. Louis."

"ST. LOUIS, Aug. 30, 1865.

In 1868, during the absence of the archbishop at the Ecumenical Council, Father Patrick J. Ryan, then pastor of St. John's Church, was appointed by the Holy See to take temporary charge of, the diocese, with the title of Bishop of Tricomia, and in April, 1872, he was consecrated in St. John's Church, and has continued to act ever since as coadjutor bishop.

Right Rev. P. J. Ryan was born at Thurles, Tipperary County, Ireland, in 1831, and attended a school in Dublin. At an early age he evinced a predilection for the sacred calling, and in 1847 he entered Carlow College, near Dublin, where he received a thorough ecclesiastical training. At this institution he filled the position of prefect of the lay house, and was ordained a sub-deacon while still very young. After leaving college his attention was attracted to the

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United States as being a promising field of labor, and he determined to emigrate to this country. He arrived in St. Louis in 1852, and for some three months was stationed at St. Patrick's Church with Father Wheeler, but his rare oratorical powers procured him an invitation to preach at the Cathedral, though not then in priestly orders. About this time he was appointed Professor of English Literature and Elocution in Carondelet Theological Seminary, a position which he filled with remarkable success until in 1853, shortly after attaining his majority, he was ordained priest and appointed assistant pastor at the Cathedral, being associated with Fathers Heims, A. S. Paris, E. Saulnier, James Duggan, and P. E. Donnelly. He remained at the Cathedral until 1860, when he took charge of the Church and Parochial School of the Annunciation, which were erected through his exertions. While pastor of the Church of the Annunciation, during the war, he was appointed by Archbishop Kenrick chaplain of the Gratiot Street military prison, where he labored earnestly, ministering to the prisoners and baptizing as many as six hundred of them.

Through the recommendation of Gen. Blair to the authorities at Washington, Father Ryan and Rev. Dr. Schuyler (rector of Christ Protestant Episcopal Church) received commissions as chaplains in the United States army. Father Ryan declined the appointment, but continued to perform the labors of a chaplain at the prison. Subsequently he was transferred from the Church of the Annunciation to St. John's Church, as successor to Rev. P. T. Ring, who had had charge of that church after the departure of Father Bannon for the South, to act as chaplain in the Confederate army. Subsequently Father Ryan visited Europe, and spent a year in Ireland, France, Germany, and Italy. He was in Rome during the celebration of the papal centenary, and during the following Lent was invited by the Pope to preach the English sermon, an honor which had been bestowed upon Cardinal Wiseman, Archbishop Hughes, the celebrated Father Burke, and other prominent divines. In 1866 the University of New York conferred on him the degree of LL.D., and during the same year he preached before the second Plenary Council, at Baltimore, on "The Sanctity of the Church." Two years later (1868) he was appointed vicar-general of the archdiocese, and during the absence of Archbishop Kenrick acted as bishop, having previously been made Bishop of Tricomia in partibus. On the 14th of April, 1872, he was consecrated bishop in St. John's Church (his former pastoral charge), and made coadjutor of Archbishop Kenrick. Bishop Ryan is one of the most eloquent prelates of the Catholic Church, and as an administrator is careful, painstaking, and indefatigable.

The growth of the Catholic Church under a succession of able and energetic bishops has been healthful and rapid, and from the nucleus of Father Meurin's mission has sprung a great and flourishing diocese. In the city of St. Louis there are now thirty-six parish churches, twenty-seven parish schools, five Catholic hospitals, six convents, three Catholic colleges, seven Catholic orphan asylums, three female protectorates and reformatories, with about sixty secular priests and forty-five priests belonging to orders, all actively at work; and there are thirteen female and seven male religious orders, and twenty-four Conferences of St. Vincent de Paul, numbering over twelve hundred active members, and distributing each year in systematic and judicious charity nearly thirty thousand dollars; the Catholic population now numbering over one hundred and fifty thousand. The archdiocese of St. Louis, comprising all that part of Missouri east of Chariton River and of the west line of Cole, Maries, Pulaski, Texas, and Howell Counties, was created in 1847, and Bishop Kenrick was made its first archbishop.

The ecclesiastical government of the archdiocese is composed of Most Rev. Peter Richard Kenrick, archbishop; Right Rev. Patrick J. Ryan, coadjutor

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bishop; Very Rev. H. Muhlsiepen, vicar-general; Council of the Archbishop, Right Rev. P. J. Ryan, Very Rev. H. Muhlsiepen, Rev. C. Ziegler (secretary), Rev. H. Van der Sanden (chancellor).

The Jesuits in Missouri. — One of the first steps taken by Bishop Dubourg after assuming charge of the diocese of Upper and Lower Louisiana was to secure missionaries for the religious and secular instruction of the Indian tribes. The whole of the country west of the Mississippi was in his jurisdiction, and consequently the Indians were especially within the purview of his efforts. Soon after reaching St. Louis he applied to Father Anthony Kohlmann, at that time provincial of the Jesuits in Maryland, to send out Fathers to establish a college and act as missionaries to the Indians. Owing to the fact that there were not more members of the society than were needed for the work in that State, Father Kohlmann was not then able to comply with the request. Early in 1823, Bishop Dubourg had an interview at Washington with President Monroe and the Secretary of War, John C. Calhoun, on the subject of educating and civilizing the Indians, and at Mr. Calhoun's suggestion he requested Father Charles Neale, provincial of the Jesuits of Maryland and the District of Columbia, to supply him with missionaries. Two years before, in 1821, Rev. Charles Nerinckx, founder of the Loretto Society of Nuns in Kentucky, had returned from a trip to Belgium, accompanied by a company of novices who intended to devote themselves to the work of the Society of Jesus. Among them were F. J. Van Assche, P. J. de Smet, J. A. Elet, F. L. Verreydt, P. J. Verhaegen, J. B. Smedts, and F. De Maillet, all of whom with the exception of De Maillet were Belgians. These young men, who, with other novices, had received a course of instruction at the Jesuit Seminary at White Marsh, Prince George's Co., Md., decided to accept the invitation of Bishop Dubourg.

On the 11th of April, 1823, they set out under the charge of Rev. Charles Van Quickenborne, Superior, and Rev. Peter J. Timmermans, his assistant, accompanied by three lay brothers, — Peter de Meyer, Henry Reisselman, and Charles Strahan. They made the journey on foot to Wheeling, with wagons to transport their effects, and to rest such as should become ill or disabled. They carried their own bedding with them, lodging at night where they best could, and generally cooked their own meals. Father Van Quickenborne was the only exception; he rode a handsome roan horse that had been presented to him by Father McElroy, of Frederick, Md. At Wheeling they purchased two flat-boats and floated down the Ohio, the boats lashed together, and drifting day and night. At Shawneetown, a small village below the mouth of the Wabash River, they sold their flat-boats, sent their heavy baggage by steamboat to St. Louis, and started, accompanied by a light spring-wagon, on foot across the prairies. They reached St. Louis Saturday, May 31, 1823, and on the day after their arrival, being Sunday within the octave of Corpus Christi, Father Van Quickenborne carried the Blessed Sacrament in procession through the streets, with music and firing of cannon. In June following the Jesuits took possession of the farm near Florissant which had been tendered them by Bishop Dubourg, it having been ceded to them by Mr. O'Neil, magistrate of Florissant, although his lease was yet unexpired. In the meantime they had been hospitably entertained by the Sisters of the Sacred Heart at Florissant, who lodged and fed them in their school-house.

Florissant, or St. Ferdinand township, seventeen miles northwest of St. Louis, had been settled shortly after the founding of St. Louis, and the adjacent country was beautiful and fertile. In extending the invitation to the Jesuits of Maryland, Bishop Dubourg had proposed not only to give them his farm at Florissant, but also his own church and residence in St. Louis. The latter offer, however, had been declined. The houses on the farm were merely log cabins, small, and of the rudest construction, and the first efforts of the missionaries were directed to the enlargement of their quarters. For this purpose they hewed the timber, going for it to an island in the Missouri River, which, on the night after they had hauled the last load needed, was totally washed away, not a vestige of it being left. 289

Shortly after the mission had been established, Rev. Charles Delacroix, who was then stationed at Florissant, made over the church there to Father Van Quickenborne, and departed for Louisiana. About the same time Father Van Quickenborne was made spiritual director of the Community of the Sacred Heart. An incident of the early days of the mission was a visit from the venerable Father Nerinckx, who had brought the young missionaries from Europe, and who spent some days with his Belgian friends at Florissant. Father Nerinckx

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died at Ste. Genevieve on the 12th of August, 1824. Francis De Maillet and Charles Strahan, of the original band, had separated from the Jesuit society shortly after their arrival in Missouri, and had engaged in other occupations. By the death of Father Timmermans the community was still further reduced, and now numbered nine members. In 1825, Father De Theux and lay Brother O'Connor arrived from Maryland and joined the mission, the former as assistant to Father Van Quickenborne. In the same year the missionaries opened a school for Indian boys, and induced the Sisters of the Sacred Heart to establish a similar school for girls. Despite their persevering labors, however, the attendance did not increase beyond fourteen children at either school. In 1830 the school for boys was finally closed. In the mean time, J. B. Smedts and P. J. Verhaegen were, about the beginning of 1825, raised to the priesthood, and in 1827, P. J. de Smet, J. F. Van Assche, J. A. Elet, and F. L. Verreydt were ordained, Bishop Rosatti officiating on both occasions. Fathers Verreydt and Smedts were transferred to St. Charles, and Father Van Quickenborne made an excursion to the Osage Indians. He subsequently (in 1829 and 1830) paid other visits to the same tribe, but it was not until 1847 that the Jesuit, mission among the Osages was established. Having satisfied themselves that they could labor much more profitably and accomplish more tangible results among the white population than with the savages, the Jesuit Fathers, upon the invitation of Bishop Rosatti, in 1828 removed to St. Louis and established the St. Louis University. On the 24th of March, 1836, Father Verhaegen, who had been chosen first president of the university, was made Superior of the Jesuit mission in Missouri, as it was then called, — a branch of the province of Maryland, — and resigned to Father Elet the presidency of the university. The mission-louse at Florissant was now abandoned as the residence of the Superior, who thenceforth lived in St. Louis.

The Florissant institution is now known as St. Stanislaus Novitiate. On the 3d of December, 1839, the mission was raised to the rank of a vice-province, and Father Verhaegen to that of vice-provincial; he became provincial of Maryland, and was succeeded in St. Louis by Rev. James Van de Velde, Sept. 17, 1843. Father Van de Velde was made Bishop of Chicago, and subsequently transferred to Natchez, where he died of yellow fever on the 13th of November, 1855. His remains were removed to St. Stanislaus Novitiate, near Florissant, and reinterred there on the 20th of November, 1874. Rev. John A. Elet became vice-provincial June 3, 1848; Rev. William S. Murphy, Aug. 15, 1851; Rev. J. B. Druyts, July 6, 1856 (he died of softening of the brain June 18, 1861); Rev. W. S. Murphy, temporarily, February, 1861; Rev. Ferdinand Coosemans, July 16, 1862. On Dec. 3, 1863, the vice-province was elevated to the rank of a province, and Father Coosemans became provincial. Rev. Thomas O'Neil succeeded July 31, 1871; Rev. Edward A. Higgins, Jan. 1, 1879; Rev. Leopold Bushart, May 4, 1882.

The original intention of Indian missions was never wholly abandoned, but was pursued actively by Father Van Quickenborne and others after him through many years; but when in 1837 Father Van Quickenborne returned from the Kickapoo mission, near Fort Leavenworth, which he had started the year before, he succumbed to the hardships he had endured, and died Aug. 17, 1837. His remains were interred in the garden of the novitiate, near Florissant, where they are now surrounded by those of all but one of his early companions in Missouri. 290 From the motherhouse

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house near Florissant have sprung eight colleges, one boarding-school in the country, twelve churches in the West and Northwest, with their attached parochial schools, eight churches, with residences, besides missions and congregations formed, and churches and residences built and paid for, which were then transferred to the ordinary having jurisdiction over the district in which they were situated. From the little

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band of 1823, numbering twelve persons, the Jesuits in the Missouri province have increased to three hundred and thirty-five, of whom seventy-six are members of the community near Florissant. 291

St. Louis Cathedral. — The first church erected by the Catholics of St. Louis was evidently built soon after the arrival of Laclede and his companions, and probably at an early period of Father Meurin's pastorate, which extended from 1764 (irregularly) to February, 1769. Father Gibault, the successor of Father Meurin, records that on the 24th of June, 1770, the feast of St. John the Baptist, he blessed "the church, built of wood," and in 1774 Father Valentin made an entry in the register, of which the following is a translation:

"In the year 1774, the 24th of December, I, the undersigned, have baptized with the ordinary ceremonies of the church a new bell, which was named Pierre Joseph Felicité, and the godfather of which was the honorable Pierre Joseph de Piernas, captain in the Louisiana battalion and Lieutenant-Governor of the Illinois, and the godmother, Lady Felicité de Piernas de Portneuf, who have signed with me, the day and year as above.


"FR. VALENTIN, Priest."

Prior to this time the congregation had been called to their devotions by means of a large iron mortar, which was beaten with a heavy iron pestle, producing a sound loud enough to be heard by most of the parishioners.

In the contract for the construction of the presbytery, or priest's house, which it was determined at a meeting of the congregation held Sept. 1, 1776, to erect, it was provided that the materials of the old house should be used in building the new one, showing that there was a parochial residence and, presumably, a church. Tradition asserts that the first church was a small wooden chapel, with a presbytery attached.

On the 26th of December, 1774, the inhabitants of St. Louis assembled in the government chamber, in the presence of Don Pedro Piernas, the Lieutenant-Governor, Father Valentin, pastor, and Mr. Sarpy, church warden, and determined upon the erection of a new church. It was decided that the dimensions of the building were to be sixty by thirty feet, and that it was to be constructed of white-ash posts eighteen feet long, and hewed on both sides above ground, to the width of six inches. The inhabitants were to furnish all the wood and materials "according to an assessment to be made on each white and black person of the age of fourteen years and upwards, excepting widows and persons of sixty years of age, who shall be exempt as to their persons only." Pierre Baron, who was present, accepted the position of "superintendent of the building and of the assessment," and promised "to do his duty." Associated with him in the direction of the work were Réné Kiercereaux, Antoine Riviere, dit Bacanet, Joseph Taillon and Jacques Noise, "who must be present at the assessment and at the furnishing of the materials."

The proceedings of the meeting were signed by Réné Kiercereaux, Cotte, Jean Tardif, Amable Guion, Laclede L. Liguest, Lardoise, Becquet, Du Breuil, Sarpy, Baron, Benito Basquez, Labusci&eagrave;re, Sans Soucy, 292 Bagnete, 292 Bizet, 292 Bacaliot, 292 Gamscha, Jacques Noise, 292 Duffand, 292 Joseph 292 Taillon, Francis 292 Bissonet, Ride, 292 Louis Chancelier, Jacob 292 Marechal, Laurant, 292 Hunan, 292 Picart, 292 Fr. Valentine (curé), Pedro Piernas.

Nothing further appears to have been done during that winter beyond maturing the plans for the construction of the building, but on the 19th of April, 1775, the contract for the work was awarded, as the following translation of the original document attests:

"Agreement of the inhabitants of St. Louis to build a church, and the contract and specifications therefor. April 19, 1775, the third festival of Easter.

"Before me, Don Pedro Piernas, Lieutenant-Governor of the establishments of the Illinois and its dependencies, belonging to His Catholic Majesty, in presence of the Reverend Father Valentin, Capuchin missionary, curate of the parish of St. Louis, and of Messrs. Sarpy and Benito Basquez, wardens of said parish of St. Louis, at the conclusion of the parochial mass of said place, all the artisans and inhabitants composing the said

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parish assembled to award to the lowest bidder the contract for the workmanship on the projected church at this post. Said inhabitants and artisans being all assembled, and having maturely deliberated among themselves, agreed that said church should be constructed as follows, to wit:

"The church to be sixty feet long, of posts planted three feet in the ground, and to be thirty feet wide, with a gallery or porch six feet wide all around, with a pent-house ten feet wide the length of the gable end, two church doors, and two windows to the pent-house, with shutters, and gash of four lights high and three wide.

"The church to have fourteen windows of twenty-eight lights, arched three inches at the top, seven lights high by four wide, with their shutters, the contractor to put in all the iron-work. At the other gable, in the inside of the church, a lobby or gallery ten feet wide, the length of the gable, with stairs and a door to the lobby. The front entrance door to the church to be twelve feet high, arched, and six wide, the floors above and below to be well jointed, the sanctuary to be raised six inches above the floor, the two doors of the sanctuary to be dovetailed, and that of the lobby plain, the large door paneled. The belfry to be a St. Andrew's cross, shingled, the church to be shingled in six-inch courses. Windows four feet above the floor, the two front ones eight feet high. The rafters on the girders at ten feet apart, with ridge-pieces above and below, a bracket at each of the four corners and cross-pieces to support the gables. The joists from five to six feet apart.

"All the materials to be delivered to the contractor on the ground of the above church, who is to furnish all the labor only. The inhabitants are to furnish, also, the iron-work, nails, and mud-walling, and to assist the contractor in raising the heavy wood-work and timbers, the foregoing work to be subject to an examination by skilled persons.

"The aforesaid church is to be completely finished for service by the month of — of this present year, under the penalty of forfeiting all pay for the work he may have done if not completed in the time specified, nor will it be received from him until completely finished.

"The inhabitants to supply him the materials as fast as needed, so as not to delay him in the work, under the penalty of paying him for the time he may have lost through their delay, the contractor to engage himself all the workmen he may find necessary, who are to be paid first out of the contract price.

"And after the above specified conditions were read and proclaimed in a loud and intelligible voice, and clearly explained to the assembled people, the above work was awarded to Pierre Lupien, alias Baron, carpenter and joiner, at the price of twelve hundred livres, in deer-skins at the current value.

"This bid having been cried out at several different times, and no one proposing to underbid him, after waiting until sundown, the same Lupien demanded his right, and that the work be awarded him for the said sum of twelve hundred livres, according to the above specified conditions, which was granted him by Don Pedro Piernas, in the presence of as before stated witnesses, and with the approval of all the inhabitants, said contractor binding himself to execute all the stipulations of the contract, and, as security for the same, mortgaging all his property now and in future.

"Done and executed at the room of the presbytery the 19th day of April, third feast of Easter, in the year seventeen hundred and seventy-five, which we have all signed, those not knowing how to write having made their crosses after being read to them, before me, the Lieutenant-Governor.


The signers of the agreement to build the church included nearly all the householders in St. Louis a that day; they numbered seventy-nine, all told, and it will be observed that only thirty-five signed their names, all the rest (those inclosed in parenthesis) affixing their marks, — fifty-five per cent. of these best citizens being illiterate. The names are

Antoine Béreda, Alexis Cotté, John B. Becquet, (Jacque Labbe), (Chausel), Amable Guion, Pothier, (Kierq Desnoyer), (Amable Brunet), (Jean B. Deschamps), (Francois Liberge), Réné Kiercereaux, (Joseph Fayon), (Toussaint Hunot), (Francois Bissonet), (Langevin, dit Baguette), (Francis Delén), (Joseph Dechenes), (Pepin Lachance), Louis Chancellier, Larche, (John B. Savoie), (John B. Gamache), (August Karcelet), John Baptiste Tardif, Louis Dubreuil, Rouqueer, Antoine Berard, (Daniel), (Antoine Rivi&eagrave;re), (Jacques Marechal), (John B. Dufaux), (Joseph Moreau), (Nicholas Guion), Joseph Segond, Cottin, Benito Basquez, Joseph Labrosse, Petil, Michel Rollet de Laderout, J. J. A. Motard, (Simon Cousotte), (Nicholas Beaugenou), (Pierre Caillon), Gilles Chemin, (Pierre Roy), Belisle, (Francois Henrion), (Louis Ride), S. S. Martigny, (John B. Provercher), Francois Denoyers, (Joseph St. Francois), (Charles Routier), (Louis Bissonnet), (Alexis Picart), (Antoine Roussel), John Baptiste Ortes, Joseph Chancellier, G. R. Gemme, (Ignace Laroche), (Francis Hebert), (Falardeau), Michel Lamq, Louis Vaclard, A. A. Condé, (Pierre Lapointe), (Nicholas Royer), (Antoine Ladouceur), (Joseph Chartrand), (Paul Getard), (Joseph Calvé), J. B. Sarpy, Alexis Marie, Laclede Liguest, Jacques Chauvin, Antoine Reehle, Laville, Pedro Piernas.

Pierre Baron, the contractor, died on the 10th of October following, and as there was no one to represent him in the continuation of the work, the inhabitants assembled at the Government Hall, by order of the Lieutenant-Governor, Francisco Cruzat, on the 28th of January, 1776, to award the contract. At this meeting it was unanimously agreed that the work already begun should proceed, and that it should be let out to the lowest bidder, who was to be bound by the original specifications. Juan or Jean Cambas proved to be the lowest bidder, at the sum of fourteen hundred and eighty livres, in shaved deer-skins, with the condition that the building should be completed by the end of the month of May of the current year. The contract was signed by — Tardif, J. B. Ortes, A. Bernard, Sarpy, Condé, Dubreuil, Benito Peril, Amable Guion, Réné Kiercereaux, Ene. Barre Lajoy, William Duralde, Cambas, J. Motard, Francisco Cruzat.

Exactly at what time the work was finished does not appear, but the building was evidently occupied not long after the date set for its completion. It stood very near the site of the present Cathedral, or what was then "the north half of the church block (No. 59)," and attached to it was a cemetery. Speaking of the old church and parsonage, Judge Wilson

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Primm, in an address before the Missouri Historical Society, said, —

"My recollection of these buildings is very distinct. The gallery around the church, supported by cedar posts, notched and whittled by the village urchins, the swallow's nest under the eaves, the little belfry and its bell, always rung by old Alexis Lalande (the bedeau), bell-ringer, at morning, noon, and sunset, all these are at this moment as present to me as they were nearly half a century ago.

"When that old church was demolished in 1820, I think its bell was sent to Carondelet, for the use of the church there, and is still to be found there in the belfry of the school-house of the Christian Brothers. In St. Mary's Church at Carondelet can still be found the remains of the pews and benches which were used in the old church at St. Louis."

In the summer of 1776 a project for the erection of a parochial residence was set on foot, and on the 1st of September of that year a meeting of the inhabitants was held for the purpose of deciding on the character of the structure, its cost, etc. The official record of this meeting, translated from the Spanish archives, is as follows:

"Agreement of the inhabitants of St. Louis to build a permanent residence for the curate of the parish, Sept. 1, 1776.

"On this day, the first of the month of September, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-six, at the close of the high mass at this parish of St. Louis, the inhabitants thereof assembled in the old parsonage house, in the presence of the Lieutenant-Governor Don Frans. Cruzat, to consider the expediency of building a new residence for the occupation of the reverend father officiating in this parish.

"Being assembled, they agreed unanimously that said new residence should be built of stone, of the dimensions of forty-five feet in length by twenty-seven feet in width, to be commenced in the coming spring and carried on without interruption to its completion, the Reverend Father Bernard, the present incumbent of the parish, offering to contribute the sum of four hundred and thirty-seven livres in peltries to aid in its construction, which sum had been furnished him at New Orleans in the payment of his passage from that place to St. Louis. Jean Cambas and John Ortes, carpenters, were appointed as trustees to receive the materials and make such equitable assessments upon each person according to his ability to pay, and to give to each individual a receipt for his assessment, which he must produce to avoid being called upon a second time; said house to be built with mortar made of clay, and all the timbers in the old house shall be used in the construction of the new one so far as they are suitable for the purpose.

"The assessment to be made, as in the case of the church, upon all persons exceeding the age of fourteen, without any exception.

"It is so understood and ordered. St. Louis, this 1st day of September, 1776. L. Chevalier, Labusciere, S. Labbadie, Tayon, A. Condé, Peret, Motard, Barada, Benito, Terraute, J. Conaud, Becquet, Hebert, Poure, A. Berard, Joseph Labrosse, Dubreuil, Picote de Belestre, Pothier, Chauvin, Law Gagner, 293 Suns Souey, 293 Rondeau, 293 Baccaunet, 293 Jacques Labbe, 293 Francois Bissonnet, 293 Am. Guion, Laclede Liguest, Father Bernard, curate.


"Specifications in the Contract. — The house, thirty-eight feet long by twenty-seven wide and thirteen high, to be built of stone with earth mortar, one and a half feet in the ground; a pent-house or shed at end of ten feet wide and of the length of the gable end, twenty-seven feet, to be six and one-half feet high; the floor to be four feet above ground, and the upper floor eight and one-half feet above the lower, with a partition wall, to make a parlor and a chamber; the walls of the house to be two feet thick below the floor, and eighteen inches above, the partition wall one foot thick; a front and rear door to the parlor and two windows, two doors between the parlor and chamber, and three windows in the chamber, one front, rear, and end; two cellar doors and a small window in the loft; a double chimney between the parlor and shed, and a flue in the partition wall; a door and two windows to the pent-house; square gables with a small window. After the floors are laid the house to be rough-cast and whitewashed, and the hearth laid by the contractor for the stone-work, who will furnish his own help and deliver it ready to receive the roof by the 8th day of September next, under the penalty of forfeiting two hundred livres of his compensation; and if before the expiration of the said term he should abandon the contract, he will forfeit all his labor done to that period, except in case of sickness, to be certified by the surgeon. The contractor is also to furnish himself with everything necessary, his own tools, scaffolding, ropes, barrels, mortar, picks and shovels, in a word, all he may require to complete his job. Payment will be made in the course of the next spring (1778), in peltries at the current rate, and will also receive from the Reverend Father Bernard one hundred livres in peltries at the completion of his work, part of the amount he is to contribute."

According to the custom of the day, the letting of the work was proclaimed at the church door, after high mass at noon, for three successive Sundays, June 15, 22, and 29, 1777, and on this last day was awarded to the following parties as the lowest bidders for the same:

"The stone-work as described in the specifications, to Benito Basquez for 1400 livres.
"The carpenters' work, including the timber and lumber, joists, rafters, shingled roof with iron nails, frames for eight doors, eight windows, etc., to Francois Delan for 550 livres.
"The joiners' work, laying floors, two board partitions, doors, windows with sashes and shutters, putting on fastenings, etc., to Joseph Verdan for 299 livres.
Total 2249 livres.

"In presence of FRANCISCO CRUZAT.



"COTLIN, Constable."

It will be noticed that the name of Chouteau does not appear in the list of signers to the agreements for erecting the church, nor in that for building the parsonage. He was probably away among the Indians.

On the arrival of Bishop Dubourg at St. Louis in 1818, he found the wooden church in a dilapidated condition, or, to quote the language of Father De Andreis, one of the priests who accompanied him, "falling into ruins." He determined at once to begin the construction of a new church of brick, the first Cathedral of St. Louis, and on the 29th of

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March, 1818, less than three months after the bishop's arrival, the first stone was laid by Bishop Dubourg. This stone is described as having been "hollowed in the form of a chest to contain and preserve to the latest generations the names of benefactors, coins of various descriptions, and some memoirs of the present time." Notice had previously been given (March 6th) to stone-masons, bricklayers, and carpenters that the work was about to be begun, and the construction of the edifice proceeded until its completion in the spring of 1820, announcement being made on the 15th of March of that year that the Cathedral would be opened for divine service in April, probably at Easter. On the 27th of August, 1823, an advertisement appeared in the Missouri Republican, in which it was stated that John K. Walker had been appointed trustee to conduct the sale of so much of that part of the ground on which the Catholic Church stood, situated south of the church and south of the graveyard appurtenant thereto, as would be needed to raise the sum of four thousand five hundred dollars, for the purpose of repaying to Auguste Chouteau and others, commissioners of the Catholic Church, money which they had advanced on account of the church.

The new church was located south of the present Cathedral, and had considerable pretensions to architectural effect. It was first used for service on Christmas-day, 1819, though not then finished. During his European tour in 1815, Bishop Dubourg had been presented by generous Catholics with many rich and rare gifts, among which are mentioned a large painting of St. Louis, the tutelary saint of the Cathedral, a gift from Louis XVIII. of France; ancient and precious gold embroideries, and a large and handsome organ, sent to the church by the Baroness Le Caudele de Ghysegheru, a Flemish lady.

The present Cathedral, situated on the north side of Walnut Street, between Second and Third Streets, Rev. Miles W. Tobyn, pastor, was erected at the suggestion and mainly through the efforts of Bishop Rosatti, who, on Sunday, March 28, 1830, requested from the pulpit that the congregation should hold a meeting at an early day and adopt measures for building a new church. Accordingly, on the 4th of April, 1830, a meeting was held, at which the bishop presided, and Marie Philip Leduc acted as secretary. Among those present were Judge Wilson Primm, Capt. Elihu H. Shepard, and Hon. John F. Darby. A subscription was immediately raised. Bishop Rosatti contributing eight thousand dollars. The dead having been removed from the old cemetery in order to provide a site for the building, the corner-stone was laid on the 1st of August, 1831, and on the 26th of October, 1834, 294 the edifice was consecrated "to the honor of the most Holy Trinity, under the invocation of Saint Louis of France," by the Right Rev. Joseph Rosatti, Bishop of St. Louis, assisted by the Bishops of Bardstown and Cincinnati. 295

Though erected almost in the infancy of the diocese of St. Louis, the Cathedral is a noble and imposing structure, conspicuous for the symmetry and beauty of its architecture. The length of the whole building is one hundred and thirty-six feet and its breadth eighty-four. The front is of polished freestone, and rises to a height of fifty feet, the facade being broken by a portico forty feet wide, supported by four Doric columns, with corresponding entablature, frieze, cornice, and pediment. On the frieze is the following inscription in bas-relief: "In honorem S. Ludovici. Deo Uni et Trino. Dicatum, A. D. MDCCCXXXIV." On each side of the porch is inscribed, both in English and French, "My house shall be called the house of prayer." There are three entrances from the porch, and between the three doors and three corresponding windows are three slabs of Italian marble, with the inscription, Ecce tabernaculum Dei cum hominibus, et habitabit cum eis, a text taken from the twenty-first chapter of the Apocalypse, and which is also inscribed in French and English. Originally the porch was inclosed by an iron railing, and was reached by flights of steps rising from the east and west, but subsequently this arrangement was changed, and a flight of steps was constructed rising from the pavement the whole length of the porch. The cornice, with its frieze and entablature, together with the battlements, extends along the front to the corners and about twenty feet along the sides, and the battlements are surmounted by six candelabra about nine feet in height.

The effect of this facade is simple but imposing. On a stone tower, forty feet in height above the pediment and twenty feet square, rests the spire, an octagon in shape, surmounted by a gilt ball five feet in diameter, from which rises a cross of brass ten feet high. In the steeple there is a chime of six bells, the three larger ones weighing respectively two thousand

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six hundred, nineteen hundred, and fifteen hundred pounds, having been made in Normandy, and a large clock, constructed in Cincinnati, which indicates the hours on the four sides of the tower and strikes them on the bells. The interior is divided into a nave and two aisles by two rows of five columns each on either side of the nave. These columns are in the Doric style, four feet in diameter and twenty-six feet high, and built of brick covered with stucco. The ceiling is elliptic, and is divided into eighteen richly-decorated panels. The width of the centre aisle is forty feet and that of each side aisle twenty feet. Above the front doors are two galleries. Beneath one of them are the baptismal fonts, and here also hangs a beautiful painting of the Saviour's baptism. The sanctuary is forty by thirty feet in size, and is elevated nine steps from the floor. Its sides are adorned with pilasters painted in imitation of marble, and with panels decorated with festoons of ears of wheat and vines, symbolic of the Holy Eucharist. The spaces between the pilasters are occupied by arches, two of which have galleries, one for the use of the Sisters of Charity and the other for the use of the choir. In the centre of the sanctuary is the altar, which is richly and beautifully decorated. The altarpiece is a large painting, representing the Crucifixion, on either side of which are two fluted Corinthian columns of blue marble, with gilt capitals supporting a rich entablature, which is surmounted by a pediment, broken in the centre to admit before a window, elliptical in shape, a transparent painting representing the dove, the emblem of the Holy Ghost, surrounded by a glory, and cherubs appearing in the clouds. On the top of the pediment, at either side, the figure of an angel supports the tables of the old law and of the gospel. On the western side of the sanctuary, in an arch near the balusters, is the bishop's chair, with a handsome mahogany canopy, and in a similar arch just opposite is a valuable painting, — a portrait of St. Louis, titular saint of the cathedral, — which was presented to the diocese by Louis XVIII. of France.

At the extremity of each side aisle is a small chapel, both of which are elevated five feet above the floor of the church. The eastern chapel is adorned by an altar-piece representing St. Patrick in pontifical robes. Above the altar-piece are two paintings, one representing the centurion kneeling before the Saviour, and said to be by Paul Veronese; the other the marriage of the Virgin with Joseph. The western chapel has for its altar-piece a picture of St. Vincent de Paul, founder of the Order of Sisters of Charity, rescuing an abandoned child. Near the side doors are two other valuable paintings, one representing the martyrdom of St. Bartholomew, the other the Virgin Mary holding the infant Jesus in her arms. Beneath the side altars two flights of steps descend to the lower chapel, whose dimensions are eighty-four by thirty feet. The organ was constructed in Cincinnati at a cost of five thousand dollars, and is placed in a loft behind the altar of St. Patrick, communicating with the choir gallery on the eastern side of the sanctuary. On either side of the church are seven arched windows eighteen feet high, adorned with scenes from the life of the Saviour. The interior decoration of the Cathedral is warm and attractive, and the appearance of the ancient edifice on festival occasions is always gorgeous and imposing. In the rear of the Cathedral is a free school building under the charge of the Sisters of Loretto. On the 28th of April, 1871, the preliminary steps were taken for the incorporation of a society having for its object the erection of a new Cathedral. The movement was inaugurated under the auspices of Archbishop Kenrick, Bishop Ryan, and Vicar-General Muhlsiepen, and was supported by prominent capitalists. The ground upon which it was contemplated to erect the building was City Block 915, between Twenty-second and Twenty-third Streets and Chestnut and Pine Streets, which was secured for the purpose by the archbishop. The association was composed of the following members: Most Rev. Archbishop Kenrick; Very Rev. P. J. Ryan, coadjutor bishop; Very Rev. Henry Muhlsiepen, vicar-general; James H. Lucas, Henry S. Turner, Joseph O'Neil, John Withnell, Nicholas Schaeffer, H. J. Spaunhorst, J. B. Ghio, Bernard Crickhard, M. B. Chambers, Julius S. Walsh, John Byrne, Jr., Bernard Slevin, Charles P. Chouteau, Charles Slevin, James Maguire, and Joseph Garneau. A certificate of incorporation was granted to these gentlemen by Judge Lucas, and the association was incorporated under the name of the St. Louis Cathedral Building Association. Pending the erection of the new building, however, the venerable edifice of 1834 continues to rear its massive front, and with the alterations and repairs which were made in 1876 the Cathedral is still a noble and imposing house of worship. 296

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In 1876 the Cathedral was repaired and the interior redecorated under the direction of T. W. Brady, architect. The exterior, with the exception of the steeple, which underwent extensive improvements, was left unchanged. The entire interior was painted and frescoed by George Couch and Charles F. Krueger, gray being the prevailing tint of the background, relieved by rich but quiet ornamentation. The spaces between the windows were adorned with figures (more than life-size) of St. Malachi, St. Boniface, St. Patrick, St. Ignatius, St. Francis de Sales, St. Kevin, St. Lawrence O'Toole, and St. Bridget. The walls of the sanctuary were likewise adorned with figures of St. Louis, St. Vincent de Paul, and other saints. The old paintings, "The Descent from the Cross," and "St. Louis at his Devotions," which had been familiar to frequenters of the church for many years, remained in their accustomed places, and were brought out in clearer relief by the added freshness and brightness of their surroundings. The year 1876 being the centennial year of the foundation of the parish, a meeting was held at the parochial residence July 11th, and the following resolution was adopted:

"Whereas, Our country is ringing throughout its length and breadth with the shouts of our citizens for this, the hundredth anniversary of our political independence; and, whereas, this year is the hundredth anniversary of the foundation of the Cathedral parish; therefore be it Resolved, That in this two-fold centennial we celebrate with all the pomp we can the feast of our church on August 27th."

A committee consisting of Rev. David J. Doherty and John H. O'Neill was appointed at the same meeting for the purpose of preparing from such data as were procurable an address to the parishioners and people of St. Louis, which should embody a history of the Cathedral parish, and which should be published in pamphlet form. In accordance with these instructions the address was prepared and published, and the centennial services at the Cathedral were held Aug. 27, 1876. The front of the building was trimmed with evergreens in honor of the occasion, and an immense assemblage was attracted to the scene. Among those present inside the building, to which entrance was only to be obtained by means of cards of admission, were Judge Wilson Primm, who many years before had been leader of the Cathedral choir, Senator Bogy, Col. J. O. Broadhead, Hon. Thomas E. Reynolds, Capt. Thorwegen, John F. Gibbons, and Col. A. W. Slayback. The altars were ablaze with light, and the decorations unusually rich and brilliant. High above the altar, in letters formed by gas-jets, was the inscription, Gloria in Excelsis Deo. The orchestra opened the services with the prelude to a mass by Giorza, and the procession of clergy marched into the sanctuary. It was composed of three acolytes, twenty-five priests and monks, and three bishops. The grand high mass was celebrated by Right Rev. Bishop Ryan, with Very Rev. H. Muehlsiepen, V. G., as archdeacon of honor; Rev. Joseph Henry, of St. Lawrence O'Toole's, as deacon; Rev. P. L. McEvoy, of St. Kevin's, as sub-deacon; and Rev. C. Smith as master of ceremonies.

In the sanctuary were the following clergymen: Right Rev. Bishop Hennessy, of Dubuque, attended by Rev. Andrew Eustace, of St. Michael's; Right Rev. Bishop Hogan, of St. Joseph, attended by Rev. William Walsh, of St. Bridget's; Very Rev. P. J. O'Halloran, V. G., of East St. Louis; Rev. T. M. Keilty, of the Holy Angels; Rev. P. P. Brady, of the Annunciation; Rev. M. Reilly, of St. Columbkill's; Rev. R. Hayes, of St. Lawrence; Rev. T. Hanlon, of St. Michael's; Rev. M. W. Tobyn, pastor of Cathedral parish; Rev. George Watson, Rev. D. S. Phelan, of St. Aloysius; Rev. Father Maurice; Rev. Fathers Rosenbauer, Murphy, and Luytelaar, of St. Alphonsus'; Rev. E. Fenlon, of St. Bridget's; Rev. H. Kelly, of Cheltenham; Rev. T. Burke, of St. Vincent's; Rev. G. Powers, of St. John's; Rev. M. Brennan, of St. Malachi's; Rev. P. Morrissey, of the Annunciation; Rev. F. Ward, S. J., College Church; Rev. Father Servatius, O. S. F.; Brother Virgil, of the Christian Brothers.

The music, under the direction of Professor Campi,

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was very fine, the choir being composed of the following: Misses Peake, Pomarede, Overstolz, Whipple, B. Schumacher, B. Schumacher, De Kalb, Mulholland, De Campi, and Keller, Mrs. Coester, Mrs. Kreiter, and Mrs. Johnson, and Messrs. Allman, Diehm, A. Wiseman, J. Wiseman, Singer, Dierkes, Schraubstadter, Sexton, Overstolz, and Field.

Just before the delivery of the sermon, Father Doherty read a statement of the cost of the repairs to the Cathedral, which had just been completed. The renovation of the roof and steeple, he said, had cost $2618, the remodeling and repair of the windows $1100, the renovation and fresco-work in the interior $2600, making a total of $6318. The amount already paid on this score, together with the cash still on hand for that purpose, was $3300, leaving the considerable sum of $3000 still to be raised. It was this fact which led to the adoption of the plan of selling seats for the celebration, and it was this which also determined the finance committee to take up a collection. They did this, added Father Doherty, with a full realization of the fact that there were few St. Louisans, either Catholic or Protestant, who did not love the very stones of which the old Cathedral was built.

Rev. G. Powers, of St. John's Church, then delivered the sermon, his text being taken from the twenty-first chapter of St. John's Apocalypse, in which occur the words, Ecce tabernacuhm Dei cum hominibus, et habitat cum eis ("Behold the tabernacle of God with men, and He will dwell with them"), inscribed on the mural slab over the main entrance to the church. After the sermon the collection referred to by Father Doherty was taken up.

At the close of the mass the altar was rearranged and the service of the benediction followed, Bishop Ryan still officiating. After the benediction the orchestra and chorus rendered with grand effect Haydn's "Te Deum Laudamus," with which the exercises closed.

PASTORS OF CATHEDRAL PARISH. — On a previous page we have given the succession of early pastors and priests who officiated in the Cathedral parish, but for purposes of reference we recapitulate them here.

List of priests who officiated in St. Louis from the foundation of the city up to about the time of Bishop Dubourg's arrival:

Fathers Meurin, from May, 1766, to Feb. 7, 1769; Gibault, June, 1770, to January, 1772; Valentin, May, 1772, to June, 1775; Meurin, Oct. 4 and 5, 1776; Hilaire, March 19, 1776; Bernard, May, 1776, to 1789; Ledru, November, 1789, to September, 1793; Didier, December, 1793, to April, 1799; Lusson and Maxwell, July, 1798, to May, 1799; Lusson, March 23, 1799, to March 23, 1800; Janin, April 6, 1800, to Nov. 12, 1804; Maxwell, March 2 to May 29, 1806; Olivier, Sept. 14 and 15, 1806; Flynn, Nov. 9, 1806, to June 2, 1808; Maxwell, June 5 and 8, 1808; Quillet, July 20 to Aug. 26, 1808; Dunand, Dec. 23, 1808, to Jan. 18, 1809; Guillet, Dec. 24 to 31, 1809; Bernard, Feb. 6 to July 13, 1810; Maxwell, July 30, 1810; Dunand, Aug. 5, 1810; Maxwell, Aug. 12 to 15, 1810; Guillet, Nov. 2, 1810, to June 23, 1811; Dunand, July 30, 1811, to Aug. 2, 1811; Guillet, Aug. 9, 1811, to Dec. 1, 1811; Savigne, Dec. 11, 1811, to Sept. 15, 1812; Dunand, Nov. 10, 1812; Savigne, Feb. 11, 1813; Dunand and Savigne, March 14, 1813; Dunand, March 17, 1813; Savigne, May 12, 1813, to Oct. 3, 1817.

In January, 1818, there arrived, in company with Bishop Dubourg, Rev. Fathers De Andreis, Rosatti (afterwards Bishop of St. Louis), Acqueroni, Ferrari, and Carretti, and these priests officiated at the Cathedral and labored in the parish. Up to 1826 the following additional clergymen officiated from time to time at the Cathedral: Fathers Pratte, De Neckere (afterwards Bishop of New Orleans), Cellini, Saulnier, Neil, Damen, Titchitoli, and Jean-Jean. During the administration of Father Rosatti, from 1824 to 1843, many priests officiated at the Cathedral, among them being Fathers Timon (afterwards Bishop of Buffalo), Lutz, Loisel, Verhaegen, S. J., Doutrelingue, Paguin (afterwards sent to the mission of Texas, where he died of yellow fever), Roux, Condamine, Borgua, Lefevre (afterwards Bishop of Detroit), Tucker, St. Cyr (now over seventy-two years of age, blind, and an inmate of the Convent of St. Joseph, in South St. Louis), Fontbonne, Jamison, Fischer, Odin (later Archbishop of New Orleans), P. R. Donelly, Hamilton, and others.

In 1847 the Cathedral received its crowning honor by being made a metropolitan church, Bishop Kenrick being raised to the archiepiscopacy. Under him, during the earlier days, served Fathers Lutz, Saulnier, Carroll, Cotter (who was killed while attending a sick call in Washington County), Paris, and Heim. The epitaph on the grave of Father Heim in Calvary Cemetery tells that he was "The Priest of the Poor." In 1861 the Redemptorist Fathers arrived in St. Louis on invitation of the archbishop, and had charge of the Cathedral until 1868, when they removed to their own beautiful St. Alphonsus Church.

In addition to those already mentioned who have left the Cathedral to become bishops are Fathers Feehan, Hennessy, Duggan, Hogan, and Ryan.

The first St. Vincent de Paul Society on the banks of the Mississippi, and perhaps the first in America, was organized Nov. 20, 1845, the first meeting being held in the little school-house on Second Street, attached to the Cathedral, a building afterwards destroyed by the great fire of 1849. The second meeting was held on the 27th of the same month. Among

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the first members were Bryan Mullanphy, Father Heim, Father John O'Neil, John Haverty, John Everhart, John Ennis, John Dorack, Robert Mitchell, Joseph O'Neil, Michael O'Keefe, Dr. Linton, Dr. O'Loughlin, James Maguire, John Byrne, Jr., Dennis Galvin, John Amend, Francis Saler, and Joseph Murphy. Prominent among these were the venerable Father Heim and Judge Mullanphy, who were practically the founders of the organization. John Haverty and Robert Mlitchell also became very active in the subsequent work of the society.

St. Francis Xavier Church, otherwise known as the "College Church," was the sixth in the series of structures erected by the Jesuits in charge of St. Louis University. It was located on the lot originally given by Jeremiah Conner to Bishop Rosatti for college purposes, and made over by the bishop to the Jesuits in 1828. The corner-stone was laid in the spring of 1840, Rev. G. A. Carrell, afterwards president of the university, addressing the people from the eastern balcony of the college, and the building was dedicated and occupied on Palm Sunday, 1843. It is a substantial brick structure, Romanesque in style, with sixty-seven feet front on Ninth Street by one hundred and twenty-seven feet on Christy Avenue, extending back to the eastern end of the old college building. It has a large basement, in which the parochial school was conducted until its removal, in 1846, to a house built expressly for it. On the 19th of May, 1851, the church was transferred by the vice-provincial of the Society of Jesus in Missouri to the control of the St. Louis University, which assumed an uncanceled debt on the building of thirty-eight thousand seven hundred and fifty dollars. The church has a seating capacity of three thousand, and is often filled to its utmost capacity, people from all parts of the city making up the congregations. The interior is imposing and richly decorated, and its walls are hung with paintings, many of which are considered to be of great value. Among the interesting incidents connected with the history of this church were the consecration, Feb. 11, 1849, of Father J. Van de Velde, Bishop of Chicago, on which occasion the officiating clergy were Archbishop Kenrick, Bishop Loras, of Dubuque; Bishop Mills, of Nashville; and Bishop De St. Palais, of Vincennes, and the consecration, March 25, 1851, of Father Meige, Bishop of Kansas. At the latter ceremony Archbishop Kenrick and the Bishops of Vincennes and Chicago officiated.

The services in commemoration of the Golden Jubilee of the university on the 26th of June, 1879, were also conspicuous among the imposing ceremonies which have been held from time to time in this church.

The rectors or presidents of the university have always been ex officio pastors of the church. They have had for assistants, since 1843, Fathers George A. Carrell (afterwards Bishop of Covington, Ky.), Arnold Damen, Cornelius F. Smarius, 297 John O'Neil, Michael Corbett, Edward Higgins, Patrick J. Ward, the present assistant pastor. The principal societies connected with the church are the Young Men's, St. Joseph's, Young Ladies', and St. Anne's Sodalities. There are two Sunday-schools, attended, in the aggregate, by twenty-eight teachers and eight hundred scholars.

THE YOUNG MEN'S SODALITY was instituted by Rev. Arnold Damen, S. J., in 1846, under the protection of the Virgin. The first sodality, after which all the others are patterned, was organized in Rome in 1563, by Father John Leonius, S. J., then a teacher in the Roman College. It consisted at first of youths, who were placed under the special protection of the Blessed Virgin, but it found favor with Pope Gregory XIII., who by an encyclical letter in 1584 gave it the papal sanction, and commended its example to the Catholic world, vesting powers of direction and indulgences in the Jesuits who should establish branches. From this beginning sodalities have been organized wherever the Society of Jesus has colleges or churches, while the mother or Roman Sodality has numbered in its membership popes, cardinals, bishops, priests, and saints, as well as temporal princes, magistrates, and distinguished men in every class of society. The sodality attached to St. Francis Xavier's Church has for its object the promotion of sociability and brotherly love, and the practice of virtuous principles among its members. It meets every Sunday morning at a quarter past nine, except on the last Sunday in the

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month, when it meets at seven o'clock and proceeds in a body to St. Xavier's Church, to partake of the Communion. Frequent social gatherings are held at stated times. Sodality Hall, on the southeast corner of Ninth Street and Christy Avenue, was erected by St. Louis University in 1855, and besides rooms for meetings, contains a library of two thousand volumes and a reading-room supplied with local and Catholic periodicals. In 1880 a new class of members, known as the Veteran Corps, was organized within the sodality, its object being to recall such of its earlier members as had withdrawn from active fellowship. Fifteen years' membership constitutes eligibility to the corps, and it has now about two hundred names on its roll. The total present active and honorary membership of the sodality numbers six hundred and thirty-four, and its officers are a spiritual director, prefects (first and second), secretary, treasurer, librarian, and twelve consultors, all of whom form the council of the sodality.

ST. JOSEPH'S SODALITY, for married men, was organized by Father O'Neil about fifteen years ago. It meets in Sodality Hall at two o'clock on Sunday afternoons.

THE YOUNG LADIES' SODALITY of the Blessed Virgin Mary was organized by Rev. A. Damen, S. J., Aug. 15, 1848, with twenty-eight members. Since then fifteen hundred names have been enrolled, and the present active membership numbers five hundred. On the first Sunday of every month the members approach the Holy Communion in a body, their average attendance being three hundred and fifty. On other Sundays they meet to recite the offices of the Blessed Virgin Mary, with an average attendance of three hundred. The sodality occupies one story of Sodality Hall, and possesses a fine library of over eighteen hundred volumes. It also has a burial lot in Calvary Cemetery. A Mutual Benevolent Association, which is very flourishing and productive of great good, is sustained by its members. Rev. F. J. Boudreaux is the present director.

ST. ANNE'S SODALITY for married women was organized under the title of the Immaculate Conception Sodality, Dec. 8, 1875, by Rev. P. J. Ward, S. J., who was chosen at the time, and has since remained its spiritual director. St. Anne was selected as secondary patron, hence the name afterwards adopted. The officers at first consisted of prefect, first and second assistants, secretary, sacristan, treasurer, and twelve consultors; but the growth of the sodality rendering others necessary, there are now in addition to the above three assistant secretaries, an assistant sacristan, assistant treasurer, two medal-bearers, and six regulators. These officers are elected by the vote of the whole sodality at the annual meeting in April. The regular meeting takes place every Sunday afternoon (except the third Sunday) for reciting the offices of the Blessed Virgin and instruction. On every third Sunday the sodality attends the Holy Communion. An annual retreat of one week is also given, and all who attend it are admitted to membership, dispensing with the three months' probation usually required of postulants. The retreat is closed by mass and Communion, followed by the act of consecration for postulates, and its renewal for old members, with closing instruction and benediction. High masses of requiem for deceased members are said both during retreat and as soon as possible after the death of any member. The average monthly number of communicants during the past year has been three hundred and five. The sodality began in 1875 with ninety-six members, and on the 1st of January, 1882, numbered five hundred and sixty-five members. Several, however, have since been dropped for non-attendance, leaving the actual membership four hundred and fifty. Since the beginning there have been twenty-seven deaths.

St. Joseph's Church, at the northeast corner of Eleventh and Biddle Streets, Rev. Lambert Etten, S. J., pastor, was established for the use of German Catholics by the members of the Society of Jesus attached to the St. Louis University. The congregation first met for worship in 1840, in St. Aloysius Chapel, on the grounds of the university on Washington Avenue, and when St. Francis Xavier Church was finished this chapel was given up to them. The ground for St. Joseph's Church was given by Mrs. Ann Biddle, and work was begun March 1, 1844. The corner-stone was laid in April, 1844, and the building, which was eighty by one hundred and twenty feet, was finished and dedicated Aug. 2, 1846. The building was in the Ionic style of architecture, and was surmounted by a spire one hundred and fifty feet in height. The interior was divided into a nave and two aisles, and was finished after the Corinthian order. George Purves was the architect. The parish grew very rapidly, and under the pastorate of Father Weber, S. J., the church was greatly enlarged and improved. The corner-stone of a new building was laid in the latter part of June, 1865, and the completed structure was dedicated Dec. 30, 1866. In 1880 the present front with the steeples was added, making the dimensions of the whole edifice one hundred and twelve by one hundred and eighty feet. As it now stands, with its massive proportions and lofty towers, it is one of the most spacious and imposing

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church edifices in the country. It will seat two thousand six hundred persons, but as many as four thousand five hundred have been contained within its walls. The exterior is in the Romanesque style of architecture, and the interior is magnificently decorated, the grand altar having cost ten thousand dollars. In the semi-dome are five panels, each of which contains colossal figures in natural colors, representing the Virgin Mary, SS. Ann and Joachim, Abraham and David, surrounded by appropriate emblems. These are again crowned by another composition, as is seen through the eye of the first dome, representing the Holy Trinity. The diffused light produced by mechanical combinations reflected on these figures has a magnificent effect.

The nave is separated from the aisles by a range of Corinthian columns of Sienna marble supporting semi-circular arches, and terminating with a semi-dome, or apse, inclosing the high altar. These columns and arches support a clear-story, which is perforated by windows, and separated from the arches by a crowning entablature, which forms the base sustaining the semi-circular arches spanning the nave. The spaces or bays between the columns and walls forming the side aisles are covered by small domes, giving to each section a separate compartment. On south end of the interior is the styolate sustaining the choir and galleries. The parochial schools are located in three brick buildings, three stories high, on Eleventh Street, between Cass Avenue and O'Fallon Street, built in 1857, 1860, and 1862, and are under the charge of the Sisters de Notre Dame and of secular teachers. The buildings and ground cost about sixty thousand dollars; and the schools are conducted by eleven teachers, and attended by nine hundred pupils. The successive pastors of the church have been Rev. Fathers J. Getting, 1840; Hofbauer, 1846; Seisl, 1847; Patschowski, 1851; Joseph Weber, 1859; Tschieder, 1870; Fr. Hagemann, 1876; L. Etten, 1881, all of the Society of Jesus; Fathers Joseph Weber (who has been attached to the church for twenty-nine years), F. X. Whippern, and Francis Braun, all of the Society of Jesus, are assistant pastors. The parish comprises eight hundred families and two thousand communicants, and the Sunday-school has four teachers and four hundred pupils. The congregation is exclusively German, and has connected with it a Young Men's Sodality of two hundred members; Young Ladies' Sodality, two hundred and thirty members; Married Men's Sodality, organized 1881, one hundred and twenty members; St. Joseph's Benevolent Society, two thousand members; St. Vincent de Paul Society, and others.

St. Mary of Victories, another German Church, was organized by the Rev. Peter Fischer, its first pastor, in 1843, its original members being a portion of the Cathedral congregation. The deed of the church property bears the date of Feb. 8, 1843. The corner-stone of the present church, which is located at the northeast corner of Third and Mulberry Streets, was laid June 25, 1843, and the building was blessed on the 15th of September, 1844. In 1859-60 an addition to the church on the east side, increasing it more than one-half its former size, and the tower were built, and on the 13th of May, 1860, the church was consecrated. Archbishop Kenrick officiated, assisted by Rev. R. Niederkorn, S. J., of St. Joseph's Church; Rev. Dr. Salzman, of Milwaukee; Rev. Mr. Goiter, of the Church of SS. Peter and Paul; and Rev. Mr. Ziegler, Fathers De Smet, S. J. Bannon, and others. The second pastor was Very Rev. Joseph Melcher, V. G., 1847 to 1868; the third, Very Rev. Henry Muhlsiepen, V. G., March to August, 1868; the fourth and present pastor, Rev. William Faerber, S. J., was appointed August, 1868. The church owns the west half of the block on which it stands (except twenty-two feet on the northwest corner), or two hundred and twenty-five by one hundred and fifty feet. The parochial school, a two-story brick building, eighty-two by seventy-six feet, adjoins the church on the north. It was established in 1855, and is under the charge of one secular teacher and five Sisters of Notre Dame. It is attended by four hundred pupils. About two thousand persons (adults and children) are connected with this congregation. The Sisters of Notre Dame, of whom there are several in the city, in charge of different parish schools, have a small convent or residence at 742 South Third Street, on a part of the church lot.

St. Patrick's Church. — The corner-stone of St. Patrick's Church, situated at the northwest corner of Sixth and Biddle Streets, was laid in 1843, and the building was dedicated in 1845. It is a Gothic brick structure, seventy-five by one hundred and twenty feet, with a spire one hundred and ninety feet high, and its interior is highly decorated. The main altar, of Italian marble and highly artistic workmanship, is one of the costliest and handsomest in America. The parochial schools are located on the west side of Seventh Street, between Biddle and Carr, on a lot one hundred and twenty by one hundred and twenty-seven and a half feet. The building is a large three-story brick structure, the corner-stone of which was laid Oct. 29, 1871. The cost of erection was seventy-five thousand dollars. The schools are conducted by the Christian Brothers and Sisters

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of St. Joseph. This parish is the largest in the city, and contains nineteen hundred families, fully eight thousand people attending the different Sunday services. The successive pastors have been Revs. Fathers Lutz, Hamilton, William Wheeler, P. A. Ward, John Higginbotham, William Wheeler (again), James Fox, James J. Archer, James McCaffrey, assisted by Fathers Healy and J. R. Hayes.

