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Scharf, J. Thomas. History of Saint Louis City and County, From the Earliest Periods to the Present Day: Including Biographical Sketches of Representative Men. In Two Volumes, Illustrated. Volume II . Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts & Co., 1883. [format: book], [genre: biography; history; proceedings]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
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Chapter XXXVI. Culture and Literary Growth in St. Louis. 271

HENRY M. BRACKENKIDGE, in his charming little work, so often quoted in this volume, 272 speaking of his renewal of intimacy with the friends of his childhood, the Beauvois family, in Ste. Genevieve, relates that he was "much amused one evening with the tartness of Madame Beauvois," when a young European merchant, whom she had taken as a boarder, "adapting his discourse to the ignorance of his hearers, informed them ‘there was once a certain man called Mohammed who pretended to have received direct revelations from heaven, who wrote a book called the Koran, but that he was a great impostor.’ ‘My friend,’ said the old lady, ‘I believe you Europeans look upon us Creoles (country born) as no better than savages, as you regard the savages as baboons. As you have given us a piece of news, I must return the favor by informing you that there is such a place as Rome, somewhere on the other side of the great ocean, and that a person called the pope, of whom, I presume, you have never heard, resides there, and is considered by all good Catholics as the head of their church.’ Monsieur Beauvois and I laughed heartily at this little sally, while the coxcomb was not a little mortified."

It is not to be wondered at that in some parts of the country the opinion should exist that there never has been any culture nor literary activity until very recently in St. Louis, yet it is surprising that such views should be held by a considerable body of people to the manner born. Such seems to be the case, how ever, and it will be a pleasing task to prove their error. The mistake probably would not exist were it not for narrow and fallacious opinions in regard to what constitutes culture and literature. These cannot properly be restricted within one class of thoughts in regard to speculative science, morals, and art, and yet there have been times when it was protended that all philosophy was bounded by the limits of Aristotle and Aquinas, and other times when it was asserted that there could be no poetry except such as was written by the rules of Horace and Monsieur Boileau. Today, in St. Louis, the philosophical school of Aquinas has a distinct and coherent existence alongside the school of Hegel and Schelling and Kant, and the comedy of the situation is that each of these schools ignores and denies the existence of the other with perfect sincerity and good faith.

The professors of the St. Louis University, progressive as they are in other respects, will probably tell you, if you press them hard, that philosophy cannot go beyond that dictum of Anselm, "credo ut intelligam," upon which rests the system of scholasticism perfected by Aquinas and Duns Scotus. 273 On the other hand, the school which has grown up around the Journal of Speculative Philosophy looks for truth in the absolute consciousness, the thought knowing itself, and demands understanding as the root of belief. It is not necessary to assume that either school is entirely right or entirely wrong, or that the existence

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of the one demands the extinction of the other.

As with philosophy, so with culture, literature, and art. The modern evolution does not make it necessary to assume an utter absence of progress in the past. "There were brave men before Agamemnon," and there was culture in St. Louis before the foundation of the schools of philosophy which originated with Professor William T. Harris. It is true the culture of old St. Louis was not very productive in the limited direction of book-making and lecturing; its motto was prodesse quam conspici, but it was a genuine, solid culture nevertheless, and in some respects of a very exquisite quality, the culture of the ancien régime of France. It did not produce nor aspire at production, because its modesty was satisfied with the masterpieces of French, Latin, and Greek literature. Why should one attempt to produce inferior prose and poetry when he had the classics and Racine, Corneille, Voltaire, Rousseau, Pascal, Moli&eagrave;re to turn to? Why seek deeper depths in philosophy, science, and art when he could consult the memoirs of the Institute and the Academy, the works of the encyclopaedists and philosophers, all at his elbow? The student, the inquirer, the gentleman of leisure, all found enough to satisfy them in their libraries and in the books sent to them by their correspondents in Paris.

Nor were these libraries inferior or insignificant. H. M. Brackenridge, when preparing his papers for the Missouri Gazette (1811-12), which were afterwards gathered in the volume called "Views of Louisiana," had access to the library of Auguste Chouteau. "Here I found," said he, "several of the early writers of travels, and descriptions of Louisiana and Illinois, such as La Houton, Lafiteau, Hennepin, Charlevoix, etc., which I took to my lodgings to read at night, being always a night-student; but I spent some hours in the day in examining and in perusing this fine collection." Some of the chapters in his "Glimpses of Louisiana" show that this collection, which, it has been conjectured, included the remains of the library of the Jesuit College at Kaskaskia, embraced, in adding to patriotic writers, a line of contributions to "Americana" such as were not known at all in New England at that time, were not studied by Irving and Prescott, only imperfectly examined by Bancroft, and never completely brought to the front of appreciation by English-speaking students until unearthed by Dr. O'Callaghan, and expounded by John Gilmary Shea and Francis Parkman.

In fact, in Upper and Lower Louisiana, in the period between 1760 and 1830, there was a very fine quality of culture among the people of the leisure classes. We only have glimpses of this, because, as we have said, it was a culture which did not produce, but contented itself with having information and knowledge for its own use. But these chance glimpse reveal its fine quality. Note the instances above, and the fact that Brackenridge studied Louisiana law from a manual (in two volumes, quarto) of the "Costume de Paris," which he found in Mr. Beauvais' two-roomed "house of posts" in Ste. Genevieve. So, when James H. Lucas went to Arkansas Post from college, he found there a highly-educated and accomplished French gentleman, whose influence probably saved him from going to the bad, and whose books and knowledge made a lawyer of him.

Such gentlemen were found throughout the country, and there were many such in St. Louis, scholarly and highly-educated French and Spanish gentlemen, and professional men from the United States colleges, whose intercourse could attract and charm a man so accomplished as J. B. C. Lucas. The odd, eccentric doctor and professor, Shewe, the Prussian, of whom Brackenridge delights to tell, was "a scholar, a chemist, a painter, a divine, a philosopher, a professor of languages," with six diplomas, four in Latin, — "von from de Eleziac Academy from Baris, von from de College aus Berlin, von from der School of Mines in Saxony," etc. Dr. Saugrain, another of his friends, both in Galliopolis and St. Louis, was a man of fine scholarship and science, and an original microscopist. Gen. William Clark was a man who had made great progress in the pursuit of Indian archaeological subjects, as the unique museum gathered by him witnessed sufficiently well. What a pity and what a reflection it is upon the generation that succeeded these early settlers that that museum, which attracted the inquiries of both hemispheres, was not retained in St. Louis! Brackenridge has put on record the fact that Mr. Bates (Frederick, the secretary of the Territory) was a man who "had an extensive library, and whose mind was richly stored with literature." He speaks, too, of the elder Charless, the founder of the Missouri Gazette, as a man capable of appreciating and forwarding his literary pursuits.

Nor is this all. As he goes up the Missouri River, beyond the limits of civilization, we have glimpses of him and the trapper and hunter, Manuel Lisa, — the man of action par excellence, — reading "Don Quixote" together, with the yells of the wild Arrapahoes ringing in their ears. In Moses Austin's house at Mine à Breton he came across copies of Cuvier's "Theory of the Earth" and Sir Humphry Davy's "Agricultural Chemistry," books which presuppose both knowledge

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and taste. In New Madrid he lodged at the house of Madame Peyroux, widow of a former commandant of the place, and here was also a fine library, Peyroux having been a man of literary standing. "Monsieur Peyroux was the author of several publications, chiefly geological, of considerable merit. In one of his essays he maintains the opinion, with much ingenuity, that the northern lakes formerly discharged themselves into the Mississippi, by the Illinois as well as by the St. Lawrence."

It was in St. Louis that Brackenridge met the botanists Bradbury and Thomas Nuttall. The latter, one of the most enthusiastic and distinguished men in his science, came to this country from Yorkshire, and made St. Louis his headquarters while examining and classifying the flora of the regions west of the Mississippi. His "Geological Sketch of the Mississippi Valley," and his "Travels in Arkansas," etc., are only two of the several works which he here found materials for writing. At Baton Rouge, again, our author came across "an enlightened Spaniard, Don Juan Lopez, an old bachelor, who resembled Don Quixote in person, and had the same passion for spending a considerable portion of his income in the purchase of books, not of knight-errantry, but embracing general literature in its various branches." Here he found the works of Feejoo, Mariana, Ercila, Cervantes, and all the Spanish and Latin writers on the civil law and the Spanish codes and institutes.