Father Wheeler, who is conspicuously identified with the history of St. Patrick's parish, died at Munich, Bavaria, Feb. 27, 1870. Father Wheeler was born a short distance from Dublin, Ireland. His father was an Englishman, a convert to Catholicism, and his mother of Irish parentage. He came to this country about the year 1845, with a band of students, and landing in New York, repaired to St. Louis, where he was subsequently ordained. The first ministerial charge of Father Wheeler was in connection with St. Patrick's Church, and with the exception of a few brief interruptions, he was identified with this parish for twenty-two years. He first discharged the duties of assistant, and then became pastor of the church. During the interruptions alluded to in his connection with St. Patrick's Church he officiated at the Cathedral for a short time, and subsequently acted as pastor of St. Michael's Church. These, however, were but episodes in his career, which was mainly associated with St. Patrick's parish. Previous to his connection with the Cathedral he visited Europe, in company with Father Higginbotham, who, however, did not return with him.

In November, 1870, Father Wheeler again left for Europe to attend the Council of the Vatican. His position in that body was that of theologian for Bishop Feehan, of Nashville, whom he accompanied to Rome. He left St. Louis about the 1st of February, and in a letter to Father Ryan stated that he proposed making a short tour through Germany and other portions of Continental Europe, and expected to return to St. Louis about the 1st of May. Previous to his departure for Rome his parishioners gave him a banquet, and otherwise expressed their respect and esteem. Father Wheeler was a hard-working and devoted divine, and during the cholera epidemic of 1849 he labored ceaselessly in his ministrations among the sick and dying. He was between fifty-five and sixty years of age. 298

St. Vincent de Paul's Church, for both German- and English-speaking congregations, is situated at the southwest corner of Decatur Street and Park Avenue, and the pastor is Rev. James McGill, C. M. The parish was founded by Rev. John Timon, afterwards Bishop of Buffalo, N. Y., and is presided over by the priests of the Congregational Mission, established by St. Vincent de Paul. The building was begun in 1843, and consecrated in 1845. It is a massive brick edifice of Roman architecture, with a large cupola in the centre of the roof, and is sixty-four by one hundred and fifty feet. The total cost of construction was thirty thousand dollars. The congregation is composed of English and Germans, and separate masses are said for each. Both languages are taught in the parochial schools, of which that for boys, under the charge of the Christian Brothers, is held in a brick building, corner of Park Avenue, adjoining the church, which was erected in 1859 for fourteen thousand dollars, and has over five hundred pupils. The girls' school is situated on the northwest corner of Marion and Eighth Streets (one block east of the church), and is conducted by the Sisters of St. Joseph, who reside in the building. Father James McGill is Superior and pastor of the English-speaking portion of the congregation, and Rev. J. G. Uhland, C. M., is pastor of the Germans; Rev. D. W. Kenrick and A. P. Kreuz, C. M., are assistants. The parochial residence is just south of the church. About six thousand persons attend worship regularly at St. Vincent de Paul's.

Church of SS. Peter and Paul. — The congregation of SS. Peter and Paul was organized in 1848 by its first pastor, Rev. Simon Sigrist. Its first church was a frame building on the site of the present church, at the corner of Allen Avenue and Seventh and Eighth Streets, and the second, situated on the same lot, was of brick, with a seating capacity of seven hundred. Its corner-stone was laid Oct. 1, 1851, and the building was dedicated in October, 1854. On the 17th of June, 1873, the demolition of the structure was begun, and on the 12th of April, 1874, was laid the corner-stone of the present edifice, which was consecrated Dec. 12, 1875. It fronts eighty-three feet on Eighth Street, and extends two hundred and four feet from Seventh to Eighth, the entire depth of the block, with a transept ninety feet

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in length. It is of uncut Grafton limestone, of the fourteenth century Gothic style, and is one of the most beautiful and imposing churches in the city. The structure is surmounted by a steeple three hundred and fourteen feet high. The building is constructed in the most substantial manner, and with studied care to secure the best effects of interior decoration. The church is well lighted with stained-glass windows, and the three altars are exceedingly beautiful, the altar to St. Mary having figures of the Virgin, St. Catherine, and St. Elizabeth. The altar of St. Joseph has also figures of St. Boniface and St. Francis de Sales. The church will seat three thousand people, and cost two hundred thousand dollars. It was built without assistance from any fair, picnic, dance, or other festival, although the congregation (all Germans) was almost exclusively of the working classes. The consecration services were conducted by the Eight Rev. Bishop P. J. Ryan, D. D., assisted by Rev. Father Groernbaum, deacon; Rev. William Kleibibghaus, sub-deacon; Rev. H. Groll, assistant deacon; Very Rev. H. Muhlsiepen, V. G., master of ceremonies; also Rev. Father Ruesse, Rev. C. Wahpelhorst, Rev. H. Vandersauten, chancellor; Rev. William Faiber, of St. Mary's; and Rev. H. Krabler, C. M. Pontificial high mass was conducted by the Right Rev. Bishop Heiss, D. D., of La Crosse, Wis., assisted by Very Rev. H. Muhlsiepen, V. G., archdeacon; Rev. Father Hoeynck, of St. Liborius, deacon; Rev. Father Schilling, of Lowell, sub-deacon; Very Rev. C. Wahpelhorst, master of ceremonies. A sermon in English was delivered by the Right Rev. Bishop Fitzgerald, D. D., of Little Rock, and one in German by the Right Rev. Bishop Krautbauer, D. D., of Green Bay, Wis.

Pastor Sigrist was succeeded by Rev. Francis Goller on Jan. 1, 1858, and since 1870 he has had for assistants Rev. Fathers H. Groll, W. Klevinghaus, and F. Ruesse. The parochial school is conducted under the charge of the Sisters of Notre Dame, in a large three-story brick building adjoining the church on Eighth Street; it has sixteen teachers and twelve hundred pupils. The entire church property is valued at three hundred thousand dollars. The principal societies connected with the congregation (which numbers about one thousand families) are the St. Paul's Benevolent Society, of six hundred members, with a cash capital of twenty thousand dollars; the Young Men's Sodality, of two hundred members; and the Young Ladies' Sodality, of three hundred members. The pastoral residence adjoins the church on South Seventh Street. The cemetery belonging to the church is situated on Gravois road.

St. Michael's Church, northeast corner of Eleventh and Exchange Streets, Rev. Andrew Eustace, pastor, was founded by Rev. Father Hogan, afterwards Bishop of St. Joseph, Mo., and the present brick building, forty-five by ninety feet, which was built in 1855, at a cost of twenty thousand dollars, took the place of an old building that had been occupied by the congregation for many years previous. The parochial school is located at the northwest corner of Eleventh and Benton Streets, in a large brick building erected in 1859, at a cost of thirty thousand dollars, which will accommodate five hundred pupils. It is conducted by the Sisters of Loretto. About four hundred families (two thousand persons) are connected with the congregation.

Holy Trinity (German) Church, situated at the southwest corner of Mallinckrodt and Eleventh Streets, Rev. Frederick Brinkboff, pastor, was organized, and its first house of worship built in 1851, by Father Lorenz, its first pastor. In 1858 the church was demolished and the present structure erected. It is a large brick structure of the Romanesque style of architecture, fifty-four by one hundred and twenty feet, and the church lot, which is one hundred and seventy feet square, also contains a fine parochial residence. The parish school, a three-story brick building sixty by fifty feet, on a lot eighty by one hundred and thirty-five feet, stands on the corner opposite to the church. It was built in 1871, the school having previously been conducted in the basement of the church. Father Devanny succeeded the first pastor and preceded the present; Rev. Paul Weis is assistant pastor. The parish comprises four hundred and fifty families, with fifteen hundred communicants; and there are seven teachers and four hundred and fifty pupils in the Sunday-school.

St. Bridget's Church. — The first St. Bridget's Church was erected in 1853, and the corner-stone of the present building, which adjoins it, and which is situated at the northeast corner of Carr Street and Jefferson Avenue, was laid by Archbishop Kenrick on the 7th of August, 1859. The building was finished during the pastorate of Rev. David Lillis, its first rector, at a cost of thirty-five thousand dollars. It has a front of seventy-five feet on Jefferson Avenue, with a depth of one hundred and thirty-five feet, and its architecture is a mixture of the Gothic and Byzantine orders. The old church, erected in 1853, is now used as the boys' parochial school, in charge of the Christian Brothers. The parochial school for girls is situated on the northwest corner of Jefferson Avenue and Carr Street, in a handsome brick building of four stories and a basement, which contains

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twelve rooms, and is capable of accommodating seven hundred scholars. The school is in charge of the Sisters of St. Joseph. The parish contains about five thousand persons, and nearly twelve hundred children attend the Sunday-schools. The pastor of St. Bridget's is Rev. W. Walsh, and his assistants are Revs. F. R. Gallagher and J. J. Harty.

St. John of Nepomuk (Bohemian) Church was established in 1854 by the first pastor, Rev. Henry Lipoosky, who was succeeded by the Rev. Francis Trojan in 1856, and by the present pastor, Rev. Joseph Hessoun, in 1865. A frame building, thirty-five by seventy feet, was erected on the site of the present church (northwest corner of Soulard and Rosatti Streets), and dedicated in 1854. In the spring of 1870 the frame structure was torn down, and a church erected after plans prepared by Adolphus Druiding, architect. The corner-stone was laid May 15, 1870, and the building was dedicated Nov. 27, 1872. It is a handsome brick structure of the Gothic order, sixty by one hundred and fourteen feet, and is capable of seating five hundred and twenty persons. The ground on which the church stands was presented to the congregation by Father Renaud, a French priest. The church now owns seven lots, land its property is valued at sixty thousand dollars. The parochial school was organized in 1866, and the school buildings (two in number) are located on Rosatti Street near the church. Six Sisters of Notre Paine and one secular teacher have charge of the school, which numbers five hundred and twenty pupils. Connected with the church are the following societies: St. Wenceslaus Benevolent Society, with two hundred and fifty-two members; St. John of Nepomuk Benevolent Society, one hundred and four members; St. Joseph Benevolent Society, seventy-six members; Knights of St. John of Nepomuk, forty-six members; St. Vincent Conference for the Poor, fifty-eight members; St. Aloysius Young Men's Benevolent Society, sixty-seven members; St. Stanislaus Young Men's Society, sixty-five members; St. Ann's Ladies' Benevolent Society, one hundred and seventy-five members; St. Ludmilla's Ladies' Benevolent Society, one hundred and fourteen members; St. Mary's Young Ladies' Society, one hundred and two members; St. Agnes Young Ladies' Society, seventy members. About five hundred families are connected with the parish, and the actual membership numbers one thousand six hundred persons, but the church is attended largely by Bohemian families beyond the limits of the parish.

St. Liborius (German) Church, Nineteenth and Monroe Streets, Rev. B. Hoeynek, pastor, was erected in 1855, at a cost of fifty thousand dollars, by Rev. Stephen Schiveihoff, founder of the parish, who died in 1869, and was succeeded by the present pastor. The church is a fine Romanesque brick structure, sixty by ninety feet, but is becoming too small for the rapidly increasing congregation, which contemplates the building of a larger and finer edifice. The parochial schools, which occupy a three-story brick building on Nineteenth Street near the church, erected in 1856, at a cost of ten thousand dollars, are under the charge of the Sisters of Notre Dame (who reside in the building) and of one secular teacher. Rev. Henry Schrage is the assistant pastor. The congregation comprises about six hundred families and thirteen hundred communicants. Fully two thousand persons attend the regular Sunday services.

St. Lawrence O'Toole's Church. — Rev. James Henry, the present pastor of St. Lawrence O'Toole's Church, was appointed on the 7th of February, 1853, assistant pastor of St. Patrick's Church, and while serving in that capacity carried on mission work in the outlying districts of the parish, which extended to the old reservoir, and which in those days were an open prairie and almost a wilderness, Seventeenth Street being then the limit of the city. In April, 1855, he was authorized by Archbishop Kenrick to organize a congregation and establish a new parish, to be taken from St. Patrick's, and to be known as St. Lawrence O'Toole's. A lot, eighty-four feet three inches by one hundred and twenty-five feet, at the northwest corner of O'Fallon and Fourteenth Streets, was presented for the purpose by Miss Jane Graham, a member of the Mullanphy family, and upon this site a church thirty-eight by eighty-six feet was erected and dedicated Dec. 16, 1855. Mrs. Jane Chambers, only surviving child of John Mullanphy, gave an additional lot in the rear of the church lot, thirty-five feet on O'Fallon Street by eighty-four feet three inches in depth, on which was erected a building (still occupied), twenty-nine by seventy-four feet, for the parochial school, which was opened under the charge of the Sisters of St. Joseph in 1858. Father Henry slept in the basement of the church, in a small space, hardly to be called a room, under the bell-tower, considerably exposed to the elements. The tower was open, and the boys of the neighborhood were much addicted to ringing it at night, startling good Father Henry and the whole neighborhood with false alarms of fire.

In 1864 the church lot was exchanged for the one now occupied on the southwest corner of Fourteenth and O'Fallon Streets, and the old church was demolished and its materials used in the construction of a new edifice. The corner-stone was laid by Archbishop

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Kenrick on the 31st of January, 1864, and the occasion was made memorable by the presence of Gen. Rosecrans, who had just been appointed to the command of the Department of the Missouri, and who, in the presence of the ten thousand spectators assembled, knelt down to receive the archbishop's blessing. The building had progressed to the roofing, when it was entirely destroyed by a cyclone. Work was at once begun anew, and the completed structure was consecrated by Archbishop Kenrick in the summer of 1865. Its dimensions are seventy-five by one hundred and fifty feet, and it has held two thousand five hundred persons sitting and standing. The main altar, of white, blue-veined marble, beautiful in itself, is still further embellished by three medallions of white marble (executed by a sculptor who accompanied Maximilian to Mexico), the central one of which is the head of Christ crowned with thorns in high relief, and deserving to rank among the most exquisite gems of modern art. There are two altars, one on each side of the main altar, and similar to it in style and material, both of which were erected by Mrs. Hudson as memorials of her husband, Thomas B. Hudson, and of her niece, Lizzie Hudson Thatcher. A fourth altar, dedicated to St. Joseph, was also a gift of Mrs. Hudson. The size of the present church lot is one hundred by one hundred and eighty-six feet, and on the rear portion, adjoining the church, stands a commodious parsonage. Another lot, eighty-two by one hundred and twenty-five feet, on Fourteenth Street near Biddle, is owned by the church, and upon it a new parochial school, sixty by one hundred feet, is in course of construction. The parish contains a population of thirty thousand, of which five thousand are connected with this church. Its Sunday-school is attended by thirty-five teachers and eleven hundred scholars, and the parochial school has seven teachers and four hundred and fifty pupils. Connected with the church are a number of religious and benevolent societies.

St. Malachy's Church. — The congregation of St. Malachy's Church, southwest corner of Clark and Summit Avenues, Rev. Charles Zeigler, pastor, was organized on the 30th of October, 1859, by Rev. John O'Sullivan, its first pastor, who received his appointment Oct. 23, 1858, and was succeeded by Rev. M. W. Tobyn, April 26, 1862, and by the present pastor Oct. 20, 1869. The corner-stone of the church was laid Oct. 24, 1858, and it was occupied Oct. 22, 1859, and dedicated Sept. 2, 1860. It is English Gothic in style, and built of brick and stone, with fifty-five feet frontage on Clark Avenue by one hundred and twenty feet in depth. The interior, richly frescoed, is of very imposing appearance, the vaulted roof being supported by a double row of fluted columns. The church lot measures one hundred and thirty by one hundred and sixty feet, and contains, adjoining the church on Clark Avenue, the parochial school for boys, a two-story brick building, fifty by one hundred and twenty-nine feet, with a seating capacity of six hundred. The school is under the charge of the Christian Brothers, and has six teachers and four hundred pupils. The parochial school for girls is conducted in St. Philomena's Orphan Asylum and School, opposite the church, and is attended by four teachers (Sisters of Charity) and three hundred scholars. The schools are supported by voluntary contributions, and the tuition is free. The societies connected with the congregation are St. Malachy's Total Abstinence and Benevolent Society, organized in 1870. now numbering one hundred and thirty-two members; St. Vincent de Paul Society, organized in 1864, fifty-seven members; Young Men's Sodality, sixty-two members; Boys' Sodality, eighty-three members; and eight other exclusively religious associations. About six hundred families are connected with the church, the actual membership, largely composed of single men, numbering five thousand. The Sunday-school is attended by twenty-seven teachers and nearly eight hundred scholars. Rev. M. S. Brennan is assistant pastor.

Church of St. John the Evangelis. — The cornerstone of the first church of St. John the Evangelist, at the corner of Sixteenth and Chestnut Streets, was laid on the 22d of August, 1847, Father Timon officiating. On the 2d of February, 1859, the construction of a new church was begun, and on the 1st of May following the corner-stone was laid by Archbishop Kenrick. The building was completed in October, 1860, and was dedicated on the first Sunday of the following month. Its architecture is of the Romanesque order, and its dimensions sixty-six and a half by one hundred and thirteen feet. The height of the structure is sixty-four and a half feet, and the front is flanked by two towers of five stories, fifteen feet square, rising to a height of about one hundred feet. The interior was frescoed by Mr. Hoffman with scenes from the Apocalypse, and is otherwise richly adorned. The parochial residence adjoins the church on the east. Bishop Ryan was pastor of the church for some time prior to his consecration, and still preaches in it frequently. The regular pastor, Rev. John J. Hennessey, has for assistants Revs. M. J. Gleeson and Francis Jones. The parochial schools are situated at the southeast corner of Sixteenth and Walnut Streets, in a three-story brick building, with

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accommodations for seven hundred scholars, and are conducted by the Christian Brothers and the Sisters of St. Joseph. The building, which stands on a lot valued at ten thousand dollars, was erected in 1874, at a cost of twenty-seven thousand dollars. The parish is one of the most numerous in the city, containing about eighteen hundred families, or nearly nine thousand persons. Six hundred children attend the Sunday-school.

Annunciation Church. — Annunciation parish was organized in 1859 by Rev. (now Bishop) Patrick J. Ryan, by whose personal exertions the funds for the erection of a church were raised. The corner-stone of the structure, which is one of the finest in the city, was laid Nov. 27, 1859, and the building was dedicated Sunday, Dec. 16, 1860. The exercises on this occasion were conducted by Archbishop Kenrick, assisted by Bishop Juncker, of Alton, Ill. The dedicatory sermon was delivered by Father Byan. The dimensions of the church, which is situated at the northwest corner of Sixth and Labadie Streets, are sixty by one hundred and thirty-six feet, and the total cost was about one hundred thousand dollars. Its architecture is of the Roman order, and the appearance of the building is massive and imposing. The interior is richly frescoed and adorned by costly paintings, one of which, the "Marriage of Joseph and Mary," was presented by Louis XVIII. of France to Bishop Dubourg in 1818. A colonnade of Corinthian pillars supports the arched roof, and the altars, three in number, are of the purest Italian marble and very costly. The successive pastors of the church have been Revs. P. J. Ryan, David S. Phelan, and the present pastor, Rev. Philip J. Brady, who is assisted by Rev. David J. Dougherty. The Annunciation Free School for boys is conducted under charge of the Christian Brothers in a two-story brick building on the southeast corner of Sixth Street and Chouteau Avenue (nearly opposite the church). The girls' free school is conducted by the ladies of the Sacred Heart in their convent near by. There are about five hundred families or fourteen hundred persons in the parish, two hundred and ten communicants and over three hundred children in the Sunday-school. Identified with this church there are two benevolent societies, three purely religious societies, an orphan association, two temperance organizations, and the St. Vincent de Paul Society, a benevolent organization.

Church of the Assumption. — The parish of the Assumption was organized in 1862 by Rev. Bernard O'Reilly, and the corner-stone of the present Church of the Assumption, at the northwest corner of Sidney and Eighth Streets, was laid early in May, 1862. The dimensions of the building are forty by one hundred feet, and its cost was about nine thousand dollars. The architect was Robert S. Mitchell. Rev. Bernard O'Reilly was succeeded in the pastorate by Rev. F. O'Reardon in 1864; Rev. F. Kavanaugh, 1866; Rev. James Fox, 1868; Rev. Edward Shea, 1870; and Rev. C. A. Smith, the present pastor, in 1873. The church property has a front on Sidney Street of one hundred feet, on which are erected the church edifice, the parsonage, and the parochial school. It is valued at thirty thousand dollars. The school is taught by the Ursuline nuns, and has an average attendance of three hundred pupils. The congregation numbers fifteen hundred persons, an increase of five hundred in the last three years. Connected with it are two societies, both organized by the present pastor, — the St. Vincent de Paul (charitable and benevolent), organized in 1873, present membership, twenty-five; and Branch No. 169 of the Catholic Knights of America, organized in 1880, and now numbering seventy members.

Church of St. Anthony of Padua. — On the 5th of February, 1863, the Franciscan Fathers or Friars Minor, called Recollects, organized the parish of St. Anthony of Padua, in connection with their monastery in the suburbs of St. Louis, near the Workhouse Station, Iron Mountain Railroad. Divine service was held at first in a frame house belonging to John Whitnell, who presented to the order the ground upon which their buildings now stand. The monastery was completed and services held in its chapel Aug. 2, 1863. The corner-stone of the present church, at Meramec Street and Kansas Avenue, was laid by Archbishop Kenrick, April 10, 1864, and that part of the church which is now used as the sanctuary and oratory of the monastery was completed June 24, 1865, and services were thenceforth held in it until the main church was built and consecrated, Oct. 10, 1869, the rite of consecration being performed, in the absence and with the consent of Archbishop Kenrick, by Right Rev. John J. Hogan, Bishop of St. Joseph, Mo., assisted by Father Kilian, Provisional Superior of the Order of Franciscan Fathers. The building was erected at a cost of fifty-six thousand dollars, and its external dimensions are: Length, one hundred and forty-three feet; width, forty-five feet. Internal: auditorium, length, one hundred and five feet; width, forty-five feet; height, fifty feet. Sanctuary, length, thirty-eight feet; width, thirty feet; height, forty-three feet.

The pastors, with the dates of their appointment, have been Rev. Servatius Altmicks, O. S. F., who organized

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the parish Feb. 5, 1863, and who is now superior of the Indian Mission at Keshina, Wis.; Rev. Alardus Andrescheck, O. S. F., Dec. 5, 1869; Rev. Ferdinand Bergmeyer, O. S. F., Sept. 2, 1871; Rev. Vincent Halbfas, O. S. F., Jan. 14, 1877; and the present rector, Rev. Liborius Schaefermeyer, appointed July 2, 1879. The church building (including the steeple) is of stone, in pure Gothic style, and is one of the largest and handsomest church edifices in the city. The parochial school for boys was established when the parish was organized, but the building in which it is now held was not completed until 1870. The parochial school for girls is at present conducted by the ladies of the Sacred Heart, Maryville. In 1872 the monastery adjoining the church was enlarged and made a theological seminary for the students of the order. The number of students varies from twenty to thirty, the number of priests from fifteen to twenty, including such students. as towards the close of their studies are ordained, although not invested with full priestly functions, and there are about ten lay brothers. Since 1879 this monastery has been the ordinary residence of the Superior Provincial of the newly-formed Franciscan province of "The Sacred Heart of Jesus" in the United States, comprising about one hundred priests in the various monasteries and residences of the Western States and the Indian missions in Wisconsin. The present provincial is the Very Rev. Vincent Halbfas, O. S. F. The Fathers of this monastery perform divine service and attend to spiritual wants for the novitiate of the Christian Brothers, the convent and academy of the Sisters of St. Joseph in South St. Louis and at Nazareth, and the convent of the Sacred Heart, Maryville, as well as for the Catholic inmates of the various city institutions, the sick at the Marine Hospital, etc. They also furnish retreats to various other religious societies, and missions to Catholic congregations in several parts of the United States. Connected with the congregation are the following societies: Society of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, for boys and girls who have made their first communion; St. Aloysius' Young Men's Society, St. Clare's Young Ladies' Society, St. Mary's Ladies' Society, St. Anthony's Men's Society, and St. Anthony's Orphan Society. There are over three hundred families and nine hundred communicants in the parish, and about one hundred children attend the Sunday-school.

St. Elizabeth's Church, for colored people, is situated at the corner of Fifteenth and Gay Streets, and the pastor is the Rev. Ignatius Panken, S. J. The building, which is a small Gothic structure of brick, was erected about 1849, by the Southern Methodists, and was known as Asbury Chapel. It was sold in December, 1864, to the Jesuits, who devoted it to the use of the colored Catholics. The building was renovated and refitted, and will now seat about three hundred persons. The pastor resides at St. Louis University, but devotes his whole time to the duties of his parish and its schools. About eight hundred persons compose the congregation, and all attend the Sunday services with considerable regularity.

St. Teresa's Church, Grand Avenue, between North Market and Summer Streets, Rev. W. H. Brantner, pastor, was organized in October, 1865, by Rev. F. P. Gallagher, its first pastor, who was appointed Oct. 1, 1865, with Rev. E. J. Fitzpatrick as assistant. The corner-stone was laid on the 14th of May, 1865, and the building was dedicated Sept. 23, 1866. It was thirty-two by sixty-five feet in size, and had a capacity of three hundred sittings. An addition, forty-eight by sixty-five feet, was subsequently built, and dedicated Dec. 22, 1878, raising the seating capacity to seven hundred. The building is of brick, in the Byzantine style, and the church lot is two hundred and thirty-six by three hundred and fifteen feet. The church property is valued at fifty thousand dollars. Father Brantner succeeded the first pastor Sept. 1, 1875. On the 1st of August, 1876, the congregation was incorporated under the laws of Missouri as "St. Teresa's Roman Catholic Parish Association," with nine trustees. The societies connected with the church are the St. Teresa's Conference; St. Vincent de Paul Society, organized in 1868, and now numbering forty members; Young Ladies' Sodality of the Blessed Virgin Mary, organized Dec. 8, 1881, ninety members; Holy Name Society, organized May, 1879, sixty-five members; Married Ladies' Sodality, organized Feb. 2, 1882, forty-two members; Confraternity of the Holy Rosary, organized Oct. 1, 1875, one hundred and seventy members; Confraternity of the Sacred Heart, organized June 1, 1878, one hundred and eighty members; St. Teresa's Branch, No. 99, Catholic Knights of America, organized Dec. 1, 1879, one hundred and thirty-one members; St. Teresa's Council, No. 7, Knights of Father Mathew of Missouri, organized Aug. 10, 1881, seventy-five members; St. Teresa's Altar Society, for providing all things pertaining to the altar and sanctuary, organized November, 1875, two hundred members; St. Teresa's Purgatorian Association, organized Nov. 2, 1875, one hundred and fifty members. The parochial school was organized in 1870, and is conducted by four teachers. It is located in a building, thirty-five

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by seventy feet, which is situated in the rear of the church, and which accommodates three hundred pupils, the number now attending the school. Since the organization of this parish four other parishes have been formed within its boundaries, — St. Augustine's (German), Church of the Holy Ghost (German), St. Alphonsus' (Redemptorist), and Church of the Visitation. The present boundaries of St. Teresa's parish are from Natural Bridge road and Salisbury Street on the north to Lucas and Easton Avenues on the south, and from Jefferson and Garrison Avenues on the east to Goode Avenue on the west. On the 15th of October, 1882, the church celebrated the tri-centenary of the death of St. Teresa, its patroness, in the presence of a vast concourse of Catholics from all parts of the city. About two hundred and sixty families are connected with the congregation, and the Sunday-school is attended by twenty-one teachers and four hundred and fifteen children. The present officers of the board of trustees are Hon. Henry F. Harrington, president; John L. Zwart, secretary; John Staunton, treasurer. They reported $6923.45 as the amount of church collections for 1882, and a church debt of $9245.85.

Church of the Holy Angels. — The congregation of the Church of the Holy Angels, St. Ange Avenue, between Chouteau Avenue and La Salle Street, Rev. Francis M. Keilty, pastor, was organized by Rev. M. Welby, its first pastor, under direction of Archbishop Kenrick, in 1866. The corner-stone was laid on the 1st of July, 1866, and the building was dedicated by Archbishop Kenrick on the 1st of January, 1867. It is a neat brick structure of Gothic architecture, and will seat four hundred and fifty persons. The dimensions of the church lot are one hundred and eighty-nine feet eight inches by one hundred and thirty-six feet. The congregation numbers about thirteen hundred persons, and the Sunday-school is attended by twelve teachers and one hundred and eighty scholars. No parochial school has as yet been established in the parish.

St. Nicholas Church. — The corner-stone of St. Nicholas (German) Church, northeast corner of Twentieth Street and Lucas Avenue, Rev. Joseph J. Schaefers, pastor, was laid by Archbishop Kenrick on the 29th of April, 1866, and the building was dedicated on the 19th of May, 1867, in the presence of an immense concourse of people, including the different Catholic societies in regalia. The architecture of the church is in the early English Gothic style, and the building is of brick, its dimensions being eighty by one hundred and forty feet. From a tower one hundred and thirty feet high rises a spire to an altitude of one hundred feet. The interior is divided into a nave and aisles by a series of clustered columns, from which spring moulded Gothic arches, and is beautifully finished. The architects were Mitchell & Deslonne. The building and ground are valued at one hundred and ten thousand dollars. The parochial schools are located on Christy Avenue, between Twentieth and Twenty-first Streets, in a brick building of two stories and basement, which, with the grounds, cost twenty-four thousand dollars, and are under the charge of the Sisters of St. Joseph, who live in the building, and a secular teacher. Rev. Charles Brockmeier is assistant pastor. The congregation numbers about four hundred families, or two thousand persons, and three hundred and fifty children attend the Sunday-school.

St. Alphonsus Church, Grand Avenue, between Finney and Cook Avenues, Rev. Michael Müller, pastor, is one of the stateliest and most imposing buildings in the city. It was erected under the direction and is still in charge of the Redemptorist Fathers, by one of whom, Father Louis Dold, the original plans for the structure were prepared. Subsequently these plans were modified by the architect, Thomas Walsh. The corner-stone was laid Nov. 3, 1867, by Very Rev. Joseph Melcher, vicar-general of the archdiocese of St. Louis, and the building was first occupied, although in an unfinished condition, Nov. 30, 1868. About this time Rev. L. Dold, its first rector, with three lay brothers, removed from the Cathedral, of which they had charge since 1861, and occupied temporary residences which had been erected on the site. On the 4th of August, 1872, the church was dedicated by Bishop Ryan, in the presence of many priests and an immense concourse of people from all parts of the city and surrounding country. It remained a mission church until Sept. 1, 1881, when it was erected into a parish by Most Rev. Archbishop Kenrick. Its pastors have been Revs. L. Dold, E. Grimm, W. Meredith, and (since July, 1880) Michael Müller. The ground on which it stands fronts three hundred and eighty-nine feet on the east side of Grand Avenue, with a depth of four hundred and thirty feet on Cook Avenue, and three hundred and ninety-six feet on Finney Avenue. The building is eighty feet in width, and one hundred and eighty feet in length to the sanctuary, and has a seating capacity (including the gallery) of thirteen hundred and fifty. It is pure Gothic in style, built of rough-dressed white limestone (whence its popular name of the "Rock Church"), and above the principal entrance rises a main tower two hundred and twenty-five feet in height, flanked by two smaller towers, each

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seventy-five feet in height, above the entrances to the aisles. The main entrance under the middle tower is a Gothic arch twelve feet wide and forty feet high. The church contains five altars, the most important of which are the main or high altar, under which rests the body of St. Abundius, a Roman martyr, and the altar of "Our Lady of Perpetual Help." The entire cost of the structure amounted to about two hundred thousand dollars. As soon as the mission became a parish it was determined to build a parochial school, and the corner-stone of a school building (not yet finished) was laid on the 6th of August, 1882. The building (of brick) will be fifty-nine by one hundred and twenty-nine feet, three stories in height, will contain on the lower and second floors each six rooms, twenty-two by thirty-six feet, and on the third floor a hall the full size of the building. It stands thirty feet back from Grand Avenue, and forty feet from the church, and will be one of the largest parochial schools in the city. The cost of its construction will amount to about forty thousand dollars. The school will probably be under the charge of the Christian Brothers for the boys' department, and of the Sisters of Notre Dame for that of the girls. There are now about three hundred families in the parish, and the average attendance at masses and at evening service on Sunday is about four thousand. Many of the congregation come from other parishes. The Sunday-school, of which Rev. Jos. Distler is director, is attended by twenty-four teachers and four hundred children.

THE REDEMPTORIST FATHERS, or Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, established a branch of their order in St. Louis in 1861. The order, founded by St. Alphonsus de Liguori in 1732, and approved by Pope Benedict XIV. Feb. 25, 1749, has for one of its principal objects the giving of retreats and the holding of missions for priests, religious communities, and the people, but in this country the members of the order have also charge of parishes and perform the work of secular priests. From Naples, where it originated, the order has spread in every direction, and has attained gigantic proportions. The first Fathers to settle in America came to this country in 1832, and established houses in Baltimore, Rochester, New York, New Orleans, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Chicago, etc., and in 1861, at the invitation of Archbishop Kenrick, visited St. Louis in order to hold a mission in the Cathedral. The archbishop was so well pleased with their labors that he offered them a foundation in St. Louis and requested them to take temporary charge of the Cathedral, which they did, remaining there until their removal to their own (St. Alphonsus') church. Until 1875 all the houses of the order in the United States and Canada formed but one province, but in that year the province was divided into the Eastern and Western Provinces, with Baltimore as the residence of the provincial of the Eastern, and St. Louis of the Western Province. To the latter belong St. Louis, New Orleans, Chicago, Kansas City, and Detroit. Very Rev. Nicholas Jaeckel was the first provincial in the West, and has twice been reappointed for terms of three years each. The convent of the order stands in the rear of the church, and is a large building, having twenty-two dwelling-rooms, a library, recreation hall, refectory, kitchen, etc. Its cost was thirty thousand dollars. There are continually from ten to twelve Fathers attached to the house, and from five to six lay brothers.

St. Francis de Sales Church, northwest comer of Gravois road and Ohio Avenue, Rev. P. J. Lotz, pastor, was organized in 1867, as an offshoot from SS. Peter and Paul parish; by a number of families resident near the present location, and was for a time without a priest and struggling under the pressure of a heavy debt, which is now being gradually reduced. The property, comprising about one-fourth of the entire block, was purchased at the time of the organization of the parish, and the church was erected before a pastor had been appointed. Rev. L. Lay, the first pastor, added the pastoral residence in the rear of the church, and Rev. P. Wigger, his successor, built and organized the parochial school in 1874, which is now taught by one secular teacher and four sisters, and has three hundred scholars. The building stands north of the church, and is a fine brick structure with accommodations for three hundred and fifty pupils. The third and present pastor took charge in 1878. He enlarged the church and added to it a spire and a new slate roof, at a cost of seven thousand dollars. Rev. F. Reuther is his assistant. The parish contains about three hundred and fifty families and seven hundred communicants, and connected with the church are the St. Joseph's Benevolent Society, Society of Christian Mothers, St. Mary's Sodality for Young Men, and Young Ladies' Sodality.

St. Bonaventura's Church, devoted to the use of the Italian Catholics of St. Louis, is situated on the southeast corner of Sixth and Spruce Streets, and the pastor is the Rev. Nazareno Orfei. The building was purchased in 1871 by Vicar-General Muhlsiepen from the congregation of St. John's Protestant Episcopal Church, by whom it had been erected in 1853. At the time of its purchase there were about five thousand Italian Catholics in St. Louis. The amount paid for it by Vicar-General Muhlsiepen was fifteen thousand dollars. It is a handsome structure of brick,

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forty-three by one hundred and ten feet, and after being adapted to the uses of the congregation was blessed by the vicar-general on the 21st of April, 1872. At that time Rev. John B. Salvatelli, of the Black Franciscan Brothers, was the pastor, with Rev. N. Graziani as assistant. The church did not prosper under their charge, and in 1877 the building was closed and trustees made over the property to the archbishop, who called the present pastor from New Orleans to revive the enterprise. Father Orfei arrived in St. Louis July 14, 1877, and by his exertions soon restored the activity of the church. The sum of twenty thousand dollars (in addition to the purchase-money) was expended in preparing the church for Catholic worship. The building is modeled after the Church of St. Lawrence, outside the walls of Rome, and has a seating capacity of eight hundred. Father Orfei has organized in connection with his congregation a society known as the Third Order of St. Francis, now composed of sixty members of both sexes, which meets on the last Sunday of every month at four P. M. The congregation is composed of about three thousand persons, and there are two teachers and fifty scholars in the Sunday-school. The present location of the church became unsuitable long since, owing to its remoteness from the centre of residence of the parishioners, and a removal to a more eligible site is contemplated.

Church of the Immaculate Conception. — The original Church of the Immaculate Conception stood at the corner of Eighth and Chestnut Streets. The corner-stone was laid on the 8th of December, 1854, and the church was dedicated by Archbishop Kenrick in 1855. The work of construction was conducted by Fathers Bannon and Duggan, the latter of whom was afterwards Bishop of Chicago, and subsequently by Fathers Feehan (afterwards Bishop of Nashville), Keilty, Cronin, and O'Reilly. In 1874 the congregation removed to the southeast corner of Jefferson Avenue and Locust Street, where a frame chapel capable of seating five hundred persons was erected and dedicated on the 7th of June of that year. The parish comprises about two thousand persons, and the Sunday-school is attended by two Sisters of Loretto and one hundred and seventy-five scholars.

Church of the Sacred Heart. — In 1871 a brick chapel was erected for the use of the then newly-organized Church of the Sacred Heart, at the southeast corner of University and Twentieth Streets, and was dedicated on the 28th of May, 1871, the sermon being preached by the pastor, Rev. J. J. McCabe. In 1882 the chapel was enlarged, and it is intended ultimately to build a large church of stone. The parochial residence adjoining the church is an elegant stone structure of Gothic architecture. The parish school is located temporarily in the old Reservoir Market building, on Eighteenth Street, near Warren, and is under the charge of the Sisters of Loretto. There are about one hundred families in the parish, embracing three hundred regular communicants. The pastors are Revs. J. J. McCabe and J. M. McCabe.

Church of Our Lady of Mount Carmel. — In October, 1872, the Church of Our Lady of Mount Carmel was organized by the present pastor, Rev. D. S. Phelan, for the English-speaking Catholics of the northern portion of the city. The corner-stone of the church, which is situated on the east side of Church Street, near north city limits, was laid on the 16th of October, 1872, and the building was dedicated on the 4th of May, 1873. It is a Gothic brick structure, fifty by seventy-five feet, and stands upon a lot containing about half an acre, the property being valued at fifteen thousand dollars. The parochial school, organized in September, 1874, is conducted in a brick building thirty-five by fifty feet, situated near the church, and has two teachers and ninety scholars. There are four societies (religious or benevolent) connected with the church, having from thirty to seventy-five members each. The congregation numbers about one hundred families and four teachers, and about one hundred pupils attend the Sunday-school. Rev. William Noonan is assistant pastor, and also chaplain of Calvary Cemetery.

St. Agatha's German Church, northwest corner of Utah and Eighth Streets, Rev. William Hinssen, pastor, was dedicated by Bishop Ryan on the 14th of July, 1872, mass being celebrated by Very Rev. H. Muhlsiepen, S. J. It is a brick structure forty by one hundred feet, with two stories and basement, the first story being used as the parish school, which is conducted by four Sisters of the Precious Blood and one secular teacher, and numbers about four hundred scholars. The main auditorium on the second floor will seat about four hundred and fifty persons, and is filled every Sunday beyond its seating capacity. There are about seven hundred communicants in the parish. The church lot comprises about one-fourth of the block, and its northeastern extremity is occupied by a substantial parochial residence.

Church of Our Lady of Perpetual Succor. — The congregation of Our Lady of Perpetual Succor (Fourteenth Street and Linton Avenue, North St. Louis, Rev. A. Schilling, pastor) was organized in 1873 by forty families from Holy Trinity parish. The corner-stone of the present building was laid Oct. 6, 1873, and the church was dedicated May 17,

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1874. It is a brick building, of Romanesque architecture, eighty by forty feet, with four basement-rooms, in which the parochial school is conducted by five Sisters of Notre Dame. The school was established Sept. 1, 1873, and has now two hundred and twenty-five pupils. The church has a seating capacity of five hundred, and, with the pastoral residence, is valued at thirty thousand dollars. The congregation is growing so rapidly that it is proposed to erect in a few years a second building, with a front of two hundred and sixty-three feet and a depth of one hundred and thirty-eight and a half feet, at a cost of not less than fifty thousand dollars. There are several social and benevolent societies connected with the congregation, which has increased from the original forty to one hundred and sixty families.

St. Augustine's Church, (southeast corner of Twenty-second and Hebert Streets, Rev. H. V. Kalrner, pastor) is a German congregation, and was organized in 1874. The corner-stone of the building was laid Oct. 4, 1874, and the church was dedicated June 6, 1875. It is of brick, forty-seven by eighty-five feet, with two stories and a basement, the latter being used as a play-room for the pupils of the parochial school, which is conducted in four class-rooms on the first floor. The school was organized in September, 1875, with seventy-five pupils, and now numbers two hundred pupils, under the charge of three Sisters of the Precious Blood and one secular teacher. A two-story brick parsonage, eighteen by thirty-two feet, was built in 1875. The church property measures three hundred and seventy-five feet on the south side of Hebert Street. The first pastor was Rev. H. Jaegering, who was succeeded by Father Kalrner June 15, 1881. Connected with the congregation, which numbers about six hundred persons, are the St. Augustine's Benevolent Society (organized 1880), Orphan Association (organized 1882), St. Aloysius Society (organized 1875), Ladies' Altar Association (organized 1876), Young Men's Sodality (organized 1876), and Ladies' Sodality (organized 1876). There is no Sunday-school conducted by the church.

St. Kevin's Church. — The congregation of St. Kevin's Church, Compton Avenue and Sarah Street, Rev. Edward J. Shea, pastor, was organized in January, 1876, by Rev. P. L. McEvoy, its first pastor, who was succeeded by the present incumbent, Aug. 1, 1879. The church owns five lots, with a total front of one hundred and twenty-five feet by one hundred and twenty-five feet in depth. The church building is eighty by forty feet, and has a seating capacity of three hundred and twenty. The parochial school building is a two-story structure, has five large classrooms, and can seat three hundred and fifty scholars. The school, established at the organization of the parish, is under the care of the Sisters of Loretto, and has four teachers and one hundred and sixty pupils, The Sunday-school is attended by seven teachers and two hundred scholars. The value of the entire church property is estimated at twelve thousand dollars. There are one hundred and fifty families, or about six hundred persons, in the parish, and five hundred communicants.

The Church of the Holy Name, Grand Avenue near Fourteenth Street, Rev. Thomas Bonacum, pastor, was established about 1876 by Rev. P. J. Gleason, its first pastor, mainly with a congregation that had some years before been organized by the Jesuits as St. Thomas' Church, and had had a house of worship on O'Fallon Avenue, but had dispersed. The church is a Gothic brick structure, sixty by one hundred and thirty feet, and will seat one thousand persons. The church lot is two hundred by one hundred and fifty feet, and on it is situated a commodious parochial residence of two stories and basement, comprising eight rooms. The total cost of the ground and buildings was about twenty-seven thousand dollars. About three hundred families are connected with the congregation, and two hundred and twenty-five children attend the Sunday-school. No parish school has yet been organized. Rev. George A. Watson is assistant pastor.

St. Stanislaus Kostka (Polish) Church, Twenty-third Street, between Cass Avenue and O'Fallon Streets, is the first Polish congregation in the city. It was organized in St. Joseph's Church in 1879, and worshiped in the basement of St. Patrick's School until the erection of the present building, which was consecrated by Bishop Ryan on Sunday, Nov. 12, 1882. It cost thirteen thousand dollars, and has a front of seventy-five feet. The first floor is occupied by school-rooms, the church services being held on the second floor. Adjoining the church is the parochial residence. The congregation numbers one hundred and forty families, besides a number of unmarried persons.

St. Thomas Aquinas is a new parish, the forty-fifth organized by Catholics in St. Louis. The congregation worshiped for some time in St. Joseph's Chapel, Alexian Brothers' Hospital, but on Sunday, Oct. 8, 1882, the corner-stone of a church was laid at the northwest corner of Osage Street and Iowa Avenue, in the presence of an immense assemblage. The building is of Gothic architecture, and its dimentions are forty-two by seventy-five feet.

St. Boniface (German) Church, Carondelet. —

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The corner-stone of St. Boniface (German) Church, on Fourth Street near Schirmer, Carondelet, was laid on the first Sunday in September, 1860, by the Bishop of Minnesota, attended by Father Ryan, of the Cathedral, and Vicar-General Muhlsiepen. There were also present Rev. J. Gamber, pastor, Rev. T. Hendericx, pastor of the English congregation of Carondelet, Father Smarius, S. J., Rev. F. Bruhl, S. J., Rev. F, Tobin, and Father Meester, S. J. Addresses were delivered by Fathers Smarius and Bruhl. The church is in the Romanesque style of architecture, one hunred and twenty-five by twenty-six feet, with two towers each one hundred feet high, and its estimated cost was sixteen thousand dollars. The architect was Thomas W. Brady. About three hundred and fifty families (seventeen hundred and fifty persons) are connected with the church.

St. Mary's and St. Joseph's Church is situated on Third Street near Kansas, Carondelet, and the pastor is Rev. Thomas G. Daley, his assistant being Rev. W. T. Stackasst. The corner-stone was laid on the 29th of May, 1859, and the sermon was preached by Father (afterwards bishop) Ryan, of the Cathedral. There are about two hundred families in the parish, and the parochial schools, numbering about three hundred and fifty pupils, are conducted by the Christian Brothers and the Sisters of St. Joseph.

St. Columbkille's Church was organized in 1872, at Fourth and Davis Streets. The corner-stone was laid June 23, 1872, and the church was dedicated in February, 1873. Rev. M. O'Reilly has had charge of the church since its organization.

There are a number of suburban Roman Catholic Churches in the vicinity of St. Louis, the principal being St. James', Cheltenham, Rev. T. A. Butler, pastor; Holy Cross, near Calvary Cemetery, Rev. Hermann Wigger, pastor; Holy Ghost, Elleardsville, Rev. M. Busch, pastor; St. Bernard's, Tesson near Sarpy Avenue, Rev. Henry Willenbrink, pastor; Our Lady of the Visitation, southwest corner St. Charles Rock road and Taylor Avenue; and St. Gornan's, at the junction of the Manchester and Chouteau Avenue Rock road.

In addition to the parish churches enumerated there are a number of chapels, which are attended as follows: Christian Brothers, attended from the Cathedral; Sisters of Charity, Father Wachter, chaplain; St. Joseph's Chapel, Alexian Brothers Hospital, Rev. George A. Watson; Ursuline Convent, Very Rev. H. Muhlsiepen, V. G.; Sacred Heart Convent, Fifth Street, from Annunciation Church; Convent of the Visitation, from St. Bridget's Church; Loretto Convent, from St. John's; Good Shepherd Convent, by the Jesuit Fathers; Male Orphan Asylum, from Holy Angels' Church; German Orphan Asylum, from St. Joseph's; Carmelite Convent, from Mount Carmel; Notre Dame Convent, from SS. Peter and Paul; St. Joseph's Convent, from St. Columbkille's; Sacred Heart Convent, Maryville, by Franciscan Fathers; Widows' Home, from St. Lawrence O'Toole; Female Orphan Asylum, by Jesuit Fathers; Little Sisters of the Poor, from the Church of the Sacred Heart; St. Vincent's Institute, by the Lazarist Fathers; Half-Orphan Asylum, by Jesuit Fathers; House of the Angel Guardian, by Lazarist Fathers; Sisters of Mercy, by Jesuit Blathers.


The First Protestant Congregation. — To the Baptists belongs the credit of having organized the first Protestant society and of having built the first Protestant house of worship west of the Mississippi River. The first Baptist minister who preached in Missouri appears to have been the Rev. John Clark. This pioneer preacher was born in the parish of Petty, near the city of Inverness, Scotland, Nov. 29, 1758. His father worked a small farm, which, later in life, having become intemperate, he neglected. In 1778 John Clark went to sea in a transport ship, and subsequently served in American privateers. He rose to the rank of mate, was taken prisoner, and exchanged after nineteen months' duress, was twice impressed into the British naval service, and finally escaped. After having suffered almost incredible hardships, he succeeded in passing the British lines and obtained the protection of Gen. Francis Marion, the famous Revolutionary leader in South Carolina. He again went to sea, but in 1785 abandoned this calling and engaged in teaching school in the back settlements of South Carolina. In 1786 he became a member of the Methodist denomination in Georgia, where he again taught school and became a class-leader. In 1788 he visited his birthplace in Scotland, and found all the family except one sister dead. He then studied under Wesley, returned to Georgia in 1789, was received on trial, and appointed a circuit by the Conference of 1791, and in 1793 was fully ordained. In 1795 he was ordained elder, and in 1796 dissolved his connection with the Conference and started on foot for Kentucky, and thence, always on foot, for Illinois, where he finally settled. In 1807-8 he went down the Mississippi alone in a small canoe, camping in the woods at night, on a mission to the territory now known as Louisiana, and returned home, still alone and on foot, through a country infested by hostile Indians and white marauders. During this journey he

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preached wherever he found a settlement. Mr. Clark continued to labor as a missionary until his death, making during the last ten years of his life a monthly circuit of two hundred and forty miles, always on foot, though his friends made several unsuccessful attempts to induce him to accept and use a horse. He died in 1833, at the age of seventy-five, and was buried in the Cold Water neighborhood, the scene of his first missionary efforts in Missouri, where a modest gravestone marks his resting-place. Mr. Clark organized a number of Baptist congregations in St. Louis County, Mo., and in St. Clair, Madison, and Greene Counties, Ill.

Mr. Clark arrived in Missouri in 1798, and established himself near Bridgetown, St. Louis County. He became a Baptist, and a Methodist named Talbot having adopted the same opinions, they immersed each other. Mr. Clark presided and taught school in the "American Bottom," Illinois, about 1796, but afterwards removed to New Design, situated on an elevated plateau, about thirty miles above Kaskaskia. When he first came to Missouri the country west of the Mississippi was under the control of the Spanish authorities, who did not tolerate the Protestant religion. It was his custom to ascend the eastern shore to nearly opposite what was called "Wood River," and wait there until night, when a man from the western shore would cross the river in a canoe, and transport Mr. Clark to the opposite side. During the night meetings would be held at one or another of the small settlements, and Mr. Clark would return in the same manner to the eastern bank before daylight. In the latter days of Spanish rule, however, less caution was needed. Commandant Trudeau was a man of liberal mind, and while the laws required every new settler to be "un ban Catholique" would content himself with catechising new-comers as to their belief in the main tenets of Christianity, and these satisfactorily answered, would pronounce them "good Catholics," and admit them to citizenship. It is stated that he would pay no attention to Clark's visiting and preaching in the province until his tour for the occasion was nearly completed, when he would send him a message to the effect that if he did not leave the Spanish territory within three days he would be imprisoned, and this message, always in the same or similar language, is said to have been repeated so often that it became a pleasant jest with Clark and his friends. On one occasion Abraham Musick, a Baptist, who was well acquainted with the commandant, asked permission to have meetings held at his house by Clark. The commandant replied that his petition was contrary to the laws, and could not be granted. "That is, I mean," said he, "you must not put a bell on your house and call it a church, not suffer anybody to christen your children except the parish priest, but if your friends choose to meet at your house, to sing, pray, and talk about religion, you will not be molested, provided you continue, as of course you are, ‘a good Catholic.’" In 1801 the Rev. Thomas E. Musick, of Kentucky visited his relatives in Missouri and preached a series of sermons. He was born Oct. 17, 1756, and spent his early life in North Carolina. In 1803, after the acquisition of the country from France, he came to Missouri with his family and took up his residence in St. Louis County. In 1807 he organized the Fee Fee Church in St. Louis County, among the constituent members of which were Adam Martin and his wife Mary, Richard and Jane Sullens, Thomas R. Musick and his wife Sarah. Elder Brown, from Kentucky, and John Clark labored with Mr. Musick, who died in 1842. He is buried in the church grounds at Fee Fee, and the old people who remember him still cherish his memory. Fee Fee is now the oldest Protestant Church in Missouri. Cold Water, the next church in the county, was organized by Musick in 1809.

During 1807 an organization of Baptists was perfected near Jackson, Cape Girardeau Co., and a church was built through the instrumentality of David Greene. The building was a one-story log cabin, the corner log of which had been laid in 1806.

Zion Church, in Howard County, was formed about 1810, near Loutre Island, Montgomery Co., but the inhabitants moved farther west in 1815, and it was reorganized. The Indians were very troublesome during the war of 1812, and no others were formed for some years. In 1818, five churches with five ministers were constituted into Mount Pleasant Association, in what was called "Boone's Lick country." Several of the leading men in this region had removed

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from Kentucky. Col. Benjamin Cooper, afterwards a member of the Territorial Council, and chosen commander-in-chief to fight the hostile Indians, Capt. Callaway, a grandson of Daniel Boone, and Stephen and William T. Cole, in memory of whom Cooper, Callaway, and Cole Counties were named, were active and influential members of the community. A brother of Col. Cooper and Callaway and Cole together with many other persons, were afterwards slaughtered by the Indians. In June, 1816, Bethel Association was organized at the Bethel Church, near the present site of Jackson. It comprised six churches and seven ministers. Most of the members had removed from the Carolinas, and had been several years in the country. The churches were located in Perry, Cape Girardeau, Washington, and Wayne Counties.

In November, 1817, the Missouri (now St. Louis) Baptist Association was formed, with the following as constituent churches: Fee-Fee, Cold Water, Boeuf, and Negro Fork, in St. Louis County, and Femme Osage, St. Charles Co., and Upper Culver, in Lincoln County, with an aggregate membership of one hundred and forty-two persons.

In 1811, Stephen Hempstead, one of the pioneers of Presbyterianism in Missouri, heard a sermon preached by a Baptist minister, the occasion being the funeral of a child. From these facts it is evident that the Baptist denomination was established in St. Louis at a very early day, and that its organization was perfected prior to that of any other Protestant congregation. Its growth appears to have been slow at first, for when in the fall of 1817 the Rev. John M. Peck and James E. Welch, missionaries sent out by the Baptist General Convention, arrived in St. Louis, they found only seven Baptists in the village. They at once began holding services in the stone house of Joseph Robidoaux, on the east side of Main, north of Myrtle Street. In a year their congregation increased to thirteen, just one-half of all the professed Protestants in the village. On the 18th of February, 1818, they organized the First Baptist Church, with eleven members. In 1818 the church began the building of the first Protestant house of worship erected in St. Louis, which was situated at the southwest corner of Market and Third Streets. It was never fully completed, but was occupied for worship and was also used for a time as a court-house. On the 10th of November, 1819, the Rev. Mr. Ward, an Episcopalian minister, was announced to preach the annual sermon of the Missouri Bible Society, "in the Baptist meeting-house this evening at early candle-light."

The building was forty by sixty feet, and three stories in height. It was entered in the second story from Market Street, and was the only building on the south side of Market Street from the river to Fourth Street. It cost six thousand dollars, of which sum Mr. Welch advanced twelve hundred dollars, and John Jacoby, the treasurer, six hundred dollars. In 1821 the city decided to widen Market Street, a measure which would cut off twelve by eighty feet of the church lot. The congregation endeavored to have the portion condemned assessed at a fair valuation, but did not succeed in doing so. Soon afterwards a furious hail-storm broke all the windows on the Market Street side, and the mayor would not permit the glass to be put in, because that portion of the church had been condemned as public property. The building was thereupon abandoned and sold for twelve hundred dollars, of which Mr. Jacoby's widow received six hundred dollars, and Mr. Welch six hundred dollars, half the amount loaned by him.

At a meeting held Aug. 29, 1830, Rev. J. M. Peck reported that in consequence of the death of Mr. Jacoby, one of the trustees of the church, the title had become involved, and that the city had taken to widen the streets twelve feet off the building, and, as the church was not known in law, the trustees could not recover damages. Consequently they had been left without funds to repair the building, and under these circumstances had sold the property to pay the debts. A part of the debt, however, appears to have remained, and to have assisted in the rapid decline of the society, which in 1832 was reduced to seventeen members, and in 1833 became extinct, transferring all but its debts to the Second Church, then newly organized. There are now seven white and eight colored Baptist Churches in the city, with a total membership of nearly five thousand.

In 1831 a three days' meeting was held by the Baptist Church, commencing on Friday, April 1st, aided by the Rev. J. E. Welch. Rev. John Mason Peck, D. D., who did so much to build up the Baptist Church in St. Louis, spent nearly forty years of his life in missionary work in the West, and was one of the most prominent citizens of St. Louis. He was born in the parish of Litchfield, South Farms, Conn., Oct. 31, 1789. He first united with the Congregational Church in Litchfield. In 1811 he removed to Windham, Greene Co., N. Y., and became acquainted with the Baptists through the church at that place, and Rev. H. Harvey in the adjoining town of New Durham. He united with the Baptist Church in New Durham on Sept. 14, 1811, and preached his first sermon, and was immediately licensed. In 1813

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he was ordained as pastor of the Baptist Church in Catskill, but after a brief pastorate there and another at Amenia, in Dutchess County, N. Y., he accepted an agency in behalf of foreign missions, laboring under the guidance of Rev. Luther Rice. He then, 1816-17, had a year of study under Dr. Staughton, of Philadelphia. He was then appointed a missionary of the board of the Triennial Convention to labor in St. Louis and vicinity. On July 25, 1817, he set out with his wife and three children, in a covered wagon, upon the long western journey of twelve hundred miles to his field of labor, and on the 1st of December reached St. Louis. His associate, Rev. James E. Welch, had reached the field before him. In 1822, Rev. Mr. Peck became a resident of Rock Spring, Ill., and this remained his home until his death.

At Rock Spring, Dr. Peek, in connection with his missionary labors, now under the appointment of the Massachusetts Baptist Missionary Society, established a seminary for general and theological education, being aided in his enterprise to some extent by Eastern friends. The seminary was a success, and at one time contained over one hundred students. In due time the seminary became united with the one at Upper Alton, now known as Shurtleff College. In addition to his ministerial labors, Dr. Peck contributed frequently to newspapers and other periodicals, and published several works on the West.