Other similar glimpses might be afforded of this high culture of the leisure classes in Upper Louisiana, but enough has been given to illustrate the proposition. The early French inhabitants of St. Louis and vicinity, in fact, maintained a close and constant intercourse with France, and French culture in its highest types was reflected in their thought and speech. They were contemporary with some of the most active and burning epochs of the French intellect, beginning with the scientific and politico-economical revolt of the encyclopaedists, and ending with the literary rebellion of the romanticists under Hugo and Dumas, and it took active, fresh, inquiring minds like those of these quick Frenchmen — men like Lucas and Gratiot — to keep abreast of such a rushing tide. The early American inhabitants, on the other hand, — army officers, and college youths just endowed with their professions and with fortunes and reputations both to make, — were thoroughly imbued with the spirit of English literature before there was any American literature to speak of. Easton, Dr. Simpson, Col. Hammond, the Bateses, Bartons, Bentons, Riddicks, Hempsteads, Tuckers, Lanes, Charless, and the circle in which they moved, having classical tastes and a thorough acquaintance with the English literature of Queen Anne and the Georges, were eager to welcome everything new which fell from the pen of Byron, Scott, Campbell, Edgeworth, Wordsworth, and their followers and satellites. In addition to this, St. Louis was a focal point for distinguished European travelers, from Chateaubriand and Talleyrand to Lafayette and the Grand Duke of Weimar. These travelers, after traversing the East, came to St. Louis as to a place where they might refresh themselves once more with a not faint reflection of continental manners and culture, nor did they (if we may believe their own testimony) go away unrewarded. The mental activity of at least the early lawyers of St. Louis was prodigious. They were giants, earning large fees, taking a large and liberal interest in affairs, and studying hard in order to be able to cope with one another. We find Senator Benton taking French lessons from Herr Shewe, and giving more time to the midnight lamp than to the midnight caucus. Dr. Linn, his colleague in the Senate, a man of very broad and generous culture, pursued his profession as a science, and made curious studies into the natural phenomena of the strange region (New Madrid) in which was his home. The eccentric Judge N. Beverley Tucker, of St. Louis County Court, who had his office, his library, and his study in the stump of a hollow tree, did not waste the intervals of leisure which were spared him from the bench. It was in this stump that he wrote "George Balcombe," one of the best novels extant descriptive of Western border life, — "one of the most vigorous of American novels," says Gilmore Simms, "as a narrative of action and the delineation of mental power." Here, too, he wrote "The Partisan Leader," truly what may be styled "an epoch-making book," for, published in 1837, it yet anticipated and mapped out, so to speak, the entire programme of the secession of 1861 as clearly and accurately as if he had been in the confidence of the leaders who conducted affairs at Montgomery, Ala., in the winter of 1861. This book, always a favorite at the South and much read, did a great deal towards inclining, shaping, and moulding the Southern mind to secession, familiarizing two generations with the idea, the expediency, and the practicability of such a last political resort. It crystallized and gave a concrete form and body to the abstract speculations of John C. Calhoun, Robert Y. Hayne, and others of their opinions. Probably no single work of fiction, except "Uncle Tom's Cabin," ever accomplished so much in paving the way for revolution. Judge Tucker, who lived in Missouri from 1815 to 1830, always on his farm in Florissant, St. Louis Co., was a half-brother to John Randolph, eccentric as he, a

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States' rights doctrinaire, but a man of remarkably clear, logical mind, and of singularly fine reasoning powers. "In his style," says Mr. Simms, "I regard him as one of the best prose writers in the United States, at once rich, flowing, and classical; ornate and copious, yet pure and classic; full of energy, yet full of grace; intense, yet stately; passionate, yet never with a forfeiture of dignity." After he returned to Virginia from St. Louis he became Professor of Jurisprudence in William and Mary College.

In a school where men like Judge Tucker, Rufus Easton, John Scott, Edward Hempstead, and Carr Lane were teachers, and where such talents and such rivalry existed as at the St. Louis bar, it was natural, nay more, it was imperative, that a strong tendency towards high and ornate culture should exist among the members. Other things being equal, the best-read and most polished orator bore off the palm. Accordingly we find what, for a new and wild Western community, must be regarded as a surprising amount of literature among the earlier and later members of the St. Louis bar, not only a superficial smattering for convenience of ready use, but deep draughts at the fountains undefined of pure literature, and those special studies of particular authors and branches which ordinarily only exist in communities where there is a very advanced state of culture. Here and there would be a lawyer or a doctor who turned his special attention to Horace, or Homer, or Catullus, or the Greek tragedians or comic writers; here one who had read all the epigrammatists and satirists; another who was a specialist in the works of the Greek and Latin fathers; a third who had made a study of the whole Spanish comedy; a fourth with a critical knowledge of the Elizabethan and Jacobean drama; and a fifth with an exhaustive apprehension of the philosophy of Bacon and Locke and the whole sensationist school. One had a gift at quoting from the Latin poets in his addresses to court and jury, another had Sheridan, the Colmans, Cibber, Otway, and all the dramatists of Charles and Anne at his tongue's tip.

This sort of thing gave a zest to the oratory of the bar, and influenced it and the society collected about it very sensibly. No one can pick up Hon. Thomas Hart Benton's "Thirty Years' View" without detecting the fact that the author, without being a very exact or profound scholar himself, was one who looked upon the possession of scholarship as the greatest of treasures, and was willing to toil unceasingly and bestow immense pains to bring himself within the magic circle. His work is elaborated as carefully as William Wirt's (another self-educated man), who thought culture a gem more precious than diamonds. So Hon. Henry S. Geyer, a lifelong lawyer, and scarcely aspiring to become anything else, used to polish all his speeches as if they were cameos. Mr. Geyer, by the way, was one of the earliest persons in St. Louis to publish a book, his compilation of the statutes of Missouri Territory having come out in 1817. We discover the same scholarly tendency and desire for classical decoration in the false and egotistical memoirs of Gen. James Wilkinson, and in the valuable Tennessee Reports of Return Jonathan Meigs, both of them men intimately identified with St. Louis, where both lived, and they are apparent also in Brackenridge's "Views of Louisiana" and Stoddard's "Sketches of Louisiana," as if they knew that the people of and for whom they wrote were at once scholarly, critical, and capable of criticising severely what was offensive to their good taste.

This period of fine culture among the leisure classes, in the literary history of St. Louis, under ordinary circumstances and in an average state of society, would have been succeeded by a period of literary production and creation. But neither the circumstances nor the state of society were ordinary.

The material and actual crowded in and pressed the intellectual and spiritual into the background; flood after flood, wave after wave of population and material progress swept over the germs of culture and smothered them out of sight under masses of the alluvion of wealth fructifying substance, and the plants did not seem to grow at all, for they were covered under faster than they could shoot up. It was a period of physical growth and of the coarse-fed toil which makes muscle swell and welter like the tight, constricted fold of the python, and this was swiftly succeeded by the volcanic period of intense political excitement, bourgeoning forth into civil war and the thrilling strain of a four years' struggle for national existence. This whole period of forty years, therefore, from 1825 to 1865, was unfavorable for the efflorescent and fruit-yielding stage of literary development, which demands comparative restfulness, ease, and quiet. The plowman in the field does not carve and engrave his plow-handles, nor does the soldier in the battle-front or the bivouac engrave his sword-blade. It was time for felling the forest, for preparing the glebe; it was seed-time, but not yet harvest.

The first part of this epoch was the period of the great irruption of immigration, and of the intense and mighty toil necessary to clear the woods away and prepare homes for population in the wilderness. This immigration came from the South, from Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and Maryland, from Indiana.

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Illinois, Ohio, New England, Pennsylvania, and New York. There were plenty of educated people, younger sons of cultivated families, old merchants and planters who had failed in the East and who now essayed the virgin West, which offered them a fair chance to "pick flint and try it again;" but the backwoods people exceeded those of education and culture, and the backwoods manner, with axe and saw and plow and steamboat, overcrowded all culture and education, for it was what the times and the situation demanded. If a man could not put his education and culture in his pocket and go to work with his hands with all his might, he would expose himself to what was witnessed a thousand times in the flush days of the early gold excitement in California and Australia, where the "navigators" and convicts and mechanics got out the gold, and the scholars, divines, lawyers, doctors, and statesmen waited upon them and did menial service.

Necessarily and essentially it was a period of work, of physical toil, of the exhaustive labor of building an empire and digging out roads to connect it with the rest of the world. Yet this labor was sweetened and this time of toil prevented from degenerating into the mere animalism of the drudge and the beast of burden by the strong, steady influence of the educated, professional classes, so largely represented at all times in the history of St. Louis, — a body always influential, even by mere force and weight of numbers, but trebly so by force of strong, vigorous intellect and fresh, original characters.

After a generation had passed away, and the city began to be strong in numbers and solidly built, there was a sufficient accumulation of wealth in the hands of the commercial and professional classes to encourage the cultivation of leisure and the arts and amenities which wait upon it. The foundations began to be laid of American literary institutions, scholarship, and culture to supply the place of the last expiring embers of the old European culture of early St. Louis. Schools, colleges, libraries, historical societies, academies of science and galleries of art, the germs of all these were being planted in a purely American way. At this time, however (1848), the great German immigration to St. Louis began, in consequence of the general failure of the revolutionary upheaval in Europe. The first consequence of the introduction of this new element was disturbance, in consequence of a want of coalescence between the new and old factors in St. Louis society. The original St. Louis people were essentially and strongly conservative in politics, opinions, and morals. Pioneers in enterprise and industry and all material objects of human effort, they were anything but pioneers in thought and speculation. They would not venture to lead here, and they would only consent to follow upon beaten and well-known tracks. The German refugees, on the other hand, were exacting and offensive in the temerity of their radicalism.

To make things worse and widen the gulf separating the two classes of the population, the anti-slavery agitation began to culminate soon after, the Germans all taking sides with the abolitionists, while three-fourths of the remaining inhabitants at first were pro-slavery, or at least opposed to the methods and the propaganda of abolitionism. As this agitation increased and intensified, there was a serious widening of the breach between the two classes of the community, and a coalition, political but not social, was formed between the Germans and what may be termed the New England element in St. Louis, consisting of either natives of the Eastern States or their descendants, immigrants into St. Louis from every part of the West north of the Ohio River. These, with some idealogues and fanatics among them, included many of the thriftiest, most enterprising, and most useful citizens of the place, the men who put up the work-shops and built the railroads, who fostered industry and developed trade in every direction, — men like Thomas Allen, for instance.

The breach widened, the bitter feelings deepened and intensified, and when at last the coalition secured control of the city government, there was almost practical non-intercourse between the two elements. Political violence culminated in physical violence and civil war, and during four bitter years there was almost an entire suspension of all intellectual action and growth, all energies concentrated upon doing and feeling, all brain and nerve-force directed to the one end of co-operation with muscular force.

But it was only a suspension, not a paralysis of intellectual power, and when the war ended and all the new and fully-developed energies of the community were turned back into the old normal and peaceful channels, a new epoch was found to be inaugurated, — that of the present, — one of the strongest elements of which was an energetic and virile mental vigor which demanded and even clamored for expression. It may not have cried always articulately at first, but there can be no mistake about its crying loudly. This epoch has been characterized by a vast and remarkable material and financial development in St. Louis, splendid rivalries, grand conquests over time and space, far-reaching connections, and ambitious international alliances. Intellectual growth and expansion have attempted to keep pace with this great material

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growth and expansion, and thought, despising the old grooves and refusing to work in the used, familiar traces, has tried to shake itself free from tradition and leap at once upon the new plane of absolute originality. This we believe to be a fair presentation of what is sometimes called the "St. Louis movement," an attempt, naturally not always successful, to give the schools the go-by, and ally the thinking classes of St. Louis with the most radical opinion-founders of New England and Germany. The attempt is entirely sincere and earnest in its purposes and honestly original in its methods, and nothing but good can finally come out of it, though in its present stages it is hampered by crudities and too much absorbed in self-contemplation. But of this more presently.

We have preferred rapidly to sketch the outline of this literary progress of St. Louis before descending to the details. Let us now go back and glance at some of the writers whose names can be fairly mentioned in connection with the second period, — that of material growth and of the sweat and toil of building up the city. Neither the names nor the written works are very numerous, — people had no time to spare. Yet in this period the St. Louis University and the Washington University were founded, the Historical Society and the Mercantile Library and the Academy of Science. The public school system was wrought out upon a definite and comprehensive plan, and all the germs planted which are now beginning to show such an orderly and stately growth. Of authors proper, the name of Timothy Flint must always be associated with that early tide of immigration from the East, of which he was a pioneer and the earliest chronicler. Born and reared in Massachusetts, his Missouri residence was St. Charles, and yet all he wrote from the West was imbued with the true St. Louis local flavor. He and the Rev. Dr. J. M. Peck were St. Louisan authors by the law of natural selection, just as Drake and Hall were Cincinnatians. Hall lived at Shawneetown, and wrote most pleasantly of old and new Illinois, but Cincinnati was the hub of his thought, and so Timothy Flint's and John Mason Peck's cargoes of fact and fancy all broke bulk at St. Louis. Peck lived at Rock Spring, Ill., but St. Louis was his centre, and his best work was done for St. Louis journals.

The place was so active and energetic, so entirely honest and naïve in those early days, that it had a great attraction for fresh minds bent upon frank and free inquiry. All Illinois at that time was just "over the river," and Kaskaskia, Belleville, Edwardsville, Alton were tributary to St. Louis. Robert Owen used to come here to escape from the stagnant pessimism of his impossible perfection at New Harmony, and here he and Madame D'Arusmont (Fanny Wright) used to lecture and have seances, at which the most advanced radicalism was disseminated without hurting any one or even disturbing the general good humor, any more than if rose-water had been sprayed abroad upon the tolerant air. Here, too, Governors Tom Ford and Tom Reynolds and Ninian Edwards used to come, in search of breezes that the flat prairie did not afford. St. Louis was vacation to them after Illinois. John James Audubon used to stroll in too, when he could escape from Louisville, or had time to come out of the woods long enough to gaze and see what civilization looked like. There was a magic charm about the town, and it has not even yet been civilized out of that charm. It abounded in original characters, such as the active mind delights to study. It was here that "Mark Twain" picked up his Col. Sellers, in "The Gilded Age," and gave immortality to John T. Raymond. Sellers was a steamboat captain, and "Twain" probably clerked for him. Mrs. Farnham here got the characters for her speaking portraits of emigrant life, and Mrs. C. M. Kirkland also picked up some of the fioriture which she needed to embellish her comic pictures from the Michigan flats.

Frederic L. Billon has recorded the fact that he had no sooner arrived here in 1818, with his father, than he began to think of getting materials together for a portrait of the picturesque old town, and he has been employed upon that labor of love ever since, giving to it all the antiquarian's patient research, until he is almost as familiar with the ancient population as he was with his own contemporaries, and far more so than with the present generation. We look upon Mr. Billon's work as almost unique of its kind, and it is so positively un-American. Who else in all this land has done, or attempted to do, such work, except Peter Force, of Washington, D. C.? It must be in his blood, — the patient, careful devotion to minute, microscopic detail of the hereditary Swiss watchmaker, — for while Mr. Billon's mother was French, and a refugee from insurgent San Domingo, his father was Swiss, and a watch-maker, though born in Paris.

Mr. Billon was born in the city of Philadelphia, at the southeast corner of Third and Chestnut Streets, on Thursday, April 23, 1801. He lived in and about that locality, then the business centre of the city, for more than seventeen years. During his youth he went to school for some seven or eight years to Peter Widdows, an Irish gentleman of thorough education, a Free Quaker, who taught his school in Church Alley, adjoining Christ Episcopal Church, and just opposite

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to another school, under the charge of Capt. Talbot Hamilton, formerly of the British navy, who had served with Nelson in the Mediterranean. At that day there were but few schools in the large cities of the United States taught by Americans, the popular belief then prevalent among all classes being that thorough information could only be obtained from those of foreign birth.