On April 25, 1828, he began the publication of a newspaper called the Western Pioneer and Baptist. Aside from other labors, he also wrote "A Biography of Father Clark," "Emigrant's Guide," "Gazetteer of Illinois," "Annals of the West," and other works. He frequently visited the Eastern States in the interest of his church, and was throughout his ministerial career one of the most active and energetic, of the ministers of the Baptist denomination. His publications in the East concerning the resources of the Western country attracted many persons thither, and materially aided its development. He was a recognized authority as to the local history of the Western communities, and collected a great mass of material, much of which was subsequently destroyed by fire. Some of it was left at his death in such a fragmentary condition that it could not be utilized. He died at Rock Spring, Ill., March 24, 1857, in the sixty-eighth year of his age.

The Rev. James Eley Welch, Dr. Peck's colleague, was born near Lexington, Ky., Feb. 28, 1789. In October, 1810, he was baptized by Rev. Jeremiah Vardeman, and taken into the fellowship of the Baptist Church at Davis' Fork. In 1815 he entered the ministry, and in the following year studied theology with Rev. Dr. William Staughton, of Philadelphia, and acted as pastor of the church in Burlington, N. J., where he was eminently successful. In 1817 he tendered his services to the Board of Missions at Philadelphia, and in May of that year they were accepted as a missionary to St. Louis, Mo. He reached his destination after more than two months' travel. St. Louis then contained about fifteen hundred inhabitants. The only paved sidewalk at that time was on Main, between Chestnut and Market Streets. The pavement was of brick. The only house west of Fifth Street was Judge Lucas', on the spot where the First Presbyterian Church on Fourteenth Street now stands. The old First Presbyterian Church then stood on the ground where Philharmonic Hall was afterwards situated, on the corner of Washington Avenue and Fourth Street. The whole square was offered in 1818 to Mr. Welch by the owner, Mr. Conner, for one hundred dollars. On the southeast corner of Chestnut and Fourth Streets a small frame building was standing, which, with the lot, was offered for two hundred dollars. Mr. Welch commenced his missionary work by erecting, in 1818, a brick meeting-house at the corner of Third and Market Streets, on the site of the St. Clair Hotel, which was opened for service in July, 1819, but after three years of laborious struggles and varied success the board discontinued the mission, and Mr. Welch returned to Burlington, N. J. For more than twenty years he was agent for the American Sunday-School Union. He removed from Burlington in September, 1848, to Warren County, Mo., where he labored constantly for the promotion of the interests of the Baptist Church until 1875, when he settled at Warrensburg, Mo. In 1876 he revisited his old home in Burlington, N. J., and on the 18th of July, while with an excursion party of Baptists at the sea-shore, he was seized with apoplexy, which ended a long and useful life.

The Baptist Headquarters, St. Louis Branch House and General Depository of the American Baptist Publication Society, 1109 Olive Street, Lewis E. Kline, manager, is one of the most flourishing institutions of its type in the country. The St. Louis Baptists having paid to the General Publication Society $5000 towards the purpose, the St. Louis Branch was opened about Nov. 1, 1868, with Rev. G. J. Johnson, D. D. (for five years previously Western agent of the society), as manager. It was located at 209 North Sixth Street, and proved successful from the start. During the first four months the sales amounted to $2356.38, and in the following year to $24,373.75;

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in 1870-71 to $32,562.83; 1871-72, $32,920.16; 1872-73, $30,851.53. In 1873-74 (being the jubilee, or fiftieth year of the society) the sales were the largest ever known, aggregating $36,140.72. In ten years the sales have amounted to over $300,000, and the grants for publications alone that have passed through this branch amount to over $25,000. This branch is the centre and headquarters of a district, and the district, churches and individuals, have contributed over $50,000 (to which the parent society has added $50,000) towards the benevolent and missionary work of the association, colportage, and Sunday-schools. The branch has supported as many as twenty-five colporteurs and Sunday-school missionaries at one time. Dr. Johnson resigned Jan. 1, 1876, and was succeeded as manager of the branch by Lewis E. Kline, a son of Rev. Peter Kline, who had been for seven years his chief clerk and book-keeper. 299 On the 1st of May, 1882, the branch was removed to its present location, in what was formerly known as "Dorris Row," having leased the entire three-story building. The ground-floor is occupied by the branch and depository, and is elegantly furnished in unpainted Arkansas yellow-pine, highly polished, the carvings being inlaid with blue. On the second floor are the offices of The Central Baptist newspaper, Ford's Christian Repository, and Rev. S. W. Marston, secretary of the Home Missionary Society for the West. The rooms on the third floor are occupied by the Baptist Ministers' Conference, which meets every Monday morning at eleven o'clock, the Ladies' Missionary Society, etc.

Lewis E. Kline is known in St. Louis and throughout the Southwest as the manager and district secretary of the American Baptist Publication Society. 300 He was born in Washington, Ill., March 18, 1843, and is of German descent, his parents having been born in Wiesbaden, Prussia. They arrived in St. Louis about 1833. The residence in Washington was only temporary, and three weeks after his birth his parents returned to St. Louis, so that Mr. Kline has practically been a lifelong resident of the city. At the age of seventeen, being of a delicate constitution, he was sent in company with an older brother to the country, and placed upon a farm, in the hope that his health might be improved. To the two brothers was committed the sole management of the property; and the novelty of the life, the laborious occupation, and the invigorating air transformed the puny stripling into the strong and hardy man. He was nineteen years of age when the civil war began, and becoming restless amid the excitements of the day, he returned to St. Louis, and during that year (1862) enlisted in the Merchants' Regiment, the Thirty-third Missouri Volunteer Infantry, Col. Clinton B. Fisk commanding, with which he served two years. On June 6, 1864, he was severely wounded in the right arm and shoulder, in an ambush at Fish Lake Bayou, near Lake Village, Ark.

Amputation of the arm was regarded as necessary by the surgeons, but he refused to submit to the operation, and after a long period of suffering he at last grew strong enough to be moved from the hospital at Memphis, Tenn., to Jefferson Barracks, St. Louis. Here he received treatment for a little over a year, and while at the Barracks, in order to occupy his mind, he served as librarian and supervising sexton of the chapel. In December, 1865, at his urgent request, he received an honorable discharge, and Drs. Pope, McDowell, and Hodgen, the best surgeons in the West, took his case in charge. They frankly told him that he was a badly-mutilated man, almost beyond the help of medical skill, and that his only hope lay in his own force of will. Without giving up hope, he submitted for two years more, twice each day, to surgical treatment, and finally saved both his life and his arm.

On his discharge from the United States service, he went with his arm in a sling from store to store and from street to street in search of employment. But no

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one seemed desirous of having a man without the use of his right arm. He thereupon entered a commercial college, and studied telegraphy and book-keeping, at the same time seeking work.

At length, in 1866, his perseverance was rewarded with a position as cashier and book-keeper in the then largest religious publishing house and bookstore in the city. For three years he performed the various duties of his place with his left hand, with which he had learned to write, working hard by day and studying at night. He succeeded beyond his most sanguine expectations; but it was at the expense of his general health. A brief vacation in the East became a necessity, and on his return, with improved health, two places were open to him, — one a position in the Treasury Department at Washington, D. C., the other as chief clerk and book-keeper of the American Baptist Publication Society. He accepted the latter place in 1869, and was appointed manager Jan. 1, 1876. He still retains this position, and during the past six years has performed in addition the duties of district secretary of the society. His position during the last fourteen years has been one requiring unusual tact, good judgment, perseverance, and close application. Under his management the business of the house has increased with great regularity and steadiness. Although he has had the hardest field to cultivate in the interests of the Publication Society, owing to the fact that both the Northern and Southern elements of the Baptist denomination come into contact in St. Louis, and must be harmonized and conciliated, he has succeeded, without loss of principle or self-respect, in winning the confidence and esteem of all classes of his patrons.

Although the youngest manager in the service of the society, he has developed a business equaled by no other depository, and now superintends the finest building and equipments, as well as the largest trade, to be found in any of the branch establishments. His store, No. 1109 Olive Street, is the "Baptist Headquarters" not only for St. Louis, but the entire Southwest. In the management of his business his distinguishing characteristics are promptness, punctuality, systematic attention to details, scrupulous honesty, and generous treatment of all his patrons alike. In religion, Mr. Kline is a strict Baptist, having united with the Second Baptist Church in 1866, and has filled in different churches the various offices in the Sunday-school, in the church, and in the local and State boards of denominational work. He is an active member of the board of trustees of Shurtleff College, Upper Alton, Ill., in whose prosperity he is greatly interested, and whose museum he has enriched with a most valuable collection of ancient coins and curios, gathered in his tours in this country and through Europe in 1871. In the local affairs of St Louis he is deeply interested, and has filled with honor to himself and profit to those whom he has served the offices of secretary of various institutions and orders, and of Generalissimo in the commandery of Knights Templar.

The estimation in which he is held by his fellow Knights Templar is shown by the fact that he was presented by them with an engrossed and illuminated testimonial of rare design and great beauty, a compliment seldom bestowed upon a member of that order, Mr. Kline has also been president in the Temple of Honor, Good Templars, and Band of Hope. Benevolent institutions and enterprises have been aided by him with a liberal hand.

On his return from a vacation in Europe in 1871, Mr. Kline was married to Miss Sallie E. Mason. In domestic as in public life, he is true and upright, and his career throughout has been singularly pure and simple. Deprived in youth by ill health of the advantages of early education, he has by close study of men and books acquired a thorough training and exceptional readiness in the application of his knowledge. Mr. Kline is in the best sense of the term a self-made man, and one who, having risen from the lowest round of the ladder by his own rare determination, is both sympathetic in helping those who are working their own way up in life, and worthy of the highest confidence and regard of all who reverence honest merit and genuine success.

Fee-Fee Baptist Church is situated on the St. Charles Rock road, fourteen miles west of St. Louis, in St. Louis County. Rev. Luther Green is the pastor. Of this, the oldest Protestant organization west of the Mississippi River, the early records down to 1834 were unfortunately burned while in the possession of Rev. John M. Peck. What follows, to that date, has been mainly gathered from the memories of the original members and from Mrs. Catharine Martin, who joined the society in 1815 and is still living. The church, as heretofore stated, was organized in 1807 at the residence of one of its members, near where the first meeting-house was built, by Rev. Thomas R. Musick, with the following members: Adam and Mary Martin, Abraham, Terrell, and Prudence Musick, John, Jane, Richard, and Susan Sullens, John and Joyce Howdershell. The first house built for worship was a log cabin, situated on a lot of three acres deeded by James Richardson for church and cemetery purposes, on the old St. Charles road. It was replaced by a brick house built on the same lot

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in 1828, which still stands in the midst of the old Fee-Fee Cemetery, which has been much enlarged, and which, in 1876, was conveyed to a board of trustees composed of four members of the Mizpah Presbyterian Church, four from the Bridgeton Methodist Church, and four from the Fee-Fee. The first grave was dug in 1822. The cemetery has recently been greatly improved and adorned. In 1870 the third and present house of worship was built, under the ministry of Rev. John Hickman, on a lot of five acres, situated on the St. Charles Rock road, one quarter of a mile north of the old church, and given to the congregation by Erastus Post. It is a brick structure, forty by sixty feet, with a seating capacity of three hundred and sixty, and a basement for the Sunday-school. It but thirteen thousand dollars, and was dedicated July 24, 1870, Dr. W. Pope Yeaman preaching the sermon. The succession of pastors cannot be accurately given, but among them are named Rev. John Clark, the pioneer of Protestantism in Missouri, and Rev. John M. Peck, the first Baptist missionary to Missouri. The membership of Fee-Fee Church now numbers seventy-two, and its Sunday-school is attended by forty children.

Second Baptist Church. — This church, the parent of the Baptist congregations in St. Louis, is situated at the northwest corner of Locust and Beaumont Streets. Rev. W. W. Boyd, D. D., is the pastor. In September, 1832, the American Baptist Home Mission Society sent to St. Louis Rev. Archer B. Smith, of the District of Columbia, who obtained a room on Market Street below Second and began holding meetings. He found the society of the First Church utterly disorganized, only seventeen members remaining, six of whom obtained letters of dismissal, and, joining with six others, met Jan. 6, 1833, in the school-house of Elihu H. Shepard, on Fourth Street, opposite the court-house, and organized "The Second Baptist Church of St. Louis," so styling the new society, in order not to be saddled with the debts of the First. Among the original members were H. Budlony, C. W. Cozzens, Moses Stout, Archer B. Smith, Sarah Orme, E. Williams, Edith Kerr, M. A. Francis, Emily W. Cozzens, and others. Their number were soon after augmented by the remaining members of the First Church, who on the 10th of February, 1833, voted themselves letters of dismissal and disbanded, transferring to the new society the money and subscripts that had been obtained for erecting a new church. Rev. William Hurley had conducted the organization of the new congregation, but Rev. Archer B. Smith was chosen pastor. He resigned and returned East in September, 1833, and Rev. W. Hurley supplied the pulpit until, in March, 1835, an application was made to the Home Missionary Society for a pastor, and for aid to sustain him. In June, 1835, the society sent Rev. Thomas P. Greene, of North Carolina, who remained one year. During his pastorate a lot at the northwest corner of Morgan and Sixth Streets was purchased, on which a foundation was laid before the winter rendered further work impossible; but in the spring of 1836 the lot was sold, and in June, 1836, the society purchased the Episcopalian Church building, situated at the northwest corner of Third and Chestnut Streets, for twelve thousand dollars, the understanding being that possession was to be given within one year from the date of sale. During this interval the congregation worshiped at Shepard's school-house, but in May, 1837, it took possession of the building, which it had purchased from the Episcopalians. While services were being held in the school-house sermons were preached occasionally by the Rev. Dr. Baker.

On the 6th of August, 1839, the public were notified that the choir of the Baptist Church would give a grand sacred concert at the First Presbyterian Church on the evening of the 7th of August, the proceeds to be applied to the purchase of an organ. Rev. B. A. Brabrook, of Newton Theological Seminary, served as pastor from May, 1837, to August, 1839, resigning on account of ill heath, and the pulpit was supplied by different preachers until February, 1840, when Rev. R. E. Pattison, D. D., of Providence, R. I., became pastor. At the end of the year he was recalled to his former charge, and Rev. John M. Peck, D. D., of Rock Spring, Ill., and Rev. E. Rogers, of Upper Alton, Ill., alternately supplied the pulpit. Rev. Isaac Taylor Hinton, of Chicago, Ill., was pastor from July, 1841, to December, 1844. Under his ministrations the church grew so rapidly that in 1842 the seating capacity of the building was nearly doubled by throwing a portion of the vestibule into the audience-room and erecting galleries. During Mr. Hinton's pastorate one hundred persons were added to the membership by baptism, and nearly two hundred by letter. Mr. Hinton died of yellow fever in New Orleans in 1847, and his remains were removed to Bellefontaine Cemetery, St. Louis. He was succeeded by the Rev. Dr. Peck (supply) for one year. Rev. S. W. Lynd, D. D., of Cincinnati, Ohio, assumed the pastorate in December, 1845, and resigned December, 1848, to take charge of the Baptist Theological Institution at Covington, Ky. Rev. Dr. Peck again took charge of the church as supply, and continued to officiate until the Rev. J. B. Jeter, D. D., of Richmond, Va., assumed the pastorate.

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Dr. Jeter was called April 30, 1849, and entered upon the discharge of his duties on the first Sunday in October following. He resigned in July, 1852, and in May, 1853, the Rev. Daniel Read, D. D., of Medina, N. Y., was called to the pastorate. Dr. Read resigned in October, 1856, to become president of Shurtleff College, at Upper Alton, Ill., and was succeeded by the Rev. E. H. Page, of Massachusetts. In January and February, 1858, Elder Jacob Knapp, the famous revivalist, labored with success, and in May, 1858, the Rev. Galusha Anderson, D. D., of Zanesville, Wis., was called to the pastorate. He took charge on the second Sunday in September, 1858, and resigned in July, 1866, on account of ill health. During a portion of Dr. Anderson's pastorate the Rev. Dr. Kendrick was associated with him. Dr. Anderson's successor was the Rev. A. H. Burlingham, D. D., of New York, who took charge in December, 1866, and resigned in April, 1877, in order to become pastor of a congregation in New York City. Rev. W. W. Boyd was called to the pastorate in 1877, and commenced his ministration on the 1st of June in that year.

From the church at Third and Chestnut Streets the society removed to a second edifice erected by it on the corner of Sixth and Locust Streets, which cost, with the site, nearly forty thousand dollars, and was dedicated Aug. 13, 1848. The dimensions of the building were fifty-six by ninety feet, and the material was brick, with a cut-stone basement in front. The audience-room seated seven hundred persons, and the basement from three hundred to four hundred. On the 11th of March, 1849, in the presence of thousands of Germans, Dr. Peck baptized sixteen Hollanders, who had seceded from the Presbyterian faith. During the pastorate of Dr. G. Anderson (1858-66) great activity prevailed in the church, and one hundred and forty-nine persons were added by baptism and two hundred and ninety-seven by letter. Dr. Anderson devoted much of his time and attention to the cause of church extension. He organized the Church Extension Society in 1865, which furnished material aid in building new churches and relieving others from debt, and assisted largely in promoting the growth of Baptist congregations in St. Louis. The church record states that "he was the organizer of the Baptist forces of the city; he was their great leader, and his retirement was regretted by all." The present site of the church was selected by William M. McPherson, E. G. Obear, D. B. Gale, Thomas Pratt, and Nathan Cole, a committee chosen for the purpose. It was purchased on the 10th of July, 1872, is one hundred and eighty by one hundred and thirty-five feet in area, and cost about thirty thousand dollars. Ground was broken June 19, 1873. The chapel was occupied on Christmas-day, 1874, but was not dedicated (owing to the pastor's illness) until a month later. On Dec. 17, 1877, it was decided to erect at once the main edifice, and it was nearly ready for occupancy when (Jan. 3, 1879) it was destroyed by fire. The work of rebuilding was begun at once, and the chapel was again occupied Aug. 10, 1879. In the mean time the congregation had worshiped in the Jewish synagogue, or Temple of the Gates on Truth, at Seventeenth and Pine Streets, by invitation of the rabbi, Dr. Sonnenschein. The completed edifice was dedicated Nov. 26, 1879, with services of a very interesting and impressive character. Hon. Nathan Cole, one of the deacons, presided, and Rev. George B. Taylor and Rev. Dr. J. B. Jeter conducted the preliminary service. William M. Page, another deacon of the church, then delivered an historical discourse, tracing the growth of the church up to that period, and was followed by the Rev. A. H. Burlingham, of New York, former pastor of the congregation, who described the embarrassments and difficulties which had attended the erection of the building. Dr. J. B. Jeter, of Richmond, Va., who had also been pastor of the church, Rev. George B. Taylor, of Rome, Italy, Rev. Dr. Boyd, Rev. J. F. Cook, president of Lagrange College, Rev. J. V. Schofield, D. D., and Rev. J. L. Burrows, D. D., of Cincinnati, also delivered addresses. Another session was held in the evening, at which the more formal dedication services were held. George T. Cram rendered the report of the building committee, and transferred the new church formally to the possession and control of the board of trustees.

The trust was accepted by the Hon. Nathan Cole, president of the board, who made a few remarks, in the course of which he mentioned in terms of warm commendation the munificence of Samuel C. Davis, of Boston, "who had at a critical moment come forward with a donation so liberal that it lightened their anxieties, and made easy that which seemed almost impossible." The 122d Psalm was then read by the Rev. Dr. Sawyer, after which the dedicatory sermon was preached by the Rev. John A. Broadus, D. D. The prayer of dedication was offered by the Rev. Dr. A. H. Burlingham, and the benediction was pronounced by the Rev. C. L. Goodell. The building was modeled after that of Emanuel Baptist Church, at Albany, N. Y., the architect being C. C. Nichols, of that city. The total amount expended upon it was two hundred and sixty-seven thousand eight hundred and thirty-four dollars and forty-eight

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cents. The main building is seventy-one by one hundred and eight feet, and has a tower and spire, two hundred feet high. The ceiling of the audience-room is fifty-two feet high. The chapel is forty-six by one hundred and sixteen feet, and contains a lecture-room, Sunday school rooms, pastor's reception-room, parlors, baptistery, reading-room, etc., with a dining-room and kitchen in the basement. The material of the building is St. Louis limestone, laid up in ashlar, trimmed with Missouri gray sandstone from Warrensburg, and the style is a highly ornate English Gothic. The organ was contributed, at a cost of ten thousand dollars, by Mrs. D. B. Gale as a memorial to her husband, who was for many years treasurer of the church. The organist is Professor E. M. Bowman, and the singers composing the choir are among the leading musicians of the city. The present membership of the church numbers nine hundred persons, and the membership of the various Sunday-schools connected with the church numbers fifteen hundred.

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Rev. W. W. Boyd, D. D., pastor of the Second Baptist Church, was born in Chemung, Chemung Co., N. Y., Nov. 22, 1843. When he was about two years old his parents removed to Saco, York Co., Me., where for many years his father was superintendent of the York Manufacturing Company, an extensive establishment for the manufacture of cotton goods. Being an extremely sensitive child, he was put under a tutor, instead of being sent to the public schools, until he was fitted to enter the High School. At the age of thirteen he was ready for college, but his health being delicate he relinquished study for several years. In 1858 he united with the First Congregational Church in Saco on profession of faith.

In 1859 his parents moved to Spring Vale, Me., and in 1861, on the death of his father, he was put in his place as superintendent of the Spring Vale Manufacturing Company. Although a youth of eighteen, he succeeded in conducting the business to the entire satisfaction of the corporation, most of the members of which resided in Boston, Mass.

To afford the operatives of the mills some opportunities for religious cultivation, he reopened a little Baptist Church in the village, long closed for want of a minister, and began on Sunday mornings to conduct a Sunday-school and read a sermon from Spurgeon or Beecher to the congregation. At their solicitation he soon began to address them in his own thoughts, and for nearly three years preached regularly both morning and evening on Sundays.

A deep religious interest was awakened, a new church was erected, and many persons asked to be baptized. He was still a Congregationalist, and felt unwilling to forsake the church of his parents, in which he had been reared, but after mature deliberation he united with the little Baptist Church, in company with thirteen others, who had been won to the faith by his sermons.

In 1866 his mother, a most estimable woman, died, and the way now being open to pursue his long-cherished desire for a collegiate education, he resigned his business position, reviewed his studies, and in 1867 entered the freshman class of Harvard College. For four years, by preaching and teaching, he succeeded in paying his expenses, and was graduated in 1871, with special honors in philosophy. In his sophomore year he received the first prize for excellence in oratory.

Immediately upon his graduation he went to Germany, spending one semester in Berlin University, one in Heidelberg, one in Göttingen, and two in Zürich, pursuing special courses in theology, Greek, and philosophy.

On his return he was appointed a proctor of Harvard College, where for a year he taught as a private tutor, continuing his special studies in Hebrew and theology.

In 1873 he was ordained pastor of the First Baptist Church of Charlestown District, Boston, Mass., in which pastorate he continued until called to St. Louis in June, 1877. His work in Charlestown resulted in the addition of nearly four hundred members to the church.

On his arrival in St. Louis he found the Second Baptist Church worshiping in a chapel, and immediately began to agitate the question of erecting the main edifice. The large increase of the congregation soon made this movement a necessity, and on Jan. 3, 1879, the magnificent building, nearly ready for occupancy, took fire from the carelessness of a workman, and with the exception of the walls was completely destroyed. On the very afternoon of the fire, while the ruins were yet burning, the building committee voted to rebuild and gave out two of the contracts, and on Nov. 26, 1879, the reconstructed edifice, free of debt, was dedicated.

In June, 1878, Shurtleff College, Upper Alton, Ill., conferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity. He is a trustee of Shurtleff College, and of La Grange College, La Grange, Mo., and holds many official denominational positions.

June 2, 1880, he was married to Miss Cora A, Dunham, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John S. Dunham, of St. Louis.

Dr. Boyd's pastorate in St. Louis has been one of great and uniform success, the membership having increased from about four hundred to one thousand. He is a gentleman of great energy and executive ability, and as a pulpit orator is conceded a foremost rank among the array of able clergymen now officiating in St. Louis. His congregations are uniformly large, and, as pastor of the largest white Baptist Church in the State, no man occupies a more honorable or responsible position in the Baptist denomination of Missouri. Still a young man himself, his influence with the young is very great, and he is in the full enjoyment of all his youthful energies. Although, as a Baptist, he holds strongly to the cardinal doctrines of the faith, he manifests in matters not essential the utmost catholicity, and crosses denominational lines with the greatest freedom, if by any means he may do good. He takes an active interest in the affairs of the community, and is frequently summoned to address his fellow-citizens on matters of a public character. During his residence in St. Louis he has made a deep impression, not only upon the religious thought of the city, but also upon its intellectual life and spirit.

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North Baptist Church. — On the 20th of July, 1842, another Baptist Church was organized in St. Louis. The council consisted of Rev. I. T. Hinton, of St. Louis; Rev. Dr. G. B. Perry, of Alton, Ill.; and Rev. J. C. Herndon, of St. Louis County. Dr. G. B. Perry delivered the sermon and charge to the church, and Rev. I. T. Hinton gave the hand of fellowship to the new body. Rev. J. C. Herndon delivered the concluding prayer. A church building was erected on what is at present Christy Avenue, and the congregation was known as the North Baptist Church. Rev. Gideon B. Perry was the pastor. He was succeeded by Elder S. H. Ford, who was followed by Elder W. F. Nelson, Professor in Covington Theological Seminary. In 1846, however, this church merged back into the Second, in view of the movement to erect a new building in the vicinity.

The First German Baptist Church, southwest corner of Fourteenth and Carr Streets, Rev. J. M. Hoefflin, pastor, was organized in January, 1850, by Elder S. H. Ford, D. D., Rev. J. B. Jeter, D. D., Rev. A. Sherwood, D. D., and Rev. John M. Peck, D. D., with nineteen members from the Second Church, the majority of whom were Hollanders, and the remainder Germans. Of these two were at once ordained to the ministry, — C. Schoemaker for the Dutch, and F. W. Glatfeld for the Germans. The church building was erected in 1863, but was not finished and dedicated until May, 1865, the congregation having had a hard struggle against debt and difficulties. It has a seating capacity of five kindred, and cost fifteen thousand dollars. Rev. Mr. Glatfeld resigned soon after his appointment, and Rev. Mr. Schoemaker preached to both Dutch and Germans until the fall of 1852. Rev. S. E. Küpfer served the church for six months in 1850, and in May, 1853, Rev. C. West became pastor. From March, 1855, until May, 1857, the church was without a pastor. In 1857, Rev. A. Hausler was appointed, but for two years subsequent to the fall of 1860 the pastorate was again vacant. Rev. J. S. Gubelmann, under whose leadership the church was built, took charge in that year, and remained until September, 1868. Rev. J. O. Haselhuhn assumed the pastorate in January, 1869, and resigned December, 1871, to take charge of the Baptist journal Der Sendbote; the church was then successively supplied by Revs. C. Koos, W. C. Kahe, E. Tschirch, and H. Gellert. Rev. C. Ohlgart was pastor from June, 1876, until September, 1879, and the present pastor took charge on the 1st of April, 1881. The present membership of the church numbers one hundred and forty-two persons, and it is doing extensive mission work, having two mission stations and three Sunday-schools, with about four hundred scholars.

The Third Baptist Church, Fourteenth Street and Clark Avenue, Rev. J. P. Greene, pastor, was organized, Dec. 29, 1850, as a colony from the Second Church (then situated at the corner of Sixth and Locust Streets), whose pastor, Rev. J. B. Jeter, D. D., thought that there ought to be a Baptist Church "in the western part of the city." It is a significant fact in the history of the growth of St. Louis that when, a quarter of a century later, the Second Church decided to remove to a more central part of the city it chose a site some ten or twelve blocks west of where the Third Church planted itself and still remains at this location. At first the new colony, composed of thirty members, with Rev. Joseph Walker as pastor, met for worship in a hall on Market Street, between Centre and Thirteenth Streets, and was sustained during the first three years of its existence by the joint aid of the Southern Baptist Convention and the General Association of Missouri.

Samuel C. Davis was the first superintendent of the Sunday-school. The first baptism was performed on the evening of Feb. 7, 1851.

The second pastor was Rev. John Teasdale, who succeeded in April, 1854, after a vacancy of nine months (Rev. J. Walker having resigned to accept a call as secretary of the Board of Missions). Mr. Teasdale was a man of great earnestness and power, and was among the most regretted of the victims of the Gasconade disaster. He raised the money with which was purchased the ground on which the church now stands, and of which (besides what was purchased) about fifty feet front on Clark Avenue was given by Judge Marshall Brotherton, D. B. Gale, and Hon. W. M. McPherson. During his pastorate was built what is now the chapel, Sunday-school, etc., which was dedicated for worship Dec. 31, 1854. Rev. William Crowell became the church supply fifteen months later, and served for ten months. Rev. Washington Barnhurst became pastor in October, 1856. Failing health caused him to resign July 8, 1860, and he died April 29, 1862. Rev. Elias John Foote began to supply the church in August, 1860, and on Feb. 17, 1861, became pastor. He resigned in April, 1862. Rev. J. V. Schofield (now pastor of the Fourth Church) was called June 20, 1862. During his pastorate the present church edifice was erected. It was dedicated May 12, 1866, and cost forty-five thousand dollars. It was dedicated on the 15th of April, 1866. Its seating capacity was about eight hundred, and the lecture-room accommodated two hundred and fifty persons. Mr. Schofield resigned in

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1869. Rev. W. Pope Yeaman, D. D., served as pastor from April, 1870, until October, 1876. Rev. George A. Lofton, D. D. (now pastor of Park Avenue Church), was his successor, and preached his farewell sermon July 16, 1882, in which he said, "During the less than six years of my pastorate I have attended over one hundred funerals, married one hundred and sixty couples, baptized over two hundred converts, welcomed as many into your midst by letter. When I came you were struggling with the trials of division, debt, and declension; you have paid off over ten thousand dollars indebtedness, and we have grown in every form of active development." Rev. J. P. Greene began his pastorate Nov. 1, 1882. The present membership of the church numbers five hundred, and about six hundred scholars and teachers attend the Sunday-schools, which are held morning and afternoon.

The Fourth Baptist Church is situated on Twelfth Street, between Benton and North Market Streets. Rev. J. V. Schofield is the pastor. The society had its origin in the missionary efforts of Rev. Dr. J. B. Jeter and the members of the Second Baptist Church. On the 26th of January, 1857, the members of the Second Church selected Rev. J. B. Jeter and Messrs. S. C. Davis, P. G. Camden, D. J. Hancock, and A. P. Coons as a committee to choose a missionary for the northern part of the city. In July, 1851, Rev. E. J. Owen was employed as a missionary, at a salary of seven hundred dollars per annum, two-sevenths of which he gave to the society for church-building purposes. He preached his first sermon July 3d. On the 19th of September of that year twenty-four persons withdrew from the Second Baptist Church to constitute the new society. Only sixteen were admitted, namely, Robert S., Elizabeth, and Harriet Graham, Mary Beach, Sylvanus and Margaret Harlow, Caroline Tice, Charlotte A. Boggs, Sarah Henderson, David, Martin, David L. and Emma Latourette, Phoebe Twigg, Nathan and Rebecca Cole.

The permanent organization was effected on the 21st of September, 1851, and was styled "Zion Baptist Church," but subsequently the name was changed to that of the Fourth Baptist Church. The constituent members of the organization were William Jones, Mr. Graham, Dr. Martin, Miss Mary Martin, Mrs. Eleonora Caymore, Dr. Claggett, Mrs. Gordon, Miss Harriett Graham, Charles Conway, Mrs. E. Conway. For the first seven years the society worshiped in Sturgeon Market. The Second Baptist Church assisted the enterprise as far as practicable, but the congregation experienced several nearly fatal financial struggles, from which it was rescued by the perseverance of the lady members of the society, in consequence of which it was known as "the Sisters'" Church. The corner-stone of the church building was laid on the 7th of July, 1858, and the basement story was dedicated April 24, 1859. On the 1st of January, 1861, the two Sunday-schools connected with the church were consolidated, and were thenceforward known as the Benton Mission, E. D. Jones being the superintendent. The main building was dedicated on the 9th of November, 1862. The lot has a frontage of ninety feet on North Market and Benton Streets, and a side front of one hundred and thirty-five feet on Twelfth Street, and is among the lots which surround one of the three circles in North St. Louis, The dimensions of the building are seventy by eighty-five feet. The main audience-room seats six hundred persons, and the conference-room four hundred. The structure is of brick, substantially built, with a large wooden stairway leading to the audience-room in the second story.

The pastors have been Revs. Edward J. Owen, October, 1851, to March, 1855; Thomas Morton, December, 1855, to February, 1856; George Howell, for eight months from June, 1856: George Mitchell, December, 1857, to May, 1859; E. G. Taylor, for five months from October, 1860; W. B. Bolton, August, 1861; Thomas Morton, October, 1861, to May, 1862; A. C. Osborn, December, 1862, to February, 1869; D. T. Morrill, May 9, 1869, to 1875; H. M. Pogson, 1875 to 1876; J. V. Schofield, appointed November, 1876. Connected with the church are a Ladies' Aid Society, organized in 1879; Ladies' Missionary Society, organized in 1880; and a Young Ladies' Society, organized in 1881. The present membership numbers about three hundred persons. The average attendance is two hundred and fifty, of whom two-thirds are females. The Sunday-school, of which Hiram H. Post is superintendent, was formerly held in the afternoon, with an average attendance of three hundred and twenty-five. A change to morning sessions resulted in a falling off in numbers, there being now somewhat less than two hundred children, with twenty-five to thirty teachers. A regular Sunday evening collection realizes three hundred dollars. During the past five years the church has been relieved of a heavy mortgage.

The Beaumont and Bernard Streets Baptist Churches. — In 1859, Dr. Galusha Anderson, pastor of the Second Church, and the zealous promoter of church extension, established the Jefferson Mission at Twenty-fifth Street and Franklin Avenue, out of which grew the Beaumont Street Church, organized in 1866, with fifty-seven members, of whom fifty-five were dismissed for the purpose from the Second Church.

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If not for several years in a chapel on the northeast corner of Morgan and Beaumont Streets. Rev. A. A. Kendrick, D. D., president of Shurtleff College, Upper Alton, Ill., was its first pastor, and under his ministry it attained a large membership. Rev. J. C. C. Clarke was the pastor two years. The congregation was without a pastor in 1876, and was soon after merged into the Second Church. The church edifice was a small one-story brick building, seventy by forty feet, and seated about five hundred persons. The building was rented on Jan. 1, 1878, to the congregation of Evangelical Church, and in 1879 was said to the Turners, who now occupy it as their hall. Bernard Street Church was organized in 1868, and occupied a small frame chapel on the southeast corner of Bernard and Emily Streets. Rev. J. C. Hickman was its pastor in 1875. The church has since ceased to exist.

Park Avenue Baptist Church is situated on the north side of Park Avenue, between Stoddard Avenue and Morton Street. Rev. George A. Lofton, D. D., is the pastor. In 1867 the Baptist Church Extension Society purchased from the Presbyterians the property now occupied by this church, and, after enlarging the building, established, in June, 1867, the Park Avenue Mission Sunday-school, with A. J. Conant as superintendent. At the end of the first year it numbered three hundred scholars. In the full of 1868, Rev. J. M. C. Breaker, of South Carolina, began preaching, and shortly after organized the present church, with seven members from the Second Church (Messrs. A. J. Gonsalves, W. P. Hancock, E. H. E. Jameson, John W. Allen, Mrs. Allen, Miss Mary Kelley, and Mrs. Margaret W. Jameson) and five converts from the mission. Col. E. H. E. Jameson was for many years superintendent of the Sunday-school, and was subsequently licensed to preach, and supplied the Park Avenue pulpit for several years. In the spring of 1876 he was ordained and became pastor of the church, but resigned May 1, 1876. Assisted by Messrs. D. B. Gale, William M. Page, D. J. Hancock, and a few others, he kept the church alive through many seasons of trial and despondency. The Church Extension Society went out of existence before the property was paid for, and the latter was sold to D. B. Gale, who gave its use, rent free, to the society until his death, since which time it has continued to occupy it at a nominal rent. The pastorate of the church has been successively filled by the Revs. J. M. C. Breaker, George Kline, M. L. Laws, E. H. E. Jameson, J. V. Schofield (supply), D. T. Morrill, after whom, for two and a half years, the pulpit was supplied by William E. Stephens, a lay preacher, and others until the appointment, in July, 1882, of the present pastor. The church now reports one hundred members, and the Sunday-school has sixteen officers and teachers, and an average attendance of nearly two hundred and fifty scholars. The superintendent is W. L. C. Brey, who has been connected with mission Sunday-school work since 1856, when Rev. George Kline started such a school at Soulard Market.

Carondelet Baptist Church. — The Carondelet Church is situated at the corner of Fifth and Taylor Streets, South St. Louis. Rev. G. L. Talbot is the pastor, and C. S. Purkitt is the clerk. It was organized as the First Baptist Church of Carondelet, Nov. 3, 1867, at the residence of Deacon C. S. Barrett, corner of Second and Taylor Streets, Carondelet, by Rev. Adiel Sherwood, D. D., and Rev. J. V. Schofield, D. D., of the Third Baptist Church of St. Louis, now of the Fourth Church. The organic members were C. S. Purkitt, M. D., Nathan B. Jones, Mrs. Meroe Andrews, Mrs. Charlotte P. Purkitt, and Miss Antoinette Purkitt. The corner-stone was laid in October, 1871. The building was first used July 4, 1872, and was formally dedicated Dec. 15, 1872, by Rev. Dr. Burlingham, of the Second Church, and the Rev. W. Pope Yeaman, of the Third Church of St. Louis. The pastors have been Revs. Frederick Bower, appointed April, 1868; J. H. Luther, D. D., appointed March, 1869; Thomas Hudson, appointed July, 1871; John Seage (pro tem.), appointed March, 1873; J. H. Breaker, appointed Nov. 2, 1873; T. J. Koetzli (pro tem.), appointed Sept. 15, 1875; A. F. Randall, appointed Feb. 4, 1876; E. L. Schofield, appointed Sept. 23, 1877; G. L. Talbot, appointed Jan. 1, 1882. In August, 1874, the church sent out a colony of about thirty members to form a new church called the Welsh Mission, or Second Baptist Church, which flourished for about two years and then dissolved, most of the members returning to the Carondelet Church. Connected with it are the Sunday-school, organized four or five years earlier than the church and now having nine teachers and over one hundred scholars; a Ladies' Industrial Society, organized April 1, 1869, and still flourishing and steadily increasing in usefulness; a Ladies' Foreign Missionary Society; the Baptist Literary Society, organized in December, 1877; and the Mite Society, organized in January, 1882. A Young Ladies' Pastoral Aid Society was organized Feb. 9, 1876, but only remained in existence one year. The congregation numbers about forty families, or one hundred and fifty-seven persons. In May, 1882, there were one hundred and six communicants.

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Garrison Avenue Baptist Church, corner of Morgan Street and Compton Avenue, Rev. J. H. Curry, D. D., pastor, was organized March 29, 1877, with Rev. W. Pope Yeaman, D. D., as pastor, by thirty-nine members, most of whom had obtained letters of dismissal from the Third Baptist Church. Their first place of worship was on Garrison Avenue, between Lucas Avenue and Morgan Street (hence the name of the church), and in it on the 8th of April, 1877, the dedicatory services were held. In the early part of 1879 the church building was removed to its present site at a cost of five hundred dollars. Dr. Yeaman resigned the pastorate Dec. 22, 1878, to accept an appointment from the General Baptist Association of Missouri, after which the church depended upon supplies until Jan. 26, 1879, when Rev. J. C. Armstrong became the pastor. He resigned Dec. 1, 1881, to take editorial charge of the Central Baptist. Dr. Curry, the present pastor, who was visiting the city at the time, was invited to occupy the pulpit on the 2d of April, 1882. Two weeks later he received a unanimous call to the pastorate of the church, and resigned the charge of a flourishing congregation at Dallas, Texas, in order to accept it. The first deacons of the church were George L. Babington and William H. Curtis, chosen at the time of organization, and M. S. Clemens and John Herget, appointed later. Gabriel Long was the first clerk, and James S. McClellan, Gabriel Long, Mr. Stilwell, and Samuel V. Monks composed the first board of trustees. The Sunday-school was organized at the same time as the church, with fifteen scholars, and William H. Curtis as superintendent. It now numbers one hundred children, and the membership of the church has increased from thirty-nine to ninety.

Colored Baptist Churches. — The colored Baptists of St. Louis organized themselves into a congregation about 1833, and the establishment of their church was almost contemporaneous with that of the Second Baptist Church. They adopted the name of the First Baptist Church (the white congregation under that title having become extinct). The pastor of the Colored Baptist Church was Rev. Berry Meacham, an energetic colored man. He was formerly a slave in Virginia, and having purchased his freedom, removed to St. Louis, where he followed the occupation of cooper. He bought the freedom not only of himself, but as he prospered in business that of his wife, children, and father. In the same way he secured the liberation of fifteen slaves, who worked for him in his cooper-shop until they had paid the money thus advanced. In 1836, Berry Meacham was the owner of two brick houses in St. Louis, a farm in Illinois, the estimated value of which was ten thousand dollars, and two steamboats.

THE FIRST AFRICAN CHURCH, Almond, between Fourth and Fifth Streets, Rev. J. R. Young, pastor, now has now a membership of six hundred and twenty-four.

THE EIGHTH STREET (or SECOND) CHURCH situated on the southwest corner of Eighth Street and Christy Avenue. Rev. S. P. Lewis is the pastor. On the 22d of March, 1846, Elders Richard Sneethen and J. R. Anderson commenced preaching in a hall adjoining Liberty Engine House, and in June following petitioned for letters of dismissal from the First African Church. These were granted, and on the 3d of August, 1846, the Second Church was organized will twenty-two members dismissed from the First. It was recognized by the council Oct. 24, 1847. On the 17th of June, 1851, the present lot was purchased for four thousand five hundred dollars, and the erection of the building was begun Aug. 1, 1851. The basement was first occupied in October following, and the building was completed and dedicated Aug. 22, 1852. It was enlarged by an addition of twenty-five feet, in accordance with a vote of the congregation taken Feb. 5, 1858. Its present membership is five hundred and fifty.

UNIVERSITY CHURCH. — On the 11th of December, 1867, Elder Edward Wills 301 began to preach in a small room on University Street, between Twenty-second and Twenty-third Streets, and in 1869 organized the present church at University Street and Jefferson Avenue. He continued pastor until the close of 1881, when the church became involved in legal difficulties, and sued its pastor, as trustee, for possession of the property. The church was closed during the first four months of 1882, and reports only forty-five members to the Association. The other Colored Baptist Churches are the Chambers Street Church, at the corner of Tenth and Chambers Streets, Rev. W. B. Jones, pastor, membership 160; Mount Zion Church, Papin Street, between Pratte Avenue and High Street,

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Rev. Lewis Lane, pastor, the membership numbering 70 persons; Antioch, Edwardsville, membership 65; Bethel, North St. Louis, membership 33; South St. Louis, Carondelet road, near River des Peres, Rev. T. Jackson, pastor, membership 54; St. Paul, Rev. C. Landers, pastor, which meets in the Jewish Synagogue, membership 43; Rock Spring, Rev. William J. Brown, pastor, membership 80; Compton Hill, Compton Avenue and Caswell Street, Rev. C. Decatur, pastor, membership 138.


Methodism in Missouri. — Rev. John Clark was the first Methodist minister to settle in Missouri. He arrived about 1798, but soon after became a member of the Baptist denomination and organized a number of congregations under the auspices of that church. When the territory was ceded to the United States (in 1804) and restrictions on Protestantism removed, missionaries turned their attention to Missouri, and Joseph Oglesby in 1805 reconnoitred the Missouri country to the extremity of the settlements, and "had the pleasure of seeing Daniel Boone, the mighty hunter." In 1806 the Western Conference (embracing the entire Mississippi valley, from the Alleghenies westward) appointed William McKendree (afterwards bishop) to the presiding eldership of Cumberland District (which included Indiana, Illinois, West Tennessee, Missouri, and Arkansas), and John Travis to the Missouri Circuit, a sparsely-settled region, extending from Pike County on the north to Pemiscot County on the south, and from thirty to fifty miles westward of the river. McKendree and Travis traveled over their territory on horseback, and carried their provisions in their saddle-bags. They often slept on the ground, and swam or forded rivers. Travis divided Missouri into two circuits, the Missouri River being the dividing line, and reported fifty-six members in the Northern (or Missouri) Circuit, and fifty in the Southern (or Meramec). In 1809, Cold Water Circuit was added; it included St. Louis, and contained thirty-nine members. In 1821, St. Louis became a separate circuit, with two hundred and fifteen members, and Rev. Isaac N. Piggot as minister. Missouri, as stated, was in 1807 a circuit of Cumberland District, Western Conference; in 1809 its circuits belonged to Indiana District; in 1812 to Illinois District; in 1813 they became part of the Tennessee Conference; in 1814, Missouri became a district; in 1816 it was attached to the Ohio Conference; in May, 1816, the Missouri Conference was created by the General Conference sitting in Baltimore, and embraced Missouri, Illinois, and a large part of Indiana. Its first session was held, commencing Sept. 23, 1816, at Shiloh meeting-house, in Illinois, — the first church built by Methodists so far West. It consisted of nine members, and there were twenty-two preachers to be stationed, of whom twelve were in Illinois and ten in Missouri. There were eight hundred and seventy-five white and fifty-nine colored members in the Missouri District, which was then divided into seven circuits. In September, 1820, at the fifth meeting of the Missouri Conference, Missouri was divided into two districts, — Missouri and Cape Girardeau; St. Louis Circuit being in the former, which was divided into eight circuits, with a total membership of seven hundred and sixty-three, of whom two hundred and fifteen were in St. Louis Circuit. On the 24th of October, 1822, the Missouri Conference met for the first time in St. Louis, where the building of the First Methodist Church had just been completed, and the town of St. Louis was made a separate station, with Rev. Jesse Walker as the minister.

In 1824, Illinois and Indiana were organized into a new Conference, and the Missouri Conference was made to include the State of Missouri and Arkansas Territory. In 1836 the Arkansas Conference was organized, and the Missouri Conference was made to include the State of Missouri and that part of Missouri territory which lies north of the Cherokee line. At the fifteenth session of the Missouri Conference, held in St. Louis, beginning Sept. 16, 1830, it was re-districted into four districts, — Missouri, St. Louis, Cape Girardeau, and Arkansas; the St. Louis District being divided into St. Louis station and seven circuits. The latter were Union, Gasconade Mission, Salt River, Palmyra, Buffalo, and Missouri. Prior to 1822 the congregations were served by missionaries or circuit-riders. These, with the dates of their appointment, were John Travis, 1807; Edward Wilcox, 1808; John Crane, 1809; Isaac Linsey, 1810; George A. Collins, 1811; Daniel Praley, 1812; John M. McFarland, 1813; Richard Conn, 1814; Jacob Whitesides, 1815; Benjamin Proctor, 1816; John Scripps, 1817; John Harris, 1818; Samuel Glaze, 1819; Thomas Wright, 1820; Isaac N. Piggot, 1821; Jesse Walker, 1822. The presiding elders since the establishment of St. Louis District have been Andrew Monroe, 1830, 1832-36; Alexander McAllister, 1831; Silas Comfort, 1836-37, James M. Jameson, 1838-40; Wesley Browning, 1841-43; William W. Redman, 1844. The bishops presiding at the Missouri Conference since its organization have been William McKendree, 1816, 1818, 1823; Robert R. Roberts, 1817, 1820-22, 1824-27,

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1830-31, 1834-36, 1842; Enoch George, 1819; Joshua Soule, 1828-29, 1832, 1837-38: Thomas A. Morris, 1839-40; Beverly Waugh, 1840; James O. Andrew, 1843.

In 1844-45 occurred, the great secession of the Southern Methodists, which left the Northern members for a time without "a local habitation or a name" in Missouri, and without a Conference in the State or a church in the city. A few ministers, however, the more prominent of whom were Rev. Anthony Bewley (who in 1860 was hung by a mob at Port Worth, Texas), Rev. Mark Robertson, Rev. Nelson Henry, Rev. Peter Akers, and Rev. Joseph Tabor, continued to labor in connection with the old denomination. In 1845 a small church, called Ebenezer, was erected, which, in 1862, became the Union Methodist Church of St. Louis. In 1848 the Missouri Conference was reorganized, meeting with the Illinois Conference at Belleville, and was made to include Kansas and Arkansas. In 1852 the Arkansas Conference was set off, and in 1856 the Kansas Conference was formed. In 1861, when the civil war commenced and the fate of Missouri, as to its connection with the Union or the Southern Confederacy, trembled in the balance, the Northern Methodists were again disorganized, many of the ministers being compelled to leave their posts throughout the State. In May, 1861, their services were suspended everywhere except in St. Louis, and Ebenezer Chapel (St. Louis) was seized for debt and closed, Hedding Chapel was dissolved, and only a nucleus of worshipers remained at Simpson Chapel. During this period presiding elders and ministers either left the State or entered the army as chaplains or soldiers. In the latter part of 1861, owing to the occupation of the State by the Northern troops, the Southern wing of the church in turn became disorganized and scattered. On the other hand, the old Methodist organization began to recover its lost ground, and has continued to flourish ever since. The Missouri Conference was reorganized in May, 1862, as the Missouri and Arkansas Conference. In 1868 it was divided into the Missouri Conference (north of Missouri River) and St. Louis Conference (south of the river and including Arkansas), and in May, 1872, the Arkansas Conference was cut off and established as a separate body.

The first church of the denomination established in St. Louis was organized by the Rev. Jesse Walker in the fall of 1820, and the first systematic preaching was begun about the middle of December of that year. The first Sunday-school was commenced in December of the following year, and its first superintendent was Col. John O'Fallon. In 1845, owing to the dissension which had arisen concerning the question of slavery, the congregation separated from the regular Methodist organization and joined the Methodist Church South. It then became known as the First Methodist Episcopal Church South, and consequently there is nominally no "First Church" of the old organization in St. Louis.

The bishops of Missouri Conference from 1849 until 1868, and of St. Louis Conference since, have been as follows: E. S. Janes, 1849, 1852, 1858, 1869; C. J. Houts, pro tem., 1850; B. Waugh, 1851; T. A. Morris, 1853, 1861; E. R. Ames, 1854, 1857, 1860, 1863, 1867, 1871; Matthew Simpson, 1855, 1862, 1877; O. C. Baker, 1856, 1864; Levi Scott, 1859, 1865, 1872; C. Kingsley, 1866; E. Thomson, 1868; Davis W. Clark, 1870; Thomas Bowman, 1873, 1878; Edward G. Andrews, 1874; Stephen M. Merrill, 1875; Jesse T. Peck, 1876; Isaac W. Wiley, 1879; Randolph S. Foster, 1880: John F. Hurst, 1881; Henry W. Warren, 1882. The St. Louis Conference is now divided into St. Louis, Sedalia, Kansas City, Springfield, and Missouri Districts. St. Louis District has twenty stations or circuits, the presiding elders over which since the reorganization in 1848 (with the dates of the Conferences appointing them) have been George W. Robbins, 1848; J. J. Buren, 1849-50; David N. Smith, 1851; C. J. Houts, 1852-54; J. H. Hopkins, 1855-56; Nathan Shumate, 1857; Samuel Huffman, 1858-61; J. C. Smith, 1862-64; M. Sovin, 1865-68; J. L.Walker, 1869-71; A. C. George, 1872; T. H. Hagerty, 1873-15; C. A. Van Anda, 1876; F. S. Beggs, 1877-80; T. H. Hagerty, 1881-82. The reorganized Missouri Conference started in 1848 with 1538 members and 26 traveling and 24 local preachers, Arkansas being included in these figures. The St. Louis Conference held in March, 1882, reported 18,080 members and probationers, 168 local preachers, 171 Sunday-schools, with 1562 teachers and 13,169 scholars, 191 churches, and 65 parsonages. St. Louis Station (or City) reported 1187 members and probationers, 8 local preachers, 7 churches, 7 Sunday-schools, with 158 teachers and 1655 scholars.

The Western Methodist Book Concern, 1101 Olive Street, was organized in 1865, with Rev. Benjamin St. James Fry, D. D., as manager, in rented rooms at No. 413 Locust Street, and later removed to 913 North Sixth Street, which property had been bought and is still owned by the concern, being now used for manufacturing purposes. John H. Cameron was manager from 1872, when Dr. Fry took the editorial management of the Central Christian Advocate until 1880, and was then succeeded by the present

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manager, Samuel H. Pye, from the Cincinnati Book Concern. In the third story of the present quarters are the editorial office of Dr. Fry, and the room where, every Monday morning, are held the meetings of the Methodist Episcopal Ministers' Association. The Book Concern moved into its present quarters in 1881.

Benjamin St. James Fry, D. D., was born in Rutgers, East Tennessee, in 1824, but spent his childhood and early manhood in Cincinnati. He was educated at Woodward College, Cincinnati, and was received into the Ohio Conference in 1847. Among his appointments in that Conference were Portsmouth. Newark, Chillicothe, and Zanesville. He was president of the Worthington Female College for four years, and served three years as chaplain in the Union army. In 1865 he was placed in charge of the depository of the Methodist Book Concern at St. Louis, and conducted its business until, in 1872, he was elected editor of the Central Christian Advocate. He was subsequently re-elected, and continues to hold that position. He was a reserve delegate of the General Conference of 1868, and served part of the session, and was secretary of the Committee on Sunday-schools. At the General Conference of 1876 he was the secretary of the Committee on Education. Dr. Fry has been a frequent contributor to periodical literature, and is the author of several volumes of Sunday-school books, including lives of Bishops Whatcoat, McKendree, and Roberts. He was also the author of "Property Consecrated," one of the prize volumes issued by the church on systematic beneficence.

William McKendree, one of the early bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church, was born in King William County, Va., on the 6th of July, 1757. He was a soldier during the Revolutionary war, entering the army as a private, and rising to the rank of adjutant. He was placed in the commissary department, and was present at the surrender of Cornwallis at

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Yorktown. In 1787 he was converted to religion, and soon began to take a prominent part in public meetings. In 1788 he was received on trial for the ministry, and continued to labor in his vocation until November, 1792, when, having been influenced by Mr. O'Kelly to join in certain measures of alleged reform, he was greatly disappointed by their failure at the General Conference. Mr. O'Kelly withdrew from the church, and Mr. McKendree sympathizing with him, sent in his resignation as a minister, but the Conference agreed that he might still preach among the societies. Mr. McKendree soon obtained leave to travel with Bishop Asbury, in order that he might ascertain for himself whether his impressions had been well founded. In a short time he became satisfied that he had been deceived. In 1796 he became presiding elder, and in 1801 was sent to the West to take the supervision of the societies in Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Western Virginia, and part of Illinois. In 1806 he was appointed to the Cumberland District, embracing Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, and half of Tennessee, and during the same year traveled extensively in Illinois. He himself records that in 1807 "we attended a camp-meeting across the Mississippi River, which was the first meeting of the kind ever held on that side of the river, and we walked about forty miles to get to it." In 1808 he was called to preach before the General Conference, and discharged this task so ably that Bishop Asbury said at its close, "That sermon will make McKendree bishop." This prediction was realized by his election as bishop by the same Conference (1808). In 1816, during which year he presided at the first session of the Missouri Conference, he became the senior bishop. He died on the 5th of March, 1835, at the residence of his brother, near Nashville, Tenn. Bishop McKendree was a popular preacher, and a zealous and laborious minister. He was careful in the administration of discipline, and introduced system into all the operations of the church. His influence was potent everywhere, but especially was he regarded as the father of Western Methodism, to which he had given years of earnest labor, and in the success of which he felt a deep and abiding interest.

Jesse Walker was born in North Carolina (the exact date is uncertain), and was admitted as a traveling preacher in 1802. Subsequently, for four years, he traveled in Kentucky and Tennessee. In 1806 he was appointed missionary to Illinois, and at the end of his first year of labor reported that he had secured two hundred and eighteen members to the church in that region. He continued his missionary labors in Illinois and Missouri until 1812, when he was made presiding elder over the church in both those Territories. In 1820 he was appointed Conference missionary, with leave to select his own field of work, and chose St. Louis, where he established the First Methodist Church, of which he remained pastor for two years. On the 24th of October, 1822, he again obtained the appointment of Conference missionary, and in 1823 began to labor among the Indians. In 1834 failing health compelled him to retire to his farm in Cook County, Ill., where he died on the 5th of October, 1835.

John Travis was born of Presbyterian parents, in Chester District, S. C., Nov. 3, 1773. He was appointed to Missouri Circuit in 1806, at which date he was first received on trial by the Western Conference, and traveled from five to seven hundred miles on horseback to reach his circuit. Two years later he was received into full connection, and in 1812 was ordained as elder. He remained in charge of different circuits, nearly as wild and thinly settled as the first, until 1815, when he married, and retired to a farm in Livingston (now Crittenden) County, Ky., where he studied and subsequently practiced medicine. He preached occasionally until his death. He became totally blind fourteen years before his death, which occurred in his eightieth year, Nov. 11, 1852.

Among the early ministers of the Methodist Church in St. Louis, Rev. John W. Springer and Rev. Joseph Boyle, D. D., were also prominent. Mr. Springer was born in Fayette County, Ky., in 1808, and arrived in St. Louis in 1848, and took charge of the St. Louis mission. Besides the mission, he had charge of a number of circuits. He was married three times, his first wife being Eliza Pilcher, of Fayette County, Ky., the second Eliza Lueller, and the third Minerva D. Pilcher, sister of the first Mrs. Springer. He was a faithful and active minister, and labored industriously for many years, but at the time of his death, which occurred on the 17th of October, 1879, was on the superannuated list.