When a school-boy he cared little for such sports as marbles, tops, kites, and balls, etc., but delighted in athletic recreations, such as running and jumping, swimming, skating, rowing, or any amusement that required activity of body or limbs, long walks, etc. During his boyhood he was frequently indulged in holidays, and made many excursions into the country adjacent to the city in all directions, even to the adjoining counties, from which he became familiar with the surroundings of Philadelphia in almost every direction to the distance of some thirty or forty miles from the city.

During the progress of the war with England in 1812-15, he spent many evenings at home, reading to his father, an indifferent English scholar, from the papers of the passing occurrences of the day. When, in 1814, the British took Washington, and attempted the capture of Baltimore by their attacks on North Point and Port McHenry, and ascended Chesapeake Bay to its head, although but a lad of fourteen years, he was one of those detailed by the authorities of Philadelphia to work on the fortifications erected southwest of the city, below Gray's Ferry, on the Baltimore turnpike-road, and was on several occasions a visitor at the encampments of volunteers at Kennett Square, Chester Co.; at Camp Dupont, on the Brandywine; and at Marcus Hook, Delaware Co., where some ten thousand men were concentrated.

Leaving school upon the conclusion of the war, in 1815, at the age of fourteen years, he assisted in his father's business, that of an importer of watches and clocks from his native country, Switzerland, and on the occasion of his father's last visit to his native place, in the summer of 1815, following the battle of Waterloo and the second abdication of the first Napoleon, he was left in sole charge of his father's business during his absence of some six or eight months in Europe, as also during his father's frequent business trips to New York, and south as far as Charleston, S. C.

In the summer of the year 1818, business being completely prostrated in all the principal cities at the East, and many turning their attention to the "Far West" beyond the Mississippi, his father, with nine children to set afloat in the world, falling in with the popular sentiment of the day, concluded to abandon the city with which he had been identified for nearly a quarter of a century and seek a new home for his infant colony in the West beyond the "Father of Waters."

Accordingly, on the morning of Sunday, Aug. 30, 1818, accompanied by his oldest son, the subject of this sketch, then a young man in his eighteenth year, they left Philadelphia in the mail-stage for Pittsburgh, three hundred miles, which place they reached on Friday, September 4th, in six days. From this point they descended the Ohio in a keel-boat, reaching Shawneetown, one thousand miles from Pittsburgh, about the middle of October. Thence they proceeded by land through Illinois to Kaskaskia, crossing the Mississippi to Ste. Genevieve in a canoe, and thence to St. Louis, which point they reached on Wednesday, October 28th, having consumed just sixty days on the route, about the usual time required for the trip at that day.

After spending the winter of 1818-19 in the place selected for their future domicile, and purchasing the old stone mansion of the Labadies, at the northeast corner of Main and Chestnut Streets, for the reception of his family when he should arrive with them in the ensuing fall, his father set out on his return to Philadelphia on horseback in April, 1819, leaving Frederic in charge of his business, and to attend to the alterations and improvements necessary to make his purchase habitable. He reached Philadelphia in

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May, remained there a couple of months, and left with his family in July, arriving in St. Louis in September. The family were domiciled in their new home at the close of the month.

The summer of 1819 was a noted one in the annals of St. Louis, for, notwithstanding the great sickness and mortality of that particular year, in the shape of bilious and intermittent fevers, which prevailed to a great extent throughout the settlements on the Western waters, it was the year of extensive military operations on the part of the United States in extending their outposts far beyond their former limits, the old frontier post at Bellefontaine, on the Missouri. Maj. Stephen H. Long's scientific expedition to the Yellowstone in the "Western Engineer;" Col. Henry Atkinson's ascent of the Missouri with the Sixth Regiment United States Infantry, to establish Fort Atkinson, Council Bluffs; Col. Josiah Snelling's expedition with the Fifth Regiment to establish Fort Snelling at St. Peter's, and other movements of minor importance, requiring the use of numerous steamboats and paddle-wheel barges, of which a number were lost in the Missouri, are vividly impressed upon the memory of Mr. Billon, that being his first summer in the then remote West.

Late in the year 1819 the first "uniformed" company of volunteer infantry west of the Mississippi, styled the "St. Louis Guards," was raised in St. Louis, of which Mr. Billon became a member in the following year, and in 1824 received his commission as ensign of the same from Gen. William H. Ashley, Lieutenant-Governor.

In 1820 he witnessed the excitements attending the adoption of the State Constitution and the establishment of the State government. In September, 1822, his father, Charles F. Billon, Sr., died, leaving the charge of his widow and children to his oldest son, F. L. Billon, who had just attained his majority.

His first vote was cast for the acceptance of the city charter in February, 1822, from which date he has been a voter at every city and State election down to the present day, as also at every Presidential election in the State from the first in 1824, and was an eye-witness and participant in many interesting events and occurrences connected with the town, city, and State governments in that early period of St. Louis' history.

In the year 1827, while absent on business in Philadelphia, he was elected an alderman from the central ward of the three into which the city was then divided, and in 1828 was re-elected to the same position.

On May 20, 1829, his brothers and sisters being mostly grown to maturity and disposed of, he himself entered the married state with Miss E. L. Generelly, like himself a native of Philadelphia of French parentage. With this lady he passed thirty-six years of wedded life until her death, Feb. 4, 1865. He was the father of twelve children, but three of whom survive.

In the year 1834, his health being materially impaired by his constant devotion to business, he, by the advice of his physician, the late Dr. William Carr Lane, made a trip to Santa Fe and the Rocky Mountains, then not a trifling undertaking, requiring some ninety to one hundred days in crossing the plains with wagons and ox-teams, and returned in the fall much improved in health.

In 1851-52 he was twice nominated by Mayor Luther M. Kennett to the position of city comptroller, and on each occasion unanimously confirmed by the board.

In 1853 he was appointed the first auditor and general book-keeper of the Missouri Pacific Railroad, filling the position for five years, and then succeeded, in 1858, to that of secretary and treasurer of the same company, resigning the office at the close of the year 1863, after some eleven years in the service of the company. Since that period he has devoted much time to literary matters, more particularly to the task of gathering up the data and materials for an early history of the country bordering the Mississippi in its entire course, in the pursuit of which he is still occupied at the age of eighty-two years.

Lewis C. Beck came to St. Louis in 1820 from Albany, N. Y., looked around him and took notes, and then returning, published in 1823 the first gazetteer of the State, and the pioneer of many other publications of this hard-working compiler. Senator Benton, besides his self-drill in his library and that of Congress, had a practical training as editor before he began to write that "Thirty Years' View," that ponderous royal octavo, of the first volume of which sixty-five thousand copies were sold almost on the day of publication. He used to write the notices of his on speeches, but besides that he was an editor in his own person.

Sergeant Hall, lawyer, came from Cincinnati early in 1817, and assumed charge of the paper gotten up two years previously in opposition to Charless' Missouri Gazette, the first number of which had been issued by Joshua Norvell, from Nashville, Tenn., in May, 1815, under the title of the Western Journal. Hall issued his first number on May 17, 1817, under the title of the Western Emigrant, and two years later still, in the summer of 1819, it was again changed to the St. Louis

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Inquirer, under the management of Col. Thomas H. Benton. After the charge of the paper passed from Mr. Hall he returned to Cincinnati.

Edmund Flagg, born in Wicasset, Me., can show one of the most industrious and reputable literary careers in the country. Graduating at Bowdoin College in 1835, he removed to St. Louis and established a school, but subsequently studied law in the office of Hon. Harrison Gamble, and in 1837 was admitted to the bar. Throughout this period he wrote for the Republican, and at the request of A. B. Chambers made a stenographic report of the speech of Daniel Webster, delivered at a barbecue in Lucas Grove in 1837. He also wrote an ode which was sung at the Fourth of July celebration of that year. The "New Year's Address" of the Republican carriers for 1838 was written by Mr. Flagg, and in the same year a series of articles on Western life and scenery, which he had contributed to the Republican, were compiled and published by the Harpers, of New York, in two volumes, under the title of "The Far West, or a Tour Beyond the Mountains."