Joseph Boyle was born in Baltimore on the 12th of May, 1812. The field of his first ministerial labors was Pittsburgh, but in 1842, at his request, he was transferred to St. Louis, and became pastor of the First Church. He was a delegate to the Louisville General Conference of 1844, at which the Methodist Church was divided into two bodies, the Methodist Episcopal Church and the Methodist Episcopal Church South, and labored earnestly for reconciliation. Until his death, which occurred on the 3d of May, 1872, Dr. Boyle continued in the active discharge of his ministerial duties. In 1870 he was placed upon the retired list as a supernumerary at the First

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Methodist Church, on Eighth Street. He did not, however, relax his ministerial labors, but continued to preach and work for the cause to which he had devoted his energies. He preached his last sermon at Lexington, Mo., on the Sunday preceding his death.

Dr. Boyle was distinguished by his learning and eloquence, as well as by the elevated tone of his character and the simplicity of his life. He was extremely popular with the citizens of St. Louis, and for a number of years was one of the most prominent and useful members of the community.

Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church. — This church, situated at the southwest corner of Tenth and North Market Streets, Rev. R. R. Pierce, pastor, had its origin in Simpson Chapel, which was organized about 1857. Simpson Chapel was the only Northern Methodist Church that continued to hold services in St. Louis during the stormy period at the beginning of the war, when all the kindred Methodist congregations in Missouri became disorganized. When, however, toward the close of the year 1861, the Northern Methodist Church in Missouri began to revive, Simpson Chapel shared in its prosperity and increased rapidly in numbers and influence. Its pastors were J. L. Conklin, appointed in 1858; Thomas H. Mudge, 1859; J. C. Smith, 1860; Wm. C. Stewart, 1861; (the church was "supplied" by different ministers in 1862) L. M. Vernon, 1863; supply, 1864-65; T. J. Williams, 1866; R. R. Pierce, 1867-68; J. N. Pierce, 1869. In 1870 it became Trinity Church, whose pastors have been J. N. Pierce, 1870-71; J. L. Walker, 1872-73-74; O. M. Stewart, 1875-76-77; H. R. Miller, 1878; G. W. Hughey, 1879-81; R. R. Pierce, 1882. Simpson Chapel reported fifty-seven members in 1858, and Trinity Church had in the first year of its organization one hundred and sixty members. Connected with the Sunday-school were twenty-five teachers and one hundred and eighty scholars. In March, 1882, it had a membership, including probationers, of two hundred and eighty-eight, and there were thirty-eight teachers and four hundred scholars in the Sunday-school.

Union Church (southwest corner of Garrison and Lucas Avenues, Rev. C. E. Felton, D. D., pastor) was the first fruits of the reorganization of the Northern Methodist Church, after its dispersion on the breaking out of the war in 1861. Prior to that time the Methodists (North) had had three congregations in St. Louis, known as Hedding, Ebenezer, and Simpson Chapels. Ebenezer Chapel had been organized in 1852, and was served by Rev. L. B. Bemis, appointed 1852; Rev. T. I. R. Davis, 1853; Rev. N. Shumate, 1855; Rev. Thomas Williams, 1858; Rev. William Hanley, 1860.; Rev. Joseph Brooks, 1861. During Dr. Brooks' pastorate the church was closed on account of a debt due for rent, and was never reopened. In 1852 there were one hundred and thirty-five members, but at the close of 1861 not more than thirty members of the congregation remained in the city. On the 2d of January, 1862, a meeting was held at the office of Rev. Dr. Charles D. Elliott, editor of the Central Christian Advocate, by a few Methodists whom business had brought to St. Louis, and they, uniting with the remnants of Ebenezer Church, organized a new society and invited Rev. Dr. Henry Cox, of Chicago, to become their pastor. Dr. Cox was a man of great zeal and energy, and the congregation prospered under his care. The Union Presbyterian Church (an independent organization) had built the church (now occupied by the Young Men's Christian Association) at Eleventh and Locust Streets; and this building was purchased by the Union congregation for thirty-seven thousand three hundred dollars on the 14th of March, 1862. Before that date, however, Dr. Cox had succeeded in raising six thousand dollars, by the payment of which, on the first installment of the purchase-money, the Missouri Conference was enabled to hold its session in the building, beginning Feb. 26, 1862. In the following summer Dr. Cox visited the East and obtained six thousand dollars towards reducing the church debt. In 1865 the indebtedness was entirely canceled. In 1863 the membership had grown to two hundred and seventy-five persons, and at the beginning of 1865 it was reported at four hundred, together with an attendance of four hundred in the Sunday-school. Dr. Cox was an uncompromising advocate of Northern principles, and made it a condition of church membership that candidates should take the oath of allegiance to the United States, swearing them in with the Stars and Stripes floating over them and an open Bible before them. The church was dedicated by Bishop Simpson, March 16, 1862. It was at that time one of the most capacious churches in the city, and seated about sixteen hundred persons, — a substantial brick building one hundred and four feet long, sixty-eight feet wide, and seventy-five feet high to the centre of the nave.

The succession of pastors, with the dates of their appointment, has been as follows: Henry Cox, 1862-63; supply, 1864; A. C. George, 1865-67; J. W. Langley, 1868-69; B. St. J. Fry, 1870; C. E. Felton, 1871-73, and again in 1880-82; C. A. Van Anda, 1874-76; R. C. Houghton, 1877-79. On the 14th of May, 1880, the church on Eleventh Street was sold to the Young Men's Christian Association, and in the

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following June the present lot, ninety-five by one hundred and thirty-four feet, was purchased. Ground was broken July 12, 1880, and the corner-stone was laid Oct. 26, 1880. The Sunday-school room was first occupied Oct. 30, 1881, and the church was dedicated May 18, 1882, by Bishop Simpson. It is of modified Gothic architecture, and cruciform in shape, and is built of rubble-stone and brick. Its dimensions are eighty by one hundred and one feet. In the basement are a kitchen and dining-rooms, and on the ground-floor are the office of the church, parlor, and Sunday-school rooms, the latter with a seating capacity of six hundred. The main auditorium contains seats for one thousand persons, and is amphitheatrical in shape. In the rear of the auditorium are the pastor's study and the music-room. The total cost of the church was $75,527.16, of which $11,685 was paid for the lot and $63,842.16 for building and furnishing. This sum was realized from the following sources: Sale of old church, $37,500; subscriptions and interest, $35,898.66; Ladies' Aid Society, $2069.51; Young Men's Union, $466.85, — a total of $75,935.02, or $407.86 more than the property cost. August Beincke was the architect. The Young People's Lyceum of the Union Methodist Episcopal Church, organized by the pastor in 1871 for purposes of literary and social intercourse, was the first society of its kind established in St. Louis. The membership of the church numbers four hundred and forty persons, and there are thirty-one teachers and three hundred and fifty-four scholars connected with the Sunday-school.

Central Church. — In the minutes of the Missouri Conference for 1865 appears for the first time the name of the Second Union Church, with Rev. Henry Cox, D. D. (the organizer of Union Church), as pastor. In 1866 it reported one hundred and thirteen members, and forty teachers and five hundred pupils in the Sunday-school. Dr. Cox was reappointed in 1866, and N. P. Heath succeeded him in 1867, in which year its name was changed to that of Sixth Street Mission. This mission occupied the publishing-house at 913 North Sixth Street, and reported, in 1868, one hundred and eighteen members, and five hundred and forty children in the Sunday-school. Rev. A. C. George was pastor in 1868, and Rev. J. W. Johnson in 1869-70, after which date the name of the organization disappeared from the minutes, Central Church (which was organized in 1869, in a hall on Eighteenth and Wash Streets) having grown out of and absorbed it. The new organization reported in the spring of 1870 a membership of seventy persons, and an attendance at the Sunday-school of twenty teachers and one hundred and twenty children. It continued to meet in the hall at Eighteenth and Wash Streets until February, 1871, when its present church building, situated at the northeast corner of Twenty-fourth and Morgan Streets, was dedicated. The foundation stone of this edifice was laid on the 2d of September; 1869, and the exercises were witnessed by a large assemblage. Hon. Nathan Cole, mayor of the city, presided. On the 1st of February, 1871, the edifice was used by the congregation for the first time. It has a front of fifty-seven feet on Morgan Street, and a depth of ninety-three feet on Twenty-fourth Street, and is a substantial brick building, with lecture-room, classrooms, and pastor's study on the first floor, and on the second floor the main audience-room, with a seating capacity of six hundred. The church lot measures sixty-five by one hundred and ten feet, and the property is valued at thirty-five thousand dollars. The pastors have been Revs. A. C. George (who organized it), 1869-71; J. J. Bentley, 1872; A. C. Williams, 1873-75; J. W. Bushong, 1876-78; W. K. Marshall, 1879-81; F. S. Beggs, 1881-82. The church reports a membership of two hundred and twenty persons, with twenty-eight teachers and two hundred and seventy-five pupils in the Sunday-school.

St. Luke's Church grew out of a mission Sunday-school which was organized by Rev. R. S. Stubbs at the residence of Mrs. Dr. Brock, May 20, 1874, and which then numbered fifteen scholars. The church was organized with twelve members, Jan. 17, 1875, in the chapel of the mission, a frame building on Jefferson Avenue, between Chippewa and Keokuk Streets, which was purchased by the congregation. This building was twenty-five by forty feet in size, and seated one hundred and seventy-five persons. Rev. R. S. Stubbs, Rev. B. St. James Fry, Rev. C. A. Van Anda, and other ministers participated in the organization. The building was sold in November, 1881, and was converted into a shoe-store. The present building stands upon a lot one hundred and one by one hundred and eighteen feet, at the northeast corner of Potomac Street and Texas Avenue. Its corner-stone was laid Sept. 15, 1881, and the completed structure was dedicated by Rev. C. E. Felton, D. D., on the 5th of March, 1882. It is built of brick, with stone trimmings, and its dimensions are forty by sixty feet, its seating capacity being three hundred and fifty persons. The architecture is semi-Gothic. The church has had four pastors, Rev. R. S. Stubbs, 1874-76; Rev. L. Hallock, 1876-79; Rev. J. F. Corrington, 1879-82; and Rev. A. Jump, 1882. Connected with the congregation are a Ladies' Aid Society, organized in 1875, and a Woman's Foreign

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Missionary Society, organized in 1881. Each of them has about twelve members. There are now forty-one families (about two hundred persons) connected with the church, and of these, thirty-four persons are communicants. The Sunday-school has twelve teachers and one hundred and twenty pupils.

Water-Tower Church. — Hedding Chapel, established in 1852 with twenty-five members, survived until 1861, when, owing to the political troubles of that period, the congregation became disorganized and finally extinct. The first regular pastor was the Rev. Daniel H. May, appointed in 1853, and his successors were Rev. J. M. Chevington, 1854; Rev. J. L. Conkling, 1855; Rev. John Hageman, 1858; and Rev. A. C. McDonald, 1860-61. Different ministers officiated as supplies during the years not named. The church building was a small structure, situated in the northern part of the city. In 1879 some of the former members of the congregation, with other Methodists, organized a mission in the vicinity of the water-tower. At first the congregation worshiped in the German Presbyterian Church, Grand Avenue and Thirteenth Street, but it subsequently purchased a lot at the northwest corner of Fourteenth Street and Obear Avenue, one block north of and opposite the water-tower, from which the congregation takes its name, and erected a neat Gothic structure of brick, forty-eight by twenty-five feet, which will seat two hundred persons. The dimensions of the lot are fifty by one hundred and forty feet, and the property is valued at two thousand five hundred dollars. The congregation occupied the church for the first time in March, 1881, and the building was dedicated on the 27th of that month. The successive pastors have been Rev. L. Hallock, 1879; Rev. J. W. Newcomb, March, 1880; Rev. Cyrus Brough, assistant, March, 1880; pastor, March, 1881; Rev. J. P. Corrington, March, 1882. The church reports seventy-five members and probationers and twenty teachers, and an average attendance of one hundred and seventy-five pupils in the Sunday-school. The usual devotional, missionary, and charitable societies are maintained by the congregation.

Goode Avenue Church. — This church, situated at Goode Avenue and North Market Street, Rev. M. B. Wood, pastor, was organized by Rev. R. S. Stubbs in 1875, and the corner-stone of the church building was laid Oct. 1, 1875. The church, a small frame structure, with a seating capacity of one hundred and seventy, was dedicated Nov. 15, 1875. The lot is fifty by one hundred and thirty-five feet in size, and the property is valued at two thousand dollars. The pastors have been Revs. R. S. Stubbs, C. A. Van Anda, J. W. Bushong, A. H. Parker, J. W. Newcomb (1879-81), M. B. Wood, 1882. The church has a membership of fifty-six persons, and the Sunday-school numbers sixty pupils.

Goode Avenue Mission first appears on the Conference minutes in 1877, with Rev. A. H. Parker as supply. Mr. Parker was reappointed in 1878. Rev. J. W. Newcomb was appointed to this charge, in conjunction with that of Rock Spring, in 1879, and that of Tower Grove mission in 1880-81. Rev. M. B. Wood was appointed in 1882. The mission has a membership of forty-four persons, with eight teachers and sixty children in the Sunday-school.


In the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church of 1844, attention was called to the fact that Bishop James O. Andrew, of Georgia, had married a lady who was the owner of slaves. As no bishop in the Methodist Church had ever been connected with slavery, this fact produced great excitement. According to a law of the church adopted in 1800, it was provided that when any traveling preacher became an owner of a slave or slaves by any means he should forfeit his ministerial character in the church, unless he executed, if it were practicable, a legal emancipation of such slaves conformable with the laws of the State in which he lived. The committee of the Conference on episcopacy waited upon the bishop, who informed them that his wife had inherited slaves from her former husband, who had secured them to her by a deed of trust, and that she could not emancipate them if she desired to do so. The embarrassments of the case were deeply felt by all parties, but after a protracted discussion the General Conference, by a vote of one hundred and ten to sixty-eight, adopted the following resolution: "Resolved, That it is the sense of this General Conference that he desist from the exercise of his office so long as this impediment remains."

The prevailing opinion in the Conference was that it was possible for the bishop to remove from Georgia, where manumission was impracticable, to a State where emancipation might be made. Bishop Andrew would willingly, it was understood, have yielded to the opinions of the General Conference, but his brethren in the South thought it his duty to stand by them on a question which they considered to be one involving their rights, and he accordingly acquiesced in their desire. Soon after this action of the Conference resolutions were framed proposing a separation between the free and slave States, and were adopted by a vote of one hundred and forty-two to twenty-two. A conference of Southern delegates was

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called, and held in Louisville May 1, 1845. It was composed of one hundred and two delegates, who, with only three dissenting voices, voted for the proposed separation, and organized the General Conference South. The Missouri Conference sent as delegates to the convention Andrew Munroe, Jesse Green, John Glanville, Wesley Browning, William Patton, John H. Linn, Joseph Boyle, and Thomas Johnson, and the Fourth Street (now the First) Church of St. Louis, by resolutions bearing date Jan. 12, 1845, gave emphatic utterance against the division. When the almost unanimous action of the Louisville Convention was learned, however, the Fourth Street Church, at a meeting held July 30, 1845, determined to join the Southern Conference by a vote of one hundred and thirty-two, subsequently increased to two hundred and six, a majority of all the members, who then numbered three hundred and eighty-seven, thus determining the status of the Methodists in St. Louis, and therefore in Missouri, and leaving the Northern Methodists for several years without a Conference, and almost without a church. The Church South continued for fifteen years to prosper and increase. In 1858 the State was divided into two Conferences, — the Missouri, north of the Missouri River, and the St. Louis Conference, south of it. In 1861 the Southern proclivities of the church exposed its organization to the hostility of the Federal authorities, and its organ, the St. Louis Christian Advocate, was suppressed, and its editor, Dr. McAnally, imprisoned. Outside of St. Louis, its members were dispersed and many of its ministers were compelled to leave the State. The work of the church in Missouri, in fact, was almost wholly suspended during the war.

The St. Louis Conference assembled at Arrow Rock, Mo., Sept. 25, 1861, and, there being no bishop present, called Rev. Daniel A. Leeper to the chair. It was forced to adjourn to Waverly, and there finished its session. No record of its proceedings was published, and no further attempt to hold a Conference in Missouri was made until after the war, when the Advocate was revived and the church reorganized. In 1870, St. Louis Conference was subdivided and made to consist of that part of the State which lies south of the Missouri River and east of the Gasconade and Big Piney Rivers and the eleventh meridian. It is divided into St. Louis, Charleston, Salem, and Poplar Bluffs Districts, and St. Louis District is sub-divided into twelve stations and circuits. The bishops presiding at the Missouri and St. Louis Conferences, so far as their names appear on the general minutes, have been Joshua Soule, 1845; H. H. Kavanaugh, 1854, '60, '68; John Early, 1855; George F. Pierce, 1856, '58, '69, '72, '79, '81; James O. Andrew, 1857; Robert Paine, 1859; Enoch M. Marvin, 1867, '77; H. N. McTyeire, 1870, '76; D. S. Doggett, 1871, '78; W. M. Wightman, D. D., 1873; John C. Keener, 1874, '75, '80. The presiding elders of St. Louis District have been William W. Redman, 1845; Newton G. Berryman, 1846-48; James Mitchell, 1849-50; Wesley Browning, 1851-54; Robert A. Young, 1855-56; John R. Bennett, 1857-59; Joseph Boyle, 1860, '68, '69; Thomas M. Finney, 1866-67; J. W. Lewis, 1870, '76, '77; William M. Leftwich, 1871-73; A. T. Scruggs, 1874-75; W. V. Tudor, 1878-79; J. G. Wilson, 1880-82.

The Woman's Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church. South was organized in 1878, and its St. Louis local conference in 1879. It is now represented by 2 stations in China, 1 in Brazil, and 2 in Mexico, and maintains 5 boarding and 10 day schools. It has under its charge 31 conference societies, 932 auxiliary societies, and 180 young people's and juvenile societies, with a total membership of 26,556. The total collections in the four years of its existence have amounted to $62,761.78. The St. Louis local conference has 15 auxiliary societies with 404 members, and 3 juvenile societies with 142 members. The officers of the society are Mrs. George Baker, president; Mrs. Samuel Cupples, first vice-president; Mrs. Dr. Walker, of Salem, Mo., second vice-president; Mrs. John Garton, Longtown, Mo., third vice-president; Mrs. John Robinson, fourth vice-president; Mrs. Lanius, recording secretary; Mrs. E. Avis, corresponding secretary; and Mrs. J. W. Lewis, treasurer.

First Methodist Episcopal Church South. — This church is the oldest Methodist organization in St. Louis, and was formerly known as the First Methodist Episcopal Church. In 1845, however, it withdrew from the General Conference and attached itself to the General Conference, then newly organized, of the Methodist Episcopal Church South. The Missouri Conference, which met at Shiloh, St. Clair Co., Ill., Sept. 13, 1820, appointed Elder Jesse Walker Conference missionary, with liberty to select his own field for work. He "chose St. Louis, and proceeded thither at once, accompanied by two young ministers. Their reception was so discouraging that they set out almost immediately for different points, but Walker, after having ridden eighteen miles, determined that he would go back alone and "take the town." He accordingly returned and obtained a lodging in a cheap tavern, and afterwards preached once or twice

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in the Baptist meeting-house. He succeeded in renting an unfinished house on Fourth Street for ten dollars a month, and having obtained some benches that had been removed from the court-house to make way for new ones, fitted up the largest room for meetings and resided in the others. He proceeded at once to organize a congregation, of which the original members were Amariah Burns and wife, John Finney, John Armstrong, and Joseph Piggott.

Mr. Walker began preaching in December, 1820, and permanently established the church early in January, 1821. He invited the children of the poor and servants to come on week-days and evenings to learn to read and spell, and by means of this and similar expedients, supplemented by his earnest and arduous labors, he succeeded in laying broad and deep the foundations of Methodism and of the First Methodist Church in St. Louis. The owner of the house in which the meetings had been held having died, Mr. Walker was forced to vacate the premises. Meetings were then held in the old court-house, situated on Third Street below Elm, and the early growth of the congregation appears to have been rapid. Mr. Walker set to work at once to procure the erection of a house of worship. He was allowed to cut logs without paying for them on the eastern side of the river, and with the timber thus secured began the construction of a church near what is now the corner of Fourth and Myrtle Streets. The ladies of the congregation defrayed the cost of building the pulpit, and the Episcopalians, who had disbanded as a congregation, gave the church their Bible, cushions, and seats. As the result of his first year's work, Mr. Walker reported to the Conference that a chapel tad been erected and paid for; that he was maintaining a flourishing school, and that the membership of the church numbered eighty-seven persons. The chapel is described as having been a neat frame structure, thirty-five by twenty-five feet, with side galleries, and capable of holding nearly five hundred persons. The Missouri Conference assembled in it on the 24th of October, 1822, and the congregation continued to occupy it until the 20th of September, 1830, when it removed to a new brick church which had been erected on a lot (given, together with five hundred dollars, by Col. John O'Fallon) on Fourth Street and Washington Avenue. The dimensions of this building were fifty by sixty feet, with a basement story ten feet in the clear. The dedicatory sermon was preached by the founder of the congregation, Rev. Jesse Walker.

At this time the pastor of the church was the Rev. Andrew Monroe. Mr. Monroe was appointed to the St. Louis District by the Missouri Conference in July, 1824. At first, owing to the poverty of the congregation, he was compelled to reside alone in a lodging, but subsequently a house was rented for him and he was joined by his family. It was known as the rector's house, and the rent was five dollars per month. It contained but one room, about sixteen feet square. Before the expiration of the first month of his occupancy, however, the congregation decided that this sum was more than it could afford to pay, and Mr. Monroe's wife determined to remove to Main Street and open there a boarding-house. At that time the membership comprised forty-three white and forty-four colored persons.

In December, 1852, a lot, ninety-five by one hundred and sixteen feet, situated on the northwest corner of Washington Avenue and Eighth Street, was bought from Silas Wood, of New York, for thirteen thousand dollars, and in April following the Fourth Street property was sold to W. G. Clark for fifty thousand dollars. The building on the new site seats nine hundred persons, and was dedicated Dec. 31, 1854, by Rev. C. B. Parsons. On the 2d of July preceding the congregation had met in the old Fourth Street Church for the last time. On this occasion Rev. John Hogan, who had been among the most active of the members of the church, delivered an address, after which the congregation and Sunday-school formed in procession and marched to the basement of the new church. Services preliminary to the dedication were performed by the Rev. R. A. Young, after which Mr. Hogan read a communication from Col. John O'Fallon, first superintendent of the Sunday-school, expressing regret" at his inability to be present and participate in the exercises. Rev. Dr. Cummings introduced the dedicatory exercises by reading a selection from chap. viii. of 1st Kings, and offered the dedicatory prayer and pronounced the benediction. The dedicatory sermon was preached by the Rev. Charles B. Parsons, D. D., of Louisville, Ky. The building was of brick, and its dimensions were one hundred and six by sixty-five feet. It was forty-five feet in height, and had a tower one hundred and forty-three feet high. In the basement there was a large room, used for holding minor services, society meetings, etc., three class-rooms, and the minister's office. The architect was G. I. Barnett, and the building committee John Finney, Levin A. Baker, and J. T. Dowdall. The ground, church, and parsonage cost about fifty-five thousand dollars.

The congregation, which had previously been known as the Fourth Street Church, adopted the designation of the First Methodist Episcopal Church. An adjoining lot, fronting twenty-seven feet on Washington

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Avenue, was subsequently purchased and a parsonage erected on it. In 1874-75 the vacant space around the church was built up for business purposes, the additions, in the Tudor style, becoming part of the edifice and giving it a castellated appearance. Early in 1882 the property was sold to Messrs. Leighton & Chapman, who began in March, 1882, to tear it down for the purpose of erecting on its site a number of warehouses. The congregation met for a time in Dr. Post's old church, now occupied by the Young Men's Temperance Union, at Tenth and Locust Streets, and afterwards in the Young Men's Christian Association's church at Eleventh and Locust Streets. The construction of a handsome stone edifice for the use of this congregation, situated at the corner of Glasgow Avenue and Dayton Street, was commenced in 1882.

The successive pastors of the church, 302 with the dates of the Conferences appointing them, have been:

Jesse Walker, 1821; William Beauchamp, 1822; John Scripps, 1823; Andrew Monroe, 1824-25; John Dew, 1826; Alexander McAlester, 1827; Andrew Monroe, 1828-29; Joseph Edmondson, 1830; John S. Barger, 1831; Joseph Edmondson, 1832; Edmund W. Sehon, 1833; Thomas B. Drummond, 303 L. B. Stateler, 1834; George W. Bewley, L. Janes, 1835; Thomas Wallace, 1836; Edward R. Ames, 1837; Silas Comfort, William M. Dailey, George Smith, 1838; George C. Light, William M. Dailey, 1839; Wesley Browning, James L. Forsythe, 1840; William Patton, 1841; Joseph Boyle, D. W. Pollack, 1842; Joseph Boyle, George Smith, 1843; Wesley Browning, E. M. Marvin, 1844; C. B. Parsons, 1845-46; J. H. Linn, W. T. Cardwell, 1847; J. H. Linn, 1848-49, succeeded by J. A. Henning, June, 1849; E. A. Morris, Abraham Milice, 1849; Joseph Boyle, J. N. W. Springer, 1850-51; W. R. Babcock, 1852; R. A. Young, 1853-54; C. B. Parsons, 1855-56; Enoch M. Marvin, 1857; E. M. Marvin, William P. Compton, 1858; P. A. Morris, 1859-63 (served supply as the first year); Joseph Boyle, 1864-66; W. F. Camp, 1867; George H. Clinton, 1868-69; W. M. Leftwich, G. H. Clinton (supply), 1870; J. W. Lewis, 1871; L. M. Lewis, 1873; T. M. Finney, 1874-76; J. E. Godbey, 1877-78; E. M. Bounds, 1879; W. G. Miller, 1880-81; J. C. R, Hicks, 1882.

The church reported to the Conference which met in the fall of 1881 that its membership, including probationers, numbered one hundred and eighty-eight persons, and that there were twenty-four teachers and two hundred and twenty-five scholars connected with the Sunday-school. The latter was organized in 1822 by Rev. Jesse Walker, John and William Finney, Mrs. Kells, R. D. Sutton, and several others. The value of the church property, as reported to the Conference of 1881, was one hundred thousand dollars.

St. Paul's Church. — On the 2d of March, 1838, the trustees of the Fourth Street (First) Methodist Episcopal Church resolved "that it is expedient to build two new Methodist Churches in St. Louis," and appointed two committees to select sites. Of these churches the first erected was afterwards known as St. Paul's, and the second as the Centenary. St. Paul's, then known as Mound Chapel, was built in 1839, and was situated "a little north of the mound" on Broadway. Previous to this the congregation had worshiped in Mound Market. In 1850 the second church, located at Tenth and Chambers Streets, and known as Mound Church, was erected, but in 1865 the property was sold, and a lot at Twelfth and North Market Streets was purchased, but no church was built on the proposed site. A chapel was subsequently erected at the northeast corner of Tenth and Benton Streets, and the name of the congregation changed to that of St. Paul's. The building was a one-story brick structure, and seated about three hundred persons. The site of the present church, on St. Louis Avenue near West Sixteenth Street, was purchased about 1871 for five thousand dollars. It fronts one hundred feet on St. Louis Avenue, and has a depth of one hundred and forty feet. The erection of the building was commenced in 1874, and the completed edifice was dedicated in June, 1875, by Rev. Dr. Young, of Nashville, Tenn. It cost about fifteen thousand dollars, and its dimensions are forty by eighty feet, the seating capacity being three hundred and eighty persons. The first regular pastor of St. Paul's Church, as appears by the minutes of Conference, was Rev. W. T. Ellington, appointed in 1868, the congregation having in previous years been served by supplies. Since 1868 its pastors have been Revs. E. M. Bounds, 1873, 1875-78, 1880-82; W. M. Leftwich, 1874; B. W. Key, 1879. The present pastor is Rev. E. M. Bounds. The membership of the church numbers one hundred and thirteen, and the Sunday-school has sixteen teachers and one hundred and fifty scholars.

Centenary Church. — This church was one of the two congregations organized in accordance with the action of the trustees of the Fourth Street Church, taken on the 2d of March, 1838. At the meeting of the trustees on this occasion committees were appointed to select sites for two new Methodist Churches, one of these committees being instructed to choose a location on Fifth Street, not farther south than Poplar. In the autumn of 1839 the centenary of Methodism was celebrated by the Methodists of St. Louis, then numbering three hundred and thirty-five white and one hundred and forty-eight colored

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members, embraced in three stations, — Fourth Street, Mound (afterwards St. Paul's), and African. The exercises were held at the Fourth Street Church, and on this occasion the sum of three thousand dollars was subscribed for the erection of a new church to be known as the "Centenary," in commemoration of the event. On the 9th of November, 1841, Rev. Wesley Browning, then presiding elder of the St. Louis District, appointed William Burd, John H. Gay, Trusten Polk, James Tabor, and John and David Goodfellow trustees to conduct the management of the enterprise. The amount originally subscribed was found to be inadequate, and in order to raise an additional sum the ladies of the congregation organized "The Female Centenary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church." Through the efforts of this association two thousand dollars was secured and expended in part payment for a lot, sixty-five by eighty-five feet, at the southwest corner of Fifth and Pine Streets, the total cost of which was ten thousand five hundred dollars. On this site was erected a brick building with a cut-stone basement, the latter devoted to school purposes. The corner-stone was laid on the 10th of May, 1842, with Masonic rites, and the officiating ministers were Bishop Roberts and Rev. E. R. Ames. While the building was in course of construction services were held in a small frame house which had been purchased by the congregation. The basement of the new edifice was first occupied Dec. 31, 1843, watch-night services being held, and the structure was completed and dedicated in 1844.

At a meeting of the members of the congregation in the spring of 1867, it was decided to dispose of the church property and select a more eligible site. The lot at the northwest corner of Sixteenth and Pine Streets, on which the church now stands, was finally chosen and purchased for thirty-eight thousand dollars. In October, 1868, the old church and grounds were sold to J. J. Roe & Co. for one hundred and forty-two thousand dollars, but the congregation retained the use of the buildings until the new church was ready for occupancy. The board of trustees at that time was composed of Trusten Polk, John Hogan, John Kennard, John W. Burd, W. H. Markham, Mr. Maxwell, C. C. Anderson, W. C. Jamison, and P. M. Lockwood. The building committee consisted of Trusten Polk, John Hogan, W. H. Markham, John Kennard, and John W. Burd. The corner-stone was laid on the 10th of May, 1868, and the building was dedicated on the 28th of May, 1871. Bishops C. K. Keener, of New Orleans, and E. M. Marvin, of Missouri, and Rev. D. McAnally and the pastor, Rev. C. D. N. Campbell, took part in the exercises. Bishop Keener preached the sermon. The total cost of the structure was one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars. The building is of Gothic architecture, and the material composing the walls is St. Louis prairie limestone, with De Soto stone trimmings. The main entrance is on Sixteenth Street, where there are five large doorways. The entrance is through a vestibule fourteen feet wide by ninety long, containing four stairways. Black walnut, oak, ash, and yellow-pine are the woods principally used in fitting up the interior, which has a very elegant appearance. The auditorium is sixty feet wide by one hundred and six long. Under this there is a lecture-room and a school-room. Adjoining the church on Pine Street there are two other buildings, containing the pastor's office, library-rooms, and a young men's Methodist room for literary purposes. The pastor's residence is west of these, and contains sixteen rooms. The church and parsonage cover an area of one hundred and nine feet by one hundred and sixty. Thomas Dixon, of Baltimore, was the architect, and J. B. Legg, of St. Louis, superintended the erection of the building.

The first regular pastor was the Rev. John H. Linn, who was transferred in the autumn of 1842 from the Kentucky Conference and appointed to the charge of Centenary Church. Mr. Linn was succeeded by the Rev. John T. W. Auld., who was followed by the Rev. Joseph Boyle, appointed in 1844, who remained until 1846. In that year Mr. Boyle was succeeded by the Rev. Thomas H. Capers, who had been transferred from South Carolina. The other pastors have been Rev. Messrs. W. H. Lewis, appointed in 1848; W. M. Prottsman, 1849; J. C. Berryman, 1850; D. R. McAnally, 1851; M. F. Treslow, 1855; E. M. Marvin, 1858; C. B. Parsons, John Whittaker, Evan Stephenson, E. M. Marvin, W. Anderson, and Jesse H. Cummins acting as "supplies" during 1858, 1859, and 1860; J. Boyle, 1861; T. A. Morris, 1863; W. A. Smith, 1865; C. N. D. Campbell, 1868-69; J. H. Linn, Joseph Boyle (supply), 1870; J. H. Linn, 1873; W. V. Tudor, 1874-77; J. W. Lewis, 1878-81; W. V. Tudor, 1883. The church reported to the Conference of October, 1881, a membership of five hundred and ten persons, with thirty-five teachers and four hundred and twenty-five pupils in the Sunday-school.

St. John's Church is situated at the northwest corner of Ewing Avenue and Locust Street, and its pastor is the Rev. J. W. Lewis. In 1844 the Fourth Street Church appointed a committee to select a lot for a new church in Christy's addition, and on the 19th of May, 1845, instructed the committee to build a church as soon as their means permitted. The result

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was the erection, some three or four years later, of Asbury Chapel, at the corner of Fifteenth and Gay Streets. About the year 1864, Nathan Coleman organized a Sunday-school in Stoddard's addition, and of this St. John's Church is the outgrowth. On the 5th of December, 1864, the Quarterly Conference of the First Church ordered the sale of Asbury Chapel, the proceeds to be placed in the hands of a joint committee to be appointed by the Quarterly Conferences of Asbury Chapel, First and Centenary Churches. Subsequently, during the presiding eldership of the Rev. T. M. Finney, a congregation of seventy-five persons was organized as St. John's Church, and the chapel was sold for the use of the colored Catholics, and is now St. Elizabeth's Church. The money thus obtained, supplemented by large subscriptions, was used in the erection of a church and chapel on the present site. The corner-stone of these buildings was laid June 26, 1867, with Masonic ceremonies, and the chapel was completed and dedicated on the 9th of May, 1869. Bishop Pierce preached the sermon on that occasion, and the Hon. John Hogan and the venerable minister, Andrew Monroe, delivered addresses. At this time the congregation had increased to two hundred members.

In the winter of 1879 extensive alterations and improvements were made, and on the 6th of April of that year the church was re-dedicated and used for the first time. Its site has a frontage of one hundred feet on Locust Street and a depth of one hundred and thirty-four feet eight inches on Ewing Avenue, and it has a seating capacity of eight hundred persons. The pastors have been Revs. T. A. Morris, 1868-71; J. W. Lewis, 1872-75; J. G. Wilson (now presiding elder), 1876-79; W. V. Tudor, 1880-81; J. W. Lewis, 1882. Connected with the congregation are a Ladies' Sewing Society; the "Busy Bees," composed of young ladies and children; the Women's Missionary Society, and other organizations. The membership in October, 1881, was reported at three hundred and sixty-five, with thirty-three teachers and four hundred and ten scholars in the Sunday-school.

First Church, Carondelet. — The First Methodist Episcopal Church South in Carondelet, known also as the South St. Louis First Church, is situated at the southwest corner of Fifth and Nebraska Streets. It was organized by Rev. D. R. McAnally, D. D., 304 with nine members, in June, 1857, in the present building, which had been erected and dedicated on the 17th of May, 1857. The rules of the church Conference require that pastors of churches shall be changed at least once in four years, but to this church no pastor was appointed by the Conference for twelve years, it being left from year to year "to be supplied." It thus happened that Dr. McAnally's connection with the church, as virtual though not nominal pastor, remained unbroken during the whole period, his name meanwhile only appearing in the Conference minutes as editor of the St. Louis Christian Advocate. In 1869, when Rev. T. M. Finney succeeded him as editor of the Advocate, Dr. McAnally was appointed pastor of the church, and was successively reappointed until, in 1872, he again became editor of the Advocate. He "supplied" the church until 1874, when the Conference appointed J. W. Robinson to its pastorate. The congregation had become deeply attached to its pastor, and was loth to sever a connection that had lasted continuously for over seventeen years and to be brought under the rule of itinerancy. In 1875 the Conference appointed

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Wesley Browning pastor, and in 1876, John Garton, but the congregation refused to recognize the last appointment or to support the minister. Consequently in 1817 the church was cut off from its connection with the Conference, and continued as an independent organization, with Dr. McAnally as pastor. The church lot measures one hundred and ten by one hundred and fifteen feet, and the church building twenty-six by forty-five feet. The property is valued at three thousand dollars, and the membership is reported at three hundred persons. The Sunday-school is attended by from eight to ten teachers and from eighty to one hundred and thirty scholars.

Chouteau Avenue Church. — In September, 1841, a class-meeting was organized at the house of Reuben Russell, on Convent Street, and this formed the nucleus of Wesley Chapel. In 1842, Wesley Browning being then the presiding elder of the St. Louis District, the extreme northern and southern portions of the city were formed into a station, which was placed in charge of Rev. T. W. Ould, and in the following year the southern charge was constituted a separate station and designated as the South St. Louis Church, Rev. W. M. Rush, pastor. In 1844 a church building known as Wesley Chapel was erected on Paul Street, between Chouteau Avenue and Hickory Street, and was dedicated by the Rev. Jonathan Stamper. The pastor, according to the Conference reports of 1844, was the Rev. John A. Tutt. In 1848 the congregation removed to a lot at the northeast corner of Chouteau Avenue and Eighth Streets, and began the erection of another building, which, however, before being completed was demolished by a storm. The structure was rebuilt and dedicated by Rev. D. S. Doggett in 1850. It was a plain two-story brick wilding forty by seventy feet, and seated about three kindred persons. The building was demolished in 1873, and the present edifice, a neat brick structure, with a capacity for seating three hundred and fifty persons, was erected at the same locality. The name was changed at this time from Wesley Chapel to that of Chouteau Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church South. The pastors since then have been Revs. J. H. St. Clair, 1873; F. A. Owen, 1874-75; W. M. Williams, 1876; J. J. Watts, 1877-79; B. W. Key, 1880; W. R. Mays, 1881-82. The report of October, 1881, showed that the congregation then numbered seventy-three members, and that there were thirteen teachers and one hundred and twenty-five pupils in the Sunday-school.

Marvin Mission, 2629 Menard Street, Rev. D. Q. Travis, pastor, grew out of a Sunday-school organized by a Mr. Ray in a blacksmith's shop in 1859. A room was afterwards rented, and the school continued for four years under the care of its founder and Simon Boogher. It had a checkered career, being frequently closed for months at a time and reopened, until the formation of the present organization. The mission now owns a lot fronting thirty-five feet on Menard Street, and a frame building for worship with a seating capacity of two hundred and sixty-five, which was dedicated Dec. 29, 1874. The property is valued at three thousand dollars. The pastors have been Revs. Wesley Browning, J. W. Robertson, — Staunton, J. J. Watts (appointed September, 1875), W. R. Mays (appointed September, 1877), D. Q. Travis, appointed September, 1881. The membership of the church is one hundred and forty; the Sunday-school has nineteen teachers, and an attendance of between two hundred and three hundred scholars.

Page Avenue Church was organized in 1877 with twelve members. J. T. Dowdall, E. S. Greenwood, and Rev. J. T. Watson were the first official board, and Rev. R. F. Chew was the first pastor. Rev. B. F. Key succeeded him in 1878, and was followed in 1879 by Rev. J. E. Godbey, who has been pastor since. The erection of a church building is contemplated, but in the mean time the congregation occupies a chapel on Page Avenue near Grand Avenue. The membership numbers seventy-four persons, and the average attendance at the Sunday-school, of which R. M. Scruggs is superintendent, is two hundred and forty.


Prior to 1841 there was no organization of German Methodists west of Indiana, but in that year the Missouri Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church established the Belleville mission in Illinois, and the St. Louis and Pinckney missions in Missouri. Rev. L. S. Jacoby was appointed to the St. Louis mission, and took charge of it in August, 1841. He rented a meeting-house from a Presbyterian organization, and commenced preaching with great success. At the close of his first year's labors he reported one hundred and fourteen members, besides numerous others who had joined the society but had removed to other places. He was reappointed for a second year, during which he greatly strengthened the foundations of the prosperous German societies, of which there are now four in the city, St. Louis District was in 1845, with the other missions in Missouri and Illinois, transferred from the Missouri to the Illinois Conference, with L. S. Jacoby and William Nast as presiding elders.

Dr. Nass was extensively known as the father of German Methodism, and labored with great success in St. Louis. He was a native of Germany,

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where he had been highly educated, and as a young man emigrated to America. His attention was attracted to the subject of religion by the preaching of the Rev. Mr. Romer on the banks of the Hudson River. He was then teaching in West Point, and subsequently became a professor in Kenyon College, Ohio. After three years of mental conflict he was converted in January, 1835. Through the agency of Dr. Adam Poe he was induced to become a minister, and in the same year was sent as missionary to Cincinnati. Through his efforts German Methodist publications were commenced, the first issues being the General Rules, Articles of Faith, and the Wesleyan Catechism. The Christian Apologist was soon issued under his editorial supervision, and he remained the editor for more than forty years. Under his preaching in Cincinnati John Swahlen was converted, becoming afterwards an efficient and successful evangelist, and Dr. Jacoby, who subsequently associated with him in the missionary work in Missouri and Illinois, was also among his early converts. Dr. Nast organized the first German Methodist Society in 1838, and reported to Conference thirty members.

Ludwig S. Jacoby, D. D., was born on the 21st of October, 1813, in Old Strelitz, Mecklenburg, Germany, and died in St. Louis on the 21st of June, 1874. He received a good education, especially in the ancient languages, and in 1835 was baptized by a Lutheran clergyman. In 1839 he emigrated to America, and located in Cincinnati as a physician. He also devoted himself to teaching. While attending the religious services held by Dr. Nast on Christmas-day his interest in religion was awakened, and he was converted on the following watch-night. In August, 1841, he was sent to St. Louis by Bishop Morris to start the first German mission in that city, and his labors were rewarded with great success. In 1849, owing to his desire for the conversion of his native countrymen, Bishop Morris, with the co-operation of the Missionary Board, sent him to Germany to begin evangelistic work in Bremen. His labors there resulted in the formation of a Methodist Episcopal Society. In his work in Germany he labored faithfully as presiding elder, pastor, editor, book agent, and superintendent. Having spent twenty-two years in that work he returned to the United States, and was transferred to the Southwestern German Conference, and stationed at the Eighth Street German Church, St. Louis. He was a delegate from the Germany and Switzerland Conference to the General Conference of 1872.

In 1864 three German Conferences were established, called the Central, Northwestern, and Southwestern, St. Louis District being included in the Southwestern. In 1879 the St. Louis Conference was organized, comprising St. Louis, Belleville, and Quincy, Ill., Burlington, Iowa, Districts. It reported 8344 members, 130 churches, 112 local preachers, 67 parsonages, 157 Sunday-schools, with 1555 officers and teachers and 8471 scholars. The value of the church property was estimated at $400,000. The presiding bishops of the Southwestern Conference were: Edmund S. Janes, 1864, 1868, 1871; Edward R. Ames, 1865, 1875; Matthew Simpson, 1866, 1870; Levi Scott, 1867, 1874; Edward Thompson, 1869; Gilbert Haven, 1872; Thomas Bowman, 1873; Issac W. Wiley, 1876; Jesse T. Peck, 1877; Stephen M. Merrill, 1878; of St. Louis Conference, Thomas Bowman, 1879; Edward G. Andrews, 1880; John F. Hurst, 1881. The presiding elders of St. Louis District since 1864 have been Revs. Philip Kuhl, 1864; John Kost, 1865; Gerhard Timkin, 1866; Frederick Stoffregen, 1867-70; Henry Pfaff, 187l-72; L. S. Jacoby, 1873; Wm. Schwind, 1874-77; J. M. De Wein, 1878-81.

First German Church. — The First German Methodist Episcopal Church, situated at the southwest corner of Sixteenth and Wash Streets, Rev. Charles Holtkamp, pastor, was organized in 1841 by Rev. L. S. Jacoby, who was, its pastor during the first two years of its existence. His successors since 1864 have been Revs. John Schlagenhauf, 1864-65; Henry Pfaff, 1866-68; Charles Heidel, 1869-7l; supply, 1872; Henry Pfaff, 1873-75; Charles Heidel, 1876; Henry Schuetz, 1877-79; Charles Holtkamp, 1880-82. The church is in a prosperous condition, the average attendance being about seven hundred. The first place of worship built by the congregation stands on Wash Street, between Tenth and Eleventh Streets. It was sold to the colored Methodists, and is now occupied and known as Wesley Chapel. It is a two-story brick building forty by seventy feet, and seats about two hundred and fifty persons. The present church building was erected in 1872. It is a two-story structure, sixty by one hundred and ten feet, with lecture-and class-rooms on the first floor. The main auditorium, including the gallery, will seat eight hundred persons. The church lot measures seventy-five by one hundred and fifty feet. The cost of the property was for lot, sixteen thousand dollars; for church, fifty thousand dollars; and for parsonage, nine thousand dollars.

Benton Street German Church. — This church was organized in 1854, and since 1864 has had for pastors Revs. Henry Waumann, 1864-66; Aug. Korfhage,

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1867-68; Henry Ellenbeck, 1869-71; Henry Schuetz, 1872-74; George Buehner, 1875-77; H. Lahrmann, 1878-80; and Charles Rodenberg, 1881-82. The church building is situated at the southwest corner of Thirteenth and Benton Streets. It was erected in 1850, and seats about two hundred persons. There are seventy-five families and two hundred and twenty members connected with the congregation, and twenty-six teachers with over two hundred pupils in the Sunday-school.

Eighth Street German Church was organized about 1864, since when the pastors have been Revs. J. M. Winkler, 1864-65; R. Havighorst, 1866; Jacob Feisel, 1867-68; Henry Pfaff, 1869-70; supply, 1871; L. S. Jacoby, 1872; Charles Heidel, 1873-75; Henry Pfaff, 1876; J. P. Miller, 1877-78; Frederick Stoffragen, 1879; Henry Schuetz, 1880-82. The membership numbers two hundred, and the morning Sunday-school is attended by nine teachers and about eighty scholars. The building, situated at the southwest corner of Eighth and Soulard Streets, is a two-story brick, with lecture- and class-rooms on the first floor. St. Paul's Church, on Sophia Street, between Pestalozzi and Arsenal Streets, which was established in 1874, and had Rev. J. Louis Kessler for pastor in 1876-78, is now used exclusively as the afternoon Sunday-school of the Eighth Street Church, under the supervision of Henry Meyer, with ten teachers and an average attendance of one hundred scholars.


Up to 1816 the colored Methodists had no separate organization, but in April, 1816, a convention of colored delegates was held in Philadelphia, and the African Methodist Episcopal Church was formed. Richard Allen, the first colored minister ordained in the United States (ordained by Bishop Asbury in 1799), was consecrated bishop of the new church on the 11th of April, 1816. The General Conference of the African Methodist Episcopal Church is now divided into nine Episcopal districts, the fourth of which includes the Missouri, North Missouri, Kansas, and Illinois Conferences, and is presided over by Bishop T. M. D. Ward, D. D., who was elected and consecrated to that office at the General Conference sitting at Washington, D. C., in May, 1868. In 1866 the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church South established several colored Annual Conferences, which organized a colored General Conference, which first met at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 16, 1870. There were at the time some colored churches in St. Louis in connection with this General Conference South, but they have dwindled away, and now all the colored Methodist Churches in the city (with one exception) belong either to the African Conference above named or to what is known as the Zion Conference.

Wesley Chapel (Colored), 1008 Wash Street, Rev. J. W. Hughes, pastor, was organized in 1858 with seventy-five members, and its pastors since 1866 (up to which time it depended on supplies) have been Revs. E. W. S. Peck, 1867-69; E. Pitts, 1871-72; F. H. Sinall, 1873-75; R. H. Smith, 1876-78; E. Pitts, 1879; J. W. Hughes, 1880-82. This is the only colored church in St. Louis that is connected with the St. Louis Methodist Episcopal Conference (white). It reports four hundred and thirty members, one hundred and four probationers, fifteen teachers, and one hundred and eighty children in the Sunday-schools, and a church and parsonage valued at about three thousand dollars.

St. Peter's Church. — The corner-stone of St. Peter's African Methodist Episcopal Church, situated at the corner of Elliott Avenue and Montgomery Street, was laid on the 18th of May, 1874, and the building, a one-story brick structure, was completed in 1865. On the 29th of October, 1882, the cornerstone of a large building to occupy the same lot was laid. The church is well attended, and attached to it is a flourishing Sunday-school. The pastor is the Rev. J. I. Lowe.

St. Paul's Church, situated at the corner of Eleventh Street and Christy Avenue, is the largest colored Methodist congregation in the city, and worships in a large and handsome brick building which was erected in 1872, under the pastorate of Rev. John Turner. It is of St. Louis brick, ninety-seven by fifty-eight feet, and reflects great credit on the architect, A. T. Berthe, a colored man. The building, which cost twenty-eight thousand dollars, was dedicated on the 4th of August, 1872. The congregation embraces five hundred families, with two thousand two hundred names enrolled on the church list and twelve hundred communicants. There are thirty-two teachers and four hundred scholars in the Sunday-school, and the pastor is the Rev. T. M. Henderson.

Quinn Chapel, Market and Third Streets, Carondelet, Rev. B. W. Stewart, pastor, has an average congregation of about one hundred and fifty.

Washington Zion Chapel. — This congregation, situated at 2627 Morgan Street (Rev. A. J. Warner, pastor), has in its connection three hundred and fifty families, about one thousand attendants, and one hundred and fifty communicants. There are twenty-five teachers and nearly two hundred scholars in the Sunday-school.

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Washington Zion, St. Mark's Branch, Morgan Street, between Eighteenth and Nineteenth Streets, Rev. Anthony Bunch, pastor, has a membership of fifty families, sixty communicants, and seven teachers and fifty scholars in the Sunday-school.


Early History. — Among the American Protestants who emigrated to St. Louis after the cession of the territory to the United States was Stephen Hempstead, of New London, Conn. He arrived in St. Louis on the 12th of June, 1811, with his family, and settled on a farm which is now part of Bellefontaine cemetery. He was in his fifty-eighth year, and had been a soldier in the war of the Revolution, and a member of the Presbyterian Church for twenty-four years. The first sermon heard by him in his new home was preached, seven months after his arrival, by a Baptist minister. In 1812, Revs. S. J. Mills and J. F. Schermerhorn were sent out by the missionary societies of Massachusetts and Connecticut on an exploring expedition to the South and West, and from Fort Massac, near Shawneetown, Ill., they wrote to Mr. Hempstead, who, in reply, spoke so confidently of the prospect for ministerial labor, that in 1814 Mr. Mills, with Rev. Daniel Smith, repaired to St. Louis as agents of the Philadelphia Bible and Missionary Societies. They remained a short time, during which they preached frequently. They organized a Bible society, and collected some three hundred dollars for it, and their labors marked the beginning of Presbyterianism in Missouri. Hempstead soon after wrote to Dr. Channing, of Boston, earnestly entreating that ministers be sent to Missouri. "I think," he says, "the number of families in the Territory which removed from the States that have been born and educated in the Presbyterian Church is not less than one thousand, and not a Presbyterian minister or society in the country." In the autumn of 1816, Dr. Gideon Blackburn visited St. Louis, and remained a short time, preaching in the theatre on Main Street below Market. But the real pioneer of Presbyterianism in Missouri was Salmon Giddings, who was induced by the reports of Mills and others to choose Missouri as his field of missionary labor. He was commissioned for this work by the Connecticut Home Missionary Society, and left Hartford in December, 1815. He made the journey of twelve hundred miles on horseback in the winter, and on April 6, 1816, reached St. Louis, where he found no Protestant Church of any kind in existence. He administered the Lord's Supper, July 21, 1816, to Stephen Hempstead and his wife and daughter, and probably to Thomas Osborne, as the latter and Hempstead were in the following year made elders of the first church organized in the city. This was the first time the rite had been administered by Presbyterian hands west of the Mississippi. At Bellevue settlement, Washington Co., about eighty miles from St. Louis, four Presbyterian elders from North Carolina had maintained religious service since 1807, and here Mr. Giddings organized, Aug. 2, 1816, the first Presbyterian congregation in Missouri. It was called Concord Church, and numbered thirty members. To this little congregation, and a large concourse of persons who did not belong to it, he preached in the open air on Sunday, August 4th. In two years the communicants had increased in number to forty-eight. In the autumn of 1817 the Rev. Thomas Donnell removed to the Territory from Kentucky, and received a call from the church to become the pastor. On the 25th of April, 1818, he was installed, with the understanding that he was to divide his time in ministering to this congregation and to adjacent settlements. During his ministry many additions to the church were made. Mr. Donnell died on the 8th of February, 1843. Owing to frequent removals of members to other portions of the Territory, the congregation in 1823 numbered only forty-five persons.

On the 16th of October, 1876, Mr. Giddings organized a church of seventeen members at Bonhomme, St. Louis Co. One of the constituent members was Stephen Hempstead, Sr. For some years the church was without a regular pastor, receiving only occasional visits from different ministers. Among these the most frequent in attendance was the Rev. Mr. Giddings. Meetings were usually held in the log cabins of the settlers, and, owing to the unsettled state of the country, the early growth of the congregation was not encouraging. In two years four persons were received on profession of faith, and five were dismissed, owing to their removal. Up to 1824 ten persons had been received, yet owing to deaths and removals only ten remained. During 1824 and 1825, Rev. John Ball preached occasionally for the congregation.

Rev. Timothy Flint, the second Presbyterian minister who settled in Missouri, arrived at St. Charles Sept. 10, 1816, and remained there several years. Rev. John Matthews was the next, who arrived in May, 1817. He established himself near the site of the present city of Louisiana, and organized the Buffalo Church.

Mr. Matthews had previously been a resident of Erie County, Pa. With his duties as minister of the

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church he combined those of an itinerant missionary, under the patronage of the Connecticut Missonary Society (Congregationalist) and the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church. In 1821 the church had increased to thirty members. In March, 1825, Mr. Matthews removed from that region to Cape Girardeau County, and from thence to Illinois. Subsequently he became pastor of the church in Bonhomme settlement.

The fourth Presbyterian Church established west of the Mississippi was the First Presbybertian Church of St. Louis, which was organized on the 15th of November, 1817, by the Rev. Salmon Giddings. The congregation consisted of nine members, of whom the ruling elders were Stephen Hempstead and Thomas Osborne. The church at St. Charles was established Aug. 29, 1818, by Rev. S. Giddings and Rev. John Matthews. On the 18th of December, 1817, the Presbytery of Missouri (organized by the Synod of Tennessee), consisting of the four ministers and four churches just named, held its first meeting in St. Louis. Its territory comprised all that portion of Illinois west of a meridian drawn through the mouth of Cumberland River and running north, nearly the whole State, together with all Missouri. The first sermon printed in Missouri was preached by Mr. Giddings, on the death of Edward Hempstead, Territorial representative in Congress, and son of Stephen Hempstead. The second was by the same minister, on the first installation west of the river, that of Thomas Donnell as pastor of Concord Church, April 25, 1818. During the nine years that followed, Presbyterian ministers labored industriously and organized churches throughout the State as far north as Louisiana, as far west as Chariton, and as far south as Apple Creek, while Giddings continued his work of organizing churches throughout Missouri and Illinois. On the 7th of December, 1818, he installed as pastor of the church at St. Charles the Rev. C. S. Robinson, who had come from Massachusetts as a missionary in 1816, and of whom it is related that he its at one time "entirely out of money and out of food for his family, but just when his need was greatest he found a silver dollar imbedded in the earth, which sufficed for all his wants until a more permanent supply came," — a picture of the trials and difficulties of the pioneer preachers of those days. During the same year the Territory was visited by two young missionaries, Nicholas Patterson and a Mr. Alexander, who had been sent out under the patronage of the Board of Missions of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church. They traveled extensively in the counties along the Missouri River. Union Church of Richwoods, Jefferson Co., was organized by Mr. Giddings on the 17th of April, 1818, but in a few years became extinct. The church at Dardenne was constituted Sept. 19, 1819, by the Rev. Charles S. Robinson.

An interesting episode in the denominational history of this period is the organization of a mission to the Osage Indians, which was established in 1820 at Harmony, near the line of Vernon and Bates Counties. The company, consisting of three ministers, a physician, farmers, mechanics, a schoolmaster, and twelve ladies, had to ascend the Arkansas River and pass through the Cherokee country to reach their destination. Two of the ladies died on the way. Two years later a church was organized with twenty members, to which only two others were added in ten years. In April, 1821, the Rev. Edward Hollister organized a church at Franklin, opposite Boonville, which survived only a few years. The church of Apple Creek, in Girardeau County, was constituted May 21, 1821, by the Rev. Salmon Giddings. In 1825 the congregation had increased from forty-one (the original number) to fifty-four members, and the Rev. John Matthews became the pastor.

The first ordination in Missouri was that of the Rev. W. S. Lacy, March, 1824, by the presbytery, which held its sessions in the Baptist Church in St. Louis, the Rev. Messrs. Charles S. Robinson, Jesse Townsend, Salmon Giddings, and Thomas Donnell taking part in the exercises. The second ordination was that of John S. Ball, a State senator, who, having been converted, resigned his position, received instruction from Mr. Giddings, and was licensed in 1824 and ordained June 12, 1825, being then fifty-two years of age. The officiating ministers at the ordination were Rev. John Matthews, of Pike County, Rev. Salmon Giddings, and Rev. W. S. Lacy.

Mr. Giddings died Feb. 1, 1827, in the forty-fifth year of his age. Salmon Giddings, as we have seen, was the pioneer of Presbyterianism in Missouri, and for many years a conspicuous minister and educator in St. Louis. He was born in Hartford, Conn., on the 2d of March, 1782. His parents were Congregationalists by education and habit, though not regular members of the church. In January, 1807, he united with the Congregational Church in his native parish, and soon afterwards entered Williams College. After graduating he remained for some time at that institution in the capacity of tutor, and then repaired to Andover Theological Seminary for the purpose of completing his theological studies. He left the seminary in September, 1814, and was ordained to the ministry on the 20th of December following. During 1815 he served as an itinerant minister in Massachusetts

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and Connecticut, and in December of that year received a commission from the Missionary Society of Connecticut to labor in the Western country, but more particularly in St. Louis and its vicinity. He arrived in St. Louis on the 6th of April, 1816, and, as previously stated, was the first Presbyterian minister who established himself west of the Mississippi. Two Presbyterian ministers had visited the country and had preached six times, but neither of them had remained permanently.

As we have seen, Mr. Giddings organized on the 2d of August, 1816, the congregation at Bellevue settlement, and on the 15th of November, 1817, the First Presbyterian Church of St. Louis. For more than a year previous to this he had conducted a school (opened Oct. 12, 1816) "in the two-story frame (house) on the hill, built by James Sawyer, south side of Market, above Fourth, just opposite the south entrance to the present court-house, subsequently used for long years as the county court and clerk's office." On the 3d of January, 1818, he was also conducting a school for girls, which was situated, apparently, on the same location, the south side of Market Street, above Fourth. In the Republican of Nov. 16, 1816, appeared the announcement that Mr. Giddings would preach at the theatre on the following day, but it would seem that services were also held at his school-room, for on the 23d of October, 1818, notice was given that the Rev. Green P. Rice would deliver a sermon at the school-room on the following Sunday. On the 20th of September, 1818, a meeting was held at the residence of Mr. Giddings, "to take into consideration the expediency of erecting a Protestant house for divine worship." The building was dedicated on the 26th of June, 1825, and on the 19th of November following Mr. Giddings was installed as pastor. He did not, however, restrict himself to this field of labor, but worked diligently on both sides of the Mississippi, and established twelve churches, six in Missouri and six in Illinois. His longest and most arduous journey was that which he made as the agent of the missionary society to the Omaha, Pawnee, and other Indian tribes, and which consumed three months. Mr. Giddings was also an earnest and active agent in the distribution of Bibles and Sunday-school and tract publications. The preliminary meeting to form the first society for the circulation of the Bible west of the Mississippi was held in his school-room on the 8th of December, 1818. Mr. Giddings died on the 15th of February, 1828. He was a man of untiring energy, lofty purity of character, and indomitable zeal in the cause of his religion. He was succeeded as pastor of the First Church and leader of the Presbyterian movement by William S. Potts, D. D.

In 1830 a band of seven young men, graduates of Auburn Seminary, repaired as missionaries to Missouri, and settled at various points. In the same year also Dr. David Nelson, author of "The Cause and Cure of Infidelity," appeared as a worker in the field of Missouri Presbyterianism. Dr. Nelson settled in Northeastern Missouri, but owing to his opposition to slavery was compelled by a mob to flee from the State. A similar fate befell Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy, who was ordained by the St. Louis Presbytery in June, 1834. Mr. Lovejoy was for some time pastor of the Des Peres Church, and afterwards editor of the St. Louis Observer, the first religious journal started west of the Mississippi. He was a bitter and uncompromising opponent of slavery, and in 1837 his press was destroyed, and himself driven out of the city by a mob. Before the end of the year he was killed by another mob at Alton, Ill. Dr. W. W. Hall, better known as the editor of Hall's Journal of Health, was, about this time, pastor of the St. Charles Church for two years. The colored people received earnest attention from the first missionaries and their successors. Meetings were held, and churches and schools organized especially for them. The schools met with some opposition, but not of a serious nature. The cause of temperance also received its share of attention. The congregation of the Second Church in St. Louis, under Dr. Hatfield, was pledged to entire abstinence, and in a district in Southeast Missouri, where there were forty distilleries, many of the latter were speedily closed, and one of them was transformed into a church. In 1831 the presbytery was divided into three distinct organizations, — Missouri, St. Louis, and St. Charles, — and these in 1832 were erected into a Synod, there being then in the State twenty-three churches and eighteen ministers, of whom thirteen were in the pay of the American Home Missionary Society, although most of them had been sent out by the Presbyterian Board of Missions. The reason for the change was that the former fixed their salaries at four hundred dollars, whereas the board paid its agents one hundred dollars a year, with the understanding that they were to obtain whatever additional compensation they could from the little mission churches to which they preached.

In April, 1838, Dr. Artemas Bullard arrived in St. Louis to assume the pastorate of the First Church, vice Dr. Potts, then president of Marion College. He at once took a front rank among the Presbyterian ministers of the West. The controversy which led to the division of the church into

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Old and New School was raging in the Eastern States, and making itself felt throughout the West, although the actual separation did not take place in Missouri until 1841. At this time Dr. Potts was recognized as the leader of the Old School and Dr. Bullard as the leader of the New. Each of the two schools went on its own way, organizing new churches, forming new presbyteries, and carrying on missionary work, — the Old School through the Board of Missions, and the New through the American Home Missionary Society. Between the years 1830 and 1840 a remarkable religious agitation occurred in the western part of Germany, especially in the duchy of Lippe-Detmold. In nearly every village and town the people left the established Lutheran Church and formed themselves into conventicles, prayer-meetings, and worshiping assemblies. They were severely persecuted by the ruling clergy, and in 1849 a number of peasant families emigrated and settled in Gasconade County, Mo. They were not acquainted with the character of the religious denominations in the country, but were at length directed to the Presbyterian Church as the one with which they most nearly affiliated. Soon afterwards they were organized into the Bethel Church by the Presbytery of St. Louis, Old School. Since then they have grown to large proportions as a denomination.

In 1857 began the long series of troubles growing out of the question of slavery, to which institution the New School was known to be opposed, whereas in the Old School there was but little discussion on the subject. Hence, in Missouri, many persons left the New School for the Old, and the New School was gradually cut off from all missionary work. During the war it dwindled to such insignificant proportions that the total extinction of its Synod in Missouri was generally expected; but when the war had ended it was still intact, and started anew with fresh life and undiminished zeal. When the secession of the Southern States from the Union took place the Presbyterians in those States organized a Southern General Assembly, and in 1866 the Missouri Presbyterians of Southern sympathies separated from the Old School Synod and organized the Independent Synod of Missouri, which is now connected with the Southern General Assembly. In 1870 the Old and New School branches of the General Assembly came together and reorganized as one body, and in the same year the same reunion was effected in the Missouri Synod. The Synod of Missouri is now divided into the following presbyteries: St. Louis (southeastern part of the State), Ozark (southwestern part), Osage (central part, Jefferson City to Kansas City), Platte (northwestern part), and Palmyra (northeastern part). According to the last report this Synod has 215 churches, 134 ministers, 11,667 members, and 15,702 Sunday-school members, and had expended during the year $19,657 for congregational, and $37,336 for benevolent and other uses. The Presbytery of St. Louis reported 50 churches, 44 ministers, 4183 members, 6714 Sunday-school members, $88,126 spent for congregational, and $27,293 for benevolent and missionary uses. The Independent (or Southern) Synod reported 129 churches, 74 ministers, 7761 members, 4100 Sunday-school members, $52,316 for congregational, and $15,672 for benevolent uses. It is divided into the St. Louis, Lafayette, Missouri, Palmyra, and Potosi Presbyteries. St. Louis Presbytery reported 24 churches, 17 ministers, 1513 members, 902 Sunday-school members, $19,297 for congregational, and $5387 for other uses.

An important institution of the denomination in St. Louis is the Depository of the Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1107 Olive Street, which was established as a missionary department of the board in 1874 under charge of Rev. R. Irwin, D. D. Dr. Irwin was succeeded, Sept. 1, 1880, by the Rev. J. W. Allen, D. D., up to that date editor and publisher of the St. Louis Evangelist (which he established in 1874), and of which he continues to be the publisher. At the Synod which met in October, 1882, the scope of the institution was enlarged, and from a missionary department it was raised to the rank of a branch depository of the board of publication, with a capital stock of fifteen thousand dollars. In the upper rooms of the spacious building are held the Monday morning meetings of the Presbyterian Ministerial Association, and the meetings of the Woman's Presbyterian Board of Missions for the Southwest, which was organized about six years ago and has now about two hundred and fifty auxiliaries.

The First Presbyterian Church, situated at the northwest corner of Fourteenth Street and Lucas Place, Rev. Hervey D. Ganse, D. D., pastor, was organized by Rev. Salmon Giddings, Nov. 15, 1817, at which date the following document was drawn up and signed: "Being desirous of enjoying the benefits of the ordinances of religion which God has instituted, and in order to maintain divine and public worship, live more to His glory, and promote each other's grace and spiritual comfort, we, the undersigned, mutually unite together in church relation and covenant, known by the name of the First Presbyterian Church of St. Louis. We also solemnly covenant, before God, to be the Lord's; to watch over each other in the Lord; to conduct as God shall give us grace, in the spirit of

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Christian meekness; to walk as becometh saints before the world; to maintain the worship of God in our families, and to attend to all the ordinances and means of grace which God hath appointed to be observed in His church. We take the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments for the rule of our faith and practice, and the Confession of Faith, as revised and adopted by the Presbyterian Churches in America, as the best summary and explanation thereof." The paper was signed by ten persons: Stephen Hempstead, Mary Hempstead, Britannia Brown, Chloe Reed, Mary Keeny, Magdalen Scott, Thomas Osborne, Susanna Osborne, Susan Gratiot, and Sarah Beebe. Hempstead and Osborne, the only male members, were ordained ruling elders on November 23d, and the services of the church were thenceforth regularly held in Rev. Salmon Giddings' school-room, on Market Street opposite the court-house.

On the 20th of September, 1818, a meeting was held at the residence of Mr. Giddings to take into consideration the expediency of building a Protestant house of worship, and on the 11th of January, 1819, another meeting was held to devise means for erecting the proposed building. Stephen Hempstead was chosen chairman, and Thomas H. Benton, clerk. Col. Alexander McNair, Rev. Salmon Giddings, and Nathaniel Beverly Tucker were appointed a committee to draft a subscription paper, which was circulated not only in St. Louis, but also in New York, Philadelphia, and Washington. John Quincy Adams contributed twenty-five dollars, and subscriptions were received from people of all denominations, including several Catholics. The heaviest contribution was that of two hundred dollars from Matthew Kerr. The total subscription was three thousand dollars.

The enterprise thus begun was not completed for many years, notwithstanding strenuous exertions on the part of the pastor, who made its completion a personal matter, collecting funds, laboring with his own hands, and borrowing money on his personal security for its completion. His untiring efforts were at last successful. The lot on which "Veranda Row" was subsequently built, extending on Fourth Street from St. Charles Street to Washington Avenue, was bought for three hundred and twenty-seven dollars, and the building was erected at what was then the enormous cost of eight thousand dollars (leaving a debt of five thousand dollars), and was dedicated on the 26th of June, 1825. It was a brick building, forty-six by sixty-five feet, two stories in height, with a cupola and spire.

On the 19th of November, 1826, Mr. Giddings was formally installed "over the Presbyterian Church and congregation of St. Louis" by the Presbytery of Missouri. The introductory prayer was offered by the Rev. Hiram Chamberlain, and the call of the congregation was read by the Rev. John S. Ball. The sermon was then delivered by the Rev. Charles S. Robinson. The charge to the pastor was made by the Rev. John Matthews, and the charge to the congregation by the Rev. Thomas Donnell. The concluding prayer and benediction were delivered by the Rev. William S. Lacy. Mr. Giddings died, as heretofore stated, Feb. 1, 1827, and his funeral was attended by a concourse of persons numbering two thousand.

His successor was the Rev. William S. Potts, D. D., who reached St. Louis on the 14th of May, 1828, and was ordained by the Presbytery of Missouri, and installed as pastor Oct. 26, 1828. On this occasion the sermon was preached by the Rev. William S. Lacey, and the ordination prayer was offered by the Rev. John Matthews. The charge to the pastor was pronounced by the Rev. John S. Ball, and the charge to the people by the Rev. Solomon Hardy.

Next to the Rev. Mr. Giddings, Dr. Potts was more prominently identified with the cause of Presbyterianism in Missouri than any other minister. He was born at Trenton, N. J., in 1804. His parents, members of the Society of Friends, desired that he should learn the trade of printing, but before finishing his apprenticeship he turned his attention to the study of the law. Soon after this, however, he determined to devote himself to the ministry, and in 1825 entered the Theological Seminary at Princeton, N. J. In 1828 he was licensed as a probationer, and, being in delicate health, determined to go South, in the hope not only of being benefited by the less rigorous climate, but of performing effective work among the Indians. He remained in this field of labor but a short time, and in May, 1828, by direction of the Board of Missions, under whose supervision he then acted, he repaired to St. Louis and preached for the First Presbyterian Church, over which he was installed pastor by the Presbyterian Mission the autumn following. Dr. Potts remained in charge of the First Church, which developed rapidly under his active and efficient ministration, until the 26th of June, 1835, when he resigned the pastorate in order to assume the presidency of the newly-organized Marion College. This institution was established for the purpose of training young men for the ministry. A charter was obtained and the college organized at Marion City, Mo., but it did not prove successful, and Dr. Potts accepted a call to the pastorate of the Second Presbyterian Church, and was installed Oct. 5, 1839. He

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remained in charge of the church until his death, which occurred on the 28th of March, 1852, after a lingering illness, and while the church bell was calling the children to Sunday-school.

Dr. Potts was a man of great learning and exalted piety, and enjoyed the respect and confidence not only of his own denomination, but of the community at large. His successor at the First Church was the Rev. Dr. William Wisner, who was called July 23, 1835, but was never formally installed, and resigned on account of ill health in May, 1837. Dr. Artemas Bullard (than whom no minister ever exerted a more widespread influence in the Presbyterian Church in Missouri) was called April 2, 1838, installed June 27, 1838, and perished in the Gasconade disaster in 1855. Dr. Henry A. Nelson, who took charge in October, 1856, was installed Nov. 23, 1856, and resigned in the spring of 1868 to accept the chair of pastoral theology in Lane Theological Seminary, Cincinnati, Ohio. Rev. Charles A. Dickey, of Allegheny City, Pa., who began his pastoral work in May, 1869, was installed July 4, 1869, and resigned in October, 1875, to accept a call to Philadelphia. Dr. H. D. Ganse, of New York City, was called in December, 1875, and is still the pastor. In 1832, John Shackford, of Washington, who styled himself "a friend of missions," wrote to Dr. Peters, then secretary of the American Home Missionary Society, saying, "I wish to add to the laborers already in the field in Missouri. I have concluded to devote to that purpose one hundred and four dollars per quarter, however much my circumstances may be thereby straitened or my deprivations increased. I have determined to preach the gospel by proxy for two years, if not for life, and I am unwilling to be persuaded, however avarice, ease, cupidity, comfort, or convenience may plead, to accept a proposition by which the sum furnished would be reduced. I desire you to send the missionary to St. Louis." In consequence of this offer, Rev. E. P. Hatfield was sent out, and organized Nov. 23, 1832, the Second Presbyterian Church of St. Louis, for which purpose a colony of twenty-nine members was dismissed by the First Church, the membership of which had increased to two hundred and fifty. Mr. Hatfield remained two years and a half, when, in consequence of the death of his wife, he returned East, and as it was not convenient for him to resume his labors in St. Louis, the church became disorganized and was dissolved, reuniting with the First Church in February, 1837, and bringing back fifty-four members in place of the twenty-nine who had been dismissed.

Subsequently other churches were formed as colonies of the First that have had a longer existence, to wit: the Second (in October, 1838), Walnut Street, Third (now the First Congregational), Washington Avenue (now the Pine Street), North, High Street (now Grand Avenue), and others.

The building now occupied by the congregation, opposite Missouri Park, is a memorial of the foresight and great executive ability of Rev. Dr. Artemas Bullard. It was dedicated on Oct. 21, 1855, although the lecture-room had been occupied for some time previous. Rev. Dr. Beeman, Rev. Mr. Wisner, and Rev. Dr. Bullard took part in the exercises. After the sermon, preached by Dr. Beeman, a funeral hymn was sung, and during the singing the remains of the first pastor of the congregation, the Rev. Salmon Giddings, were taken into the church, and deposited in a vault immediately before the pulpit. Among the pallbearers were Col. John O'Fallon, Asa Wilgus, Jesse Lindell, Matthew Carr, and George K. Budd, members of the First Church in its early days. The building, which is of brick and stone, cost over one hundred thousand dollars, and its dimensions are eighty-four by one hundred and thirty feet; the tower is two hundred and twenty-five feet high; the main audience-room contains one hundred and fifty pews, and there are attached to the church a chapel, Sunday-school rooms, a pastor's study, and ladies' parlors. There is also a parsonage (No. 1413 Lucas Avenue), valued, with the lot on which it stands, at

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about fifteen thousand dollars. In 1855 the lot on Fourth Street, which cost in 1825 three hundred and twenty-seven dollars, was sold for sixty-two thousand dollars, and the proceeds helped to defray the cost of the new edifice. Dr. Ganse, the present pastor, says, "No history of the First Presbyterian Church of St. Louis would be at all complete which should not commemorate, in connection with all its direct religious work, the influence which, under its patriotic pastor, Dr. Nelson, it exerted for the Union during the civil war." Connected with the church are a Ladies' and a Young Ladies' Missionary Society, a Sunday-school, and the Tabernacle Mission School. About one hundred and seventy-five families are actively connected with the church, and there are three hundred and ninety-seven communicants, and the Sunday-schools are attended by thirty-five teachers and about five hundred scholars. On the 15th of November, 1867, the semi-centennial anniversary of Presbyterianism in St. Louis was celebrated in this church with appropriate exercises.

The Second Presbyterian Church, northwest corner of Seventeenth Street and Lucas Place, Rev. Samuel J. Nicolls, pastor, was organized Oct. 10, 1838, by sixty members from the First Presbyterian Church and two from other churches. Its first elders were Hamilton R. Gamble, Wyllys King, and William Holcombe. A temporary building was erected for worship at the corner of Pine and Fifth Streets, but the lot on the northwest corner of Fifth and Walnut Streets (where the Temple building now stands) was bought soon after from Pierre Chouteau for $10,800, and in March, 1839, the erection of a permanent house of worship was begun. In January, 1840, the lecture-room of the new building was hastily fitted up, and the congregation abandoned the temporary edifice. The completed building was dedicated Oct. 11, 1840. Rev. C. W. McPheeters, Rev. J. F. Cowan, and Rev. W. P. Cochran took part in the services, and the dedication sermon was preached by the Rev. H. P. Goodrich, D. D. The dedication prayer was offered by the Rev. Nathan A. Hall, and the benediction was pronounced by the Rev. W. S. Potts, pastor of the church. The cost of the building was about forty-two thousand dollars. It was occupied for the last time on June 28, 1868, having been sold to David Nicholson. For some months the congregation worshiped with that of the First Church. The lot on which the church now stands costs thirty thousand dollars, and the erection of the building was begun in 1857, and the corner-stone was laid on the 23d of March, 1869.

The board of trustees consisted of Sullivan Blood, chairman; James E. Yeatman, A. M. Gardiner, Geo. S. Drake, C. S. Greeley, secretary and treasurer; and the building committee of C. S. Greeley, chairman; George S. Drake, Rev. S. J. Niccolls, James E. Yeatman, Daniel B. Clark, William Downing, Samuel Bonner, Thomas Lowery, Henry Hitchcock, and Samuel Copp. The chapel was completed and first occupied Dec. 27, 1868. The main building was dedicated Dec. 25, 1870. It is an elegant structure of rough, unhewn stone, and cost one hundred and sixty thousand dollars.

On the organization of the church the pulpit was first supplied by Rev. A. T. Norton, then a city missionary in St. Louis. In February, 1839, Rev. William S. Potts, then president of Marion College (an institution that had proved a failure), who had formerly been pastor of the First Presbyterian Church was called to the pastorate. He entered upon his duties in July, was regularly installed Oct. 5, 1839, and died March 28, 1852. During the thirteen years of Dr. Potts' charge upwards of nine hundred persons united with this church, four hundred and seventy of them on profession. Rev. Robert P. Farris (since of Peoria) supplied the pulpit during the year following. Rev. Nathan L. Rice, D. D., of Cincinnati, was unanimously called Jan. 26, 1853. The call was opposed by the Cincinnati Presbytery, but was unanimously repeated March 9th, and finally accepted. Dr. Rice entered upon his duties April 25, 1853, was installed October 9th following, and resigned Sept. 15, 1857, to take the chair of theology in the Theological Seminary of the Northwest. Rev. James H. Brooks, D. D., though never installed as pastor, served as such from February, 1858 (having been called two months previous), until July, 1864, when he became pastor of the colony that formed the Walnut Street (now Compton Avenue) Church. Rev. Samuel J. Niccolls, of Pennsylvania, was called October, 1864, began his labors January 1st, and was installed March 5, 1865. This church has sent out the following colonies: Central (or Fourth) in 1844; Westminster (afterwards Pine Street), 1846; Park Avenue (afterwards Chouteau Avenue); First German, 1863; Walnut Street, 1864; and Grace Church (afterwards united with Chouteau Avenue), 1868, It has also contributed largely to the membership of churches in Carondelet, Kirkwood, and elsewhere.

This church supports four Sunday-schools, — a morning school, Henry T. Nash, superintendent; an afternoon school, E. Anson More, superintendent; the Memorial Tabernacle, or Biddle Market Mission, a gift from Carlos S. Greeley, Thomas Morrison, superintendent; and Kossuth Avenue Mission, near the

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Fair Grounds, Henry A. Smith, superintendent. These schools have an aggregate attendance of about two thousand children. It also supports a foreign mission at Siam and a city missionary, Rev. William Porteus. Altogether the church contributes about forty thousand dollars annually to benevolent and congregational uses. A Ladies' Aid Society and Young People's Working Society are connected with the congregation. The congregation numbers nearly right hundred active members, with a connection of two hundred and twenty families, or twelve hundred persons, among whom are many of the most prominent and influential members of St. Louis society.

Grand Avenue Presbyterian Church. — In February, 1844, Washington Avenue Church, New School, was organized, under the direction of Rev. Dr. Bullard, by a colony of fifty members from the First. Presbyterian Church, who first met for worship in the State tobacco warehouse on the northeast corner of Sixth Street and Washington Avenue. Rev. James Gallaher first supplied the pulpit for about one year, when Rev. J. B. Townsend was installed as pastor. Mr. Gallaher died in the autumn of 1853. A church was subsequently built on the southwest corner of Eighth Street and Washington Avenue, and was occupied until the removal of the society to a second edifice on the northwest corner of Eleventh and Pine Streets, the ground for which was bought in 1849. The basement of the new building was occupied in 1851, and the church was dedicated in 1853. The first pastor, Mr. Townsend, resigned on account of ill health in the fall of 1850. Rev. Mr. Long took charge in 1851, and remained about a year. Rev. J. W. Hall, D. D., of Alabama, assumed the pastorate in April, 1853, but only remained six months. After his departure the church was left without a pastor. During the summer of 1853 the church building was completed and dedicated, under the eldership of John Whitehill and Martin Simpson.

Westminster Church, Old School, was organized on April 25, 1846, by the Rev. Dr. Potts, with eighteen members, and Rev. H. P. Goodrich, D. D., as "stated supply." The first place of worship was the tall of the medical college, on Washington Avenue opposite Tenth Street.

The church was originally known as the Westminster Mission. Its first elders were Thomas Cannon and Leverett Mills. In the latter part of 1846 the congregation moved from the medical college to the basement of Benton Public School house on Sixth Street, near St. Charles. Thence it removed to the Odd-Fellows' Hall, at Fourth and Locust Streets, which it occupied jointly and alternately with St. George's Episcopal Church until October, 1848, when it purchased an edifice at the corner of Locust and Fifth Streets, erected by the Associate Reformed Presbyterians in 1841. Dr. Goodrich resigned July 1, 1848, and Rev. James A. Lyon, D. D., became pastor Nov. 15, 1848. A number of the members of the Second Presbyterian Church transferred their membership to the Westminster, and Thomas Cannon, Joseph Charless, Leverett Mills, David Keith, and Alexander C. Donaldson were appointed elders. Rev. Dr. Lyon resigned the pastorate on the 10th of November, 1850, and Rev. S. B. McPheeters, of Virginia, was called Jan. 31, 1851. He accepted, and was installed Dec. 14, 1851, at which time the congregation numbered thirty-four families and eighty-nine communicants.

In November, 1853, a union of the Pine Street and Westminster Churches was suggested. The former was without a pastor, and both organizations were struggling with debt. The proposal commended itself to the members of both, and on the 30th of November, 1853, the Pine Street Church united with the Westminster Church in accordance with an agreement adopted by W. W. Greene, Theodore Poindexter, D. K. Ferguson, G. Gorin, John Whitehill, and Robert Dougherty in behalf of the Pine Street Church, and Joseph Charless, Robert M. Henning, and George P. Strong in behalf of the Westminster Church.

The congregation adopted the name of Pine Street, and in accordance with a condition of the union identified itself with the Old School Presbytery and Synod. Rev. Dr. McPheeters was elected pastor, and Joseph Charless, W. W. Greene, David Keith, Wm. Low, Alexander Marshall, Leverett Mills, Martin Simpson, George P. Strong, and John Whitehill were chosen elders of the new organization.

The Westminster Church property was sold in the spring of 1854, and the proceeds went to the united congregation. In April, 1854, there were reported two hundred and thirty-one members, and in 1861 three hundred and twenty-seven members, with one hundred and sixty pupils in the Sunday-school and seven hundred in Biddle Market Sunday-school, established by this church. During the war the church was agitated by political strife, and the Union members removed Mr. McPheeters from the pastorate, 305 after which the church remained for several years without a minister, and was often closed. At last the difficulty was settled by the withdrawal of three of

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the ruling elders. In 1872 the church united with the Independent or Southern Synod of Missouri. The pastors since the reopening of the church have been Revs. J. C. Thorn, of Waynesburg, Pa., appointed July, 1865, died November 28th following; Rev. B. T. Lacy, D. D., appointed in 1866, resigned November, 1870; Rev. A. P. Foreman, D. D., 1871-72; Rev. E. H. Rutherford, D. D., of Petersburg, Va., installed in May, 1874. Just previous to Dr. Rutherford's installation, the presbytery and Synod with which the church was connected formed ecclesiastical relations with the Southern Presbyterian Assembly. Dr. Rutherford resigned the pastorate of this church in March, 1881, to accept a call to the Presbyterian Church at Paris, Ky. By invitation of the session, Rev. Francis L. Ferguson supplied the pulpit for six months from May, 1881.

In January, 1882, Rev. A. Nelson Hollifield, pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Huntingdon, Pa., was called to the pastorate, and was installed in the month of April by a committee of the Presbytery of St. Louis.

In 1879 the congregation purchased a site for a new church on the west side of Grand Avenue, opposite Washington Avenue, on an elevation about seventy-five feet higher than Washington Avenue, at Third Street, and from which a beautiful view of that portion of the city is obtained. The site is about one hundred and fifty feet square. In March, 1880, the erection of the chapel was begun in accordance with plans prepared by the architect, Francis D. Lee. The chapel was completed within six months. It is of limestone with white sandstone trimmings, and is constructed in the pure English Gothic style. It is located at the west end of the lot, and fronts on the western extension of Washington Avenue.

The chapel has a seating capacity for four hundred persons, and is still occupied by the congregation, pending the completion of the church. The building was dedicated on the 7th of November, 1880, the officiating ministers being the Rev. Dr. Rutherford, pastor, Rev. R. P. Farris, Rev. G. H. Rout, and Rev. Dr. Brank. On this occasion the name of the church was changed from that of Pine Street to that of Grand Avenue Presbyterian Church. Its officers at that time were: Pastor, Rev. E. H. Rutherford, D. D.; Elders, William G. Clark, D. K. Ferguson, John J. Holliday, James McQ. Douglas, Isaac B. Kirtland, Dr. William M. McPheeters, Dr. H. N. Spencer, William Webb, and James H. Wear; Deacons, Elliott W. Douglas, Edward F. Chappell, Hugh Ferguson, James Rosebrough, J. W. McLanahan, J. M. Cooper, and A. N. Craig. The corner-stone of the main building was laid Oct. 14, 1882. The new church will be a superb Gothic structure of St. Louis limestone, with five gable-ends, one hundred feet high, and large windows of stained glass. The main entrance will be ornamented with moulded arches and columns of cut stone. The auditorium will be in the form of an amphitheatre, and will accommodate twelve hundred persons, its size being one hundred and fifteen by one hundred feet. It is expected that the building will be ready in the summer of 1883, and will cost one hundred and ten thousand dollars. The architect is Francis D. Lee. The church reports a membership of two hundred and eleven, with two hundred and thirty-eight in the Sunday-school.

The officers of the church at present are Rev. H. Nelson Hollifield, D. D., pastor; Elders, W. G. Clark, D. K. Furguson, E. S. Frazer, James McQ. Douglass, I. B. Kirtland, W. M. McPheeters, H. N. Spencer, William Webb, James H. Wear; Deacons, J. T. Chappell, Archibald Crary, Elliott W. Douglas, Hugh Furguson, J. W. McLanahan, James Rosebrough.

Among the ministers prominently identified with the old Pine Street Church was the Rev. Charles D. Simpson. Mr. Simpson was a native of St. Louis, and received his early education at St. Louis University. He pursued a course of study at Illinois College, Jacksonville, and received from that institution the degrees of Bachelor and Master of Arts. He then studied theology at Lane Seminary, Cincinnati, under the instruction of Lyman Beecher, D. D., and Professor Stowe. He was regarded as an exceptionally close and thorough student, and his attainments in mathematical science were remarkable. He was ordained a minister of the Presbyterian Church in 1843, and at once entered upon the duties of his clerical life at Glasgow, Mo. Subsequently he became a professor in the City University, and also officiated at Pine Street Church. Mr. Simpson died early in September, 1866.

Central Presbyterian Church. — This congregation was organized April 18, 1844, by Dr. William S. Potts and Rev. William Gilbreath, as the Fourth Presbyterian Church (Old School), with thirty-two members, nearly all of whom had obtained letters for the purpose from the Second Church. On the following day the first session was elected, consisting of Philip Skinner, George W. Meyers, and John Suydam, and on the following Sunday, April 21st, Messrs. Meyers and Suydam were ordained, and the session was installed. The first communion of the church was celebrated on the same day. The congregation met in a small frame building on the southeast corner of Sixth and St. Charles Streets. Rev. Joseph Templeton

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first supplied the pulpit, but on May 12, 1845, Rev. Alexander Van Court was chosen pastor. He began his duties in July following. He labored with great diligence and success, and during his ministry the church grew and prospered. In July, 1849, he suddenly fell a victim to the cholera which raged in that year. In 1845 the church elected as its first board of trustees John M. Wimer, John Huylman, and Taylor Blow, to whom, in 1846, were added David W. Wheeler, Oliver Bennett, and S. Ridgely. Thomas Osborne and Dr. Thomas Barbor were also added to the session, and in November, 1846, Othneil Cannon and Charles N. Lewis were elected the first deacons. In the spring of 1846 the name was changed by the presbytery to that of the Central Presbyterian Church of St. Louis. About the same time a lot at the northwest corner of Locust and Eighth Streets was purchased, whither the congregation removed in the fall of 1848. It worshiped at first in the basement. During the following winter Rev. Dr. Hall held a series of protracted meetings which added largely to the membership. The building was finished in 1849. It had two stories, with rooms for the pastor's use and for other purposes in the basement. The audience-room, eighty-five by fifty feet, seated about six hundred persons. After the death of Mr. Van Court the church remained for eighteen months without a pastor. Revs. Samuel Pettigrew, John N. Hall, and William M. Ruggles served as stated supplies, and the congregation was greatly troubled by dissensions among its members and other causes until (Dec. 11, 1850) Rev. S. J. P. Anderson, of Virginia, was called. Mr. Anderson entered upon his duties Jan. 20, 1851. He at once restored harmony to the church, which under his pastorate soon became prosperous. In March, 1851, its membership had increased to two hundred and forty-three, and all who were officially connected with the society labored zealously for its welfare. In 1858 nearly one hundred new members were added, but during the civil war the church declined. The pastor was arrested and tried by the military authorities, and the congregation diminished in consequence. The return of peace, however, brought a return of prosperity, but on the 25th of May, 1868, Mr. Anderson's failing health compelled him to resign, and the church remained again without a pastor. For some time it was served by Rev. Henry Branch as stated supply.

Dr. Brank, of Lexington, Ky., the present pastor, was called in January, 1869, but did not signify his acceptance until May 31, 1869. Soon after the present site was purchased, and a temporary chapel erected, in which an afternoon Sunday-school was opened in the spring of 1870. Weekly prayer-meetings were held in the same building during the winter of 1871-72. In the spring of 1873 the congregation removed to this chapel, their building on Locust Street having become unsafe owing to the construction of a tunnel under it. Soon after this the structure was demolished. On June 8, 1874, a building committee was appointed consisting of Messrs. B. H. Batte, I. M. Veitch, S. N. Holliday, D. P. Rowland, Dent G. Tutt, and Samuel Barren, and a plan prepared by C. K. Ramsey, architect, was accepted. The chapel was removed to an adjoining lot, and the erection of the present edifice was begun. It was finished in 1876. It is built in strict accordance with the early English style, with two towers in front, one at each corner, the first one hundred and ninety-two, and the other one hundred and twenty feet in height. The transepts are each twenty-six feet wide, with ten feet projection. The roof is open-timbered, richly decorated with trusses supported by stone corbels, constructed of broken ashlar, with cut-stone trimmings from Warrensburg. The building occupies a lot one hundred and nine by one hundred and thirty-five feet. The auditorium is fifty-eight by ninety feet. At the rear is a chapel, with lecture-room, class-room, library, parlors, etc. The construction of this edifice involved the church so heavily in debt that in the summer of 1879 it found itself in great difficulties. Propositions were made to sell the church and abandon the enterprise, and the pastor tendered his resignation, which was not, however, accepted. Early in 1880, one Sunday morning the pastor made an earnest appeal for aid to the congregation, and the sum of twenty-one thousand dollars was subscribed on the spot, and afterwards punctually paid. There are at present about one hundred and thirty families and three hundred and fifty communicants connected with the congregation, and twenty-seven teachers, with nearly three hundred pupils in the Sunday-school. The present church edifice is situated at the northeast corner of Lucas and Garrison Avenues, and the Rev. Robert G. Brank, D. D., is the pastor.

The North Presbyterian Church was organized by a colony of nine members from the First Presbyterian Church, together with nine others, on the 27th of March, 1845. The present church, situated at the northwest corner of Eleventh and Chambers Streets, was built in 1857. It was a two-story brick building, sixty by ninety feet, the upper story being used as a church, and the lower story for the purposes of the Sunday-school. It seated about eight hundred persons. During the summer of 1882 the interior

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was entirely remodeled and redecorated, the seats were rearranged in amphitheatrical form, the organ was removed to the back of the auditorium and enlarged, and stained glass replaced the former plain panes of the windows. The church thus renovated was rededicated Oct. 15, 1882. The congregation numbers about five hundred persons, actual members two hundred, and the Sunday-school has twenty-five teachers and three hundred and seventy scholars. The pastor is the Rev. S. H. Williams.

Carondelet Presbyterian Church, Fourth and Market Streets, South St. Louis, Rev. James H. Shields, pastor, was organized about 1850 by Hon. Henry T. Blow and wife, Dr. Ashbel Webster and wife, Francis Quinnette and wife, and others. The first house of worship was located on Main Street between Kansas and Illinois Streets. It was sold in 1864 and converted into a dwelling, and the society removed to its present quarters. The successive pastors have been Revs. Hiram P. Goodrich, D. D., R. S. Finley, John T. Cowen, S. A. Mutchmore, 1862-65; C. H. Dunlap, 1867, '68; Samuel Hay, 1868, '69; R. A. Condit, appointed November, 1869; Henry S. Little, appointed September, 1874; James H. Shields, appointed November, 1879. Hope Mission Chapel, corner of Third and Taylor Streets, is an offshoot of this church. It has a congregation of six hundred persons, and a Sunday-school attended by four hundred and twenty scholars. The present officers of the church are: Session, or Board of Elders (in charge of spiritual interests), the pastor, chairman, ex officio, Leonard R. Woods, William D. Starke, Frederick H. Williams, James M. Gayley; Board of Deacons (in charge of the poor and of benevolent work), J. P. Richardson, John Fitzpatrick; Board of Trustees (in charge of temporal concerns), Charles A. McNair, S. M. Bayless, Dr. E. E. Webster, F. W. Mott, J. P. Richardson, Leonard R. Woods, Frederick H. Williams, James M. Grayley. Connected with the congregation are a Ladies' Missionary Society, organized in 1874, of which Mrs. A. Shawk has been president, and Miss R. Woods, secretary, from the beginning to date; also a Young People's Literary Society, organized in 1881; R. A. Hill, president; H. A. Chapin, secretary. About one hundred and sixty families constitute the parish, of whom one hundred and sixty persons are communicants. The morning Sunday-school is attended by twenty teachers and two hundred and fifty scholars.

Des Peres Presbyterian Church was organized in the latter part of Blarch, 1833, by Rev. William S. Potts and Dr. Ingraham, in the dwelling-house of Rev. Mr. Granville (Methodist), which was rented for the occasion. The members of the congregation at that time were Thomas D. Yeates, Matilda Yeates, Amanda Yeates, Rebecca McCutchan, George Reed, Mary Reed, James Reed, Thomas Reed, Ellen Parks, Mary Parks, George Y. Andrew, Ann, Mary, and Baldwin King. The elders were Thomas D. Yeates, George Reed, and George Y. King. During the next year (1834) three acres of land were given — one acre each by David Small, David Hartshorn, and Stephen Maddox — for a building site for a church and a graveyard. A building of stone was commenced the same year and progressed so far as to be inclosed, in which condition it was used for public worship until 1840. In the troubles that divided the church into the Old and New School bodies, this church cast its lot with, and has recognized the ecclesiastical authority and control of, the Old School Church. Of the records of this church from its organization down to Sept. 6, 1837, none remain or are known of to the present officers of the church. Between the years 1833 and 1837 the pulpit was filled by Rev. William S. Potts, Dr. Ingraham, and Rev. Mr. Lovejoy. Gary Hickman, a licentiate, was in charge of the pulpit when the present records commence. In 1840 the present building was completed. Since Mr. Hickman left, the pulpit has been filled by the following ministers: M. Hodges, John N. Gilbreath, H. A. Booth, Joseph Fenton, William J. Lapsley, H. T. Morton, William C. Claggett, William H. Parks, A. Shotwell, and J. A. Smith. Rev. J. N. Gilbreath was pastor more than thirty years.

The elders elected since its organization have been Zachariah Barren, Jonas Geyer, Ninian B. Barren, William B. Harwood, Frederick Dos Combes, William McKnight, Ralph Clayton, Henry Barren, Ottawa B. Harwood, Edward Fitzgerald, Charles Stryder, and Charles R. Black.

The deacons have been Cornelius D. Demorest, Thomas M. Barron, Charles Lovercheck, Thomas H. Ennis, and David L. Des Combes. Since 1837 the church has received by letter and on profession of faith one hundred and sixty-one members.

Providence Presbyterian Church. — In 1859 the Rev. William Parks organized an Old School congregation, known as Providence Presbyterian Church, which worshiped for some time in a hall on Broadway between O'Fallon and Cass Avenues. Subsequently it removed to a hall over what was known as the Mound Market, standing in the middle of Broadway near Howard Street. In the fall of 1859 a church organization was effected by the committee of the presbytery, consisting of Rev. Dr. McPheeters, Rev. Dr. Brooks, and Mr. Parks. Subsequently Mr. Parks

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was forced on account of ill health to relinquish the pastorate, and was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. Sluder, under whose administration a lot at Webster and Twelfth Streets was purchased, and a two-story brick building erected. The lower story was used for the Sunday-school, and the congregation also worshiped there until the church was completed.

Washington and Compton Avenues Presbyterian Churches. — The Second Presbyterian Church, then located at Fifth and Walnut Streets, decided in 1859 to send out a colony to establish a church in the western part of the city, and for this purpose bought a lot on the northeast corner of Walnut and Sixteenth Streets, and commenced building thereon. The lecture-room was still unfinished in 1861, when the war came on and funds gave out, necessitating the stoppage of the work. The Union Presbyterian (Independent) Church sold, in March, 1862, to the Union Methodist Church its building at Eleventh and Locust Streets, and leased for two years, from July 1, 1862, the unfinished building at Walnut and Sixteenth Streets. This congregation completed the lecture-room at a cost of six thousand dollars, which was repaid when, on the expiration of its lease, it vacated the premises. From this time the Union Church ceased to exist as a separate organization. It had been organized twelve years previous (in January, 1849) with about thirty-five members, and worshiped for some time in Wyman's Hall. In 1852 the congregation determined to erect a church at the corner of Eleventh and Locust Streets, and in a little over a year, Jan. 8, 1854, the building was completed and dedicated. Its dimensions were sixty-nine by one hundred and fourteen feet, but the extreme measurements, including the towers, were eighty by one hundred and twenty-one feet. At the southeastern corner was a tower fifteen feet square, which ascended to the height of one hundred and forty-five feet, having a massive projecting base of cut limestone. At this time the Rev. William Homes was the pastor.

In June, 1864, the original idea of a colony was revived. Dr. Brookes, then pastor of the Second Church, and one hundred and fifty of its members withdrew, and on July 4, 1864, were organized by a committee of the St. Louis Presbytery (in connection with the Northern General Assembly) as the Walnut Street Presbyterian Church, the Second Church making over to them the property which they then began to occupy. Within three months one hundred members of the Second Church joined them, and on the 25th of December, 1864, they first occupied the completed church, the erection of which they had begun immediately after their organization.

The lot, which is one hundred by one hundred and twenty feet in extent, cost, with the church included, about eighty thousand dollars. It will seat about fifteen hundred persons. The congregation also had a chapel on the corner of Twenty-second Street and Gamble Avenue, a frame building seventy by forty feet. The church was a two-story brick building. In 1866, owing to certain political action of the Northern General Assembly on the subject of slavery, the Walnut Street Church united with others in organizing the Independent Synod of Missouri, but in May, 1874, the Northern General Assembly took such steps as led to a reunion with it of this church, which has since remained connected with it.

In process of time the location of the church became unsuitable, owing to the removal to western and southwestern parts of the city of the bulk of its members, and by 1878 this unsuitableness had led to the organization of Lafayette Park Church, which went out as a colony from Walnut Street. In 1877 the present site, southwest corner of Washington and Compton Avenues, was bought from Mrs. Edgar Ames for fifteen thousand dollars. The lot is one hundred and forty by one hundred and fifty-two feet. Ground was broken July 4, 1877, the corner-stone was laid Oct. 27, 1877, and the lecture-room was occupied May 1, 1879. On the 5th of December, 1880, the first services in the completed edifice were held. This building is ninety-four by one hundred and thirty-six feet, English Gothic in style, and of St. Louis limestone, pitch-faced broken ashlar, trimmed with sandstone, with stone towers at the four corners, and an imposing entrance, embellished by moulded and polished columns of Maine granite and buttresses and steps of the same. The architect was John H. Maurice, and the building committee was composed of Thomas E. Tutt, president; John R. Lionberger, vice-president; J. L. Sloss, treasurer; and William T. Barren. The main auditorium is eighty-four by eighty-eight feet and forty-one feet eight inches high. The pews are arranged in amphitheatrical form, and the seating capacity, including a gallery at the front end, is fifteen hundred. The windows are of large cathedral style, rich in decoration, and several are memorial. The organ is set in a deep recess back of the pulpit, under which are the pastor's study and reception-room. The lecture-room, under the main floor, is sixty-one feet square and fourteen feet high, with a seating capacity of five hundred. It can be enlarged to dimensions of eighty-five by eighty-three feet by opening folding-doors and throwing into it the two rooms used for Bible classes. The infant Sunday-school class-room and the ladies' parlors are on this

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floor. The building on Walnut Street is still owned by the church, though offered for sale, and is used for Sunday-school purposes and religious meetings. The church, through its pastor, Rev. J. H. Brookes, D. D., reported to the Synod of 1882 a membership of five hundred and twenty-seven, with five hundred and fifty-four pupils in the Sunday-school, an expenditure for the year of ten thousand six hundred and twenty-two dollars for congregational and five thousand two hundred and eleven dollars for benevolent uses, and an average congregational attendance of about seven hundred.

Glasgow Avenue Presbyterian Church. — This congregation, whose present church edifice is situated at the southeast corner of Glasgow Avenue and Dickson Street, Rev. William R. Henderson, pastor, grew out of a conversation held at Webster Groves, Sunday, May 11, 1873, between Rev. Thomas Marshall, visiting that place on ministerial duty, and L. E. Alexander, a resident there, who called the minister's attention to the field now occupied by this church and assured him of his support in case the enterprise should be attempted. Thursday evening prayer-meetings were established soon afterwards at the "old Garrison mansion," corner of Page and Easton Avenues, and a little later Laclede Hall, corner of Garrison and Easton Avenues, was rented, the first services being held there on June 22, 1873, with a congregation of forty persons. About the same number also attended the Sunday school in the afternoon. On the 22d of March, 1874, the church was organized, with thirty-seven members, as the Garrison Avenue Church by a committee of the presbytery, consisting of Revs. Thomas Marshall, J. J. Marks, D. D., C. H. Foote, D. D., and Elders E. A. Moore and George W. Shaw. Rev. Thomas Marshall, the first pastor, was installed July 5, 1874. He resigned November, 1881, having been elected synodical missionary for the State of Missouri. Rev. William R. Henderson, of Harrodsburg, Ky., was called as his successor in March, 1882, and duly installed May 21st. On the 2d of August, 1874, the congregation assembled on the lot it now holds, and which it had bought for four thousand nine hundred and fifty dollars from Charles Morgan, of New York City. Services were held and the work of building was commenced by the pastor turning the first spadeful of earth, and on Dec. 19, 1875, the church removed from Laelede Hall and held services in the basement of the present chapel, the name of the church being then changed to its present designation. On the 14th of November, 1880, the completed chapel was dedicated, Revs. Dr. Ganse, Niccolls, Marquis, Rhodes, Brank, Brookes, Porteus, and Allen, in addition to the pastor, taking part in the exercises. The church lot is eighty by one hundred and eighteen feet in area. The basement, chapel, and furniture cost thirteen thousand dollars. The main edifice will occupy the corner of the lot, and will probably be built within the next two or three years. The number of communicants now connected with the church is about one hundred and twenty-five, and the Sunday-school has an enrolled attendance of about three hundred. Connected with the regular church organization are a Ladies' Missionary Society, a Children's Missionary Society, called "Seed-Sowers," a Young People's Prayer-Meeting, etc.

Westminster Presbyterian Church, southeast corner of Pestalozzi and James Streets, Rev. J. G. Reaser, pastor, was organized Dec. 31, 1873, by Revs. A. Van der Lippe and I. N. Cundall, and Elder J. E. Cowan, assisted by Rev. J. W. Allen. The congregation worshiped in rented rooms at No. 3500 Carondelet Avenue until their removal to their present church edifice, the corner-stone of which was laid Aug. 10, 1875. Rev. W. Howell Buchanan was the first pastor, the present incumbent succeeding him April 1, 1880. The building is of brick, about forty-five by seventy feet, and with the lot is valued at ten thousand dollars. The Sunday-school was organized Oct. 19, 1873, and is now attended by two hundred and twenty scholars. There are a Ladies' Aid Society and Young People's Society connected with the church. The congregation numbers two hundred and fifty persons, and the communicants one hundred and thirty. Since 1880 fifty-four new members have been added, and the attendance at worship has doubled.

South Presbyterian Church. — In 1868 a mission Sunday-school was established at No. 1322 South Second Street, and a chapel was erected, which is still used by the congregation. The church, now known as the South Presbyterian, Rev. H. B. Holmes, pastor, was organized in May, 1875. It is a chartered corporation and owns its chapel, which, however, occupies leased ground. The church has never had a regularly settled pastor, but has been supplied by several ministers, notably by Rev. James R. Dunn, who remained four and a half years, and the present minister, who has had charge nearly two years. A. S. Pettigrew, the leading elder of the society, has been from its inception the main prop of the struggling organization, defraying its expenses, paying the minister's salary, etc. The membership is reported at about sixty, and the Sunday-school is attended during the winter by from two hundred to two hundred and fifty scholars, and by half that number in summer.

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The Second German Presbyterian Church, Grand Avenue and Thirteenth Street, Rev. Frederick Auf der Heide, pastor, was organized in 1876, and worships in a brick chapel. It reports a congregation of about thirty-six men, women, and children, a membership of twelve, and a Sunday-school enrollment of one hundred.

Lafayette Park Presbyterian Church (Lafayette Church), situated on Missouri Avenue, between Park and Lafayette Avenues, Rev. D. C. Marquis, D. D., pastor, was organized in 1878 as a colony from Walnut Street (now Washington and Compton Avenues) Church by one hundred of its members who lived too far from the parent church to attend its services. The congregation worships as yet in the lecture-room of its unfinished church, and numbers over sis hundred members. The Park Avenue Presbyterian Church, organized as a colony from the Second Church, sold its property (now the Park Avenue Baptist Church) in 1867, and was merged into the Chouteau Avenue Church, worshiping at the northeast corner of Chouteau Avenue and Eleventh Street. The church building was erected in 1867. It was forty by seventy feet in size, built of brick, and very neat and attractive in appearance. Its seating capacity was about four hundred. Grace Church, organized in 1868 as a colony from the Second Church, was also consolidated with the Chouteau Avenue Church. In 1875 the property was sold to the B'nai El Hebrew congregation, and the society dissolved. Its members worshiped at different churches until the organization of the Lafayette Park Church, with which most of the members of the three short-lived churches became affiliated. The membership of this church numbers three hundred and three, and its Sunday-school six hundred scholars. Its expenditures for 1881 amounted to twenty thousand nine hundred and twenty-three dollars for congregational, and six hundred and ninety-seven dollars for benevolent uses. The main church building is in process of erection.

First German Presbyterian Church. — This church, situated at Autumn and Tenth Streets, Rev. Adalbert van der Lippe, pastor, was organized May 18, 1863, in the basement of the Second Presbyterian Church, on Fifth and Walnut Streets, where the Temple building now stands, by Rev. J. H. Brookes, Rev. W. H. Parks, and Elder A. G. Edwards. The congregation held its meetings at first in the South Mission Sabbath-school, on Marion and Ninth Streets. The corner-stone of the lecture-room of the present edifice was laid Oct. 14, 1866, and of the church itself March 1, 1871. The latter was dedicated Sept. 17, 1871. The first and only pastor was elected Oct. 23, 1863. A Ladies' Sewing Society was organized March 1, 1864, and a Young Men's Christian Association Oct. 1, 1872. The parish contains about fifty families and two hundred and seventy-five people. There are one hundred and twenty-five communicants. The Sunday-school has seventeen teachers and over one hundred and fifty scholars.

Memorial Tabernacle. — The Protestant Free School Association, composed mainly but not exclusively of Presbyterians, was organized in 1840, with five teachers and twenty scholars, Thomas F. Webb, superintendent, and met in a small frame house at Sixth and Carr Streets. From this germ sprang the Biddle Market Mission. In 1846, the owner of the land on which it stood having objected to its use, the building was placed on trucks and removed to a lot at Fourteenth and Carr Streets, belonging to Judge Carr, and was enlarged to a seating capacity of three hundred and fifty. On the 11th of July, 1848, Thomas Morrison was made superintendent, and under his zealous care the mission increased to such proportions that larger accommodations were rendered necessary, and Biddle Market Hall, Thirteenth and Biddle Streets, was secured for the use of the mission. The hall was enlarged and adapted to its new purpose at a cost of five thousand dollars. After the removal to this location the school continued to grow until the average attendance of scholars numbered one thousand. On the 12th of July, 1864, a congregation was organized by Rev. H. C. McCook, known as the "First Independent Church of St. Louis," the constituent members being, by certificate from other churches, Thomas Morrison, Mrs. Eliza Morrison, Jennie Morrison, J. Burt Turner, Mrs. Mary R. Turner, John Ifinger, Mrs. L. Becker, Mrs. M. Coburn, Elizabeth Ferguson, Mrs. A. Kelly, Mrs. S. McLean, Mrs. W. Noerr, Ann M. Palmer, Mattie Palmer, Mrs. J. L. Smith, Mrs. M. Urquhart; by profession of faith, Mrs. D. Dickinson, John D. Eves, Emma Fontanna, Frederick B. Haus, J. M. Key, Mary Lowney, Fannie Marsh, Allen A. Watkins, Mrs. Amanda McClure, Jennie McFadden, Frederick Plitsch, Mrs. Henrietta Plitsch, Mrs. Elizabeth Schott, John Wallace, Mrs. Catherine Wallace.

Mr. Morrison subsequently sold his dwelling-house for six thousand dollars, and having added two thousand dollars to this sum, purchased the lot at the northwest corner of Sixteenth and Carr Streets, on which the Tabernacle now stands. The corner-stone was laid about May, 1865, but after Mr. Morrison had expended thirty-seven thousand dollars in the erection of the building it was sold, while still unfinished,

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under foreclosure of a mortgage, for twenty thousand dollars. At this juncture Carlos S. Greeley purchased the property from the mortgagee, and headed a subscription to finish the building. The congregation of the Second Presbyterian Church and others made up the remainder. On Sunday, Nov. 28, 1880, the Sunday-school met for the last time in Biddle Market Hall, and proceeded thence to the completed Tabernacle, where Mr. Greeley presented to the trustees of the mission a deed of gift of the property. Dr. Niccolls, of the Second Presbyterian Church, at the same time gave it its present name, in memory of the donor's deceased wife. It is, perhaps, the largest and finest building for Sunday-school purposes in the United States, and is modeled after the famous Spurgeon Tabernacle in London. The building is of brick, one hundred by sixty feet, and will seat two thousand people. The dimensions of the lot are one hundred by seventy-five feet, and the church property is valued at forty thousand dollars. The congregation comprises about one hundred families, with one hundred and fifty communicants, and the average attendance at the morning Sunday-school is one hundred and sixty, and that at the afternoon Biddle Market Mission from one thousand to twelve hundred. A Young People's Union meets every Monday evening, and a prayer-meeting is held every Friday evening. The pastors have been Revs. H. C. McCook, elected Feb. 28, 1865; Lemuel Jones, elected Nov. 7, 1865; — Gillum, date of election unknown; Dr. Langdon, elected in 1868; William Porteus, elected Jan. 1, 1869, and remained until July 1, 1881; and the present incumbent, Rev. William H. Clagett, who took charge July 1, 1881.

In addition to the foregoing, several mission Sunday-schools are conducted by the Presbyterians, notably the Kossuth Avenue Mission, two blocks west of the Fair Grounds, Henry A. Smith, superintendent, supported by the Second Presbyterian Church, where Rev. William Porteus, city missionary, holds Sunday services. The Bethel, at Main and Commercial Streets, where the Sunday-school is attended by twenty-two teachers and two hundred scholars, is largely supported by Presbyterians, and there are other missions at Soulard Market and elsewhere.

The First United Presbyterian Church, situated at the northwest corner of Twentieth and Morgan Streets, was organized in March, 1840, and its first place of worship was at the southwest corner of Fifth and Pine Streets. The first church edifice, a brick structure of the Ionic order, fifty by seventy-five feet, with a seating capacity of five hundred, was erected about 1841 at the northeast corner of Fifth and Locust Streets, and was subsequently sold to the Singer Sewing-Machine Company. The present church at Twentieth and Morgan Streets was erected in 1873, and is a handsome structure of brick, the dimensions of the lot being one hundred and five feet six inches by one hundred and forty-four feet seven inches. The total cost of the church property was fifty-five thousand dollars. There are seventy-five families connected with the church, embracing one hundred and eighty-six communicants, and the average attendance at Sunday-school is eighteen teachers and one hundred and seventy scholars. A Woman's Missionary Society and a Pastor's Aid Society are maintained by the congregation. Rev. John A. Wilson, appointed July 28, 1876, is the present pastor of the church, and his predecessors have been Revs. Henry M. Johnston, appointed in 1845; Thomas M. Cunningham, appointed Oct. 12, 1852; John McLean, appointed Sept. 30, 1857; James G. Armstrong, appointed Dec. 3, 1863; and Henry W. Crabb, appointed July 6, 1869.

In December, 1881, the church established a mission Sunday-school on Grand Avenue near Clark, in a building thirty-one by fifty-six feet, which is capable of seating two hundred and fifty persons. The average attendance is nine teachers and seventy scholars. The First United is the only congregation in the city connected with the United Presbyterian General Assembly of the United States, a large and influential body differing in minor matters of faith and forms of worship from other Presbyterians.

The Cumberland Presbyterians commenced work in St. Louis in 1848, an organization being effected by Rev. J. G. White, under appointment of the Board of Missions of the denomination. He was succeeded in 1860 by Rev. L. C. Ransom. The church building was situated at the corner of Eleventh and St. Charles Streets, but it passed out of the hands of the denomination during the war, and the congregation of about two hundred persons was dispersed. In 1866, under the leadership of Rev. F. M. Gilliam, a second effort was made to establish the church. A small congregation was gathered, and subsequently a consolidation was effected with a body of independents, who had built up a large Sunday-school, conducted by Thomas Morrison, at Biddle Market, making a membership of about one hundred and twenty-five. Mr. Gilliam was succeeded by Rev. W. L. Langdon. In 1868 the independent element, being in the majority, seceded and placed themselves under the control of the Northern Presbyterians. The building which had been occupied by the congregation was subsequently sold to pay a debt of twenty thousand dollars, and the Cumberland Presbyterians lost over eight thousand

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dollars. The Northern Presbyterians still control the seceding congregation, which occupied the building now known as Memorial Tabernacle.