During 1838, Mr. Flagg became associated with Col. S. B. Churchill in the editorial management of the St. Louis Bulletin. Subsequently he edited the News-Letter, published by George D. Prentice, at the office of the Louisville Journal, in 1840; the Whig, published at Vicksburg, where he was severely wounded in a duel with Dr. James Hagan, editor of the Sentinel, the Gazette at Marietta, Ohio, and the Evening Gazette at St. Louis. While at Marietta, in addition to the discharge of his editorial duties, he wrote a series of "Tales" and political papers for the New York New World, published by Park Benjamin, in 1842 and 1843. After his removal to St. Louis he became agent or the Home Mutual Insurance Company, and in 1845 was appointed reporter for the State Constitutional Convention of Missouri. During all this time (subsequent to the termination of his connection with the Evening Gazette) he continued to contribute articles to the Republican. In 1847 he was appointed official reporter of the courts of St. Louis, and afterwards wrote several plays, one of which, "Mary Tudor," was adapted to the stage for Mrs. Farren, and was produced by Sol Smith at New Orleans and elsewhere with marked success.

In the spring of 1848, in conjunction with Pierre C. Grace, he wrote the address for a mass-meeting of the citizens of St. Louis to the revolutionists of Europe, and about the same time produced the "Howard Queen," a prize tale for the St. Louis Union. Soon after this he went abroad as secretary to Hon. Edward A. Hannegan, minister to Berlin. During his stay at Berlin he corresponded for New York papers, and wrote a sequel, entitled "Edmond Dantes," to Dumas' novel "Monte Christo." In 1850 he wrote a prize tale for the Louisville Courier. For this and an address for the opening of Bates' new theatre and the amphitheatre he received three prizes in one month, aggregating three hundred dollars. In 1851 he was appointed consul to Venice, and on his return became the editor of the St. Louis Times. During this year (1853) he wrote "Venice, the City of the Sea," which was published by Scribner, of New York, in two finely illustrated volumes, and in the following year furnished a series of articles for Myers' "United States Illustrated." About this time he was appointed superintendent of statistics in the State Department by Secretary Marcy, and while occupying that position prepared four quarto volumes on the commercial relations of the United States. In 1860 he resigned his position, and became the Washington correspondent of the New York Tribune, Louisville Journal, and St. Louis Democrat. He was afterwards appointed librarian of copyrights in the Interior Department, and on the transfer of the collection to the Congressional Library retired to private life. Mr. Flagg wrote the novels "Carraro, the Prime Minister," "Francis of Valois," "The Howard Queen," "Blanche of Artois," and several other romances and plays, all in print.

James D. Nourse, who, while editor of the St. Louis Intelligencer, died of cholera, in 1854, was an author of prominence and a contributor to many periodicals. He was born in Bardstown, Ky., in 1816, studied both law and medicine, and had a wide and varied editorial experience. His two novels, "The Forest Knight" and "Leavenworth," have both been praised by Dr. R. W. Griswold for their accuracy and spirit in the delineation of Western life; his "Philosophy of History" won the commendation of so fastidious a critic as H. T. Tuckerman, and Horace Binney Wallace found weighty and original thinking in his last work, "Remarks on the Past, and its Relations to American Society, or God in History."

Another of the newspaper literati of St. Louis was John S. Robb (the "Solitaire" of the St. Louis Reveille and of the New Orleans Picayune), the humorist, who, in conjunction with Madison Tensas, wrote "The Swamp Doctor," a book famous in its day, and which still holds its own with Drake's "Mike Fink," Thorpe's "Tom Owen, the Bee-Hunter," and Hooper's "Simon Suggs." Charles D. Drake, by the way, was a St. Louis editor himself, besides being one of the original founders of the St. Louis Law Library. The brothers, Joseph M. and M. C. Field, were prominent

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writers for the brilliant Reveille, of which Joseph was one of the editors. Both were poets of no common order, and their verses had a very wide circulation. There was a certain mingled grace and fire in their timbre which was exceedingly attractive. Joseph Field was one of the favorite writers of the New Orleans Picayune, in which his well-known nom de plume was "Straws." He was a dramatic writer of skill, and many of his plays were successful upon the boards. He was very fond of the theatre, and was, indeed, the first manager of the old "Varieties." It was through him that Solomon Franklin ("Sol") Smith first came to write for the press and became a regular contributor to the Reveille.

John Hogan (Rev.) used to be one of the best-known and most useful writers for the press in St. Louis. He was a native of Ireland, born in 1805, and came to this country in 1817, making his first home in Baltimore, where he was apprenticed to a shoemaker. He taught himself to read by spelling over the columns of the old Federal Gazette, and so may be said to have taken naturally to newspapers. When he grew up he became an itinerant Methodist preacher, and drifted westward to the Illinois Conference. After engaging in business in Edwardsville and Alton, he removed to St. Louis in 1845, clerked, was in the grocery business, and then insurance agent. He began at this time to write those studied and thoughtful papers on the resources of St. Louis which attracted such attention and did the business interests of the town so much good. The merchants presented him with a testimonial service of silver, and his political friends secured for him from Mr. Buchanan the appointment of postmaster. Mr. Hogan's "History of Methodism in the West" is a careful and useful compilation, prepared in his customary painstaking way.

The history of the press of St. Louis is given so fully and completely in another place that, to avoid repetition here, we are able to say but little concerning the writers who have contributed to its resources. Joseph Charless, the founder of the Gazette, not content with being a simple editor, with patient toil and study, sought to grasp at his ideal of literary excellence in scholarship and style. His successor, Nathaniel Paschall, had the same thirst for letters, and studied as patiently to excel. No editor ever wielded the leading writer's pen for a longer time or to a better purpose than Mr. Paschall. He was a recognized force, an embodied influence in the community, and always for the community's advantage and betterment, writing solid argument on the truth's side, for the truth's sake, and without abuse or personality. In this good work George Knapp has always been by his side, — a man, self-made, who deserved all his successes and prosperity.

Charles Keemle, born in Philadelphia in 1800, was as early as 1817 in charge of the St. Louis Emigrant, the second journal west of the Mississippi, afterwards merged in the Inquirer. Keemle's life bristled with adventure. He went to the Rocky Mountains as clerk to the American Fur Company before he had attained his majority, and fought a desperate battle on the Yellowstone fifteen years before Custer was born. He had half a dozen newspapers in St. Louis at different times, and filled many public offices. He, with J. M. Field and his brother, founded the Reveille in 1845, and during the five years of its existence it was undoubtedly the best literary paper in the West.

The late Thomas Allen was what might be called a born newspaper man, and if his fortunes had required it he could readily have made his living as editor, leader-writer, correspondent, or literary contributor. He had the talent, the aptitude, the training, and the taste which go to make the first-class utility man for the press. Part of one of his letters to Andrew Jackson Downing, of the Horticulturist, quoted in another part of this work, reveals what must be considered as a rare faculty for the delicate and difficult parts of authorship. He was in boyhood a pupil of Mark Hopkins, and that great teacher never had better material put under his hands to shape. Allen began to write from the jump, and edited a juvenile Miscellany before he was sixteen. While studying law his pen earned his support, and he edited a family magazine so well that he ran it up to twenty thousand subscribers. In 1837 he started a newspaper in Washington City, and got the public printing, in spite of Blair & Rives and Gales & Seaton. In 1842 he came to St. Louis. Here, without identifying himself with the press, he wrote much, and his pamphlets are notable for the apposite manner and force with which the marrow of a subject is probed. None ever knew better than Mr. Allen how to say the right thing in the right place, and to say it forcibly without offense, and genially without dulling the edge of the argument.

Hon. John Fletcher Darby rounded up the leisure and slippered ease of a long and useful life in St. Louis by contributing his "Personal Recollections" to the press. These were collected into a neat and comely volume before he died, and this kindly and single-hearted old gentleman could not have a more appropriate or better monument. The book is as unpretentious as it is valuable, such a fund of reminiscence

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as each succeeding age will treasure the more dearly as it recedes from the present.