Lucas Avenue Cumberland Presbyterian Church. — In 1874 a third attempt on the part of the Board of Missions resulted in the organization of this church, with Rev. C. H. Bell as pastor. Friends of the enterprise in the city and surrounding country contributed seventeen thousand dollars, and the present lot, situated on Lucas Avenue, at the corner of Channing Avenue, was purchased and the building erected. The latter, all the property being free from debt, was consecrated Dec. 2, 1877. The organization, consisting of twenty-eight members, was perfected Feb. 6, 1878. Mr. Bell, owing to impaired health and the necessary duties of his office as president of the general Board of Missions, resigned the pastorate Feb. 1, 1881, and the Rev. W. H. Black was called in his place. The church is self-sustaining and prosperous, and the enrolled membership numbers eighty-eight. The pupils enrolled in the Sunday-school number one hundred and thirty-five.

First German Cumberland Presbyterian Church (Gethsemane Congregation). — This congregation was organized Dec. 13, 1857, in Biddle Market Hall, by its present pastor, the Rev. Frederick Lack, The first church building stood on the northwest corner of Fourteenth and Chambers Streets, and was dedicated Dec. 25, 1857. In August, 1866, the congregation removed to the northwest corner of Jefferson and Wash Streets, and erected a one-story brick building seating about three hundred persons. In August, 1879, having sold this property, the congregation established itself at the northeast corner of Sullivan Avenue and Twentieth Street. There are fifteen families in the parish and sixty regular communicants. The Sunday-school is attended by seven teachers and over one hundred pupils.

The Second German Cumberland Presbyterian Church. — This congregation, which worships at the southwest corner of Eighteenth and Montgomery Streets, was organized during the civil war. Rev. Charles Landel having been forced to leave his charge in the interior of the State, owing to the condition of affairs there, removed to St. Louis and established a school in the market-house at Eighteenth and Warren Streets, now the parochial school of the Catholic Church of the Sacred Heart. In 1867 he organized the present congregation. After a time the school was abandoned. The congregation is composed of about ten families, with eighteen regular communicants. The Sunday-school, which is known as the Anchor Band of Hope, No. 5, is conducted by Messrs. Frederick Ingalls and H. Baker, with fifty scholars. Rev. William Goessling is pastor of the church.

Reformed Presbyterian Church. — This church, situated at the northwest corner of Twenty-first Street and Gamble Avenue, Rev. J. R. Hill, pastor, is the only representative in St. Louis of this wing of the denomination. The building, a two-story brick structure forty-five by ninety feet, was erected in 1854 and seated about three hundred and fifty persons. The Rev. Joseph McCracken was pastor of the church in 1868. The services are attended by about sixty men, women, and children, and the Sunday-school by about fifty scholars. The church also supports the McKee Mission, on New Manchester road, and a colored mission at Nineteenth and Morgan Streets, which is attended by eight teachers and one hundred and twenty-five pupils.


Diocese of Missouri. — The first Protestant Episcopal parish organized west of the Mississippi River was founded by the Rev. John Ward, of Lexington, Ky., in the autumn of 1819. Mr. Ward arrived at St. Louis in the latter part of September, but having been prostrated by sickness was unable to officiate until some weeks later. In the Missouri Gazette of October 6th it was announced that Mr. Ward would preach at the Baptist Church on the following Sunday, but the first regular service was held on the 24th of October, in a one-story frame building on the southwest corner of Second and Walnut Streets, which was also occasionally used as a court-house and as a dancing-room. Mr. Ward officiated, and six persons composed his congregation, only two of whom are said to have been supplied with prayer-books and prepared to respond. These two individuals were James Clemens, Jr., and Joseph V. Garnier, both of whom were made members of the first vestry that was formed. This was the first public service by a clergyman of the Episcopal Church west of the Mississippi of which any record remains.

A subscription-paper, drawn up by Col. Thomas F. Riddick, and bearing date Nov. 1, 1819, was soon after circulated. It read as follows: "We, the undersigned, taking into view the great benefits that ourselves and our families would derive from the establishment of an Episcopal Church in the town of St. Louis, do hereby form ourselves into a congregation, and bind ourselves to pay over to such person or persons as shall be appointed by the vestry, hereafter to be chosen, all such sums of money as shall be found

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opposite our names, to be applied towards the support of the church for one year from this date." This document obtained forty-seven signatures. These, with the amount subscribed by each, were the following:

Thomas P. Riddick, $100; S. Hammond, $100; John Hall, $100; A. Nelson, $50; D. B. Hoffman, $50; J. Clemens, Jr., $100; F. Dent, $50; Clement March, $50; J. R. Ober, $50; R. Wash, $50; Wilson P. Hunt, $50; William Rector, $50; Henry Von Phul, $50; William Stokes, $50; J. V. Garnier, $50; W. Christy, $50; M. Wherry, $15; R. H. Price, $60; Theo. Hunt, $50; A. Rutgers, $50; D. C. Boss, $30; W. Carr Lane, $10; Abijah Hull, $15; William S. Hamilton, $25; Josiah Bright, $25; J. W. Hoyt, $10; Peter Ferguson, $10; Rufus Pettibone, $10; James Kennerly, $25; John Nicholson, $10; William H. Ashley, $20; A. McNair, $50; Thomas H. Benton, $50; J. G. Lindell, $10; A. V. Vaughan, $10; H. L. Hoffman, $10; Nathaniel Sandburn, $5; James Loper, $10; Joseph M. Yard, $10; I. Eckstein, $5; Theo. L. McGill, $5; D. V. Walker, $10; William Clark, $34; B. G. Farrar, $50; John O'Fallon, $50; Elias Rector, $20; Peter Haldeman, $20.

Among these are many names that are prominent in the history of the city and State. The movement led to the organization of the parish of Christ Church, of which the Rev. Mr. Ward continued in charge a little over one year, after which, for several years only irregular services were held. In 1824-25, Rev. Thomas Horrell visited and held services in Madison, Washington, Jefferson, and Cape Girardeau Counties, and reported that "respectable congregations attended, and many came to partake of the sacraments." In December, 1825, he became rector of Christ Church. In 1831, Rev. L. H. Corson held services in Manchester and other places in St. Louis County, and reported that he had found a number of church people, and had baptized many children.

In 1835 the attention of the vestry of Christ Church was directed to the fact that the Rev. Jackson Kemper, of Connecticut, had been selected as the missionary Bishop of the Northwest, comprising the States of Missouri and Indiana, and as it seemed probable that St. Louis would be chosen as his place of residence, it was decided to call him to the rectorship of Christ Church. A call was therefore extended to him on the 20th of September, 1835, and he was consecrated bishop on the 25th of the same month. In their letter to Bishop White, of Pennsylvania, announcing the decision of the vestry with regard to Bishop Kemper, the wardens of Christ Church, Wilson P. Hunt and Christopher Saunderson, stated that they had invited the bishop to become their rector with the understanding that the General Missionary Society would furnish him an assistant minister. They requested that the Rev. Mr. Minard be appointed such assistant. This request was granted, and Mr. Minard reached St. Louis a month in advance of Bishop Kemper. On the 5th of October, Messrs. Doan and English were appointed a committee to provide suitable lodgings for the accommodation of the rector and his assistant upon their arrival. Bishop Kemper, accompanied by his friend, the Rev. S. R. Johnson, started from Philadelphia on the 3d of November, and arrived in St. Louis some time in December. Soon after the bishop took charge of this portion of his extensive diocese services were begun at St. Charles, Boonville, Jefferson City, Payette, Lexington, Palmyra, and Hannibal, in several of which places parishes were organized and clergymen settled. At a meeting of the vestry in 1838 a resolution was offered by Josiah Spalding to the effect that "the vestry highly appreciate the services of Bishop Kemper at the West, and particularly in this church, and that they should deeply regret his removal from this station should he accept of his appointment as Bishop of Maryland." Bishop Kemper remained at his post, but on the 21st of September, 1839, he tendered his resignation as rector of the parish in consequence of the pressure of his episcopal duties. This resignation was respectfully declined by the unanimous vote of the vestry. At this time a second parish (St. Paul's) had been established in St. Louis. On the 20th of April, 1840, Bishop Kemper renewed his resignation, which was accepted with expressions of regret by the vestry, who thanked him "for his unwearied endeavors to promote the welfare and prosperity of our parish in a season of much difficulty and embarrassment," and assured him "that as churchmen we do entertain the most lively sense of the self-denying devotedness of Bishop Kemper to the great cause of the church, and that with pleasure we do attest her gradual and effectual growth under his auspices." In March, 1840, just previous to Bishop Kemper's resignation, at an informal meeting of a few clergymen and laymen, it was determined to call a primary convention for the purpose of organizing the different parishes of the State into a regular diocese. On Monday, Nov. 16, 1840, the convention assembled at Christ Church. Bishop Kemper presided, and eight clergymen were reported as entitled to seats, all of whom were present. Four parishes were represented by lay delegates also, — Christ Church and St. Paul's, St. Louis; St. Paul's, Palmyra; and St. Paul's, St. Charles. At this time Grace Church, Jefferson City, and Christ Church, Boonville, were organized. A constitution and canons were adopted, and the diocese formally established.

Bishop Kemper continued to administer its affairs

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until 1843. His duties had then become so extensive and burdensome that he was compelled to ask that a portion of the field be assigned to another. He proposed that the clergy of the diocese and the vestry of Christ Church should select a clergyman agreeable to them respectively as bishop and rector of the church, and then petition the General Convention to appoint him bishop for the diocese of Missouri. In accordance with this plan the Diocesan Convention which met at Christ Church parsonage Sept. 27, 1843, decided to recommend the Rev. C. S. Hawks, of Buffalo, N. Y., for bishop. Dr. Hawks, the first Bishop of Missouri, was consecrated Oct. 20, 1844. Having been elected rector of Christ Church, he assumed the pastorate in January, 1844, and continued to act as rector in addition to the exercises of his episcopal functions. Bishop Hawks remained in pastoral charge until Feb. 1, 1854. When he assumed charge of the diocese there were in the State only seven resident Episcopal clergymen and only three church buildings, — Christ and St. Paul in St. Louis, and one at Jefferson City. When Bishop Hawks died (April 19, 1868) there were in the diocese twenty-four clergymen canonically resident, nineteen church buildings, and six parsonages, and there had been confirmed during his episcopate three thousand and sixty-one persons. On May 29, 1868, the Diocesan Convention elected as bishop of the diocese Right Rev. D. S. Tuttle, D. D., then missionary Bishop of Montana, but he declined the office. At a special convention called Sept. 4, 1868, and held in St. George's Church, Rev. Charles F. Robertson, D. D., of New York, was elected. He was consecrated second Bishop of Missouri, Oct. 25, 1868, and officiated for the first time in the State in Christ Church, Nov. 8, 1868. There were at that time reported eighteen hundred communicants in the diocese. The years since have been marked by great vigor and growth. In the spring of 1869 was purchased, at a cost of about eighteen thousand dollars, the handsome episcopal residence at No. 2727 Chestnut Street. In 1882 there were sixty-five clergymen and nearly six thousand communicants in the diocese, seventy-one church buildings, and eleven rectories. There have been five thousand nine hundred and six confirmations. In St. Louis there are fifteen parishes and missions and fourteen church buildings. The church property in the diocese is valued at something more than one million dollars. During the last few years between two and three hundred thousand dollars of church debts have been paid off, and about one hundred thousand dollars are annually raised for church purposes. There are two general charitable institutions under the care of the church (both in St. Louis), — the Orphans' Home and St. Luke's Hospital; there are also the School of the Good Shepherd for girls in St. Louis, and St. Paul's College, Palmyra. The latter owed its origin to George R. H. Clark, a parishioner of Christ Church, who in 1844 presented to the diocese three hundred and thirty-three acres of land in Montgomery County, Mo., for the purpose of establishing a mission, which was named after the father of the donor, "The Governor Clark Mission." A mission school was established in 1848, and was subsequently transformed into St. Paul's College. During the civil war (in 1862) the college passed out of the hands of the diocese, but was repurchased by the church authorities in 1869, and the preparatory department was carried on until 1879, when the school was sold, to be continued as a private enterprise. St. James' Academy, Macon, established in 1876 by the Rev. Ethelbert Talbot, is also conducted under church auspices, and there are several parochial schools.

Jackson Kemper, D. D., was the first missionary bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church. He was born in Pleasant Valley, Dutchess Co., N. Y., Dec. 24, 1789, and died at Delafield, Waukesha Co., Wis., May 24, 1870. He was ordained deacon in 1811, and priest in 1812. For twenty years after his ordination he labored in the ministry in Philadelphia, but subsequently removed to Connecticut, and while rector of a church at Norwalk, in that State, was consecrated (Sept. 25, 1835) missionary Bishop of the Northwest (Missouri and Indiana). For many years he resided at St. Louis, acting until April 20, 1840, as rector of Christ Church, but his diocesan charge having developed more rapidly than was expected, he requested the Diocesan Convention to relieve him by the erection of Missouri into a separate See and the appointment of another bishop. Accordingly on the 27th of September, 1843, the convention of the diocese determined to request the General Convention, "by and with the consent of the Right Rev. Jackson Kemper, D. D., to appoint a bishop for the diocese of Missouri." This request was granted, and the Rev. Cicero S. Hawks, of Buffalo, N. Y., as heretofore stated, was appointed bishop. After Bishop Hawks took charge of the diocese Bishop Kemper was transferred to the missionary See comprised in the States of Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, Kansas, and Nebraska. In 1854 he was elected Bishop of Wisconsin, and in 1868 he attended the General Council of bishops in London.

Rev. Cicero S. Hawks, D. D., first Bishop of Missouri, was born in Newborn, N. C., May 26, 1812, and was the youngest of nine children. He graduated from the University of North Carolina with the degree

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of A. B., and studied law in Newbern, and later in New York, but decided to abandon the law and enter the ministry. He studied theology under his celebrated brother, Rev. Dr. F. L. Hawks, of New York; was ordained deacon in December, 1834, by Right Rev. B. T. Onderdonk, D. D., Bishop of New York; was soon after ordained priest by the same bishop, and was appointed rector of Saugerties parish, Ulster Co., N. Y., where he remained two years. He was next rector of Trinity Church, Buffalo, until December, 1843. On Sept. 27, 1843, the convention assembled in Christ Church parsonage, St. Louis (Bishop Kemper, of Missouri and Indiana, presiding), adopted resolutions asking the General Convention to give Missouri a bishop. It was also decided that the following communication should be addressed to Bishop Kemper, and signed by all the clerical and lay delegates present: "We, the undersigned, members of the convention of the diocese of Missouri, take the liberty of making known to you our preference for the Rev. Cicero S. Hawks, rector of Trinity Church, Buffalo, N. Y., as bishop of the said diocese, and request that you will inform the General Convention that he, the said Cicero S. Hawks, is one whom the said diocese would prefer for that office."

This action was taken in the convention in answer to a communication from the vestry of Christ Church, presented by Alexander Hamilton, which read as follows:

"Resolved, That, as a measure of expediency, and one which is highly desirable under the peculiar circumstances in which this church and the diocese are at present situated, we, the vestry of Christ Church, are perfectly willing, and do hereby consent to call as rector thereof the Rev. Cicero S. Hawks, of Buffalo, N. Y., provided, however, that the convention of this diocese, now in session, shall unite in procuring or applying for his appointment to the episcopate thereof, under the canon for that purpose, Sec. 1, Can. 1, of 1838."

Accordingly, Dr. Hawks assumed the rectorship of Christ Church on Jan. 1, 1844, and at the next meeting of the General Convention was consecrated and appointed Bishop of Missouri, Oct. 20, 1844.

In his first report to the convention Bishop Hawks said, —

"I took charge of this parish on the 1st of January, 1844, and found it in a sad condition... It was at that time embarrassed with a debt of seventeen thousand dollars. I thank God that the parish has been able and willing to liquidate a large portion of this debt. My trust is that before winter the amount of our indebtedness may not exceed five thousand dollars."

As early as 1847 measures were taken in the convention to relieve the bishop from a parochial charge, and in answer to a communication from the standing committee of the diocese it was, on the part of the vestry of Christ Church,

"Resolved, That the vestry of this church will pay for the current year for the support of the Bishop of Missouri the sum of fifty dollars; and the members of this vestry will, as members of Christ Church, use their influence to have the same sum paid annually by this church until sufficient money can be raised by other means for the support of the bishop of this diocese. This resolution to take effect when the bishop ceases to be rector of Christ Church."

It was found, however, in the weak state of the diocese, utterly impossible to raise any sufficient amount for the bishop's support.

In 1867, Bishop Hawks experienced the first shock of the disease which, in the year following, proved fatal. On April 5, 1868, he attended public worship for the last time, and was present in the chancel of Christ Church while Bishop Vail, of Kansas, then on a visit, administered confirmation, but he took no part in the service. His last attack occurred on Saturday evening, April 18th, from which time he was unconscious till he died, at 6:30 P. M. on Sunday, April 19, 1868. On the 23d the remains were taken to Christ Church, where they lay in state until the following day, when the funeral services were held. Bishops Whitehouse, Lee, and Vail officiated, and Bishop Whitehouse pronounced the funeral discourse. The standing committee were present as mourners, and the remaining clergy of the diocese as honorary pallbearers.

In February, 1835, Dr. Hawks married his first wife, a Miss Jones, of Hillsboro', N. C., by whom he had one daughter. This lady died in July, 1855, and her child, Isabel, died in June, 1864. The bishop's second wife was Ada, daughter of Judge Abiel Leonard, of Howard County, who survived him with two children. In 1849, during the cholera scourge in St. Louis, the parishioners of Christ Church, appreciating his self-sacrificing services, presented him with three thousand dollars in money, and afterwards on the same account the property on Paul Street where he lived.

Bishop Hawks was a man of recognized learning and piety, and one of the ablest administrators of his period in the Protestant Episcopal Church. As a preacher he was greatly admired, and in private life was extremely popular. Besides furnishing reviews and contributions to various periodicals, he edited the "Boys and Girls Library" of the Messrs. Harper, of New York, and the "Library for My Young Countrymen," published by Appleton & Co., the latter including "Uncle Phelps' Conversations for the Young," several volumes of which were from his pen, as was

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also the little work "Friday Christian, or the First-Born of Pitcairn's Island." In announcing his death the St. Louis Republican said, —

"He was counted among the most eloquent divines in a church which has been served by many accomplished pulpit orators. Under his supervision the Episcopal Church in Missouri grew to large proportions in members and wealth. He was a faithful bishop, who imitated the great apostle in taking upon his shoulders the ‘care of all the churches.’ His devotion to the interests of the Episcopal Church was earnest and laborious. Yet his spirit was altogether catholic, and the prosperity of true religion in all denominations was to him a cause of rejoicing. The clergy of St. Louis of every name always found him fraternal, and a ready co-operator in all works which appealed to general Christian benevolence for support. In personal intercourse, Bishop Hawks was marked by much of amiability and genial sociability. His friendships were numerous and warm, both within and without the limits of his own ecclesiastical connections. The intelligence of his death will be received with sorrowful surprise in many churches and in many households throughout the State, and his memory will be cherished in the Christian Church in Missouri as that of one whose life was filled up with full measures of usefulness, and in earnest efforts to promote the public welfare by the dissemination of the principles of Christian morality and religion."

Right Rev. Charles F. Robertson, D. D., second bishop of the diocese of Missouri, was born in New York City on the 2d of March, 1835. His family had for generations lived in that city. He was educated in private schools, and it was at first intended that he should follow his father in mercantile pursuits, in which in fact for several years he was engaged. He entered Yale College, however, in his twentieth year, with a view to preparing for holy orders in the church, and graduated with honors in 1859. He immediately thereupon entered the General Theological Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal Church in New York, was graduated, and ordained in June, 1862.

He at once assumed the rectorship of St. Mark's Church, Malone, N. Y., which position he retained, although frequently solicited to remove to larger parishes, until Sept. 1, 1868, when he entered upon the rectorship of St. James' Church, Batavia, N. Y. Four days after this he was elected by the convention of the diocese of Missouri to its vacant episcopate.

Dr. Robertson was consecrated Oct. 25, 1868, in Grace Church, New York, and was at that time one of the youngest of the diocesan bishops in the church. With perfect health and strong physical powers, he entered immediately upon a vigorous exercise of his office. He arrived in St. Louis early in November, and preached his first sermon in Christ Church on the 8th of that month. He preached on the afternoon of the same day at Trinity Church, and in the evening at St. George's.

During Bishop Robertson's administration of the diocese of Missouri the growth of the church throughout the State has been very great. While only eighteen clergymen joined in his election, there are now over sixty clergymen connected with the diocese. Over seventy churches have been built. The parishes, which were nearly overwhelmed with hundreds of thousands of dollars of debt ten years ago, are now almost entirely free from incumbrance. The number of communicants has multiplied threefold. In St. Louis, while in 1868 there were only five parishes, now there are fifteen churches and missions where services are statedly held.

He received his doctor's degree from Columbia College, New York. He was married in 1865 to Miss Rebecca Duane, whose great-grandfather was the first mayor of New York after the Revolution, and one of the few lay members of the convention which organized the Episcopal Church in this country in 1784.

Bishop Robertson is connected officially with many general institutions of the church, and is president of the board of trustees of Nashotah Theological Seminary in Wisconsin. He is also a member of the Missouri Historical Society and the Social Science Association, is corresponding secretary for Missouri of the National Conference of Charities and Corrections, and is interested in many other local objects, besides being head of all the educational and charitable institutions of the church in his diocese. His home is at the episcopal residence in St. Louis.

Christ Protestant Episcopal Church is situated at the southeast corner of Thirteenth and Locust Streets. Rev. Montgomery Schuyler, D. D., is the rector. Christ parish is the mother parish of the Protestant Episcopal Church in St. Louis. It was organized Nov. 1, 1819, the forty-three signers of the articles of association being Thomas F. Riddick, F. Dent, Abijah Hull, William Stokes, J. V. Gamier, A. Rutgers, M. Wherry, Henry Von Phul, D. B. Hoffman, Edw. Horrocks, Wilson P. Hunt, Robert Wash, H. L. Hoffman, William T. Hamilton, Joseph Charless, R. Dean, Jr., J. Clemens, Jr., A. J. Bruce, Risdon H. Price, James Kennerley, Robert Jones, S. Hammond, John Stimpson, W. Christy, James Loper, Thompson P. Williams, Clement March, J. R. Ober, Theodore Hunt, William Carr Lane, A. Nelson, William Rector, Robert Bailey, Charles Gulager, Daniel C. Boss, J. McGunnegle, A. Brown, Josiah Bright, J. W. Hoyt, Peter Ferguson, Rufus Pettibone, John Nicholson, William H. Ashley. The original document and the original subscription-list are both preserved in the pastor's study as valuable historical

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relics. The first vestry, elected Dec. 6, 1819, was composed of Thomas F. Riddick and Wilson P. Hunt, wardens; Samuel Hammond, Henry Von Phul, James Kennerly, James Clemens, Jr., William Stokes, Joseph V. Garnier, A. Rutgers, and Frederick Dent. The first meeting of the vestry was held Jan. 10, 1820, on which occasion Rev. John Ward, of Lexington, Ky., was called to the rectorship at a salary of one thousand dollars per annum, to date from November 1st previous. He remained until April, 1821, and then returned to Lexington, where, with his wife, he conducted a young ladies' seminary with great success. He died at Lexington in his eighty-first year, and was buried May 3, 1860. The infant parish had worshiped in a one-story frame building on the southwest corner of Second and Walnut Streets, which, known as "the long building," had been used for various purposes, among others as a blacksmith-shop, and which it had suitably fitted up; but on being abandoned by its pastor, Mr. Ward, the congregation became disorganized, and on Aug. 21, 1821, formally surrendered its place of meeting, and sold its pulpit, desk, and pews to the Methodist Society. During nearly four years no Protestant Episcopal service was held in St. Louis, save on the occasion of chance visits of clergymen from abroad.

Among those who thus officiated was the Rev. Amos Baldwin, of Western New York. In the fall of 1825, Rev. Thomas Horrell, 306 of Virginia, who had been engaged in missionary work in various parts of Missouri, visited St. Louis, and collected the scattered elements of the parish. A new vestry was elected Dec. 2, 1825, and on Jan. 31, 1826, an arrangement was effected for holding services alternately with the Methodists in their meeting-house, and afterwards occasionally also in the Baptist Church, corner of Third and Market Streets. About this time James Clemens, Jr., at the request of the parishioners, made a journey to the Eastern States with the view of collecting the means for the erection of a church. He called upon Bishop White, in Philadelphia, but the bishop's response to his appeal was so discouraging that he made no further effort. On the 24th of June, 1826, it was decided to purchase a lot for four hundred dollars from Messrs. Lucas & Hunt, on the corner of Third and Chestnut Streets, to contract with Messrs. Laveille & Morton for the erection upon it of a church building, and to invite Mr. Horrell to become permanently rector of the parish. The building cost about seven thousand dollars, and was completed in 1829. It is described as having been "a neat little edifice in the centre of the city, but looking more like an academy than a church, having forty-eight pews capable of seating two hundred and fifty persons, with a gallery at one end, in which is a most excellent organ." It is recorded that to the liberality of James Clemens, Jr., and to the pecuniary sacrifices of the rector the erection of the building was mainly due. On the 10th of November, 1829, William H. Ashley, H. L. Hoffmann, and Thomas Biddle, a committee of the vestry, announced that they would "offer for sale on Thursday morning at ten o'clock, on the premises, the pews in the Episcopal Church of St. Louis, at the corner of Chestnut and Third. The church, which is handsomely finished, will be opened on that day, and the terms of sale then made known." This is believed to have been the first Protestant Episcopal Church erected west of the Mississippi.

Mr. Horrell resigned March 22, 1831. Rev. Mr. Davis, a school-teacher, was called April 25, 1831, and served three months. Rev. L. H. Corson, deacon and missionary, served about one year. Up to the expiration, of Mr. Corson's term of service there had been no parish register, and no record of baptisms, marriages, or funerals. In a letter of the vestry dated March 3, 1832, to Rev. N. H. Cobb, afterwards Bishop of Alabama, inviting him to the rectorship of the church, it was stated that there were at that time about thirty communicants.

On the 4th of September, 1832, the Rev. William Chaderton, 307 of Philadelphia, was called to the rectorship. He at once opened a parish register in

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proper form, and made suitable records of all his official acts. Mr. Chaderton entered upon the discharge of his duties in October, 1832, and resigned June 8, 1835. The prospects of the parish must have greatly improved under Mr. Chaderton's rectorship, for at a meeting of the vestry in 1833 a proposition was made to enlarge the church, though at the time there was a debt of some three thousand five hundred dollars existing against it. When Mr. Chaderton resigned he left "the State of Missouri with only one organized Protestant Episcopal parish, one church built, and no officiating clergyman, — not a very large result for sixteen years of growth."

Right Rev. Jackson Kemper, D. D., missionary bishop-elect of Missouri and Indiana, was called Sept. 20, 1835, and began his pastorate in December following, with Rev. P. R. Minard as assistant, who began one month before the bishop. In May, 1836, Mr. Minard made the following report to Bishop Kemper:

"Upon my arrival, in November last, I found a church edifice, neat in appearance, but more like an academy than a house of public worship, capable of containing about two hundred and fifty persons. It was well furnished, and contained a small but fine-toned organ. The church had been built for about six thousand dollars, for one of which the vestry are still in debt. On the parish register, which I found in good order, there were forty-five communicants who could be found. There were enrolled as belonging to the congregation in all one hundred and ninety persons. A Sunday-school had been continued until I arrived. The first day it was visited by me it contained eighteen scholars; The average attendance at that time was from twenty to thirty. Our school now has a constant attendance of sixty or seventy. The church now contains forty-eight pews, and it is the opinion of the vestry that fifty more could be let if they had them. For this reason the vestry have determined to build a larger house, and already think they have the means within their control. They intend to build a house about sixty by ninety, with a gallery, in a part of which the negroes can be accommodated."

Mr. Minard resigned in February, 1839, to take temporary charge of Kemper College.

He was assistant in the parish for a period of about three and a half years, and during his ministry the register shows one hundred and thirty-nine baptisms, thirty-nine marriages, fifty-seven burials, and sixty-three confirmations.

The Rev. W. G. Heyer succeeded him, and remained but for a period of about six months, during which time there were twelve baptisms, five marriages, and twenty-three burials.

The Rev. F. F. Peake succeeded the Rev. W. G. Heyer, and for six months officiated in the capacity of assistant, during which time there were twenty-one baptisms, six marriages, twenty-two burials, and twenty-five confirmations.

Bishop Kemper resigned on the 20th of April 1840, having served the parish as rector for four years and a half, giving to it as much time as his arduous duties as missionary bishop "of two States, two Territories, with a large portion of the Indian country," would allow. On several occasions the vestry gave expression to their gratitude to his "very useful and indefatigable service," and the generous sacrifices made from time to time in their behalf, having refused all remuneration from the parish, and giving to his assistant the full salary pledged to the rector.

Rev. F. F. Peake, 308 who had succeeded Rev. Mr. Minard as assistant to the bishop, was called to the rectorship Aug. 19, 1840. He began his pastorate September 5th following, and resigned Oct. 27, 1842. During his incumbency of the parish there were ten baptisms, thirty-two marriages, thirty-seven burials, and twenty-eight confirmations.

Rev. E. C. Hutchinson, D. D., was called Oct. 31, 1842, but declined, his friends being unwilling that he should leave Kemper College, of which he was president. Bishop Kemper resumed charge until March, 1843, when Rev. Mr. Horrell returned, and served until Jan. 1, 1844, when Rev. Cicero S. Hawks, of Buffalo, N. Y., who had been called to the rectorship Sept. 27, 1843, took charge. Bishop Hawks had as assistants Rev. Charles Tomes, for nearly a year from January, 1848, and Rev. William A. Leach, called in the fall of 1849, and resigned November, 1851, to become rector of St. Paul's. Bishop Hawks resigned the rectorship Nov. 30, 1853, to take effect Feb. 1, 1854, and the parish pledged itself to contribute a sufficient sum annually for five years to secure him a salary of two thousand five hundred dollars. Rev. D. G. Estes next served until Easter, and Rev. Mr. Harrison for a short time after. Then the church and parsonage were closed some months for repairs, and on Oct. 1, 1854, Rev, Montgomery Schuyler, D. D., 309 took charge of the parish. He

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has had as assistants Rev. D. W. C. Loop, appointed in 1856; Rev. T. I. Holcombe, deacon, from June 28, 1858, till Oct. 1, 1859, when he went as missionary to Springfield, Mo.; and Rev. W. W. Silvester, who still fills the position.

The church, which had been built in 1829, was consecrated May 25, 1834, by Right Rev. B. B. Smith, Bishop of Kentucky, this being the first visit to St. Louis of a bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and the first occasion on which the rite of confirmation was administered by a Protestant Episcopal bishop in Missouri. In May, 1836, the parish (after sixteen years of growth) numbered only one hundred and ninety persons in the congregation, forty communicants, and from sixty to seventy children in the Sunday-school. On the 29th of June of that year it was decided to erect a new and larger building, sixty by ninety feet. A lot at the corner of Fifth and Chestnut Streets, eighty-five by one hundred and thirty-five feet, was purchased for ten thousand two hundred dollars (one hundred and twenty dollars per foot), and the old building and lot were sold to the Baptist Society for twelve thousand dollars, possession to be given in a year's time. The basement of the new building was occupied in March, 1838, and the completed edifice was consecrated by Bishop Kemper on the 17th of February, 1839. Josiah Spalding, on behalf of the wardens and vestry, read and presented to the bishop the instrument of donation. The sentence of consecration was read by the Rev. P. R. Minard. There were present of the clergy, besides the bishop and his assistants, the Rev. Messrs. Dresser, of Springfield; Darrow, of Collinsville; and Homan, of Kemper College.

The church it had been estimated would not cost more than $40,000, but when all the claims had been presented the aggregate was swelled to $70,000, leaving the parish $20,000 in debt. On the day following that of the consecration (Monday) the pews were sold. The building is described by Rev. Dr. Schuyler as being "a nondescript, of which nothing can be said save that it furnished uncomfortable sittings for about six hundred people."

At the time of the completion of the church the wardens were Wilson P. Hunt and H. L. Hoffman, and the vestrymen were J. P. Doan, Daniel Hough, H. Von Phul, Edward Tracy, Asa Wilgus, R. M. Strother, A. Hamilton, H. S. Coxe, and Josiah Spalding.

In March, 1839, Bishop Kemper announced that a body of Lutherans who had been persecuted by the government of Saxony, and who had arrived in St. Louis about three months before, desired to hold services in the church, and that he had granted their request. This congregation continued to worship in the basement of the church until 1842.

In the autumn of 1839 a burial-ground was purchased for the use of the parish for the sum of three thousand dollars, and steps were taken for laying out and ornamenting the grounds. In the fall of 1848 the church edifice was repaired at a cost of about five thousand dollars, and the church was closed for four months. In September of the same year a handsome marble font was presented to the church by Hon. L. M. Kennett.

On the 9th of May, 1853, a committee was appointed to inquire where a new church lot could be bought, and for what the old could be sold, but no further action was taken until March 12, 1859, when the building and lot on Fifth Street were sold to Messrs. Crow & McCreery for eighty thousand dollars, with the condition that the consecrated walls should never be applied to any secular use, but should be at once torn down. The amount of the original purchase by the parish in 1836 was ten thousand two hundred dollars. On April 10, 1859, the present lot, one hundred and seventy-five feet on Locust Street by one hundred and six feet four inches on Thirteenth Street, was bought of James H. Lucas for forty-three thousand seven hundred and fifty dollars. The plans for the new building furnished by Leopold Eidlitz, of New York, were adopted July 11, 1859, and contracts were given out and work at once begun. The estimated cost was one hundred and twenty-five thousand

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dollars. The last service in the old church was held Jan. 22, 1860. During the interval, before the completion of the new church, service was held at Mercantile Library Hall, until April 7, 1861, when the congregation united for worship with that of St. Paul's Church, which was then without a rector.

The corner-stone of the new edifice was laid April 22, 1860. Bishop Hawks conducted the ceremonies, assisted by Rev. Montgomery Schuyler, D. D., rector of Christ Church; Rev. F. J. Clerc, of Grace Church; Rev. E. F. Berkley, of St. George's Church; Rev. John Coleman, D. D., of St. John's Church; Rev. R. B. Terry, of St. Paul's Church; and Rev. E. C. Hutchison, of Trinity Church. Among the contents of the corner-stone were those which had been deposited in the corner-stone of the old church. After the usual ceremonies, Bishop Hawks delivered an address. The chapel was completed early in May, 1862, but owing to the delays and embarrassments caused by the civil war the main building was not finished until five years later. The walls had progressed to the height of some ten feet, and it was hoped that they would be ready for the roof by July, 1861, but when the approach of winter necessitated a stoppage of the work, it was found that the funds had been exhausted. On the 4th of December, 1861, a resolution was passed by the vestry directing the building committee to notify the contractors to proceed no further with the main body of the church, and to cancel the contracts, if possible. Towards the close of 1861 it was decided that a strenuous effort should be made to complete the chapel, and mainly through the exertions of Alfred Mackey, secretary of the vestry, this work was accomplished in the spring of 1862. It was estimated that sixty-five thousand dollars would be needed to put the main building in condition for worship, and on the 8th of February, 1864, thirteen thousand dollars of the fifteen thousand dollars required to make up this sum was pledged by members of the congregation. Early in the spring of 1864 work on the walls was resumed. It soon became evident that more money would be required, and in the following autumn a fair was held, which realized the sum of ten thousand and twenty-five dollars. On the 22d of February, 1866, a parish-meeting was held to consult upon the best plan for raising funds to complete the church. According to the estimate of the architect $40,120.50 would be required. It was agreed by the meeting that the vestry should be empowered to mortgage the property of the church for a sum sufficient to finish and furnish the building. On the 14th of May, 1866, another parish-meeting was held for the purpose of organizing as a religious corporation under the State Constitution. Articles of association were adopted, and it was agreed to borrow the sum of fifty thousand dollars to complete the church. After several failures the loan was negotiated, and the work went on. The contributions to the building fund on Easter-day, 1867, amounted to twenty-one thousand five hundred and forty-seven dollars, and the construction of the edifice was now pushed more rapidly. In June, 1867, a proposition was made by Davis and Ritchie to erect galleries in the north and south transepts, on the condition that they should receive the proceeds of the sale of these pews and their rental for two years, the rental after that period to revert to the church. The sum of five thousand four hundred and fifty dollars was also realized in the presentation to the church by different individuals of twenty memorial windows. The church was first used for public worship on Christmas-day, 1867. During the interval the congregation had worshiped in the chapel, which was itself a church of moderate dimensions, and had been built as nearly as possible in accordance with the original plans. It was of the Gothic style of architecture, and its interior finish was elegant and beautiful.

In its completed form, Christ Church is undoubtedly one of the noblest edifices of its kind in the country. The architecture is Gothic, of the ornate early English style, and the arrangement is that of a nave and aisles. The nave is one hundred and twenty-six feet long, thirty-six feet wide, and ninety-three feet high, twenty-five feet higher than that of Trinity Church, and only ten feet lower than that of Westminster Abbey. The north and south aisles are each sixty-eight by fourteen feet wide, and the north and south transepts each eighteen by thirty-six feet. The chancel is thirty-five feet deep by thirty-seven and a half feet wide, and is separated from the nave by a handsome arch. The total interior length is one hundred and sixty-one feet. At the north side is a vestry-room, into, which a door opens from the chancel, and above the vestry-room there is a rector's study. A gallery is placed across the north and south transepts, and also at the west end of the nave, where the organ is situated. At the northwest corner of the building is the tower, as yet uncompleted. The structure is built in the most substantial manner throughout. All the stone used in the building is the Illinois sandstone. The roof of the nave and chancel is open-timbered, massive in its framing and mouldings, and richly decorated. The uncompleted tower is to be one hundred and fifty feet high without spire, and handsomely ornamented. A stone porch and flying buttresses are also yet to be built. The walls and buttresses, and the mullions and tracery of the windows,

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are all of stone. The heavy stone arches of the chancel, transepts, and nave rest on four columns four feet in diameter, octagonal in shape and without capitals, a feature which adds to their apparent height and the grace of the arches. The lofty clearstory is supported by octagonal pillars two feet ten inches in diameter. The seating capacity (including the transept galleries) is fifteen hundred. The chapel attached will seat three hundred persons, and has connected with it rooms for Sunday-school, library, ladies' charitable meetings, choir rehearsals, and social gatherings. The windows of the church and chapel are of stained glass, and the pews and interior fittings throughout are of black walnut. The pulpit is octagonal and of handsome design, as are also the altar, chancel rail, stalls, and prayer-desks. The edifice cost two hundred and thirty-five thousand dollars, and is un-equaled in the city, and almost in the United States, for the massive grandeur of its interior. The rector reported during 1882 four hundred and thirty-four communicants, and an attendance at Sunday-school of two hundred and thirty-nine scholars.

The congregation of Christ Church celebrated the semi-centennial anniversary of its organization on the 1st of November, 1869. The sermon was preached by the rector, Rev. Dr. Schuyler.

St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal Church was the second Episcopal congregation established in St. Louis. On the 5th of November, 1839, a preliminary meeting was held in the basement of Christ Church, at which Bishop Kemper presided, to take into consideration the expediency of establishing a new parish. It was decided that such action was expedient, and a committee of thirteen of the leading members of Christ Church was appointed to co-operate with the Rev. Mr. Minard in carrying the resolution into effect. The movement was regarded as being of a missionary character, and the church was usually spoken of as the Mission Church. St. Paul's Church was organized, and the first vestry were elected on the 20th of April, 1840. Its first rector was the Rev. Peter R. Minard, previously assistant at Christ Church, whose pastorate lasted from 1840 to 1846. Mr. Minard's successors were William B. Corbyn, 1846-48; David P. Sanford, 1850-51; William A. Leach, 1851-54; D. Gordon Estes, 1854-55; R. E. Terry, 1856-60. During Mr. Terry's pastorate a new church edifice was consecrated. The congregation had worshiped since its organization in a building at the corner of Fifth and Wash Streets, for which five thousand dollars was paid, but in 1856 this property was sold, and in the following year lots were purchased at the southwest corner of Olive and Seventeenth Streets. On this site a church and rectory were built at a cost of sixty-four thousand dollars, the work of construction having been begun in March, 1857, and the corner-stone laid, Bishop Hawks officiating, May 10, 1857. The church was finished and consecrated on the 19th of June, 1859. Dr. Hawks began the service by reciting the 24th Psalm, and was followed by the Rev. Mr. Clerc, of Grace Church, who read the usual form of request for consecration. The rector, Rev. Mr. Terry, read the sentence of consecration, and Rev. Mr. Weller, of Jefferson City, and Rev. Mr. Dunn, of Hannibal, read the prayers. The lessons were read by the Rev. Mr. Clerc, of Grace Church. Bishop Hawks preached the consecration sermon, after which the communion was celebrated. The location of the church was at that time more westerly than that of any other Protestant Church in the city. It was of Gothic architecture, with a front of sixty feet and a depth of one hundred and twenty feet. The tower rose to a height of eighty feet, and the front elevation was fifty feet from the pavement. An organ "of the workmanship of Messrs. Pilcher & Brother," of St. Louis, was placed in the building.

Rev. R. E. Terry, rector of the church, studied law in the office of Henry S. Geyer, of St. Louis, and practiced his profession for two years in Howard County. He then studied theology, and was ordained a minister of the Protestant Episcopal Church. On assuming the pastorate he found that the number of communicants had dwindled to thirty-five. The congregation soon removed from Fifth and Wash Streets, where it had previously been established, to the hall of the Washington University, and services were held at the latter place until plans could be matured for the erection of the proposed new church. Through Mr. Terry's energetic labors, seconded by those of the congregation, the erection of the new building was pushed rapidly to completion. In 1861 the church had become so heavily encumbered with debt that the congregation was forced to sell the property, and St. Paul's became extinct.

St. Paul's Church (P. E.), Third near Lafayette Street, South St. Louis (Carondelet), Rev. Joseph De Forest, rector, was organized in the summer of 1868, and held its first services August 30th of that year. The service was read by Rev. Charles Stewart, and the sermon was preached by Rev, E. F. Berkley. The congregation worshiped in rented halls until its present church was built. The property cost about five thousand dollars. The rectors have been the Revs. Charles Stewart, 1868-69; W. G. Spencer, D. D., 1869-70; M. S. Woodruff, 1870-72; O. H. Staples, 1873-79; J. P. T. Ingraham, 1879-81; and the present pastor

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since 1881. The church reports thirty-eight families and seventy-five communicants connected with the congregation, and three teachers with sixty children in the Sunday-school.

St. John's Protestant Episcopal Church. — A meeting of Episcopalians in favor of forming a parish in the southern part of St. Louis was held in Christ Church Oct. 12, 1841. Rev. Mr. Minard was chosen chairman, and J. W. Twitchell acted as secretary. On the 28th of December, 1861, St. John's Church was formally organized and the first vestry elected. At the same time the Rev. Whiting Griswold was chosen rector. Services were held at first on the upper floor of an engine-house, on Second Street south of Plum, it being deemed inexpedient to build a church at that time, owing to the financial embarrassment of the mother parish, — Christ Church. Subsequently a brick edifice was erected on leased ground at the corner of Fifth and Spruce Streets. This was replaced by another brick structure, seating five hundred persons, erected at the southeast corner of Sixth and Spruce Streets, which was consecrated by Bishop Hawks in the latter part of August, 1853. This property was sold in 1871 for fifteen thousand dollars, for the use of the Italian Catholic congregation.

Rev. Whiting Griswold, first rector, died on the 24th of July, 1849, from congestion of the brain, superinduced by overwork during the yellow fever pestilence. At the time of Mr. Griswold's death a lot had been purchased at Eighth and Gratiot Streets and the foundation laid for a new church edifice. After that clergyman's death the vestry were compelled to sell the lot, but in 1852, during the pastorate of the Rev. Francis J. Clerc, they purchased the property at Sixth and Spruce Streets and erected a small church, as previously stated. Over the chancel a mural tablet was placed in memory of Mr. Griswold.

The erection of the present edifice was begun in 1870, and the corner-stone was laid by the Right Rev. C. F. Robertson, bishop of the diocese, on the 1st of August, 1871. The new church, situated at the northeast corner of Hickory and Dolman Streets, was completed in 1872, after designs by F. W. Reader. The building is of brick, and is one of the most beautiful churches in the city. Besides the main structure, it has Sunday-school- and lecture-rooms, rector's study, library, etc. Its rectors have been the Revs. Whiting Griswold, 1841-49; Francis J. Clerc, 1849-57; William R. Johnson, 1858; John Coleman, D. D., 1859-61; William G. Spencer, 1861-68; J. P. T., Ingraham, D. D., 1868-79; and the present pastor, Rev. Joseph T. Wright, since 1880. The communicants reported for 1882 number two hundred and thirty-seven, and the Sunday-school had nine teachers and an average attendance of one hundred scholars.

Grace Protestant Episcopal Church, Eleventh and Warren Streets, Rev. J. P. T. Ingraham, rector, was organized in May, 1844. Its site was a lot of ground in the Chambers tract, North St. Louis. This property was originally owned by Col. William Chambers, of Kentucky, an officer of the United States army stationed in St. Louis, who purchased it in 1816. Several years later Col. Chambers sold one-third of the tract to Maj. Thomas Wright, and another third to William Christy, father-in-law of Maj. Wright. Soon after the admission of Missouri as a State, Messrs. Chambers, Wright, and Christy united in a plan for the establishment of a town upon their property. A plat of the proposed town was made, and four parcels of land were dedicated to the general use of the city. One of these, designated as "Circle No. 3," was set apart "for the purpose of erecting a house of worship and a burying-ground, to be opened for the interment of all denominations of religious persons." The street around this circle was named Church Street, but was afterwards known as Marion Alley. The circle afterwards became the site of Grace Church and graveyard. It was about three hundred feet in diameter, and contained nearly one and three-quarter acres in area. Subsequently the heirs and assigns of the proprietors disputed the title of Grace Church to the cemetery lot, and litigation followed. Bishop Hawks, in an address to the Diocesan Convention in 1860, gave the following account of the organization of Grace Church:

"Acting by the advice of my friend, that learned member of the bar, Mr. Josiah Spalding, then senior warden of Christ Church, of which I was rector, and with the hearty co-operation of the Rev. P. E. Minard, then rector of St. Paul's Church, St. Louis, and Mr. Calvin Case, a zealous layman in North St. Louis, all of whom are now deceased, I caused a subscription to be raised in North St. Louis, to which two-thirds of the inhabitants subscribed, to build an Episcopal Church upon that ground. Having obtained this, I filed the record and inclosed the ground. Grace Church was then organized, and soon a small church building was erected. Messrs. Cressy, Weller, and Woodward were the successive pastors in this weak enterprise. At length the Rev. Mr. Clerc became the rector, and under him the old edifice was beautifully enlarged, and, thus enlarged, it was my comfort to consecrate it. The property, in the day when it was given, was considered of little value, but with the growth of our city has become very valuable. It is not far, too, from our Orphans' Home, and, from its position alone, has become almost the chapel and the guardian, as spiritual things, of that institution."

The charter of Grace Church recites that, whereas Circle No. 3, "just west of Sixth Street," had been set apart for the erection of a house of worship thereon, and the inhabitants of North St. Louis had organized

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an association for worship according to the forms and discipline of the Protestant Episcopal Church, therefore "the undersigned, proprietors and representatives" of the original proprietors, agreed, in consideration of the premises and of one dollar paid to them by Martha T. Christy, of North St. Louis, to relinquish and convey to her all their right and title to the property in question. This instrument was executed on the 31st of May, 1844, and was signed by M. T. Christy, Mary A. Wright, M. N. Taylor, and M. F. Christy. A supplementary agreement was entered into to the effect that, inasmuch as the property for the church edifice had been secured and a vestry organized, the subscribers would pay to Calvin Case, treasurer of the vestry, the sums set opposite their names. The signatures of one hundred and ten persons were subscribed to this document, attached to which was the acknowledgment of Archibald Carr, justice of the peace, that Calvin Case had sworn that the list of subscribers comprised two-thirds of the heads of families residing in North St. Louis on the 9th of April, 1845. The Mrs. Martha T. Christy mentioned in the charter as trustee for the property was the widow of William Christy, and the most active of the persons engaged in the work of organizing the church and establishing the cemetery. Among the members of the first vestry and most of the successive vestries were Dr. Alfred Heacock, Dwight Durkee, Hon. Isaac H. Sturgeon, Thomas L. Sturgeon, Daniel A. Rollins, Benjamin O'Fallon, Joseph Branch, and John Halsell. Henry Overstolz, afterwards mayor of the city, was a vestryman of this church in 1850, and Hon. Erastus Wells was a member of the vestry in 1854. The cemetery was consecrated by Bishop Hawks, and the erection of the church edifice was begun in 1846. The building was not completed until 1851, but services were held in it without intermission after its construction had been sufficiently far advanced to permit of its use. It was a wooden structure, in the form of a cross, and with a steeple, and stood on elevated ground, the entrance being reached by a long flight of steps. In 1860 the building was enlarged, and on the 15th of April of that year was consecrated by Bishop Hawks, assisted by Rev. Dr. Schuyler, of Christ Church, Rev. Dr. Coleman, of St. John's, Rev. Mr. Terry, of St. Paul's, Rev. Mr. Berkley, of St. George's, Rev. Mr. Clark, of Calvary, and Rev. Mr. Clerc, rector of the parish. The consecration sermon was preached by the Rev. Dr. Coleman. In 1881 the ground, which was twenty feet above the grade of the street, was cut away, and the church, which had faced the east, was let down and turned so as to face the south, and was greatly improved. It will now seat seven hundred persons. The parsonage, which stood a few steps from the church, was erected during the pastorate of the Rev. Mr. Woodward. The renovated church was reconsecrated Sunday, May 28, 1882. As it had once been formally consecrated by the bishop, it was deemed unnecessary to repeat the ceremonies in full, and a consecration prayer merely was therefore offered. The services were conducted by the pastor, Rev. Dr. Ingraham, and his assistant, the Rev. Mr. Phelps. Dr. Ingraham preached the consecration sermon, in the course of which he stated that the amount required to defray the cost of the alterations, payment of the old debt, etc., was ten thousand five hundred dollars. Of this sum five thousand dollars had been given and pledged by Joseph W. Branch, and over five thousand dollars more by the parishioners, leaving an indebtedness still remaining of one thousand three hundred and thirty dollars.

The rectors of St. John's have been the Revs. E. H. Cressy, 1845-48; R. H. Weller, 1850-51; W. H. Woodward, 1851-58; Francis J. Clerc, 1858-60; Bishop C. S. Hawks, D. D., 1863-67; William L. Githens, 1868-73; William N. Webbe, 1873-74; William L. Githens, 1874-77; Abiel Leonard, 1877-78; J. Gierlow, Ph. D., 1878-81; J. P. T. Ingraham, 1881. Dr. Ingraham is still the rector. Rev. Philip McKim and Benjamin O'Fallon were respectively assistant rector and lay reader of the church in its early days. According to the report of the rector for 1882, there were ninety communicants and sixteen teachers and one hundred and sixty children in the Sunday-school.

St. George's Protestant Episcopal Church is situated at the northwest corner of Beaumont and Chestnut Streets, Rev. John Fulton, D. D., rector. The organization of this parish grew out of the loss of Kemper College, which was sold for debt in 1845, while Rev. E. Carter Hutchinson was its president. Some time before Bishop Hawks was invited to become rector of Christ Church, Mr. Hutchinson had received a call from the vestry, but had declined it, his friends wishing him to remain at the head of the college. When the college was sold, many who were attached to him, in order to retain him in the diocese, proposed to organize a parish of which he should be the rector, and under date of March 22, 1845, addressed to Bishop Hawks the following petition:

"The undersigned, being anxious to advance the interests of the Protestant Episcopal Church in this growing city, beg leave to state that the medical faculty of the St. Louis University have generously offered the use of their hall, on Washington Avenue, between Tenth and Eleventh Streets, as a house of religious worship, during the spring, summer, and autumn months. As there

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is a rapidly increasing population in that neighborhood, we deem it important that a speedy effort should be made to present the claims of the church there. We understand there is a canon of the church forbidding a clergyman to officiate within the limits of a city where there are regularly organized churches without the consent of the settled rector or rectors. We do, therefore, most respectfully and earnestly solicit your permission and co-operation in the furtherance of our wishes. We have understood that the Rev. Mr. Hutchinson, late president of Kemper College, will probably spend some months in this vicinity for the purpose of arranging some matters of business, and although he has not been advised with by us on the subject we are not without hope that his services may be procured in aid of this important object." Signed, James Hutton, Robert Ranken, James Gresham, Robert C. Greer, David H. Armstrong, Frederic L. Billon, Isaiah Forbes, W. Carr Lane, H. S. Greyer, B. H. Randolph, Edward Tracy, Thomas Shore, Samuel B. Churchill, H. W. Chambers, Thomas T. Russell, Charles Pettit, Z. B. Curtis, T. S. Rutherford, P. H. McBride, Edward B. Archer, B. H. Batte, Henry C. Hart, David M. Hill, Henry B. Belt, Josiah Spalding, Britton A. Hill, M. S. Gray, J. O'Fallon, W. H. Pritchartt, Henry Von Phul, G. Erskine, Edward Mead, William Glasgow, B. Wash, Wm. Smith, H. S. Case, Thomas Skinker, Edward Stagg, J. S. B. Alleyne, Julius Morise, Edward Charless, John D. Daggett, Dr. John Shore, F. W. Southack.

The necessary consent having been obtained, a meeting was held in the hall of the St. Louis Lyceum, Gen. William Milburn presiding, and a new parish organized, with the Rev. E. C. Hutchinson as rector, and John O'Fallon, Henry S. Geyer, William Milburn, Thomas Shore, James Henry, Josephus W. Hall, and Josiah Dent as vestrymen. The name of St. George was given to the church by the rector, after a church of the same name in New York, in charge of Dr. Milnor, a leader of the Evangelical school, the doctrines of which were indorsed by Mr. Hutchinson. On May 13, 1846, the church was admitted into the Diocesan Convention, and reported fifty-five communicants. For nearly two years the services were held in the morning at the public school-house on Sixth Street, and in the afternoon at the Methodist Church on Fifth Street. The first church building erected by the parish stood on Locust Street near Seventh, and was dedicated April 13, 1847. In 1851, Rev. S. G. Gassaway, of Georgetown, D. C., was chosen assistant rector. Questions which had arisen as to the administration, and afterwards as to the loss of Kemper College, of which Mr. Hutchinson was one of the creditors, caused much feeling and division, and although St. George's Church was built expressly for its first rector, and many of his friends thought that he should have remained and outlived the opposition which had begun to be manifested, after an assistant minister had been called Mr. Hutchinson resigned, in 1852, and three years later organized Trinity Church. Mr. Gassaway then became rector. He was one of the victims of the explosion of the St. Louis and Alton packet, just after it had left the St. Louis wharf, Feb. 16, 1854. His many virtues and zealous devotion to his parish had greatly endeared him to his parishioners, who presented his family with five thousand dollars, and erected to his memory a marble tablet, which was placed in the church, and subsequently removed to the walls of the new building and placed near the font.

The rectors of the church since then have been Rev. William Colvin Brown, deacon, ordained priest Dec. 10, 1854; Rev. T. A. Hopkins, son of Bishop Hopkins, of Vermont, called July 8, 1855, resigned in the fall of 1857; Rev. Edward F. Berkley, D. D., of Lexington, Ky., 310 took charge Nov. 20, 1858, resigned Dec. 5, 1871; Rev. Robert A. Holland, of Baltimore, called Jan. 1, 1872, resigned Nov. 1, 1879, to take charge of Trinity Church, Chicago; Rev. S. W. Young, of Canada, had temporary oversight of the parish until the present rector entered upon his duties (April 4, 1880). After the death of Mr. Gassaway, St. George's parish fell off from one hundred and fifty-five communicants to sixty-eight; the indebtedness increased from six thousand nine hundred dollars to over ten thousand dollars, and in February, 1855, a number of the members withdrew to form Trinity Church. In 1856, however, the Rev. Mr. Hopkins reported one hundred and sixty-six communicants and the church free from debt. In 1857 the church bought a lot in Bellefontaine cemetery for the interment of its indigent communicants. In 1860 the organ which is still in use was bought for four thousand three hundred dollars. At the close of the war, in 1865, the church was in debt to the extent of fifteen thousand dollars, but this was fully paid off in 1866. In September, 1868, the Diocesan Convention, which elected Bishop Robertson, was held in this church. In 1871 the present site of the church was bought for eighteen thousand six hundred and fifty-six dollars, and in 1872 the first church building and lot on Locust Street were sold to John R. Shepley for fifty thousand dollars, although services

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continued to be held there until the chapel of the new building; was completed, May 1, 1873. The cornerstone of the present church edifice was laid May 30, 1873, and the first services in the completed church were held on Easter Sunday, 1874. The building is cruciform, the nave being one hundred and fourteen by fifty-five feet, and the transepts seventy-seven by twenty-five feet. The height from the street to the finial of the spire is one hundred and forty-five feet. The seating capacity is eight hundred. The property cost in all one hundred and fifteen thousand dollars, and a debt of fifty-nine thousand dollars which remained at the time of completion was entirely canceled in May, 1879. The present officers of the church are: Senior Warden, John W. Luke; Junior Warden, Joseph W. Branch; Secretary, D. E. Garrison; Treasurer, M. W. Alexander; Vestry, Edwin Harrison, Isaac M. Mason, Hugh Rogers, John G. Wells, H. T. Simon, H. H. Curtis, John D. Pope, John C. Orrick, and Western Bascome. The number of communicants in 1882 was two hundred and seventy-five, and the Sunday-school pupils numbered four hundred.