Dr. M. L. Linton, a professor in the St. Louis University, medical department, and a leading physician, established the St. Louis Medical Journal in 1843, and has written professional works which bear the stamp of great ability. Of such is his "Outlines of Pathology," a text-book in several colleges, and consulted both East and West. Dr. Charles A. Pope, Linton's colleague, classmate, and contemporary, is at least his equal in literary ability, and his superior in wide-spread surgical renown. As the eighth president of the American Medical Association, he took a position which was national in its prominence. It was in the school of Benton, Geyer, Easton, and the other brilliant luminaries of the St. Louis bar that Judge Wilson Primm learned to embellish his legal attainments with the decorative apparatus of literature. Well did he weave the ornamental and the useful together, so that one could scarce distinguish the essential from the non-essential in his speeches and addresses, full of fire and flow, full of scholarship, and full, also, of quaint antiquarian lore, such as only the enthusiast would think of gathering together from the disjointed memories and babbling lips of granddames and nurses. Out of these, however, Primm was skillful to frame a connected and coherent narrative, and capable to launch it with sensational effect upon his roused and excited audiences. Probably nothing ever did so much towards rousing a genuine inquiry and a sympathetic interest in the cradle period of St. Louis as the several commemorative addresses of Wilson Primm, which, in addition to their sincerity and fire, are literary productions of merit and value, embellished with neat classical touches, and not too florid in style for the theme and the occasion. It was upon one of these very occasions, by the way, if we mistake not, or a nearly similar one, that the Abbé Adrian Kouquette, of Louisiana, seminarian of New Orleans, and recluse of Mandeville, St. Tammany, delivered his animated and eloquent French discourse at the St. Louis Cathedral, keeping up and renewing, with singular appropriateness and excellent effect, the old connection and kinship between Upper and Lower Louisiana. Judge John Marshall Krum, one of Primm's associates and contemporaries, was the author of a most laborious work, "Missouri Justice." Mann Butler, the original and vigorous historian of Kentucky, was practicing law in St. Louis at the time he began the preparation of his work, to complete which he had to remove to Louisville, in order to consult the State's records.

Right Rev. Cicero Stephens Hawks, D. D., Bishop of Missouri of the Protestant Episcopal Church, was another scholar of comprehensive and signal ability, worthy representative of a family eminent in literature and the church. He was consecrated Bishop of Missouri at the early age of thirty-two years, and he wrote some things which make us regret that the church had superior claims upon him to literature. Two of the brightest of our early juvenile series, quite the pioneers in that difficult but most fascinating walk of letters, were edited by him, — Harpers' "Boys' and Girls' Library" and Appleton's "Library for my Young Countrymen," the latter one of the best of the kind ever published anywhere. Dr. Hawks also wrote several of the volumes of "Uncle Philip's Conversations," and was the author of "Friday Christian, the First-Born of Pitcairn's Island." Old boys of fifty will remember these books with the kindliest and most friendly interest, as the friends whom they took to bed with them that they might hold converse together by surreptitious candle-light.

Rev. N. L. Rice, D. D., was pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church of St. Louis. Dr. Rice wrote many tracts and pamphlets, revealing profound acquaintance with theology, skill in dialectic fence, and that gaudia cerlaminis which drives so many of his brethren to plunge to the neck in the hot waters of polemical controversy. His "Debates on Baptism," his "Debates on Slavery and Universal Salvation," and his tract against "Romanism" are still remembered by persons of his way of thinking. Rev. William Stephen Potts, pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, president of Marion College, etc., whose connection with St. Louis began in 1828, published many sermons and addresses, and he is ranked very high among divines of literary ability by Dr. Sprague in his "Annals of the Pulpit."

In 1867 died Edward William Johnston, a litterateur and newspaper writer of very rare and unusual talent and experience. He was sixty-eight years old, native of Virginia, brother of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, and a man of very high culture and delicate literary perceptions. In early youth he was Professor of History and Belles-Lettres in the University of South Carolina, but abandoned the professor's chair for journalism. He was first associated with John Hampden Pleasants in the editorial management of the Richmond Whig. Afterwards, for ten years, he was associated with the National Intelligencer as literary editor of that journal. He was subsequently connected with the editorial staff of the New York Times, and is remembered for his brilliant correspondence with the Philadelphia North American and the

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Louisville Journal. In 1855 he came to St. Louis, and was associated with Mr. Mitchell in the editorial direction of the Intelligencer. When the Leader was established, Mr. Johnston was invited to take the place of associate editor of that journal. He continued in that relation all the paper closed its career, when he was elected librarian of the Mercantile Library in 1858, occupying that post for three years. In that capacity his rare knowledge of books and his familiarity with the whole range of literature, his judgment and taste made him a most valuable auxiliary in building up that magnificent library, and establishing its character as one of solid and substantial value in the various departments of science, philosophy, history, and general literature. A catalogue of the library was compiled by him, the principle of its arrangement and classification being his own.

Mr. Johnston was conspicuous for the versatility and range of his knowledge, for his refined, discerning taste, and his ripe, masculine judgment. He thought robustly, had the courage of his opinions, and could state them with suave courtesy in a style as correct and graceful as it was brilliant and vigorous.

The history of St. Louis University is elsewhere written, but it deserves mention here in connection with the development and promotion of literature and culture in the city. The people who founded this university were highly educated, and as capable of appreciating the value of education as any religious denomination in the world. The Jesuit, indeed, counts upon ruling the world as much by force of superior knowledge and wisdom as by the superior quality of his faith. St. Louis was the Western outpost of civilization, and the church and it should be strongly guarded. Bishop Dubourg, Bishop Rosatti, the neighboring bishops, Flaget, of Bardstown, and Bruté, of Vincennes, and Fathers Van Quickenbourne, Verhaegen, Vandervelde, Ellet, Carroll, Van Assche, and De Smet, who were all associated with the foundation of the university, were men of exceptional learning and culture, well bred, highly educated, and many of them born to affluence and rank. Who does not know the history, the labor, the toils and triumphs of De Smet, a Jesuit worthy to be the successor of Brébauf and L'Allemand, of Jogues and Marquette? His simple and naïve account of his mission work has all the attractiveness of a romance. Is it not a romance, — the romance of religious devotion? De Smet sleeps and is at rest in beautiful Florissant, but his work goes nobly on. We will not pretend to enumerate the literary achievements of the professors and graduates of St. Louis University.

Does Oscar W. Collet, now the genial secretary to the Missouri Historical Society, recollect the speech which, in 1837, while he was still a student, he fired off at Daniel Webster when that statesman visited the University? It was young then, like Mr. Collet. It has reached a grown age now, like Mr. Collet, and doubtless can look back upon its past career with satisfactory amount of complacency. To-day the institution is doing very good work, never better, and it deserves the esteem in which it is held.

Among the fine scholars who have taught in this university we may name Professor Rudolph Leonard Tafel, Ph. D., who emigrated to the United States in 1847, and became Professor of Modern Languages and Comparative Philology in the university. He has written an "English Pronunciation and Orthography," translated Le Bois de Guays' "Letters" into German, and written a volume on Emanuel Swedenborg. In conjunction with his father, he published in 1860 a work on "Latin Pronunciation and the Latin Alphabet," and he has written several articles for the "Bibliotheca Sacra." John Frederick Leonard Tafel, his father, has a still more considerable record. He too lived in St. Louis, after having been Professor of Languages at Urbana (Ohio) University. Before emigrating to the United States he taught in the Gymnasiums of Ulm and Stuttgart and the Academy of Schorndorf, being an alumnus of Tübingen. In 1836 he wrote a book in defense of the Hamiltonian system of teaching, and he published many text-books on the modern languages in accordance with this system. The subject of school reform and radical changes in all the principles and practices of pedagogy engaged his earnest attention. He edited and published a complete edition of Livy, and made German translations of Xenophon's Anabasis, Dio Cassius, the greater part of Scott's novels, with one each of Cooper's, Dickens', and Thackeray's. He also wrote two theological works, "Staat und Christenthum" and "Der Christ und der Atheist," and a different times was editor of the Ausland (published by Cotta), the Reichstag Zeitung, and the Beobachter. To crown all, he published a "New and Complete English-German and German-English Pocket Dictionary."