Trinity Protestant Episcopal Church is situated at the northwest corner of Washington Avenue and Eleventh Street. Rev. George C. Betts is its rector. In the sketch of St. George's Church it was stated that Rev. E. Carter Hutchinson, D. D., resigned the rectorship of that parish in 1852, much against the wishes of a large number of his friends. These friends at once conceived the project of organizing a new parish for him, but nearly three years elapsed before their efforts were successful. In February, 1855, however, Trinity parish was organized, mainly by members of St. George's, who withdrew for the purpose, and who elected as the first vestry, James W. Finley, senior warden; T. S. Rutherford, junior warden; and L. Levering, C. Derby, N. Phillips, T. Skinker, W. M. Price, M. Moody, S. O. Butler, T. Griffiths, L. P. Perry, E. Barry, and J. Y. Page, vestrymen. The new congregation met at first, and for some months, in St. Paul's Church, corner of Fifth and Wash Streets. A hall was then rented from the Cumberland Presbyterians, at Eleventh and St. Charles Streets, and later a building which had been used by the Congregationalists on Locust between Tenth and Eleventh Streets. The present site of the church was leased for a term of forty years from Feb. 1, 1859, Messrs. Derby, Powell, and Shands being the selecting committee, and in October, 1859, the erection of the building was begun. The corner-stone of the church was laid with impressive services by Bishop Hawks, assisted by several other clergymen, on March 14, 1860, and the rector, Dr. Hutchinson, preached his first sermon in the completed building, then considered one of the finest in the city, on June 20, 1861. The structure was sixty-six feet long, forty-seven feet wide, and fifty-six feet high. The number of communicants June 20, 1861, was one hundred and thirty. On Jan. 22, 1865, the Church was burned down, but was immediately rebuilt and again consecrated Aug. 27, 1865. It is a neat stone edifice, with a seating capacity of nearly seven hundred, and has a chapel and Sunday-school room in the rear. Dr. Hutchinson resigned the rectorship Feb. 1, 1869, and was succeeded by Rev. J. D. Easter, D. D., who served until 1872. During this period the parish suffered greatly from financial embarrassments and the withdrawal of its members, several of whom joined in organizing the Church of the Holy Communion. Rev. Joseph Cross, D. D., served as rector for a few months in 1872, but on the 15th of November, 1872, Bishop Robertson assumed the rectorship, with Rev. Edwin Coan as assistant, and under their management strenuous efforts were made to clear off the debt. Several changes were introduced, one that remains yet being the substitution for the paid choir of one composed of surpliced men and boys, whose music has become justly celebrated, The present rector entered upon his duties on Easter, 1876. Under his ministrations the church has prospered, and is now in a fair way to clear off all incumbrances. When the lease expires in 1899, or perhaps sooner, the parish will probably be prepared for a removal farther west. The congregation at present numbers about one hundred families, or four hundred and fifty persons, with two hundred and seventy-five communicants. The Sunday-school is attended by ten teachers and eighty scholars.

The Protestant Episcopal Church of the Holy Communion, situated at the northwest corner of Twenty-eighth Street (Leffingwell Avenue) and Washington Avenue. Rev. P. G. Robert, rector, grew out of a mission Sunday-school in connection with Trinity Church (Rev. Dr. Hutchinson, rector), with William H. Thomson superintendent, which was held in a brick school-house on Morgan Street, near Garrison Avenue. This building had been fitted up for religious purposes, and services were held in it thenceforward every Tuesday evening, the city clergy officiating in turn. After several unsuccessful efforts the parish was finally organized Jan. 24, 1869, its first vestry consisting of Francis Webster and William T. Mason, wardens; Francis Carter, James Wilgus, N. G. Hart, William J. Lewis, R. W. Powell, R. M. Wilson, H. G. Isaacs, L. E. Alexander, William

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H. Thomson, Elijah Welles, and J. T. Utterback. Francis Carter was elected clerk, and L. E. Alexander treasurer. Rev. P. G. Robert, then at Little Rock was chosen rector, and preached his first sermon June 6, 1869. A lot was bought on the corner of Washington and Ewing Avenues, which was subsequently exchanged for the present site, which is eighty and three-twelfths feet in width, and cost twelve thousand dollars. Ground was broken June 15, 1870, and a chapel (now the transept) was built and first occupied Dec. 18, 1870. The little school-house on Morgan Street, which this congregation had up to this period used, was the property of William J. Lewis (one of the vestrymen), who had given the use of it, rent free, for five years. Its site is now occupied by a residence. Work on the nave was begun June 15, 1876, the first stone was laid July 2, 1876, and the whole church was opened for service on Easter Eve, March 31, 1877. The building is of stone, and one hundred and twenty-five feet in depth, and it contains seven hundred and two sittings. In this church no pews are sold, and the singing is congregational, these having been two of the conditions upon which the rector took charge of the parish. Nearly all the furniture and ornaments of the church are memorials of deceased persons. The sacred vessels were manufactured from silver relics of departed friends, some of the articles being nearly two hundred years old, contributed for the purpose by members of the congregation. The communion-plate was first used Jan. 2, 1876, and the alms-basin on the Easter following. While the nave of the church was building the congregation worshiped in a wooden chapel which they had purchased from Dr. Brank's congregation. The parish began with twenty-three communicants, and now numbers four hundred and seven. Its membership embraces two hundred and twenty families. The Sunday-school has twenty-seven teachers and an attendance of two hundred and seventy-five pupils. Connected with the church are the Parish Aid Society, Maternity Society for assisting poor women, Young Ladies' Sewing Circle, and the Parish Missionary Society, all in vigorous operation, and the Parish Guild. The Parish Record, a four-page monthly journal, is published by an association of members of the parish. Its first number was issued Nov. 28, 1880.

Mount Calvary Protestant Episcopal Church, southwest corner of Lafayette and Jefferson Avenues, Rev. Benjamin E. Reed, rector, was organized Sept. 6, 1870, in Compton Hill Mission school-house, a small frame building on Henrietta Street, north of Lafayette Avenue. Prominent among its founders were George D. Appleton, Wells Hendershott, Lewis Lipman, James O. Broadhead, T. A. Hutchins, David Davis, and Hugh Davis. Henry Shaw gave a lot, one hundred and seventy-five by four hundred feet, at the head of Lafayette Avenue, on Grand Avenue, and on this, through the munificence of George D. Appleton, who defrayed nearly the entire cost, a beautiful church was built at an expenditure, for building, furniture, etc., of about twelve thousand dollars. It was consecrated in 1871. C. B. Clark was the architect. The rectors have been Rev. W. O. Jarvis, who took charge Jan. 23, 1871, resigned Jan. 31, 1872; Rev. Dr. Hedges (pro tem.), resigned Sept. 30, 1872; Rev. Benjamin E. Reed, took charge Dec. 25, 1873. In the spring of 1877, the congregation having grown too large for the building, and the remoteness of the situation rendering its removal advisable, a joint-stock company was formed, under the title of "The Mount Calvary Building Association," which having purchased a lot seventy-five by one hundred and forty feet on Lafayette and Jefferson Avenues, erected (1877-78) a chapel with a seating capacity of three hundred and fifty, and at a cost of ten thousand dollars. This also has since proved too contracted, and the parish is contemplating the building of a large and handsome church capable of seating from eight hundred to one thousand. The present rector is also chaplain of the Episcopal Orphans' Home. The property on Grand Avenue still belongs to the parish. There are several societies belonging to the congregation, — a Humane Society (organized in 1872) for the relief of the poor, that has done important work, distributing in gifts about six hundred dollars per annum; a Sewing Society, Young Ladies' Association, Parish Library, Young Men's Guild, and a Missionary Society. In 1882 there were one hundred and eighty-six communicants, and the Sunday-school was attended by over thirty teachers and three hundred scholars.

Calvary Protestant Episcopal Church, an off-shoot from Christ Church, was organized in August, 1859, by the Rev. J. W. Clark. Mr. Clark undertook the work with the understanding that there was to be no charge for pews or seats. At first the congregation worshiped in Veranda Hall, but soon after its organization steps were taken for the erection of a church building at the corner of Morgan and Twenty-first Streets, after designs by George Mitchell, of St. Louis. The corner-stone was laid on Sunday, June 4, 1860. The architecture was Gothic, of the early English style, and the exterior dimensions of the building, including vestibule, porch, and bell-gable, were to be one hundred and thirty-seven by fifty feet, affording about one thousand sittings. The material

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to be used was brick with stone dressings, and the estimated cost was ten thousand dollars. Had it been completed it would have been the largest Episcopal Church in St. Louis, with the exception of the new Christ Church. The building committee was composed of E. Morgan, James Duncan, E. J. Cubbage, and Samuel Spencer. The church was never built. In his historical address, at the semi-centennial anniversary of Christ Church in 1869, Rev. Dr. Schuyler stated that the enterprise "soon died out."

St. James Protestant Episcopal Church, Elleardsville, Rev. C. S. Hedges, D. D., rector, was organized in 1870 (services having been held for a year before that), in which year the building of the church was begun. The edifice was completed and consecrated by Bishop Robertson, May 29, 1871. The rectors have been Revs. J. I. Corbyn, 1870-74; Louis S. Schuyler, 1874-75; D. E. Barr, 1875-76; and the present pastor since 1876. In 1882 there were twenty communicants, and forty pupils in the Sunday-school.

The Protestant Episcopal Church of the Holy Innocents, Oak Hill, Rev. Thomas H. Gordon, rector, was organized in the spring of 1871, Rev. Edwin Wickins holding the first services. The rectors have been the Revs. A. I. Samuels, M. D., 1871-72; J. N. Chestnutt, 1872-73; Louis S. Schuyler, 1873-78; A. Batte, 1879-80; Thomas H. Gordon since 1881. The church has no building of its own. The last report of the rector stated that there were fifty-five communicants, and ninety individuals connected with the Sunday-school.

The Protestant Episcopal Mission Church of the Good Shepherd, Eighth Street, between Lancaster and Pestalozzi Streets, Rev. H. A. Grantham, rector, was organized in March, 1871, in a building on Seventh Street, near Sidney, where the congregation worshiped until the completion of the present chapel in 1873. This building has since been enlarged. The rectors have been the Revs. Edwin Wickins, 1871-73; M. A. Hyde, 1873-75; H. D. Jardine, 1875-79; and the present rector since 1881. The communicants number one hundred and five, and the Sunday-school is attended by five teachers and fifty pupils.

St. Peter's Protestant Episcopal Church, Grand Avenue, between Olive Street and Washington Avenue, Rev. Edward F. Berkley, D. D., rector, was organized by its present rector in 1872, in a hall on the northeast corner of Jefferson Avenue and Olive Street, where worship was continued until the chapel now occupied was finished, in the fall of 1873. This chapel is of stone, of Gothic architecture, and will seat two hundred and fifty persons. It stands in the rear of the lot bought by the church in 1872, on the northeast corner of Olive Street and Washington Avenue, the front part of which was sold after the erection of the chapel, fifty-five by one hundred feet being retained. The rector reports about sixty communicants, and one hundred and twenty pupils in the Sunday-school.

The Protestant Episcopal Church of the Good Samaritan, Rev. Cassius M. C. Mason, rector, was organized in 1873 by Rev. James E. Thompson, for colored members of the church. It was then called the Mission of our Saviour, and worshiped in the chapel of Trinity Church until 1875, when the old Jewish Synagogue, on Sixth Street, near Cerré, was purchased for its use. This building, however, was abandoned in 1881, the location having proved unsuitable, and the congregation now meets for worship in Trinity Church, at Eleventh Street and Washington Avenue. The second and present rector (appointed Sept. 26, 1880) reports forty-four families, or two hundred persons, with seventy communicants, as being connected with his church, and five teachers with ninety pupils in the Sunday-school.

The Protestant Episcopal Church of the Advent, Twentieth Street, near Wash, Rev. J. N. Chestnutt, rector, was formed out of a mission Sunday-school which was organized in 1871 and met in the Masonic Hall, corner of Wash and Eighteenth Streets, until 1876, when the present building was bought from the Presbyterians. It has since been much improved. The rectors have been the Revs. D. E. Barr, 1875-76; L. E. Brainerd, 1876-77; and the present pastor since 1877. There are eighty-three communicants, and ten teachers and seventy-five pupils in the Sunday-school.

St. Luke's Protestant Episcopal Mission was begun in 1881 in a hall at the corner of Garrison and Easton Avenues, where its services are still held. Rev. John Gierlow, Ph. D., is the rector.


Church of the Messiah. — In the summer of 1830, Rev. Dr. John Pierrepont, an eminent Unitarian divine, poet, and temperance advocate, visited St. Louis and preached in the market-house at Main and Market Streets. Three years later Rev. George Chapman, a Unitarian minister from Louisville, Ky., preached three times in the parlor of the National Hotel, corner of Market and Third Streets, then just built. There existed in St. Louis at the time a small band of Unitarians, recent immigrants from New England, and among these Christopher Rhodes, James

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Smith, and George H. Callender specially interested themselves in raising funds to provide for the rent of a room or hall and the board and lodging expenses of a minister. Their efforts resulted in the establishment in November, 1834, of regular religious exercises in Elihu H. Shepard's school-rooms, opposite the courthouse. The minister was Rev. W. G. Eliot, Jr., then a recent graduate of the Harvard University Divinity School, and afterwards one of the most distinguished preachers and educators of St. Louis. On the 26th of January, 1835, "The First Congregational Society of St. Louis" was organized, with C. Rhodes as president, and Joseph M. Chadwick as secretary and treasurer. On the 1st of November of that year the society removed from the school-rooms to the third story of the Masonic Hall, at the corner of Main and Locust Streets, over John Riggins' store. This building is still standing, being one of the few business structures spared by the great fire of 1849. Previous to this, however, the society had purchased a lot at the corner of Fourth and Pine Streets. The corner-stone of the first church located on this site was laid in May, 1836, and the building was dedicated on the 29th of October, 1837. In 1842 it was enlarged, the addition being half the original size of the building, which, as remodeled, presented the appearance of a Grecian temple of the Doric order. In the winter of 1835-36 an informal association for the care of the poor, which has continued in active operation ever since, was organized. The first communion service was held at Easter, 1836, eight persons participating, and two years later, the number of communicants having doubled, a regular church covenant was adopted. In 1836 the first attempt was made to establish a Sunday-school, but it failed; eight teachers appeared, but no scholars. In the spring of 1837, however, a very small Sunday-school was organized, which in 1839 was put under the care of Seth A. Ranlett as superintendent, who served as such until 1870. In the fall of 1840 a "ministry at large" was established, Revs. Charles H. A. Dall, Mordecai De Lange, Carlos G. Ward, and Thomas L. Eliot, a son of Dr. Eliot, now settled at Portland, Oregon, successively, but irregularly, filling the position, and in November, 1841, the church members resolved themselves into a charitable association, with the minister at large as agent, for the conduct of schools for the poor, sewing and industrial schools, etc. For the use of these schools some years later a house and lot on Eighth Street, between Locust and St. Charles, were secured at a cost of fifteen thousand dollars. In 1879-80 the present mission house, a beautiful structure, situated at the southwest corner of Ninth and Wash Streets, was erected and endowed, with provision for twenty-five constant inmates, orphans or neglected children. Here are conducted a day school of fifty children, for whom dinner is regularly supplied, and who receive more or less aid during the winter; a sewing-school, which meets on Saturdays, with two hundred and sixty scholars; and a Sunday-school with an attendance of nearly three hundred. Occasional Sunday services are held, although no minister at large is now employed. On the 1st of May, 1850, ground was broken, and on the 1st of July following the corner-stone of a second church edifice was laid at the northwest corner of Olive and Ninth Streets, and the building, though not quite completed, was dedicated Dec. 7, 1851. It cost, when finished, one hundred and five thousand dollars, nearly half of which remained as a debt. For the purpose of devising a plan for the liquidation of this debt, a meeting of twenty gentlemen was held at the house of John Tilden, Oct. 19, 1852. Subsequently, by means of contributions varying from one hundred to three thousand dollars, several persons borrowing the money they gave, and the sale of pews, the whole amount was raised, and when all obligations were canceled a small amount remained over. The new church was a beautiful edifice of brick with stone cappings, and having a seating capacity of twelve hundred. It was situated on a lot, the dimensions of which were one hundred and five by one hundred and fifty-two feet, and had two fronts of seventy and one hundred and twenty feet respectively. The style of architecture was nominally "mixed Gothic," but possessed features original with the architect. Its general effect was that of breadth, solidity, and spaciousness. The building was regarded at the time as a model of good workmanship, and as being one of the finest and most durable church edifices in the city. The steeple was one hundred and sixty-seven feet in height, and was covered with thick copper plates from its base on the tower to its top. The church was sold in June, 1879, for seventy thousand dollars, and was converted into Pope's Theatre. Dr. Eliot continued as pastor of the society until the close of 1872, when he retired to become chancellor of Washington University, but at various times the pulpit was filled for continuous terms by other clergymen, either in the absence of the pastor or as his associates. Rev. W. O. White, of Keene, N. H., served for several months in 1846-47, and Rev. Robert Hassal was chosen as "colleague" during 1850, and Rev. Carlton A. Staples served in the same capacity from 1857 till October, 1861. Rev. Thomas Lamb Eliot was ordained as associate pastor in 1865, and continued as such until December, 1867. Rev. John

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Snyder, of Hingham, Mass., was unanimously elected to succeed Dr. Eliot as pastor, and was installed April 20, 1873, Rev. Dr. Henry W. Bellows preaching the installation sermon. On the 6th of July, 1879, the last services were held in the old church, after which the congregation worshiped first in a small chapel on Beaumont Street, then at Pickwick Hall, and then in the Mission House at Ninth and Wash Streets. In November, 1879, ground was broken on the site of the new edifice, at the northeast corner of Garrison Avenue and Locust Street. The corner-stone was laid Feb. 1, 1880, and the finished building was dedicated Dec. 16, 1881 (although it had been occupied, in an unfinished condition, since Dec. 26, 1880), the sermon being preached by Rev. Dr. Henry W. Bellows. This discourse was the last from the gifted pen of that eminent minister, who died Jan. 30, 1882, in New York City.

The church is situated on a natural plateau one hundred and thirty-five feet square, raised several feet above the surrounding streets, to which the ground descends in terraces. It is built in the early English Gothic style, of blue limestone, quarried within the limits of St. Louis, laid in ashlar, and relieved by horizontal string-courses of drab sandstone from Warrensburg, Mo., which was also used for the facings of the doors and windows. The spire, of stone, is one hundred and forty-two feet in height, and about it the different parts of the church are picturesquely arranged so as to give them the appearance of a group of buildings. The furniture is of native, unpainted yellow pine, and the roof is of open timber-work, resembling that of Westminster Hall. The windows are nearly all memorial, — Hudson E. Bridge, Emily Frances Partridge Eaton, Georgiana C. Louderman, Ebenezer and Theoline Richards. Henry S. Reed, and Edward Y. and Susan A. Ware being thus memorialized. To the memory of James Smith a brass tablet has been erected in an arch of the eastern wall, and portraits of Seth A. Ranlett and of Henry Glover have been hung in the Sunday-school room. The church and ground, exclusive of the memorial windows, cost nearly one hundred and nine thousand dollars, and no debt remains upon them. In addition to the main building, which has a seating capacity of seven hundred, there are a chapel which is used for the Sunday-school, class- and library-rooms, sewing-room, pastor's study, a dining-room, and kitchen. The Church of the Messiah has always borne a prominent and active part in benevolent and educational work, and there is no charity in the city, Protestant, Catholic, or secular, to which its members have not been contributors. During the last twenty-five years the congregation has annually given for extra religious work over forty thousand dollars. There are two hundred and twenty-five families connected with the congregation, and the Sunday-school has an average attendance of ten teachers and one hundred and fifty scholars. Rev. John Snyder is still pastor.

The history of the Church of the Messiah, as will be seen from the foregoing narrative, is conspicuously identified with that of the ministry of the Rev. W. G. Eliot, D. D., president of the Washington University, who was pastor of the congregation from November, 1834, until the close of 1872. Dr. Eliot's career in St. Louis has been one of remarkable energy, usefulness, and self-denying zeal. Both as pastor of the Church of the Messiah and head of the Washington University, he has been a prominent figure before the public of St. Louis for many years, and one of the ablest and most untiring promoters of religious, benevolent, educational, and reformatory enterprises, as well as of the moral and social progress of the community at large. He has been called "the most accomplished and successful beggar" for charitable objects of modern times; and while competency after competency has been presented to him unconditionally, he has invariably disposed of them in such manner as he deemed most likely to produce permanently good results.

Church of the Unity. — The Church of the Unity (Unitarian) is situated at the northeast corner of Park and Armstrong Avenues, and the pastor is Rev. J. C. Learned. In May, 1868, a few gentlemen, anticipating the formation of a new Unitarian Society, purchased for twelve thousand five hundred dollars a lot of ground at the above location, having a frontage of one hundred and sixty-five feet on Armstrong Avenue. When, in the following June, the congregation was organized and incorporated, the ground was conveyed by its purchasers at cost to the society, the incorporators of which were William H. Pulsifer, E. S. Rowse, William H. Maurice, J. S. Cavender, F. B. Homes, C. L. Dean, William N. Hinchman, J. P. Young, and C. L. Bush. The trustees set apart for sale seventy-five feet of the rear of the lot fronting on Park Avenue, and reserved the corner lot, fronting one hundred and twenty feet on Armstrong Avenue, for the erection of a large church edifice. Upon the remaining forty-five feet they built a neat Gothic chapel, thirty-five by sixty feet, and capable of seating two hundred and fifty persons. The corner-stone was laid Aug. 5, 1869, Rev. Mr. Staples, of Chicago, formerly associate of Dr. Eliot in the pastorship of the Church of the Messiah, and Rev. Mr. Harrison, of Bloomington, Ill., officiating. The building was dedicated May 15, 1870, the cost of its erection having been

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about ten thousand dollars. Rev. John C. Learned has been pastor since his appointment in April, 1870. This church is an offshoot of the Church of the Messiah, and its creed is based not upon a declaration of belief, but upon an acknowledgment of duties. About one hundred families are connected with the church, and eighteen teachers with one hundred scholars compose the Sunday-school.


The earliest German Protestant organization in St. Louis was that of the "German Evangelical Church of the Holy Ghost," which was established in 1834. Its membership embraced both the Lutheran and Reformed denominations, which continued to worship together for nine years. In the year 1842, however, dissensions arose on points of doctrine, and in July, 1843, the pastor of the Church of the Holy Ghost, Rev. G. W. Wall, with Messrs. Buenemann, Schmidt, W. Schrader, Jacob Westerman, and seventy-two others, who adhered to the doctrines of the Reformed denomination, withdrew, and on the 31st of July organized the "German Evangelical Congregation of St. Louis." They worshiped in the Benton school-house on Sixth Street, between Locust and St. Charles Street, until 1845, when they erected two churches, one called the North Church, afterwards St. Peter's German Evangelical Church, at Carr and Fifteenth Streets, and the other known as South Church, afterwards St. Marcus' or St. Mark's Church, at the corner of Jackson and Soulard Streets. Both were alike in size and design, each being thirty by forty feet in dimensions, and remained the common property of the congregation until 1856, when a division was effected, and two distinct churches were organized. "The German Evangelical Congregation of St. Louis," organized in July, 1843, formed the nucleus of the "Evangelical Synod of the West," which has since spread over the United States. This Synod, in conjunction with a few congregations in Canada, is called "The German Evangelical Synod of North America," and being the American Branch of the Prussian State Church, it receives biennially the interest on a large fund which was subscribed some twenty years ago by the Evangelical congregations of Prussia for the benefit of their brethren in this country. The German Protestant Orphans' Home, formerly within the city limits, but now ten miles from the court-house on St. Charles Rock road, was organized by the German Evangelical Synod, as was also the Good Samaritan Hospital, Twenty-fifth and O'Fallon Streets. The same Synod is about to erect near St. Louis a building for its theological seminary. This seminary, under the name of the Missouri College, has been located for about thirty-five years at Femme Osage, in St. Charles County, Mo., but will soon be removed to St. Louis. A building-site of eighteen acres has been secured on the St. Charles Rock road, seven miles from the court-house, just on the edge of the city limits, at an expense of nine thousand eight hundred dollars. Plans for the main building have been prepared, and the work is under way. The main building will have a front of one hundred and sixty-four feet, basement, three stories and attic, with tower. It will contain all the modern improvements, and have room for one hundred students. The cost, without furniture, will be fifty-six thousand dollars, and it will be completed by the fall of 1883. Rev. Louis Haeberle is inspector of the institution, and Rev. C. Kungmann the first professor, besides other teachers from the city. The Synod is divided into seven districts, and has four hundred and fifty ministers and upwards of five hundred congregations. It owns another college for ministers and teachers at Edinburgh, Page Co., Ill., sixteen miles northwest of Chicago.

The Independent Evangelical Church of the Holy Ghost was the outgrowth of the original German Evangelical Church of the Holy Ghost, which, as previously stated, was organized in 1834, and comprised both the Lutheran and Reformed congregations. The old congregation first met in the Methodist building at Fourth Street and Washington Avenue, but in January, 1839, removed to the directory of the First Presbyterian Church, on Fourth Street, between Washington Avenue and St. Charles Street. It had previously purchased a lot at Seventh Street and Clark Avenue, and here a building was erected and dedicated on the 9th of August, 1840. Rev. G. W. Wall had been appointed pastor in December, 1836, and was assisted at the dedication by the Rev. Louis E. Nollau, pastor of what was then known as the Gravois settlement. In 1843 the division of the congregation, resulting from the withdrawal of the adherents of the Reformed Evangelical Church, led to the organization of the remaining members of the congregation into the Independent Evangelical Church, which has continued as such ever since. In 1858 the present church, situated at the corner of Eighth and Walnut Streets, and known for some years as Pastor Krebs' Church, was erected. It is a substantial brick building, with a Gothic front, seating about two thousand persons, and has a parochial residence attached. In 1869 three schools had been organized in connection with the church, — one in the basement of the building on Eighth Street, with one hundred and

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seventy-five scholars; one on Eleventh Street, between Carr and Biddle, with four hundred scholars; and the third on Decatur Street, between Geyer Avenue and Ann Street, with about one hundred and fifty scholars. The church is now so far from the residence centre of the city that a removal farther west will doubtless soon be effected. The congregation numbers two hundred and fifty families, with five hundred communicants, and there are six teachers and sixty scholars connected with the Sunday-school. Rev. J. Gr. Eberhard is the pastor.

St. Marcus or St. Mark's German Evangelical Church, situated at the corner of Soulard and Jackson Streets, Rev. John H. Nollau, pastor, was one of the three churches which sprang from the old German Evangelical Church of the Holy Ghost, the history of which, with which its own is identical until July, 1843, has already been narrated. On the 31st of that month Pastor Wall and seventy-six members of the original congregation withdrew and organized the German Evangelical congregation, from which subsequently sprang both St. Mark's and St. Peter's Churches. A building known as the South Church was erected at Soulard and Jackson Streets, and was dedicated on the 14th of December, 1845. Its dimensions were thirty by forty-five, and it remained, together with the North Church, the joint property of the association until 1856. In that year the congregation was divided, and the church at Soulard and Jackson Streets was thenceforth known as St. Mark's.

Pastor Wall was called to the Gravois settlement, and Pastors Cavizel, Ries, and Baltzer preached at both city churches until the separation in 1856, when Pastor Baltzer remained with St. Mark's until September, 1848, and was followed by Pastor Meier, until May, 1849, and Rev. W. Binner, until May, 1850, who resigned to take the presidency of the Evangelical Seminary at Marthasville. Pastor Wall was then recalled, and remained until his death, April 20, 1867. During his pastorate of seventeen years he twice represented the American congregations at the General Synod held in 1852 at Bremen, Germany, (Rev. C. Nestel supplying the pulpit in his absence), and in 1864 at Altenburg, Germany. During his absence on this occasion Rev. P. P. Meusch officiated at St. Peter's. In the spring of 1866 the first church building was torn down and the present one erected on its site. The corner-stone was laid Aug. 12, 1866, and the building dedicated Aug. 4, 1867. It is a two-story brick building with stone ornamentation, and its dimensions are fifty and one-half feet by ninety feet. Its seating capacity is eight hundred persons, and its whole cost, including organ and furnishing, was thirty thousand three hundred and twelve dollars. The church lot is one hundred feet square, and contains also a parsonage and three large classrooms, in which a parochial school is conducted. Pastor Meier, a student of the seminary, preached for a few months after the death of Pastor Wall, and subsequently Rev. Henry Braschler became pastor, and remained until May, 1875. He was succeeded by Rev. J. Hoffman, who served until the fall of 1877, and Rev. J. H. Nollau, who has been pastor since Dec. 10, 1877. In 1856 this church bought a cemetery, known as St. Mark's, on Gravois road, seven miles from the court-house, and containing about thirty-seven acres. Before this it owned, in common with St. Peter's Church, a cemetery on Cherokee Street and Lemp Avenue, which has not been used for burial purposes since 1857. Connected with the church are a Benevolent Ladies' Society, reorganized October, 1877, and having now one hundred and one members; a Young Men's Christian Association, organized 1879; a Young Ladies' Society, organized February, 1882, and having forty-five members; a day school, established when the congregation was first organized, and which is attended by from sixty to one hundred pupils, under the charge of C. Braeutigam, and a Sunday-school with twenty-three teachers and six hundred and fifty pupils, organized in 1873, the pastor being its superintendent. The congregation numbers about one hundred and twenty families.

St. Peter's German Evangelical Church was one of the two Reformed congregations founded by Pastor Wall, of the Church of the Holy Ghost, in 1843. It was organized in 1844, and the first building occupied was erected at the corner of Sixth Street and Franklin Avenue in 1846, but was torn down on the removal (in 1850) of the congregation to the present building at Fifteenth and Carr Streets. It is a plain brick structure, with a steeple, and its dimensions are thirty by forty-five feet, with a seating capacity, including the gallery, of about one thousand. The first pastor was the Rev. Mr. Ries, the elders at that time being W. Shrader, H. Saeger, F. Riecke, W. Leunebrink, F. Dieckmann, D. Voepel. W. Shrader was also trustee. Since the pastorate of Mr. Ries the ministers in charge have been Louis E. Nollau, appointed Sept. 6, 1852; A. W. Roeder, appointed Oct. 10, 1860; E. Roos, appointed Sept. 26, 1870; A. B. P. J. Thiele, appointed March 1, 1880. The Sunday-school, organized in 1851, has now twenty-five teachers and three hundred and seventy-five scholars. The average attendance at the services numbers nearly six hundred persons. A Young

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Men's Christian Association, organized in 1853; a Ladies' Aid Association, organized in the same year; a Young Ladies' Aid Association, organized in 1872; and Men's Aid Society (consisting only of members of the church), organized Feb. 19, 1872, are connected with St. Peter's Church.

St. Paul's German Evangelical Church, corner of Decatur Street and Lafayette Avenue, was organized Oct. 23, 1848, by Messrs. Jacob Kleiber, William Hogan, John Machenheimer, Frederick Christopher, George Henkler, Henry Hirb, Chr. Dietrich, Melchior Siemann, Jacob Schleyer, Martin Uebel, Frederick Weber, and Jacob Kleiber, Sr., with Rev. A. Baltzer as pastor. The present lot, one hundred and thirty by one hundred and twenty feet, was purchased and the erection of a building was begun during the same year. The church was completed and dedicated in 1849. It was a two-story brick building with school-rooms in the basement, and seated about five hundred persons. Pastor Baltzer was succeeded by the following: Revs. I. Will (who served ten years), J. C. Seybold, Dr. R. Yohn (who served fifteen years), C. A. Richter, Otto Telle (served ten months), Jacob Irion, and J. F. Köwing (acting temporarily in 1882). The society was incorporated Jan. 23, 1877, with H. H. Schweer, J. E. Brandenburger, Henry Spengemann, Henry Roth, John H. Baumann, and Henry Wiebusch as corporators, under the title of "The German Evangelical St. Paul's Congregation at St. Louis." Upon the lot are situated, besides the church, a parsonage, a young men's hall, and a parochial school which numbers sixty pupils. Connected with the congregation are a Young Men's Christian Association of sixty members; a Ladies' Missionary Society, sixty members; and a Young Ladies' Society, fifty members. About four hundred people compose the congregation, and the Sunday-school has twelve teachers and three hundred and fifty scholars. The church property is valued at sixty thousand dollars.

St. John's German Evangelical Church. — This church, situated at the southeast corner of Madison and Fourteenth Streets, Rev. Gottlieb Mueller, pastor, was organized in 1855, and has grown to be a large congregation. The church building, erected about the same year, is a fine Gothic brick structure, forty by seventy-five feet, with a spire, and is situated on a lot ninety by one hundred and seventy-five feet. Adjoining the church is a commodious parsonage. The parochial school is attended by four teachers and about four hundred and fifty pupils.

German Evangelical Friedens Church was organized in March, 1858, by its present pastor, Rev. John M. Kopf, and first met for worship in the Fairmount Presbyterian Church building, at Ninth Street and Penrose Avenue, which was subsequently sold to the Congregationalists and is now Hyde Park Church. The corner-stone of the present building, which is situated at the southwest corner of Newhouse Avenue and Thirteenth Street, was laid in August, 1860, and the building was dedicated in April, 1861. It is a handsome Gothic structure of brick, forty-six by seventy-five feet, with a tall spire, and has a seating capacity for one thousand persons. On the church lot, the dimensions of which are one hundred by one hundred and twenty-three feet, are also situated the pastoral residence and the parochial school building. Connected with the latter are three teachers and two hundred and twenty pupils. The congregation comprises one hundred and fifty families, numbering fifteen hundred persons, and there are about eight hundred communicants. The Sunday-school comprises fourteen teachers and five hundred scholars. Several societies are maintained by the congregation, among them the ladies', young men's, and singing societies, and an association for the relief of widows and orphans. The church property is valued at thirty-seven thousand dollars.

Bethania German Evangelical Church was organized on the 15th of May, 1867, by Rev. Christopher F. Stark, now pastor of Bethlehem Church, in a hall at the southeast corner of Twenty-third Street and Franklin Avenue. It worshiped at first in a small chapel situated at the southwest corner of Twenty-fourth and Carr Streets, where Carr Lane School now stands, which was purchased from the Methodist denomination, the price paid for the building and lot (one hundred by seventy-five feet) being six thousand dollars. The chapel was a low one-story brick building, thirty by forty feet, and seating about three hundred persons, in the rear of which the congregation erected a substantial brick school-house. The erection of the present building at the northeast corner of Twenty-fourth and Wash Streets was begun in 1874 and finished in 1875. Rev. Mr. Stark resigned Jan. 1, 1878, and was succeeded by Rev. M. Herberg, who served less than a year, the present pastor, Rev. Lewis Austmann, succeeding towards the close of 1878. The church property, including lot fifty by one hundred feet, is valued at thirty thousand dollars. Connected with the congregation are about eighty members, a Sunday-school with twelve teachers and one hundred pupils, a parochial school with two teachers and fifty pupils, a singing society of twenty members, and Bethania Cemetery of sixteen acres, situated on St. Charles

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Rock road, seven miles from the court-house, established about 1871.

Independent Evangelical Protestant Church (German). — This congregation, which numbers from six hundred to eight hundred members, worshiped originally in a church at the corner of Mound and Eighth Streets, which was purchased by it from the Presbyterians in 1856. The building occupied a lot seventy-five by seventy-six feet, and its own dimensions were fifty-four by thirty-six feet, affording a seating capacity for about five hundred persons. The lower story was used by a primary school, which numbered one hundred and fifty children. The building was of brick and had a small steeple. About 1868 the building was sold to an independent Baptist organization, and the German congregation erected a new church edifice ninety-two by fifty-six feet, with a steeple one hundred and seventy-four feet high, on the lot at the northeast corner of Webster and Thirteenth Streets, which is still occupied by the congregation. Rev. P. Godfrey Gerber was the pastor in 1869, and the present pastor is the Rev. John F. Jonas. There is no Sunday-school connected with the church.

Carondelet German Evangelical Church was organized by the Rev. John Will, who served as its first pastor, on the 7th of November, 1869. It is situated at Fourth Street and Koeln Avenue, South St. Louis, and the present pastor is the Rev. E. Berger. The corner-stone was laid in November, 1869, and the completed building was dedicated in November, 1870. It is a brick structure forty-two by seventy-two feet. Connected with the church are one hundred and fifty families, two hundred and seventy-seven communicants, nine teachers, and one hundred and twelve pupils in the Sunday-school, an Evangelical Young Men's Society, organized in 1880, and a parochial school, organized in 1882, with thirty-eight pupils.

Zion's German Evangelical Church, Rev. J. Henry Klerner, pastor, is located at the corner of Benton and Twentieth Streets. It was organized in 1869, in the hall of a market-house at Eighteenth and Montgomery Streets, the incorporators being J. H. Lippelman, Henry Klages, G. Frederick, and Rev. A. Müller. The first building occupied by the congregation stood at the corner of Nineteenth and Montgomery Streets. Its corner-stone was laid in the fall of 1869, and the church was dedicated in the fall of 1870. It was converted into a dwelling-house after the congregation had removed to its present location, in the fall of 1872. The pastors have been Revs. A. Müller, F. Koewing, and J. H. Klerner. A Christian Aid Society, Ladies' Society, and Young Men's Society are maintained in connection with the regular organization of the church.

St. Lucas German Evangelical Church, situated at the northeast corner of Scott and Jefferson Avenues Rev. Henry Walser, pastor, was organized in 1870 by Pastor Reusch, who was succeeded by Pastor Jungk, and in 1881 by the present incumbent. A small chapel was first erected on the rear portion of the church lot, which is now used as the parish school. An addition to it, which is used as the teacher's residence, has been built, and the school is attended by seventy-five pupils. The present elegant Gothic church edifice, of brick, forty by seventy feet, with a seating capacity of eight hundred, was built in 1878. The parsonage, on Jefferson Avenue adjoining the church lot, was erected in 1882, and is a neat and commodious dwelling. The membership of the church numbers nearly two hundred persons, and the Sunday-school is attended by fifteen teachers and seventy-five scholars.

St. Matthew's German Evangelical Church was organized Nov. 14, 1875, at the private school-rooms of G. H. Braeutigam, on Carondelet Avenue near Anna Street, the incorporators being Henry Braschler, Nicholas Frank, William Kollmeyer, John Voepel, and Louis Hunt. Besides these, P. Hueffner, P. H. Sauerwein, W. Winefeld, G. Schildroth, and a few others, were the first members. The corner-stone of the church building, 3331 South Seventh Street, was laid Nov. 28, 1875, and the building was dedicated March 5, 1876. Rev. Henry Braschler has been the pastor from the first. The choir and Sunday-school were organized in March, 1876. The latter now numbers over three hundred scholars. The pastor resides in the church building, in which is also maintained a day school attended by fifty scholars, and conducted by Rev. Henry Drees, assistant pastor of the church. It was organized in 1879. The parish numbers about fifty families.

ST. MATTHEW'S CEMETERY, Pennsylvania Avenue and Morgan Ford road, is connected with St. Matthew's German Evangelical Church. The corporation was chartered April 18, 1878, with Charles Bauer, Henry Braschler, William Kollmeyer, William Habighorst, and Conrad Brinkmann as incorporators. It is distant three miles from the church, contains twelve acres, and is handsomely laid out and ornamented. The sale of lots is not confined to members of the church, but is open to all.

Bethlehem Church. — The congregation of Bethlehem German Evangelical Church was organized by its present pastor, the Rev. C. F. Stark, with twenty-five

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members, on the 6th of January, 1878, in the church built by the Beaumont Street Baptist congregation at the northeast corner of Morgan and Beaumont Streets. The Evangelical congregation rented the building, and occupied it for about one year and a half at the expiration of which it was sold to the Turners. Their present building, situated at the northwest corner of Elliott Avenue and Wash Street, was purchased in January, 1881, from the congregation of St. Mark's English Lutheran Church, which had erected it at a cost of twenty-two thousand dollars. It is a brick edifice forty-six by eighty feet, with a capacity for seating five hundred persons, and has two stories, the first of which is used by a day school, attended by one teacher and thirty pupils, and a Sunday-school of seventy-five scholars, under the charge of the pastor and one teacher, and as a lecture-room. The lot is fifty by one hundred and thirty-five feet. About fifty families compose the congregation, and the communicants number seventy.


In 1838 a body of Lutherans who had been subjected to persecution by the government of Saxony on account of their adherence to the doctrines of the Augsburg Confession of Faith emigrated to this country and settled partly in St. Louis and partly in Altenburg, Perry Co., Mo. Those who made St. Louis their home arrived there in the winter or early spring of 1839, and applied to the rector of Christ Church for permission to use the church building for their services. The request was granted, as appears from the following notice, which was read by the rector, Bishop Kemper, in the church one Sunday in March of that year:

"NOTICE. — A body of Lutherans, having been persecuted by the Saxon government because they believed it their duty to adhere to the doctrines inculcated by their great leader and contained in the Augsburg Confession of Faith, have arrived here with the intention of settling in this or one of the neighboring States, and having been deprived of the privilege of public worship for three months, they have earnestly and most respectfully requested the use of our church that they may again unite in all the ordinances of our holy religion. I have therefore, with the entire approbation of the vestry, granted the use of our church for this day from 2 P. M. until sunset to a denomination whose early members were highly esteemed by the English Reformers, and with whom our glorious martyrs Cranmer, Ridley, and others had much early intercourse."

This congregation of Lutherans occupied the basement of the church for three years from 1839 to 1842.

They established the first Evangelical Lutheran congregation of the Unaltered Augsburg Confession in St. Louis, which soon began to grow rapidly in membership and wealth. In 1869 four congregations tad been established, with two large churches and over six hundred communicants. There are now twelve churches of this denomination in St. Louis subject to the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and other States, which, with three other Synods, constitutes the "Synodical Conference." The Synod of Missouri, etc., is now divided into eleven districts, with over eight hundred ministers, and owns and maintains the Concordia College and Theological Seminary in St. Louis, Concordia College at Fort Wayne, Ind., the Theological Seminary at Springfield, Ill., and the Teachers' Seminary at Addison, Ill. It also possesses an extensive printing establishment and book-store, situated on the northwest corner of Miami Street and Indiana Avenue, which is the central supply depot of the Synod, and at which are published Der Lutheraner, Lehre und Wehre, and Evangelischeslulherisches Schulblatt (three semi-monthly journals), Magazin für Evangelischelutherische Homiletik (monthly), the St. Louis Theological Monthly, and The Lutheran Witness. Members of this denomination settled in the vicinity of Concordia College and the Church of the Holy Cross form a large and wealthy community.

Concordia College and Theological Seminary was established jointly by the congregations of St. Louis and Altenburg, Mo., in 1842, and was located at Altenburg, but in 1850 it was removed to St. Louis, where the first college building had just been erected. The dedication of this structure took place July 11, 1850. In 1851 the ownership of the college was transferred by the joint congregations to the Synod of Missouri, Ohio, etc. In the summer of 1882 the first college building was demolished, and on its site is being erected a much larger and more imposing edifice, the corner-stone of which was laid Oct. 1, 1882. It is to be of Gothic architecture, with a central steeple one hundred and thirty-six feet in height, and the main building and two wings will have a frontage of two hundred and thirty-four feet. The depth will be sixty-four feet, and the buildings will contain a vestibule, a class-room for one hundred students, four class-rooms for sixty-eight students, a library- and reading-room, a number of smaller dwelling and sleeping apartments, bath-rooms, etc. In the basement of the tower there will be a gymnasium sixteen feet in height. The college will accommodate two hundred students. It was attended during 1882 by ninety-two students, and has a faculty of five professors. The college grounds, which are three hundred and fifty by two hundred and twenty-five feet in size, are situated on Jefferson Avenue and Winnebago Street, and in addition to the main building, are occupied by several smaller houses connected with the institution.

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Dreinigkeits Church, U. A. C. 311 — It has already been related how, in 1839, a body of Lutheran immigrants procured permission from Bishop Kemper to hold religious services in the basement of Christ Protestant Episcopal Church, and how the congregation continued to worship there until 1842. This society of Lutherans was organized under the name of the "Dreinigkeits" (or Trinity) Church of the Evangelical Lutheran denomination, and was the first or original congregation, from which sprang all the other German Lutheran Churches of St. Louis. In 1842 the congregation removed to a building of its own, on Lombard Street. The present building, at the southeast corner of Lafayette and Eighth Streets, was erected in 1865. It is a handsome brick structure in the Gothic style, and has a tower two hundred feet high. The nave measures sixty by one hundred and ten feet, and the transepts forty-five by ninety feet, and the building is capable of seating fifteen hundred persons. The dimensions of the lot, on which a fine parsonage is situated, are one hundred and fifty by one hundred and forty feet. The total cost of the ground and buildings was one hundred and twenty thousand dollars.

The pastors have been Revs. Hermann Walther, Z. F. W. Walther (brother to the former), Pastors Wienigen, Schaler, Brauer, and the present pastor, Rev. Otto Hanser. The parochial schools are conducted in two buildings, one on Victor Street and the other at Eighth and Barry Streets. They are attended by six teachers and four hundred scholars, who, in lieu of attending Sunday-school, assemble at stated periods for instruction and examination in religious subjects. The congregation embraces two hundred and twenty-five families.

Immanuel's Church, U. A. C. — Immanuel's Evangelical Lutheran Church, U. A. C., situated at the southeast corner of Morgan and Sixteenth Streets, was organized in 1848 by the Rev. F. Buenger, its first pastor, who died Jan. 23, 1882. His successor was the Rev. Gustavus Wangerin, who took charge on the 16th of August following, and is still the pastor. The first church erected by the congregation stood at the corner of Eleventh Street and Franklin Avenue. It was destroyed by fire on the 9th of December, 1865, the walls only being left standing. These were at once roofed over, and the building was still used for worship until the present edifice was ready for occupancy, when the former property was sold and converted to business purposes. The present church was dedicated March 22, 1868, and the exercises were continued on the following day, Monday, March 23d. It is a noble Gothic edifice of brick, sixty by one hundred and thirty-five feet, and will seat fifteen hundred persons. The steeple is two hundred and nine feet, and rises from the main portal. Situated on the same lot are a handsome pastoral residence and a fine parish school building sixty feet square and two stories high, capable of seating three hundred and eighty-four scholars. There are three teachers and one hundred and eighty-eight pupils connected with the school. The cost of the ground and buildings was about one hundred and eighteen thousand six hundred dollars. The congregation comprises one hundred and eighty families and a membership of five hundred persons. The Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Church, Rev. J. Johansen, pastor, a small congregation of about twenty families, assemble for worship in the parish school building on Sundays.

Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Holy Cross (Saxon). — This congregation, whose church is located on Miami Street, between Texas and Ohio Avenues, Rev. G. Stoeckhardt, pastor, was organized in 1858 as the Third District of the First Evangelical Lutheran Congregation of the Unaltered Augsburg Confession in St. Louis, and until the erection of the present church building held its religious services at Concordia College. The corner-stone of the church building was laid on Trinity Sunday, 1867, and the edifice was dedicated on the second Sunday in Advent, 1867. It is located on the old cemetery of the congregation, which is no longer used for burials, this church, together with Dreinigkeits Church, now owning a cemetery near Gravois road. The old graveyard is three hundred by five hundred feet in area, and the church building is forty-five by sixty-five feet, and has five hundred seats. It cost thirty thousand dollars, and is a handsome edifice of modernized Gothic architecture. The tower and steeple are one hundred and seventy-five feet in height, and the general appearance of the structure is very pleasing. The parsonage on Texas Avenue stands on a lot fifty by seventy-five feet, and the house and lot are valued at two thousand dollars. The church has had two pastors, — Rev. Theodore Brohm, appointed June 22, 1858, and Rev. G. Stoeckhardt, Oct. 13, 1878. The parish comprises one hundred- and twenty-five families, or about six hundred and fifty persons, in addition to the students of Concordia College, and there are five hundred communicants. No Sunday-school is conducted by the church, but the parish maintains a

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flourishing day school, attended by three teachers and one hundred and eighty pupils. It was established in 1850, and first occupied a building erected for the purpose in 1851 in the Concordia College grounds. The present school-house is situated on the northwest corner of Ohio Avenue and Potomac Street. It was built in 1872, is thirty-five by sixty feet in size, and will seat two hundred and ten pupils.

St. Trinity Church (German), U. A. C., east side of Sixth Street, between Robert and Koeln Streets, South St. Louis, Rev. C. F. W. Sapper, pastor, was organized in 1860, and the first house of worship was dedicated on the third Sunday in Advent of that year. It is a two-story brick building, twenty-eight by forty feet, situated opposite the present church. It was used both for worship and school purposes, but is now entirely occupied by the school. The present edifice was dedicated on the third Sunday after Trinity, 1873. It is a handsome Gothic structure of brick, forty five by one hundred feet, with a spire one hundred and fifty feet high, and will seat six hundred persons. The lots owned by the church measure two hundred by one hundred and fifty feet, and the property is valued at twenty-five thousand dollars. The pastors have been Rev. O. Hanser, appointed in 1860; Rev. M. Hamann, appointed in 1862, and the present pastor, who has served since 1866. This was the first German, and is still the only Lutheran congregation in Carondelet. It embraces one hundred and twenty families, with one hundred and five voting members, and eight hundred communicants. The parochial school, established simultaneously with the church, is conducted by two teachers, and attended by one hundred and twenty pupils. The cemetery connected with the church is located on Lami Ferry road, two miles south of Carondelet.

Zion Church, U. A. C. (German), situated on the southeast corner of Warren and Fifteenth Streets, Rev. George Link, pastor, was organized in 1860 by Rev. Frederick Boese, its first pastor. The present pastor was appointed in August, 1873. The church is a brick edifice, forty-five by seventy-five feet, of two stories, with a lecture-room on the first floor. A fine parsonage adjoins the church on the east. The parochial school building, erected in 1868, stands in the rear of the church, and the school comprises four teachers and two hundred and twenty pupils. The church lot is one hundred by one hundred and eight feet. Two hundred and twenty families compose the parish, and the communicants number twelve hundred. As is frequently the case in this denomination, no regular Sunday school is conducted, but the children of the parish school are required to attend a class for instruction and examination in the catechism, the pastor conducting it in person.

St. Paul's Church (German), U. A. C. — The Evangelical Lutheran St. Paul's Church (German) was organized in 1862 at Lowell, North St. Louis, and first assembled for worship in a hall on what is now De Soto Avenue and Benedict Street, and in 1863 built a small frame church, which has since been converted into a dwelling. Rev. G. R. A. Claus, who organized the congregation, was its first pastor. The corner-stone of the present building, which is situated at the northeast corner of Prairie Avenue and Von Phul Street, was laid on Sunday, July 28, 1872, and the completed structure was dedicated May 25, 1873, Rev. J. H. Ph. Graebner, of St. Charles, Mo., preaching the sermon. On this occasion the second pastor of the church, Rev. I. Achilles, was installed. It is a brick building with a steeple, and its dimensions are thirty-four by sixty-eight feet. In the first story the parochial school is located, with two teachers and one hundred and two pupils. The present pastor, Rev. C. C. E. Brandt, was installed on Nov. 5, 1876, Revs. Professor G. Schaller, George E. Link, O. Lenk, and M. Hein being the officiating clergymen. There are now one hundred and five families, about five hundred persons, connected with the church, of whom fifty-two are members (voters), and three hundred and forty-five communicants. There are a Young Men's and Young Ladies' Society in full vigor, and in lieu of Sunday-school the pastor conducts a catechism class and examinations on Sunday afternoons.

St. John's Church (German), U. A. C., corner of Morgan Ford road and Chippewa Street, was organized in 1865 by Professor August Craemer, its first pastor. The congregation worshiped in the Episcopal Church until, in 1866, it began to occupy its present building, a frame structure with a seating capacity of one hundred and fifty. The church owns one acre of land, and is about to erect a second and larger building. Rev. Hermann Bartels, its second and present pastor, was ordained and installed by Professor Craemer, Aug. 1, 1875. About sixty families, with two hundred communicants, are connected with the congregation. The Sunday-school has eighty pupils, and the parochial school the same number.

Bethania Church, U. A. C. (German), Natural Bridge road, near Spring Avenue, Rev. M. Martens, pastor, was organized in 1872, by Mr. Mangold, who had previously conducted a private school, which then became the school of the parish. Rev. Mr. Heine was the first pastor. The congregation numbers about sixty members, and there are seventy pupils connected

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with the day school. The building is a frame chapel, which is also used for the day school, under the charge of H. Papke.

St. Mark's English Lutheran Church. — St. Mark's English Evangelical Lutheran Church was organized on the 14th of May, 1867, at the residence of John A. J. Shultz, No. 1116 North Twentieth Street, by John A. J. Shultz, D. C. Siegrist, R. R. Honeyman, and their wives, with others. Their first house of worship was situated at the corner of Wash Street and Elliott Avenue. Its corner-stone was laid Sept. 6, 1868, and the completed building was dedicated on the 21st of January, 1872. The edifice was of brick, of Doric architecture, and its erection was superintended by G. W. Berry, after designs by C. S. Artaugh. The dimensions of the building were forty-five by sixty feet, and those of the lot on which it stood fifty by one hundred and thirty-two feet. The exterior was plain, but the interior is described as having been neat and attractive. Rev. Mr. Rhodes officiated, and the music was rendered by the "St. Cecilia Vocal Union," directed by Professor Malmene. The building cost twenty-two thousand dollars, and was sold in 1881 for seven thousand five hundred dollars. The church has had three pastors, — Rev. S. W. Harkey, D. D., Professor J. B. Corbet, and Rev. M. Rhodes, D. D.

At the beginning of Dr. Rhodes' pastorate, ten years ago, the congregation numbered only twenty members, and the church was embarrassed with a debt of twelve thousand dollars. This has since been paid off, and the membership has increased tenfold. The congregation is in a highly prosperous condition, and during the last ten years has contributed thirty thousand dollars to the benevolent operations of the church. The lot at the southwest corner of Bell Street and Cardinal Avenue, on which the present edifice stands, is most eligibly situated for its purpose. It is seventy-five by one hundred and thirty-four feet in area, and was purchased in 1880 for five thousand two hundred and fifty dollars. The corner-stone of the building was laid May 29, 1881, and the lower or lecture-room was first occupied Feb. 19, 1882. The completed church was formally dedicated Sunday, Oct. 1, 1882, on which occasion the exercises were participated in by a number of ministers from other churches, among whom were Rev. Drs. W. V. Tudor, James H. Brooks, W. W. Boyd, C. B. Felton, C. L. Goodell, H. D. Ganse, T. M. Post, and Rev. W. H. Black, of St. Louis; Rev. Dr. S. A. Ort, president of Wittenberg College, Springfield, Ohio; Rev. Dr. G. F. Stelling, of Omaha, Neb.; Rev. Dr. F. Springer, president of the Synod of Central Illinois, and others. The edifice, which is entirely unique among the churches of the city, was designed and erected under the supervision of C. K. Ramsey, architect, and combines several styles of architecture. English Gothic predominating. The exterior dimensions of the building are seventy, five by one hundred and twenty feet. The main auditorium is sixty-five by ninety-five feet and thirty-six feet in height, and is arranged in the form of an amphitheatre; it will accommodate eight hundred persons, and is noted for the excellence of its acoustic properties. The walls are frescoed in oil, and the windows are of cathedral glass, rich in color and design. The church is furnished in walnut richly carved, and the organ is built in an alcove to the left of the pulpit, with a balcony extending for the choir. The basement contains three furnaces, a dining-room, kitchen, and other rooms. The lecture-room seats four hundred and fifty persons, and there are also class-rooms, a library, and other apartments for the use of the pastor and congregation. Altogether St. Mark's is one of the most complete and thoroughly appointed church structures in the country. As its pastor, Rev. M. Rhodes, D. D., says, "The whole edifice is a picture, a harmony, a magnificent tribute to the skill of the designer and the liberality of a joyous and favored people." The entire cost of the lot, building, and furnishing was a little over sixty thousand dollars. The present membership of the church numbers three hundred persons, and the Sunday-school is attended by two hundred and eighty pupils. A week-day school is conducted in the building, and is attended by one hundred and twenty-five scholars.


United Hebrew Congregation. — The oldest religious association of Hebrews in St. Louis is that of the "United Hebrew Congregation," Rev. Henry J. Messing, rabbi, located at the southeast corner of Olive and Twenty-first Streets. Its organization was effected in the spring of 1839, at the house of H. Marx, on Locust Street, between Third and Fourth Streets. A. Weigel was elected president, and services were held at first in a house on Carondelet Avenue, in the section then known as Frenchtown. In September, 1848, the society removed to a brick building on Fifth Street, between Washington Avenue and Green Street, which was consecrated on the 27th of the same month. In 1855 a lot on the east side of Sixth Street, between Locust and St. Charles Streets, was purchased from Judge W. Beirne for the sum of six thousand two hundred and forty dollars, on which a synagogue was erected. The work of construction was commenced in 1856, and the building

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was consecrated on the 17th of June, 1859, Rev. Dr. Raphael, of New York, officiating. It was a substantial and elegant structure of brick with cut-stone foundations, and school-rooms in the basement, stained windows, a gallery around the whole audience-room, and seats for about nine hundred persons. It was in the Romanesque style of architecture, forty-two feet front and eighty feet two inches in depth, and cost twenty-one thousand dollars. Its erection was specially due to the energetic labors of A. J. Latz, aided by other members of the congregation.

The Sixth Street property was sold in 1879. The synagogue now occupied by the congregation (at the corner of Olive and Twenty-first Streets) was completed in 1880, and is a lofty and handsome structure of brick, its dimensions being sixty by ninety-six feet.