We have already alluded indirectly to some of the work of Professor Walter H. Hill, S. J., who fills the chair of moral philosophy in the St. Louis University. He has written a treatise on "General Metaphysics, or Logic and Ontology," in addition to his "Moral Philosophy," and is, moreover, the historiographer of the institution, — a man profoundly read in the works upon the scholastic philosophy, and

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with quite a faculty for direct logical statement. Indeed, it would be impossible for any one to reason more close to the line. He follows the syllogism as closely as the plowman follows the plow in the newly-opened farrow. It is seldom that we come across text-books so learned as those two tractates of Professor Hill. They are founded upon Aristotle, to the Latin versions of whom there are continual marginal references; but the references do not stop here. They show an acquaintance with all the commentators and with all the shining lights of the scholastic philosophy. Irenaesus, Billuart, Suarez, Lessius, Mill, Blackstone, St. Augustine, Becanus, Gonat, Des Charmes, Gotti, St. Thomas Aquinas, Gregory Nicensis, Jeremy Bentham, Brande, Aulus Gellius, Sir John Fortescue, Kent, Sir Francis Palgrave, Justinian, Tacitus, Plato, Seneca, Isidore, Paley, Bartolus, Cajalan, Cardinalis, Toleti, Wheaton, Vattel, Judge Dillon, Timothy Walker, De Maistre, Hobbes, Rousseau, Monboddo, Cornelius à Lapide, Bellarmine, Bishop Ullathorne, Orestes A. Brownson, Publius Syrus, Cardinal Manning, each in his turn, ancient or modern, renowned or obscure, is made to contribute something to strengthen the learned author's argument or illustrate his position.

It must he confessed that the above is a rather meagre record to cover the literary performances of nearly forty years. But it was, as we have said before, the period of action and muscular growth, and not the period of brain-work, and especially the reflective work of the brain. As the eloquent William Henry Milburn, the blind preacher, said in one of his lectures, "The demands upon American mind have been of too pressing and urgent a character to allow it to devote much time or attention to the specific pursuit of letters. Here was a continent to subdue, a wilderness to be reclaimed; mountains to be scaled; lakes, oceans, and gulfs to be joined together; and meantime the supplies for daily necessity and daily consumption to be raised and conveyed to market. Men must have bread before books. Men must build barns before they establish colleges. Men must learn the language of the rifle, the axe, and the plow before they learn the lessons of Grecian and Roman philosophy and history; and to these pursuits was the early American intellect obliged to devote itself by a sort of simple and hearty and constant consecration. There was no possibility of escape, no freedom or exemption from this obligation."

This exactly fits the case of the transition period we have been describing in the history of the literature of St. Louis. For the period which succeeded it, the modern and contemporary period, we present the following record, prepared for the present work by Professor H. H. Morgan, of St. Louis. We must say that in many instances we do not accept Mr. Morgan's conclusions, and are far from approving his judgments, though we do not for a moment question his sincerity. But his facts have been carefully gathered, and are laboriously put together and skillfully grouped, and with these facts before him (the essential matter, after all) the reader will easily be able to form his own conclusions.

Mr. Morgan thinks and contends that "the literary interests of St. Louis are recent. For a long period politics, the press, and occasions of ceremony absorbed all the energies of our writers. To be sure, there have always been individual citizens who, like Dr. Eliot, have kept alive their enthusiasm for literature and the other fine arts; but the influence of these individuals, while uniformly great, could not make short the period which elapsed before the results of their labors should become manifest. Continuous progress began about 1857, when Dr. W. T. Harris removed to St. Louis and formed the acquaintance of Governor Brockmeyer, whose stimulating influence has counted for so much in our city, while at the same time his written work has been anything but voluminous. This acquaintance led to an active interest in metaphysics, and was directly productive of the Philosophical Society. The original membership of this body embraced Governor Brockmeyer, Dr. Harris, D. J. Snider, Judge Jones, Dr. Hall, Dr. Walters, C. F. Childs, Professor Howison, Dr. Hammer, and B. A. Hill, and their efforts had sufficient validity to justify visits from Ralph Waldo Emerson, A. Bronson Alcott, Mrs. Julia Ward Howe, and others of the speculative illuminati of the East. Out of this society there naturally grew the publication of The Journal of Speculative Philosophy, the earliest Western periodical of more than local reputation and influence. Through his work upon the Journal, and his addresses and reports while acting as superintendent of our public schools, Dr. Harris gave to much of the literary effort of St. Louis a distinctive character, and drew around him, either for co-operation or opposition, almost all who were interested in intellectual activity. The third step was the publication of The Western, in 1875, a miscellaneous magazine, begun by those who recognized Dr. Harris as the most eminent figure in our local life. The welcome given both by the Journal and by the Western to sterling contributions, irrespective of the section from which they proceeded, soon made St. Louis known to students throughout the country.

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"The fourth step in this movement was the establishment of clubs, which drew together men like Governor Brockmeyer, W. T. Harris, P. L. Soldan, Professor Howison, D. J. Snider, A. E. Kroeger, Thomas Davidson, B. V. B. Dixon, F. E. Cook, H. H. Morgan, William M. Bryant; and from among the ladies of the city, Miss Mary E. Beedy, Miss A. C. Brackett, Miss Grace C. Bibb, Miss Fannie M. Bacon, Miss Sue V. Beeson. Miss Julia A. Dutro, Mrs. E. S. Morgan, Miss Gertrude Garrigues, and Miss Hope Goodgon. The fifth stage was the formation of classes of ladies by Dr. Harris, D. J. Snider, F. L. Soldan, W. M. Bryant, B. V. B. Dixon, Professor J. K. Hosmer, and Rev. J. C. Learned. These classes, having chosen one of these gentlemen as director, studied the philosophy of history, the philosophy of art, Shakespeare, Greek poetry, or German, French, and Italian literature. Simultaneous with this period was the beginning of clubs which do or do not represent the direct influence of Dr. Harris and his co-laborers. The Novel Club flourished for several years, and, under the leadership of Rev. John Snyder, Professor J. K. Hosmer, Professor M. S. Snow, Judge Thayer, and Mrs. Hope Goodson Reed, accomplished much of value. Subsequently, but sufficiently near in time to find this a proper place for mention, there were formed numerous clubs of ladies, who met to pursue some study. A club met at the house of Mrs. Charles Nagel and pursued the study of Greek history, specially Greek literary history. Another group of ladies gathered around Mrs. Dr. W. E. Fischel and took up the mediaeval history. Other associations of similar character were carried on at the homes of Mrs. Nathan Stevens, Mrs. Dr. Briggs, and Mrs. William Ware.

"The sixth stage introduced classes which met under the special conduct of gentlemen such as Dr. Harris, D. J. Snider, William M. Bryant, Professor J. K. Hosmer, F. L. Soldan, and B. V. B. Dixon. Miss Susie Blow, Mrs. J. W. Noble, and Mrs. R. J. Lackland were the most earnest movers for this special activity. The seventh and present stage has introduced the formation of similar classes upon the part of gentlemen, and these classes include many of our most capable students as well as large numbers of our most promising young men.

"These stages represent what has sometimes been called the ‘St. Louis movement.’ To Governor Brockmeyer is due the honor of its inauguration and the responsibility for its special characteristics; to Dr. Harris is due the credit of working out in concrete form and upon a large scale an influence which in its inception was wholly individual. The ‘St. Louis movement’ may be sufficiently characterized as an attempt to find the idea which inspires and controls all rhetorical and literary forms which are not empty, and this characteristic will be traceable in the writings of all the co-laborers, no matter how diverse the nature of their specialties.

"The educational efforts to which also St. Louis owes much of its literary activity began earlier the period which we are considering, but owe much of their value to Dr. Harris and the others whom we have had occasion to mention.