In 1844, A. J. Latz purchased a lot on Pratte Avenue for a Hebrew cemetery, which was deeded to the trustees of the society by John Farrell, and was used for burial purposes until 1856, when Mount Olive Cemetery, in Central township, was given to the society by the B'nai Jeshurem congregation, which had purchased it in 1854. The present owners have erected on it a building costing five thousand dollars, and have greatly improved and beautified it. A. Gershon has been its superintendent for many years. The society now numbers one hundred and thirty members, and its officers are P. F. Myers, president; Abraham Spiro, vice-president; Falk Levi, treasurer; M. P. Silverstone, secretary; H. Rosinski, M. Kempf, Joseph Davis, Simon Zork, Joseph Rheinholdt, A. B. Jach, and Hermann Levi, trustees.

B'nai El Congregation, northeast corner of Chouteau Avenue and Eleventh Street, Rev. M. Spitz, D. D., rabbi, was established about 1839 or 1840. It worshiped subsequently in a building at Sixth and Cerré Streets, which was finished in 1855, and consecrated on the 7th of September of that year. It formed an octagon of about seventy-five feet in diameter, and terminated in a cupola. The seating capacity was about three hundred persons. In 1875 the present building (at Chouteau Avenue and Eleventh Street) was purchased from the Chouteau Avenue Presbyterian Church for fourteen thousand dollars, and was refitted so as to be adapted to Hebrew forms of worship. About the same time the Sixth Street property was sold to the Episcopalians for the Good Samaritan Church (colored).

Temple of the Gates of Truth. — In 1866 an association of some seventy wealthy Israelites of St. Louis was chartered under the name of the St. Louis Temple Association. The first president was Alexander Suss, and the other officers were Isaac Hoffheimer, vice-president; T. Rosenfield, secretary; Joseph Weil, corresponding secretary; and Bernard Singer, S. Schiele, T. L. Bothahn, Isaac Hellman, M. Lansdorf, L. R. Strauss, Leopold Steinberger, M. L. Winter, P. Seligmann, S. Marx, and Levi Stern, directors. They were all laymen, and in the formation of their association were guided by the desire to "escape dogmatic discussions and dissensions," and to "bring the Israelitish form of worship into harmony with the views and principles of modern society." With this object in view they introduced the organ and choral singing into their services, and ordered that "the old oriental habit of entering the audience-room with covered heads be abandoned."

T. W. Brady was selected as the architect for the house of worship, which it was decided to build at the northeast corner of Seventeenth and Pine Streets, and on the 24th of June, 1867, the corner-stone of the structure was laid with Masonic ceremonies by the Grand Lodge of Missouri. Dr. Wise, of Cincinnati, was the orator of the occasion. The building, which is still used by the congregation, has a frontage of seventy-one feet on Seventeenth Street and a depth of one hundred feet on Pine Street, the dimensions of the lot being one hundred and ten by one hundred feet. The temple is a handsome edifice, its architecture being modeled after the Moorish style, and the facade is flanked by two towers, each fifteen feet six inches square. The building was dedicated in August, 1869. At that time the trustees of the congregation were Isaac Hoffheimer, president; M. Lansdorf, vice-president; Levi Stern, treasurer; Joseph Rosenfield, secretary; and A. Kramer, B. Hysinger, A. Wise, Joseph Weil, H. S. Winter, L. M. Hellman, S. Sandfelder, B. Singer, M. Friede, L. Steinberger, and A. Suss. Six months previously the old society had been organized into a congregation under the name of the "Gates of Truth congregation," and the following trustees elected: B. Hysinger, president; A. Kramer, vice-president; A. Frank, treasurer; and Messrs. Hoffheimer, Steinberger, Rosenfield, Wise, D. Dillenberg, S. Schiele, and M. Lansdorf.

While adhering to the essentials of the Jewish faith, the congregation, as indicated above, has discarded many of the ancient forms and ceremonies of the Jewish ritual. Rev. S. H. Sonneschein, the present rabbi, is a man of wide and liberal culture, and has been a frequent lecturer on historical and other topics. He has repeatedly tendered the use of his temple to Christian congregations, and is eminently popular among Christian ministers, as well as foremost in all public charities and reformatory movements.

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The society is a large one, and connected with it is a well-attended Sabbath-school.

Congregation "Scheerish" Israel, 926 North Sixth Street, is a religious association of Hebrews who occupy a rented room and worship according to the most ancient forms. The present officers are M. Harris, president; H, Abrahams, vice-president; L. Lipman, secretary; J. H. Abrahams, treasurer; D. Priver, L. Michael, H. Rosenberg, A. Cohen, M. Schuchat, and P. Whol, trustees.

Chebra Kadish Congregation meets for worship on Seventh Street, between Franklin Avenue and Wash Street. Rev. M. Leberstin is rabbi.


The St. Louis Bethel Association, located at 300 and 302 North Commercial Street, Rev. Peter Kitwood, chaplain, is an auxiliary of the Western Seamen's Friend Society. The headquarters of this society are at Cleveland, Ohio, and its ramifications extend throughout the West. The work in St. Louis was commenced in 1841, a meeting having been held on the 16th of June of that year for the purpose of devising measures for the establishment of "a Bethel Church for the use of the boatmen and watermen of the Mississippi." Rev. Wesley Browning presided, and resolutions were adopted to the effect that the work be undertaken without delay, and that two committees be appointed, one to procure a room and engage a minister, and the other to prepare a constitution for an association to be called "The St. Louis Port Society," under whose control the proposed Bethel Church should be placed. The committee appointed to secure the minister and a room was composed of F. W. Southack, Dr. Knox, John H. Gay, John Thompson, Samuel C. Davis, J. P. Sarpy, and L. Farwell. The committee chosen to draft the constitution consisted of George K. Budd, George Kingsland, Edward Tracy, Theodore Labeaume, Joseph Tabor, M. De Lange, A. Hamilton, Edward Dobyns, J. G. Dinnies, and C. D. Drake.

The mission does not appear to have been permanently successful, for in December, 1848, a meeting was held at the Westminster Presbyterian Church, of which Rev. W. S. Potts, D. D., was chairman, for the purpose of forming an association for the promotion of the moral and physical interests of the Western boatmen. The meeting resulted in the formation of the "Western Boatmen's Union of St. Louis," to the chaplaincy of which the Rev. Charles S. Jones was unanimously elected. Mr. Jones entered upon the discharge of his duties on the 22d of April, 1849. His first sermon to boatmen was preached to a congregation of some eight or nine persons in a Methodist Church. Subsequently the use of Westminster Church was procured for afternoon service, in which building he continued to preach until the great fire of May 17, 1849. He then departed for the East, and commenced a vigorous canvass of the Eastern churches for funds to aid in the building of a Boatmen's Church In this mission he was so far successful as to collect some fifteen hundred dollars. On his return he commenced divine services in the "Odd-Fellows' Hall." Subsequently a lot of ground was leased, on which an edifice was erected at a cost of fifteen thousand dollars, capable of accommodating between six and seven hundred persons, and fitted up, embellished, and arranged so as to be ostensibly and peculiarly a "Boatmen's Church." This building was located on Green Street, between Second and Third, near the river, and was said to be the first organized church of the kind west of the lakes. It was dedicated on the 21st of March, 1852. The officiating ministers were the pastor, Rev. Charles J. Jones, Rev. J. C. Abbott, Rev. Dr. Kavanaugh, and Rev. J. A. Lyon.

The mission proved successful during the time it was under the direction of Mr. Jones, but the church became involved, Mr. Jones was called to New York, and the institution practically collapsed, the building being appropriated to other purposes. It was also too remote from the Levee for convenience of the class intended to be benefited by it. Matters thus remained until 1868, but in that year the enterprise was revived, and a room in the Boatmen's Building, on the northwest corner of Vine Street and the Levee, was rented for the purpose of establishing regular religious services and a Sunday-school for boatmen and their families and others near the Levee not provided for by the city churches. The hall was dedicated March 14, 1869, the exercises being under the management of Gen. C. B. Fisk, president of the association, assisted by the directors, a number of clergymen, and boatmen from St. Louis and other cities. The following were the officers of the institution at that time: Managers, E. D. Jones, William C. Wilson, George Partridge, John G. Copelin, E. O. Stanard, Nathan Ranney, Clinton B. Fisk, Samuel Cupples, Austin R. Moore, Thomas Morrison, Joseph Brown, James Richardson, Isaac M. Mason, Thomas Rutherford, Nathan Cole. Officers, C. B. Fisk, president; Samuel Cupples, vice-president; Austin R. Moore, secretary; William C. Wilson, treasurer; Executive Committee, Joseph Brown, William G. Wilson, Samuel Cupples, C. B. Fisk, I. M. Mason; Chaplain and District Superintendent, Rev. M. Himebaugh; Corresponding Secretary, Rev. A. Wheeler, D. D., of Cleveland; President

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and General Superintendent Western Seamen's Friend Society, Rev. B. Frankland, of Cincinnati.

In 1875 the mission was removed to 300 North Commercial Street, and in the spring of 1882 the adjoining building was added, doubling its capacity. The buildings are in the centre of the wholesale business portion of the city and of the steamboat traffic. They were erected and had been used for stores, and front both on Commercial Street and the Levee, four stories on the former and five on the latter. The two stores on the first floor (Commercial Street) have been thrown into one and constitute the chapel, in which a congregation of one thousand people have assembled. The floor beneath (entered from the Levee) is used as a restaurant, where poor working-men may obtain bread and a bowl of coffee for five cents, or a meal for ten. The upper stories are used as class-rooms, sewing-rooms, etc., and (the highest floor of all) as a dormitory, where over one hundred men find nightly lodgings at a cost of ten cents. The work of the Bethel is divided into two classes, religious and secular. The religious work comprises a Sunday-school, held in the afternoon (no services are held on Sunday mornings), attended during the winter months by forty to fifty teachers and over eight hundred scholars; a regular church service on Sunday evenings, attended by an average congregation of from two hundred to three hundred, of whom about one hundred are communicants; separate classes for religious and secular instruction, on Sundays and weekdays, for white mothers, colored mothers, colored boys, and colored girls, and several weekly prayer-meetings. The secular work is under the superintendence of David Crofton, and embraces the management of the restaurant and dormitory above mentioned, where deserving objects of charity are fed and lodged gratuitously; maintenance of outside charities among the worthy poor, for whom rent is paid, and to whom food and clothing are supplied, and of a sort of savings institution, consisting only of an iron safe, in which poor roustabouts and others are induced to deposit their earnings for safe-keeping instead of squandering them, and the deposits in which now amount to about two thousand two hundred dollars; and finally the work of the Ladies' Bethel Association, who conduct sewing-classes for girls and for mothers, teaching them to sew, and rewarding them with the fruits of their industry, the ladies themselves devoting one day of the week (Friday) to making garments and distributing them among the poor. Over one thousand children were clothed in 1882, and the Saturday sewing-school is attended during the winter by fully three hundred girls.

The officers of the Ladies' Bethel Association are Mrs. J. A. Allen, president; Miss Ellen Budd, vice-president; Mrs. George S. Edgell, secretary; Mrs. Chapman, treasurer. Two lady city missionaries are employed, Mrs. Margaret Skinner and Miss R. A. Manning, whose chief work is among the poor. The managers of the Bethel are Nathan Cole, president; G. S. Paddock, vice-president; J. C. Hall, secretary; George A. Baker, treasurer; Isaac M. Mason, J. H. Wear, John W. Larimore, H. N. Spencer, E. E. Souther, George S. Edgell, W. W. Carpenter, D. R. Wolfe, Leonard Matthews, D. Crawford, Jos. Specht, and P. Kitwood, directors. The Bethel is supported by voluntary contributions, and extends its benefits to all the poor, regardless of creed or color, the white and colored people having separate rooms for classes and lodging. It is affiliated with no religious denomination, but is aided by all. Its chaplain, Mr. Kitwood, is a man of untiring energy, and devotes his efforts specially to elevating the morals of the people in his field of labor.


The First New Jerusalem Society of St. Louis, Lucas Avenue near Ewing Avenue, was organized by Rev. T. O. Prescott, of the Cincinnati New Church, at the house of Charles Barnard, druggist, on Morgan Street, between Tenth and Eleventh Streets, on Sunday, Nov. 20, 1842, with the following constituent members: Joseph Barnard, Francis B. Murdock, Charles R. Anderson, Eliza B. Anderson, Susan Barnard, Margaret Barnard, John H. Barnard, and Timothy Keith. On the following evening, at the house of John H. Barnard, on Morgan, between Ninth and Tenth Streets, a constitution was adopted, and Joseph Barnard was elected reader and F. B. Murdock secretary. It was decided that the congregation should meet for worship alternately at the houses of Charles and John H. Barnard and F. B. Murdock, the latter being at the southeast corner of Fifth and Elm Streets. From a paper bearing date March 27, 1843, it appears that a number of persons subscribed the sum of sixty-three dollars, in amounts ranging from one dollar to five dollars, for the purchase of New Church books, and on the 11th of May, 1843, a "society for the examination of the writings of Emanuel Swedenborg" was established, with Elijah C. Eads, J. H. Barnard, C. R. Anderson, Charles Barnard, Timothy Keith, and Joseph C. Edgar as constituent members. To these were subsequently added twenty-two others, among whom were Thomas H. Perry, B. G. Child, George F. Lewis, J. H. Brotherton, Richard Rushton, George I. Barnett, John Warden, and Charles Gleim. The society continued to meet in

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private, and rented rooms for reading and discussion, and assembled for the last time "at the school-rooms of the late Professor T. H. Perry, former secretary of the society," May 17, 1849, and "was adjourned indefinitely." The New Jerusalem Society, however, continued to exist, and in October, 1847, reported twelve members, one of the original number having died, and a Sunday-school, organized Sept. 19, 1847, with fifteen scholars. On the 5th of December, 1847, a room was rented for meetings at the corner of Washington Avenue and Fifth Street, and Professor T. H. Perry, licentiate, preached every Sunday. On the 20th of August, 1848, Thomas H. Perry was ordained to the ministry in Peoria, Ill., by Rev. J. R. Hibbard, and was installed pastor of the St. Louis Society, but died in May, 1849. In the winter of 1849-50, Rev. George Field delivered a course of lectures in St. Louis, and on the 20th of April, 1850, he was elected pastor of the society, the election to date from October 1st following. He was installed Oct. 27, 1850, and resigned October, 1852. Soon after his installation he insisted on a change in the constitution which should make baptism by a New Church minister essential to membership or admission to the Lord's Supper. On this question the society divided, the majority, seventeen in number, indorsing the pastor. They seceded with him, and formed, April 17, 1851, the St. Louis New Church Society. The minority (of twelve members) met once, May 9, 1851, after the division, but there is no record of their existence since that time. On the 20th of May, 1850, a stock company was formed for the purpose of building a church, and on the 10th of October, 1850, the society met in its own hall, at the southeast corner of Sixth and St. Charles Streets. This property passed into the hands of the seceding society, of which Dr. C. W. Spalding was the leading member, being chosen at the first election president, superintendent of Sunday-school, and leader of the choir.

On the 1st of June, 1852, a lease for the lot at Sixth and St. Charles Streets was executed to the society by George F. Lewis, and on the 14th of June a building committee was appointed for the erection of a two-story building, the lower part to be rented as a store, and the second story to be used as a hall for worship. After the resignation of Mr. Field, the meetings were for the most part suspended until Aug. 30, 1856, when nineteen persons appeared at a called meeting, abolished the obnoxious baptismal requirement, and reorganized the society on a basis of first principles. Late in 1857 the society fell into pecuniary embarrassments, and the hall was rented to other parties. On the 26th of January, 1858, nine members withdrew, and but a precarious existence was maintained, with occasional visits from Revs. George Field, Chauncey Giles, C. A. Dunham, and others, until January, 1864, when regular meetings were resumed and conducted by John Jay Bailey as reader, to which office he was elected July 7, 1864. He was licensed to preach by the General Convention, Oct. 19, 1864, and resigned the leadership of the society Jan. 11, 1866, at which time it had increased to forty active members. Rev. Charles Hardon was elected pastor March 14, 1866, and resigned June 24, 1867. Rev. Mr. Brickman supplied the pulpit during the fall of 1867, and Rev. J. B. Stuart was elected pastor Jan. 9, 1868, and resigned June 1, 1871. He reorganized the society and gave it the name of "The First Parish of the New Church in St. Louis," by which title it was incorporated March 28, 1868, with forty-six members. Its government was vested in a board of wardens, the first elected members of which were William Chauvenet, John H. Barnard, George W. Simpkins, John Warden, E. C. Sterling, George F. Lewis, G. B. Stone, R. L. Tafel, John Jay Bailey, C. S. Kauffman, David R. Powell, and Charles R. Anderson. In May, 1868, Mr. Stuart called a convention of New Church Societies in Missouri, and organized them into the diocese of Missouri, of which he was made bishop. After his departure a return to first principles was inaugurated, and on the 6th of May, 1874, the "Missouri Association" (as the "diocese" had come to be called) was finally dissolved. On the 21st of October, 1877, the "parish" was reorganized as the original First Society of the New Jerusalem in St. Louis, and was chartered March 8, 1878. On the 16th of March following the "parish" transferred to the society all its possessions and became extinct. The lease of the church lot expired June 1, 1872, and the building was sold for two thousand dollars, a lot forty feet front (the present site) purchased for four thousand dollars, and a chapel capable of seating one hundred persons erected on it at a cost of nine thousand and fifty dollars. The building was first occupied Sept. 29, 1878. During 1873-74, Rev. James E. Mills officiated as leader of the society, and services were subsequently conducted by a reader. On the 3d of December, 1878, Rev. E. A. Beaman was employed to preach two Sundays in the month, and on the 1st of October, 1882, Rev. A. F. Frost commenced an engagement as preacher, but no regular pastor was chosen. The constitution of the parish received, all told, one hundred and six signatures. The present society has had, in all, thirty-eight active members, now reduced by deaths to thirty-four, and the congregation numbers about seventy persons.

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The Sunday-school has five teachers and about forty pupils.

The German New Jerusalem Society, corner of Twelfth and Webster Streets, was organized in 1854, and at one time worshiped at the corner of Howard and Fourteenth Streets. Its congregation numbers about two hundred, and about one hundred children attend the Sunday-school.


The Christians, or Disciples of Christ, more popularly known as "Campbellites," from Alexander Campbell, their foremost leader, who professed to restore the simple faith and worship of the primitive Christians, and discarding all creeds, to take the Bible for the sole guide in life and doctrine, have now three organizations in St. Louis, viz.:

First Church, southwest corner of Olive and Seventeenth Streets, Elder W. T. Tibbs, pastor.

Central Church, northeast corner of Washington Avenue and Twenty-third Street, Rev. J. H. Foy, D. D., pastor.

North St. Louis Church, southwest corner of Eighth and Mound Street's, Elders George Anderson and G. Jackman, pastors.

These three congregations sprang successively from a small gathering of Campbellites, originally only seven members, which met on Sundays at a private residence, and which in 1842 had increased in number to twenty-seven persons, with Elder Robert H. Fife as leader. They next rented a small school-room on Morgan Street, and a year lated rented Lyceum Hall, and called to the pastorate Dr. W. H. Hopson, then a young man, who afterwards became one of the most prominent ministers in the denomination. Owing to his energy and activity the congregation increased so rapidly that in 1845 it removed to a more commodious building on Sixth Street and Franklin Avenue. Elder Jacob Creath was the next pastor for two years, and was succeeded by Elder Joseph Patton, who died in 1850. The church next purchased a lot on Fifth Street, between Franklin Avenue and Wash Street, and erected a building at a cost of twenty-five thousand dollars, which was dedicated Aug. 15, 1852, by the pastor, Elder Samuel S. Church. The structure was of the early English Gothic style of architecture, and its dimensions were sixty by one hundred and seven feet six inches, the seating capacity being about eight hundred persons. Mr. Church died some years later, and was followed by Elder Proctor, whom ill health caused to resign in 1861. In June, 1863, the church purchased from D. A. January the building now occupied, at the southwest corner of Olive and Seventeenth Streets. It had been St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal Church, but was closed and sold for debt in 1861. It was dedicated in July, 1863, by the pastor, Elder Benjamin H. Smith, whose successors in the pastorate have been Elders Henry H. Haley, Henry Clark, John A. Brooks, O. A. Carr, Dr. W. H. Hopson, their first minister, who returned in 1874 and remained one year; T. P. Haley, who took charge in 1875 and resigned in November, 1881, leaving the church without a pastor until the appointment of Elder W. T. Tibbs, of Kentucky, early in 1882. In 1870 the question as to whether an organ should be placed in the church caused dissensions in the congregation, and in June, 1871, a large number who favored instrumental music withdrew and formed a new congregation, now called Central Church. They met in a hall at Fourteenth and St. Charles Streets, and in 1875 purchased the lot on which they erected their present house of worship, which they supplied with an organ and an efficient choir. Their first pastor, Elder Enos Campbell, was called to the charge at the time of the secession from the First Church and remained until 1879, when the present pastor was called. The congregation at Eighth and Mound Streets has long been a small and struggling one, but now, under its two able leaders, is beginning to increase and flourish. The First Church reports a membership of one hundred families and three hundred communicants, and twelve teachers and seventy-five pupils in the Sunday-school; the Central has two hundred members, and fifteen teachers and one hundred scholars in the Sunday-school; and the North St. Louis comprises about sixty families and one hundred members, with nine teachers and one hundred children in the Sunday-school.


First Congregational Church. — The first Congregational Society established in St. Louis was organized in the spring of 1852, and was an offshoot from the Third Presbyterian Church. In 1847, Rev. Truman M. Post, D. D., arrived in St. Louis under an engagement for four years as pastor of what was then the Third Presbyterian Church, whose members worshiped on Sixth Street, between Franklin Avenue and Wash Street. This congregation had been organized in April, 1842, by eighty-five members of the First Presbyterian Church, who had been dismissed for that purpose, and Dr. Post continued to serve as its pastor until about the time of the organization of the Congregational Society. At the request of several leading citizens, Dr. Post preached, on the 11th of January, 1852, a discourse on Congregationalism and

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the expediency of forming a Congregational Church in St. Louis, and on the 14th of March following the First Congregational Society was organized by sixty-seven members of the former Third Presbyterian Church and ten others. The interest of the other owners in the building on Sixth Street was purchased, and the new organization continued to worship there with Dr. Post as pastor. Shortly afterwards the sum of twenty thousand dollars was raised by subscription, and a lot at the northwest corner of Tenth and Locust Streets was purchased. On the western edge of this lot a chapel was erected, into which the congregation moved in December, 1855, having sold the Sixth Street property and with the proceeds liquidated the debt incurred in building the chapel. The cornerstone of the main church edifice was laid in the spring of 1858, and the basement was occupied on the 16th of October, 1859. The chapel was then rented to the Homoeopathic Medical College, and on the 4th of March, 1860, the church was dedicated, its entire cost being fifty-five thousand dollars. Since 1879 the building has been rented to the Young Men's Temperance Union. Its dimensions are one hundred by seventy feet, and it occupies a lot one hundred and two by eighty feet. It is a brick structure, with a solid stone basement. In 1863 the congregation found itself burdened with a debt of forty thousand dollars, and at the annual meeting of that year it was determined to liquidate it. The sum of ten thousand dollars was subscribed on the spot, ten thousand dollars more was obtained by subscription soon afterwards, and in 1864 the chapel property was sold, the society being thus lifted out of debt. Pilgrim Church was founded as a colony from the First in 1866, and during the same year several members withdrew for the purpose of forming the Webster Grove Church. The location of the First Church became from year to year more and more unsuitable, owing to the removal of population westward, and finally the present site of the church (Delmar and Grand Avenues) was purchased, and a wooden chapel erected, which the congregation first occupied in February, 1879, and in which it still continues to worship. In January, 1872, Dr. Post tendered his resignation as pastor, but withdrew it at the urgent request of his congregation, and on the 1st of January, 1882, he was allowed to retire from the active duties of his charge, his congregation, however, continuing him in honorary connection with the pastorate, under the title of Pastor Emeritus. The present pastor is the Rev. J. G. Merrill.

Rev. Truman M. Post was born in Middlebury, Vt., June 3, 1810. His father, a lawyer, died before he was a year old, and his training devolved upon his mother. He attended the common schools of his native place, but studied and read independently of his teachers, his progress being so rapid that at the age of fifteen he entered Middlebury College, a self-taught and rather precocious young man. He graduated from this institution when only nineteen years old, as valedictorian of his class. He was then engaged for a year as principal of the Castleton Academy, and for two years as a tutor at Middlebury College. He then began the study of law, but he had also a decided bias for theological investigation, and in 1831, while a tutor at Middlebury, he was led to change his purpose. Accordingly, in the autumn of 1832, he went to Andover, with the view of pursuing a course of study for the Christian ministry, but when about to make profession of Christianity he found himself debarred from communions which seemed genuinely representative by creeds which required, as conditions of membership, categorical statements of belief which seemed to him speculative, and as to which he had no positive convictions. These difficulties not yielding, he turned again to the law, and in the prosecution of his studies spent the winter of 1832-33 in Washington, where he was a constant attendant upon the sessions of the Supreme Court, and a deeply-interested spectator of the exciting oratorical contests between Webster, Calhoun, and other giants of the period, which marked the close of the old régime and the inauguration of a new political era.

While yet in doubt as to his future course, Mr. Post was persuaded by Gen. (afterwards Governor) Duncan, of Illinois, to visit the West, and in the spring of 1833 started thither, passing a few days at Cincinnati, where he made the acquaintance of Salmon P. Chase, then a young lawyer, whose friendship he retained through life, and of Dr. Lyman Beecher, who advised him as to his religious difficulties. He arrived at St. Louis in May of that year, and made arrangements to enter the law-office of H. R. Gamble. Before settling down to his new career, however, he visited his friend, Gen. Duncan, at Jacksonville, Ill., and soon after his arrival there was prevailed upon to accept a temporary engagement as assistant instructor in Illinois College, at that point. This temporary arrangement was soon made permanent, and resulted in a stay of fourteen years at Jacksonville.

In the fall of 1833 he made his first formal public profession of faith in Christianity (his religious difficulties having been partly removed), and joined a little Congregational Church then being formed. In 1835 he revisited Middlebury, his native place, and married a daughter of the Hon. Daniel Henshaw, a

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eminent citizen of Vermont. The union proved a singularly happy one.

In the financial revulsions of 1837-38 the funds of the college failed, and pecuniary considerations urged Mr. Post to return to the law. But while considering the problem he was besought by the church to "take license" and become its pastor. Eventually he acceded to the request, but on appearing before the association for examination he expressly repudiated the term "licensing" or "being licensed," and the implied assumption of spiritual authority over preacher or congregation. The association was startled, but on examination of Mr. Post's historical references it conceded his position, and granted him merely a recommendation as a preacher. For several years he combined the classical instruction and historical lectures of the class-room with the labors of the pulpit and the pastorate.

But the revenue from both sources was still insufficient to satisfy his pecuniary necessities, and a change became imperative. Meanwhile he had been repeatedly solicited to remove to St. Louis, to assume charge of the Third Presbyterian Church, and in 1847 he received a specially urgent call. He was, however, deeply attached to the college, and was also extremely unwilling to live in a community in which slavery existed. He finally accepted the invitation on the express condition that his letter of acceptance should be read publicly, and then the question of renewing the call be submitted to the people. In this letter he stated that he regarded holding human beings as property as a violation of the first principles of the Christian religion, and that while he did not require the church to adopt his views, he thought every Christian should be alive to the question of slavery; and as for himself, he must be guaranteed perfect liberty of opinion and speech on the subject, otherwise he did not think God called him to add to the number of slaves already in Missouri. The church heard the letter and unanimously renewed the invitation, whereupon Professor Post, in the fall of 1847, became the pastor of the Third Presbyterian Church of St. Louis, limiting the engagement to four years, in the hope that he might be able to return to the college at the expiration of that period.

But at the close of the allotted term, the church with great unanimity voted to become a Congregational Church, and chose Rev. Mr. Post as its pastor, a position which under the circumstances he was constrained to accept, and which he held uninterruptedly until his resignation, which took effect Jan. 1, 1882. Under his pastorate the church prospered, and became the rallying-point for opinions that later became potential in the great civil war. During that period Mr. Post did not forbear to assert the supremacy of those principles of personal liberty and responsibility which he had brought with him from New England, but did so with so much courtesy as well as courage, that he commanded the entire respect of a congregation and community of widely differing opinions.

Outside of the duties immediately pertaining to his pastorate, he became closely identified with the development of the educational and charitable enterprises of the city, and labored with an energy and catholicity of spirit not excelled by any in his profession. The abolition of slavery removed a great barrier to the spread of Congregationalism, and the subsequent rapid planting of churches of that faith in this portion of the Mississippi valley was greatly aided by his counsels.

His resignation as pastor of the First Congregational Church was accepted with reluctance, and, as previously stated, in recognition of his years of service, the title of Pastor Emeritus was conferred upon him. Many years ago his Alma Mater, Middlebury College, bestowed upon him the degree of Doctor of Divinity.

Force and effectiveness are the characteristics of Dr. Post as a preacher. He possesses a brilliant and poetic fancy, and his historical studies enable him to analyze events with a philosophic eye. This perhaps was the secret of his power and influence in the agitation preceding and attending the civil war. Many

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of his discourses and addresses were widely circulated, and contributed greatly to strengthening the hands of the Unionists. He also aided the cause by frequent contributions to the press.

Although a prominent actor in the local agitation of the period, Dr. Post was never lacking in the performance of any of the usual duties of a pastor, and his nearly thirty-five years in the ministry in St. Louis were singularly faithful and useful ones.

In 1873, while in Europe, he was summoned home by the death of his estimable wife. Their union had resulted in three sons and three daughters, all living; two of the sons are lawyers and one is a physician, all of them occupying a creditable position in their several callings.

Pilgrim Congregational Church, corner of Washington and Ewing Avenues, Rev. C. L. Goodell, D. D., pastor, grew out of Pilgrim Sabbath-school, organized in 1853, by Rev. F. A. Armstrong, of Tennessee, temporarily residing in St. Louis. The school was established in the upper room of a two-story frame house at the northwest corner of Garrison Avenue and Morgan Street, where the residence of William Ballentyne now stands. After conducting the school one Sunday Mr. Armstrong was called away, and Stephen M. Edgell, a member of the First Congregational Church, continued it, chiefly at his own expense. For about twelve years he had personal case of the school-room, and in winter brought coal and kindling-wood from his own home, acting both as instructor and janitor. In 1854, the school having become too large for its quarters, Mr. Edgell leased a lot where now stands the residence of D. P. Rowland, 2910 Morgan Street, and erected on it a one-story brick building, in which besides the school religious services were held. On the 22d of September, 1865, an informal meeting was held at the house of William Colcord, 2800 Morgan Street, to consider the question of erecting a permanent building for the Sabbath-school and of organizing a new congregation. In June, 1866, S. M. Edgell and James E. Kaime purchased a lot fronting eighty and eight-twelfths feet on Washington Avenue, and one hundred and thirty-four and three-twelfths feet on Ewing Avenue, for $7620, and presented it for the "uses of an orthodox Congregational Church." Pilgrim Chapel, a brick building, capable of seating four hundred people, and costing $14,460.80, was erected on this lot during the same year. On the 5th of December, 1866, the proposed church was organized as a colony from the First Congregational Church, thirty-six of whose members had been dismissed for the purpose. The chapel was dedicated on the 22d of December, 1866, the 22d being known as "Forefathers' day," the anniversary of the day on which the Pilgrim Fathers landed at Plymouth Rock. A council of Congregational Churches was convened for the occasion, with Rev. J. M. Sturtevant, Jr., of Hannibal, as moderator, and Rev. J. M. Bowers, of Sedalia, Mo., as scribe.

In 1867 the foundations of the present stone building were built, at a cost of three thousand and forty dollars and forty-five cents, and Dec. 21, 1867, the corner-stone was laid with appropriate services at the northeast corner. In 1871 the erection of the present edifice was commenced, and on the 22d of December, 1872 (Forefathers' day), the building was formally dedicated. The total cost, including that of organ and furniture, was fifty-six thousand three hundred and forty-eight dollars and nine cents. S. M. Edgell and D. F. Kaime were the building committee, and Henry L. Isaacs was the architect. The church is capable of seating thirteen hundred and twenty persons. The spire and tower were finished in 1876, and in the latter is the "Oliphant chime" of ten bells, presented at Christmas, 1876, by Dr. R. W. Oliphant, in memory of his deceased wife and son. In connection with the chimes is a tower clock, striking the famous Cambridge University quarters, the first of its kind in America. The bells, clock, etc., cost ten thousand dollars. The pastors have been Revs. John Monteith, Jr., of Cleveland, Ohio, began Nov. 1, 1866, dismissed with seventy-one other members to form a colony, March 15, 1869; W. C. Martyn, of Union Presbyterian Theological Seminary, appointed June 24, 1869, resigned Sept. 1, 1871; H. C. Haydn, appointed Dec. 1, 1871, resigned April 1, 1872; C. L. Goodell, called Sept. 12, took charge Nov. 27, 1872, and formally installed June 5, 1873, the installation having been delayed by his illness.

In December, 1871, S. M. Edgell presented the two-story brick dwelling-house and twenty-five feet of land adjoining the church for a parsonage.

The brick chapel was rebuilt in the autumn of 1873, with a stone front, and raised to the height of the main edifice, and was fitted up with sewing-rooms, parlors, etc., at a cost of $13,229.80, and dedicated Jan. 21, 1874. The entire church property has cost $106,207.89. This was the first church erected west of Seventeenth Street, and out of it have grown the Third, Plymouth, Fifth, and Hyde Park Churches. It has also dismissed several members to unite with the Congregational Church at Webster Grove. About fifteen hundred persons are connected with the church, and there are seven hundred and fifty communicants. The Sunday-school has seventeen officers, fifty-four regular teachers, and a reserve corps of nineteen others.

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During the year 1881 the whole number of scholars was seven hundred and fifty, the additions seventy-five, number of classes fifty-six, and number of volumes in the library five hundred and forty-two. Connected with the church are a Young Ladies' Missionary Society, a Ladies' Home Missionary Society, a Woman's Board of Missions, the Pilgrim Workers, a Flower Mission, etc., while the congregation is also largely represented in the Young Men's Christian Association, missionary work in the jail, and several other religious and benevolent enterprises. During 1881 the church contributed in outside benevolence $26,638.85, and during the year previous $25,882.87.

Rev. Constans L. Goodell, D. D., pastor of Pilgrim Church, is descended from Robert Goodell, one of the early settlers of Salem, Mass., who came from England in the ship "Elizabeth," landing there in 1634, six years after the founding of that town and fourteen years after the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth. One of his descendants, Aaron Goodell, emigrated to Calais, Vt., where Constans L. Goodell was born March 16, 1830. He belongs to a race which has contributed much to the growth of Christianity in our own and other lands. His mother, Elvira Bancroft, was of a family which for five successive generations furnished a deacon in each (of the same name) for the church in Lynn, Mass. Eleven of his ancestors chose the ministry for their life-work, including the eminent Dr. William Goodell, for forty-two years a missionary of the American Board in Turkey.

Dr. Goodell is a graduate of the University of Vermont, class of 1855, and of Andover Theological Seminary, 1858. The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred by his Alma Mater in 1874.

He married, May 5, 1859, Miss Emily Fairbanks, daughter of Governor Erastus Fairbanks, and sister of Governor Horace Fairbanks, of St. Johnsbury, Vt. Mrs. Goodell has had a large share in his remarkable success, and few women have exercised so wide and valuable an influence on the life of a great city. All the rich gifts of her generous heart and cultured mind are fully consecrated to the work to which his life is devoted. She is beside her husband in all his labors, and all movements for the advancement of the church and for reaching and comforting the uncared-for and afflicted are planned by the two together. His first pastorate was at New Britain, Conn., where he was settled over the South Congregational Church in 1859, and where he remained fourteen years.

On Nov. 27, 1872, he commenced his pastorate in St. Louis, and this date marks the commencement of that rapid growth which has placed Pilgrim Church among the great evangelizing forces of the city. That his work has been successful is clearly shown by its effects. The high position universally accorded him is the result of the labor which has developed a church of ninety-two members into one of eight hundred, and increased its benevolence from three thousand dollars a year to nearly thirty thousand dollars, all in the short space of ten years. He uses no sensational methods, but depends on quiet and effective labor. When asked once what was the secret of his success, from a human stand-point, he replied, "Eternal vigilance." He is remarkably successful in inspiring others with a love for Christian effort.

His belief is thoroughly evangelical, and what is technically known as the "New England theology," and he preaches only his convictions. No one has ever heard doubts ventilated from Pilgrim pulpit while he has occupied it. He is thoroughly consecrated to the work of the pastorate. He knows his people thoroughly, and is as well known by them. A stranger at one of the services said that when the preacher rose in the pulpit he knew at once that he was the pastor of that church; his manner, his prayers, and his preaching all showed that he was the shepherd of the flock. In the church of which he is the pastor people of all sects and circumstances are perfectly at home.

Many churches in St. Louis have felt the impulse of Dr. Goodell's work, and through him have gained courage to go forward. There are several organizations in the city besides Pilgrim Church that are now strong, and becoming more vigorous and useful every year, which might not be in existence but for him. At least three new churches have been organized within the city limits as the direct result of his wise planning and generous help; and they have all been set in motion with such a liberal spirit that their success was assured from the start. Numerous churches in various parts of the State afford the same evidence of the thoughtful care and wise generosity of Dr. Goodell. His influence on his brethren in the ministry is great, and not only by his example, but by his active sympathy and sound advice, has he saved them from many grave mistakes, and contributed greatly to their success.

In educational matters he has always been active. Drury College owes much of its prosperity to his labors as a trustee and an earnest friend. There are many who believe that but for him the college could never have survived the trials through which it has passed. Illinois College and other similar institutions have also felt the effects of his efforts and counsel.

Dr. Goodell's life is an eminently peaceful one. He

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studiously avoids all controversies, believing that the plain preaching of the truth and earnest work form the best answer to any attack or criticism. It naturally follows that his influence in unifying and harmonizing Christian work is great. The Young Men's Christian Association has always found in him a faithful and practical ally. The different branches of union effort in the city have representatives and active workers from his membership, and look with confidence to the pastor of Pilgrim Church for help and advice. During the time that Rev. E. P. Hammond, the evangelist, labored in St. Louis, and later when D. L. Moody held his meetings, Dr. Goodell was foremost in the work. The Evangelical Alliance has learned to expect from him words of peace and wisdom on difficult points, and one of its pleasantest and most helpful years was that in which he was its president.

In his own denomination Dr. Goodell is recognized as a leader and has great influence. At the meeting of the National Council of Congregational Churches in Detroit, in 1877, his paper on "Woman's Work as a Part of the Religious Movement of the Time" was regarded as one of the wisest and most timely utterances ever made on that difficult subject. In 1881, in his sermon before the American Home Missionary Society at its annual meeting in New York City, he asked for "one million dollars a year for home missions," and the churches seem likely in the near future to meet this demand. He is a member of the committee of twenty-five, appointed for the purpose of framing a new statement of Christian doctrine, and occupies many other positions of trust and influence. There have been several efforts to draw Dr. Goodell away to other pastorates and positions of great importance, but his response in each case has been that his work was in St. Louis.

Third Congregational Church. — On the 22d of December, 1867, the Young People's Association of Pilgrim Congregational Church organized the Mayflower Mission Sabbath-school, which was located at the corner of Luckey Street and Grand Avenue. In the fall of 1868 a lot on Boston Street, between Grand and Spring Avenues, was purchased, and a chapel forty by fifty feet erected. The building was completed and dedicated June 13, 1869; a colony of sixty-two members from Plymouth Church, to whom the chapel was transferred, having on the 15th of March previous organized a new church, with the name of Mayflower Church. The pastors of Mayflower Church have been Rev. John Monteith, who assisted in the first organization, and resigned on account of ill health, April 26, 1871, but continued to officiate until relieved by his successor; Rev. E. P. Powell, appointed April 26, 1871, took charge Sept. 17, 1871, resigned Sept. 12, 1873; Rev. W. S. Peterson, appointed January, 1874, resigned January, 1875; Rev. William Twining served as supply three months in 1875; Rev. Theodore Clifton, appointed Oct. 12, 1875. During the last quarter of 1873, the congregation being without a pastor, lost so many members that in January, 1874, it reorganized, and closed the year with sixty-six members, of whom thirty-nine had belonged to the former organization. In 1875 it suffered from the same cause, and the organization was only preserved by the determination of a few individuals. In December, 1875, when the present pastor, Rev. Theodore Clifton, took charge, only twenty-five resident members remained, the services during the interval having been conducted by a reader, and a debt of one thousand dollars had accumulated.

Since then, however, the congregation has prospered, On the 12th of April, 1876, the church united with the St. Louis Congregational Association, and Oct. 1, 1876, its name was changed to that of "Third Congregational." In November, 1876, S. M. Edgell, of Pilgrim Church, presented the church with fifty feet of ground on Francis Street, and in the fall of 1877 the Boston Street lots were sold, the debt was paid, and the building was removed to the new location on Francis Street, and enlarged, repaired, and refurnished at a cost of $2015.35, of which $1350 was given by the Pilgrim and First Congregational Churches, The remainder was raised by the members of the Third Church. The edifice was rededicated, free of debt, Dec. 19, 1877, by Revs. C. S. Goodell and Dr. T. M. Post. In June, 1882, the lot occupied by the present church, at the southeast corner of Grand and Page Avenues, was purchased from D. R. Garrison for the sum of twelve thousand dollars. Its dimensions are one hundred and twelve by one hundred and fifty feet, and on it is situated a handsome residence, which was included in the purchase and is now the parsonage. The church, a neat Gothic frame building, was removed to the new site, and two thousand dollars was expended in refitting it. A lecture-room and other apartments were added as a basement, and the building, which is capable of seating five hundred persons, was formally reopened on the 10th of November, 1882. The membership numbers over two hundred. There are about one hundred and fifty families connected with the church, and the average attendance is about one hundred and fifty. The Fair Ground Mission Sunday-school was organized July 17, 1870, and formally recognized as a mission of the church Dec. 19, 1877. It has fifteen teachers and

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two hundred scholars. The Ladies' Aid Society, Young People's Christian Association, and Children's Missionary Society, called "Coral Workers," are active auxiliaries of the church.

Plymouth Church. — The fourth of the Congregrational Churches of St. Louis, in point of organization is Plymouth Church, situated on the west side of Belle Glade Avenue, north of Parsons Street, Rev. James A. Adams, pastor. It grew out of a Sunday-school called the "Hope Mission School," which was organized in 1865 by Rev. William Porteus, city missionary, at Elleardsville, then a suburb of St. Louis. His connection with it lasted only a few months, and it dwindled away until, in the fall of 1868, Mrs. Lucy J. Moody appealed to Pilgrim Church for laborers to sustain the school. The church in response sent out Deacons Wm. Colcord and Lyman B. Ripley, the latter of whom was soon compelled by the pressure of his church duties to leave the enterprise in the hands of the former, to whose efforts and pecuniary aid the school owed its growth, and Plymouth Church, perhaps, its existence. Mrs. Lucy J. Moody gave the school a lot thirty-three by one hundred and forty feet, and the erection of a building upon it was commenced in 1868, when in response to appeals for aid the First Pilgrim and Webster Grove Congregational Churches pledged each five hundred dollars towards the erection of a suitable building. These subscriptions were made with a view to organizing a church in connection with the school, and as further aid was promised from other sources the idea was adopted. The contract for the building was executed in March, 1869, and the structure was completed and dedicated July 11, 1869. On Saturday, July 31, 1869, a meeting was held and the church organized, its first communion occurring on the following day. The building is of frame, thirty by sixty-two feet, with a seating capacity of three hundred. In 1879 a lecture-room of the same seating capacity was erected beneath the superstructure. An additional lot, thirty-three by one hundred and forty feet, has been added to the first, and the property is now valued at five thousand dollars. The successive pastors have been Revs. W. H. Warren, a graduate of Harvard College and Andover Seminary, ordained and installed Dec. 7, 1869, resigned Sept. 25, 1872; Wm. Perkins (supply), May 4 to Nov. 30, 1873; then an interval without a pastor; W. B. Millard, a graduate of Chicago Seminary, installed June 26, 1874; resigned April 11, 1875; Alex. S. McConnell, May 16 to Nov. 16, 1875; J. E. Wheeler, November, 1875, to September, 1877; J. H. Harwood, a graduate of Williams College and Union Seminary, Oct. 10, 1877, to Aug. 15, 1880; James A. Adams, a graduate of Knox College and Union Seminary, called September 4th, ordained and installed Dec. 3, 1880. Associated with the church are a Ladies' Aid Society, organized in 1878, and a Ladies' Missionary Society, organized in 1879. The church numbers one hundred and twenty-eight members, and its Sunday-school is attended by three hundred pupils.

Fifth Congregational Church, southwest corner of Clark Avenue and High (or Twenty-third) Street, Rev. George C. Adams, pastor, is the third child of Pilgrim Church, and was originally the High Street Mission Sunday-school. It was established by Pilgrim Church, Oct. 31, 1880, and carried on until May 1, 1881, when Rev. George C. Adams took charge of it and began holding regular services. On the 3d of July, 1881, the Fifth Church was organized. It was recognized by council Oct. 11, 1881, and Mr. Adams was installed as pastor. The building now occupied was erected by the High Street Presbyterian Church, and was purchased for the Fifth Church by Pilgrim Church, which up to Jan. 1, 1882, had spent six thousand one hundred and fifty dollars for the new society. It is cruciform, the nave being seventy-eight feet in length and the transept eighty feet. The dimensions of the lot are one hundred and thirty-four by one hundred and twenty-five feet, and the property is valued at nine thousand dollars. The congregation maintains in connection with its church work the Ladies' Aid Society, organized March, 1882; the Young People's Home Missionary Society, organized September, 1881; and the Youths' Christian Association, organized in January, 1882. The church membership embraces one hundred and fifty families, one hundred and thirty-one communicants, and an attendance of four hundred at the Sunday-school.

Hyde Park Church was the sixth Congregational Church organized in St. Louis, and the fourth offshoot from Pilgrim Church. It is situated at the northwest corner of Bremen Avenue and Twelfth Street, and the pastor is Rev. L. L. West. In April, 1881, a church building which stood on Ninth Street, between Farrar and Salisbury, and which had been known as the Fairmount Presbyterian Church, was purchased for its use. The building was removed to its present location opposite Hyde Park, refitted, and dedicated July 10, 1881. The society was organized with twenty-one members, July 25, 1881, and the present pastor, who is from Chicago Theological Seminary, was elected. The building, removal, and repairing cost Pilgrim Church $3848.27. In May, 1882, the congregation comprised one hundred and

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forty families and fifty-six communicants, and there were seventeen teachers and between one hundred and fifty and two hundred pupils in the Sunday-school.

In addition to the Congregational Churches named, the Fair Ground Mission Sunday-school, belonging to the Third Church, is conducted under the superintendence of Garden Hepburn. The Ministers' Meeting is held every Monday at eleven A. M., in the parlors of Pilgrim Church, and the St. Louis District Association of Congregational Ministers and Churches meets twice a year, in April and October. Its registrar is O. L. Whitelaw, 617 North Second Street. There is also a State Central Home Missionary Committee, composed of Rev. T. M. Post, D. D., Rev. C. L. Goodell, D. D., Rev. Henry Hopkins, Rev. Theodore Clifton, Rev. J. C. Plumb, Rev. E. B. Burrows, and S. M. Edgell.


Early in the present century we find that portions of Col. Auguste Chouteau's property were used as burial-place's, and on Oct. 12, 1815, he gave notice "forbidding any further interments in his land, near the court-house in the town of St. Louis, under penalty of prosecution." On the 1st of June, 1816, James Sawyer announced that "having purchased the lot No. 6 in Col. Chouteau's addition to the town of St. Louis, on which there are some graves, and being about to build thereon, the friends and connections of the departed are hereby notified that he will have no objection to their removing the remains of their connections; or if they prefer leaving them where they are, every respect shall be paid to them on my part of which the case will admit. The conditions on which Col. A. Chouteau sold this and all the lots in his addition expressly prohibit the purchasers from permitting the interring of the dead thereon for the future, under the penalty of forfeiting the lot; this inconvenience he hopes will be effectually remedied, as Messrs. Chambers, Christy & Co. have set apart a high and handsome situation in the vicinity of St. Louis for the use of a church and burying-ground, of which they have made a donation to the public, under the express conditions that it is at all times to remain open for the interment of the dead of all religious denominations."

The public burying-ground here referred to was that which was afterwards known as "the old Grace Church graveyard," at Warren and Eleventh Streets. Col. William Chambers, of Kentucky, an officer in the United States army, was the original purchaser, and afterwards sold a third each to Maj. Thomas Wright and William Christy. As an inducement for wealthy persons to settle in that section, these gentlemen set apart four parcels of land for public uses, and among them a "circle" containing about one and three-fourths acres, "for the purpose of erecting a house of worship, and a burying-ground to be opened for the interment of all denominations of religious persons." This circle was used as a burying-ground as early as 1825, but it was not until 1844 that a graveyard was regularly established.

In the latter year a number of Episcopalians organized a church society, and induced other persons of various Protestant denominations to unite with them in establishing a burying-ground, which remained under the control of the vestry of Grace Protestant Episcopal Church, the church and ground being originally consecrated by Bishop Hawks. During the cholera epidemic of 1849 the number of interments here was so large that the grounds were closed in 1851. A large number of the bodies were afterwards transferred to Bellefontaine cemetery. The subsequent improvements in the neighborhood of the graveyard, such as grading and opening new streets, etc., disturbed many of the graves, and the contents of others were exposed by crumbling of the hill on which the graveyard was situated, and in such instances the bones were removed to the basement under the church. Among the graves thus disturbed was that of Governor Howard. This circumstance was brought to the notice of the City Council, who authorized the reinterment of Governor Howard's remains in Bellefontaine cemetery. Years ago the cemetery circle had trees on it, and the place was a popular resort in summer and autumn evenings for loving couples, and the old people who lived in the vicinity amused their friends by narrating romantic and ghostly stories concerning courtship adventures in the old graveyard. It was customary in those days for displeased parents and jealous parties to get up ghost scenes to scare the young people when promenading or seated in the place.

In February, 1823, the trustees of the town passed an ordinance "prohibiting the burial of dead within its limits."

On June 28, 1824, Messrs. J. B. Belcour, M. Murphy, G. Paul, and J. McGovern, trustees of the Catholic Church, gave notice as follows: "The inhabitants of St. Louis and its vicinity are made acquainted that a public graveyard, under the superintendence of the wardens of the Catholic congregation, and adjoining their burial-ground, is now opened, and that burials may hereafter take place by conforming with the following resolutions passed by the committee: Applications for burials to be made to the warden

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in office for the year. The price of burial to be ten dollars, five dollars for children under ten years of age. Persons who would fence in a particular spot for their family, each burial to be twenty dollars, and ten dollars for children under ten years of age. The amount of burial to be settled with the church warden before the burials take place. No grave to be dug but by the digger appointed for that purpose, and according to the regulations for said graveyard. The warden in office for this year is Mr. J. B. Belcour."

In 1827 we find that orders for graves in the city graveyard, and digging them, were received by the sexton, living next to it, and by A. Rutgers, on Church Street, between Plum and Poplar Streets, and are told that a lot for twelve coffins cost twenty dollars; for one coffin, five dollars; price for digging a grave, two dollars.

In 1833 the city authorities set apart a tract of ten acres, a portion of the commons belonging to St. Louis, lying southwest of the city, for the purpose of a burial-ground, but inclosed only one acre, which was "deemed sufficient for the purpose for some years to come."

The Bellefontaine cemetery was incorporated as "the Rural Cemetery," under an act of the General Assembly of Missouri, approved March 7, 1849, the incorporators being Messrs. John F. Darby, Henry Kayser, Wayman Crow, James E. Yeatman, James Harrison, Charles S. Rannels, Gerard B. Allen, Philander Salisbury, William Bennett, Augustus Brewster, and William McPherson. On May 24, 1849, the "Rural Cemetery Association" was organized by the election of Dr. William Carr Lane, president; A. G. Farwell, secretary; and a committee, consisting of Messrs. Wayman Crow, John O'Fallon, J. B. Crockett, Christian Rhodes, John F. Darby, John Smith, John Kerr, Nathan Ranney, and N. E. Janney, was appointed on the selection of a site for the cemetery and permanent organization. Upon this committee reporting the permanent organization was effected by the election of James Harrison, president; Wayman Crow, treasurer; William M. McPherson, secretary. The capital stock was fixed at fifty thousand dollars, and a tract of land comprising one hundred and thirty-eight acres was purchased from Luther M. Kennett, on the Bellefontaine road, at two hundred dollars per acre. On the 15th of May, 1850, it was dedicated as the "Bellefontaine Cemetery." Hon. John F. Darby presided at the dedicatory ceremonies, which were participated in by Rev. Mr. Bullard, of the First Presbyterian Church; Rev. Mr. Hutchinson, of St. George's Episcopal Church; Rev. Mr. Eliot, of the Unitarian Church; Rev. Mr. Jeter, of the First Baptist Church, and Rev. T. M. Post. A hymn composed by Mrs. F. M. Brotherton, and an ode composed by William J. Blackwood, were sung by the choir. At the close of the ceremonies lots to the amount of thirteen thousand seven hundred and seventy-seven dollars were sold. The first interment in the cemetery was made May 19, 1850. On November 4th the first annual meeting of the association was held, and the following board of trustees was elected: John F. Darby, William M. McPherson, Gerard B. Allen, Augustus Brewster, William Bennett, Wayman Crow, James Harrison, Luther M. Kennett, John R. Shepley, John O'Fallon, and James E. Yeatman. Up to Jan. 1, 1878, two thousand four hundred and seventy-two lots had been sold, and there had been nineteen thousand nine hundred and seventy-one interments. At this time the resources of the association amounted to one hundred and thirteen thousand one hundred and seventy-six dollars, and the income for the preceding year was twenty-six thousand and seventy-three dollars. The cemetery at present comprises nearly three hundred and fifty acres. The present officers are James E. Yeatman, president; George S. Drake, vice-president; Samuel Copp, secretary and treasurer; A. Hotchkiss, superintendent.

The Wesleyan Cemetery Association was incorporated under an act of the Legislature of Missouri, approved Feb. 28, 1851. An amendatory act of March 5, 1855, provided that no street or highway shall be opened through any part of the Wesleyan cemetery. By a subsequent act, passed in 1874, the Wesleyan Cemetery Association was authorized to remove the bodies buried therein and to sell and dispose of the property. The association disposed of their old property in the city and removed the remains therein to the new Wesleyan cemetery.

In 1852 the St. Louis Republican, in speaking of the cemeteries and graveyards of the city, said, "The old French cemetery, at the corner of Second and Market Streets, is still fresh in our memory, and this thoroughfare is now one of the busiest in the city. So, too, of the burying-place at the corner of Fourth and Market Streets, started at a later period. The public cemetery, on Park Avenue, west of Carondelet, is to be recognized to-day only by the three or four broken tombstones which are left. Not a single trace of the inclosure exists, and as a new cellar is excavated or an adjacent street improved, the remains of the dead are taken up carelessly, to be placed in this or that cemetery. Nay, the cemeteries on Franklin Avenue, which were only a short time ago believed to be far beyond the encroachments of city improvements, to-day

-- 1752 --

form the centre of a populous, busy district, and their removal is already contemplated, as they retard in a measure the progress of necessary improvements."

In 1854 a new Catholic cemetery was laid out near the Bellefontaine cemetery, to which the name of Calvary was given.

In 1865 the St. Louis City Council passed an ordinance for the removal of bodies buried in the old city cemetery to the quarantine burying-ground. The ordinance provided that the bodies shall be removed by the city by the 15th day of March following, but that persons claiming the remains of friends or relatives buried might remove them.

In 1866, during the prevalence of the cholera, the city authorities decided to bury the victims of the scourge on Arsenal Island, where the smallpox hospital was situated. The bodies were conveyed to the foot of Miller Street in ambulances, and were transferred thence to the island in skiffs.

On June 22, 1873, the corner-stone of a new chapel in Mount Sinai cemetery was laid, Rev. Drs. Wolfenstein and Sonneschein officiating.

In 1827 a post cemetery was established a short distance south from Jefferson Barracks, on land belonging to the United States government, and the first interment was made there in 1828. This cemetery included an area of one and one-fourth acres, and in it seven hundred and fifty interments were made prior to 1863. In that year a national cemetery was established there, including twenty and one-half acres, and in 1877 additions were made to this, so that now the area of the cemetery is forty-five acres.

Forest-trees at first covered the ground, but these have been removed, the surface has been graded, and ornamental trees, shrubs, vines, etc., to the number of several thousand have been planted, so that the grounds have now the appearance of a well-kept suburban cemetery. There are here eleven thousand five hundred and eight graves; one thousand one hundred and six are those of Confederate soldiers, marked with cedar head-boards. All graves of United States soldiers are designated by marble regulation headstones, or by monuments which the friends of those who lie entombed there have erected. Here repose the remains of the nation's heroes, and the lines of the soldier-poet, which are inscribed on a modest tablet near the entrance, are peculiarly appropriate, —

"On fame's eternal camping-ground
Their silent tents are spread,
And memory guards with solemn round
The bivouac of the dead."

The national flag floats constantly over this cemetery, and thousands of patriotic and grateful people come here annually to bedeck the graves with flowers.

In addition to the foregoing there are a number of other cemeteries near the city, most of them being connected with the different religious denominations.

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Scharf, J. Thomas. History of Saint Louis City and County, From the Earliest Periods to the Present Day: Including Biographical Sketches of Representative Men. In Two Volumes, Illustrated. Volume II . Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts & Co., 1883. [format: book], [genre: biography; history; proceedings]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
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