"The earliest name of note in our educational history is doubtless that of the Rev. W. G. Eliot, whose direct efforts began during his connection with the Board of Public Schools, and have since been continued through his services in connection with the university of which he is the chancellor. While this is not the proper place for the full discussion of our educational history, yet as to an unusually large extent the laborers in the fields of literature and art have been found among our professors and teaehers the most eminent must receive mention. Beginning with teachers such as Dr. Eliot, J. H. Tice, Ira Divoll, W. T. Harris, Miss Mary E. Beedy, Sue V. Beeson, W. M. Bryant, T. R. Vickroy, Miss A. C. Brackett, Miss Grace C. Bibb, Miss Kate Wilson, Miss Hope Goodson, Miss Fannie M. Bacon, Miss Julia A. Dutro, F. L. Soldan, Thomas Davidson, B. V. B. Dixon, E. H. Long, D. J. Snider, George B. McClellan, W. H. Rosenstengel, William Deutsch, Chancellor Hoyt, Chancellor Chauvenet, Professor Waterhouse, and Professor Howison, the incitements to intellectual efforts were communicated first to those who were affected by these teachers, and later to those outside of their direct influence.

"More recently, as the Washington University has matured, it has contributed much through the efforts of Professors Hosmer, Snow, Woodward, Ives, Nipher, Engler, and Curtis. Popular lectures have been inaugurated by the university, and for three years our Public Library has maintained a free lyceum.

"The activity represented by Dr. Harris and those who have gathered around him has been literary, philosophical, and aesthetic, dominated, as has been said, by one leading idea. It is probably no overstatement to say that by this activity St. Louis is known away from home. The services rendered by Professor Hosmer, Professor Woodward, and others are, like those of Judge Holmes, special, and can be most fitly discussed each by itself.

"To this there must be made the exception of Dr. Eliot and of Professor Waterhouse, for in time they antedate Dr. Harris, and share with him the credit of exciting all the activity which has taken place since they

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began their labors. Dr. W. G. Eliot has, during his long residence in our city, unremittingly sought to build up all interests, moral and intellectual. To torn directly is due the residence of many of our brain-workers and their constant incitement to labor.

"Professor Waterhouse has not only felt an absorbing interest in political economy, or social science, but through a long period of years he has, by his profound comprehension of his subjects and his clear presentment of his views, been an influence as strong as he has been individual.

"To conclude this general survey, it may be said that the past twenty-five years have, in spite of the interruptions caused in our city by the civil war, comprised an intellectual history of which any city might be proud; and the future can but add to the influences which must make St. Louis well known in circles other than those of commerce.

"Separate mention is due to such of the gentlemen and ladies who most specifically represent the activity whose history has been recited. For this purpose it will be convenient to arrange the names in the order of the several movements.

"Dr. W. G. Eliot's activity has been so incessant and so varied that his ready sympathy with the claims of higher culture has been but a phase of his life. His own literary efforts have mostly taken the form of sermons and addresses, although he has drawn upon his scanty leisure to prepare for publication several miscellaneous works. Through his care as chancellor of the university he has gathered around him a number of earnest, capable, and indefatigable workers, who have in various ways contributed to the intellectual development of our city.

"Since his residence in St. Louis, Dr. Eliot has been prominently identified with movements looking toward the betterment of the community to which he belonged. It was in connection with him that Mr. Wayman Crow and his associates sought to realize in the Washington University facilities for an education for our boys and girls higher than could be afforded by the public schools. As Dr. Eliot's name must occur in various parts of the history, it is unnecessary to repeat his personal biography, and we may more profitably characterize his services in the direction of literary effort. His peculiar contribution has been the exciting and directing of intellectual activity and an unusual perception of the fitness of instrumentalities. Notwithstanding the fact that he has contributed several works to our literature, yet his sermons and addresses have absorbed more of his energy, while he has found his most constant field of effort in inaugurating beneficent enterprises and in stimulating specialists to devote their energies to the maintenance of institutions thus begun.

"Professor Sylvester Waterhouse is confessedly one of our most arduous and successful brain-workers, and the services rendered by him to the city of his adoption are inadequately represented by a recital of his writings or an enumeration of the positions of honor and trust which he has been invited to fill. It may in all sincerity be said that his many acquaintances consider him equal to any responsibilities which he might choose to assume, and know by experience that when he has felt at liberty to serve in various commissions that he has brought to his task rare qualifications. Apart from an unusually clear and analytical mind and a command of diction which enables him to express concisely and lucidly any conclusions at which he may have arrived, Professor Waterhouse has an unusual share of that intellectual integrity which constitutes the chief grace of exceptional men. From 1857 to 1883, Professor Waterhouse has labored persistently, not even stopping to lay claim to projects originated by himself and accredited to others. While many a man possessing his opportunities would have confined his labors to departments which were directly remunerative, or would at least have used his legitimate opportunities to extend his personal reputation, Professor Waterhouse has been too much possessed by the spirit of the investigator to delay for any personal considerations.

"Born in Barrington, N. H., in 1830, he was the victim of an accident, and when but ten years of age lost his right leg. The effect of this upon the life of a man of active temperament can easily be imagined, but there was too much sturdy manhood in the sufferer to admit of his being discouraged, even though the conditions for fair competition had become so burdensome. Persisting, in spite of the adversity of fortune, in his determination to acquire an education, he graduated with high honors from Phillips' Exeter Academy in 1850, and matriculating at Dartmouth College, soon changed to Harvard, from which institution he graduated in 1853. His collegiate course, as well as his academic, was marked by proficiency in scholarship. The ensuing two years were occupied in completing the course in the Harvard Law School.

"In 1856 he was appointed Professor of Latin Language and Literature in Antioch College, whence in 1857 he removed to St. Louis to begin his long career of educational usefulness as Professor of Greek in the Washington University. He is now the senior professor in actual service, though not in appointment, although younger in years than others of the faculty. Very frequently professors and teachers, like men in

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all other callings, find the routine of their lives sufficient for their energies. Far otherwise has it been with Professor Waterhouse, who has almost disregarded the fatigue of his regular work, and pursued his special investigations as though there were no other strain upon his strength. It is to his quiet, unconscious influence that St. Louis owes much of the activity that seems most directly to proceed from other sources.

"In 1867, Professor Waterhouse was a member of the Mississippi River Improvement Convention, and rendered invaluable service. In 1871 he was appointed by Governor Brown a member of ‘The Bureau of Geology and Mines’ for Missouri. In 1872 he was elected secretary of the St. Louis Board of Trade.

"In 1873 he made a trip around the world, and increased his profound acquaintance with the subjects which had occupied his interest. In 1875 he was a member of the National Railroad Convention. In 1877 he was again sent as a member of the Mississippi River Improvement Convention, became the secretary of its executive committee, and prepared the memorial to Congress. We in St. Louis believe that to this memorial, which was widely circulated, is due the change of sentiment, and the consequent appropriation of amounts more adequate for the performance of work much needed. In 1878 he was appointed United States commissioner to the Paris Exposition. During the civil war Professor Waterhouse's pen was constantly in requisition, as he was an active participant in the labors of the Western Sanitary Commission.

"For many years the professor was called upon to co-operate with the Missouri State Board of Immigration. In 1863 he was requested to pronounce a eulogy upon Chancellor Hoyt, and acquitted himself with his customary ability.

"Professor Waterhouse's interest in our industrial affairs, while by no means absorbing all of his energies or narrowing his sympathies, has in the main dominated his written work. His articles upon iron manufacture in Missouri were partly at least the cause precedent, if not the cause efficient, of the great industries which have since been developed. His articles upon the cultivation of jute in the United States have been honored by the highest recognition upon the part of the United States commissioners of agriculture. A very wide circulation, their translation into French and German, and the utilization of his ideas by various individuals and corporations are public proofs of their value. All this manifold labor Professor Waterhouse has done without compensation, and frequently at his own personal expense.

"Lieutenant-Governor Henry C. Brockmeyer is, as has been already stated in brief, one who has powerfully influenced the turn of thought upon the part of many who have been largely responsible for St. Louis' intellectual activity. Governor Brockmeyer would be noticeable anywhere for clearness, profundity, and sanity of thought, and for a remarkable power over words that burn. While his written work is so small in quantity, no one can come in contact with him without being sensibly stimulated. Born in Winden, Prussia, in 1828, he left home when sixteen years of age for New York. He first visited St. Louis in 1848, but did not at that time make the city his permanent residence. In 1857 he returned to St. Louis, and since 1858 has been identified with it. His energies have been mostly exercised in political life.

"Dr. W. T. Harris has been, as already said, the most prominent factor in our intellectual development. The incessant activity of his mind, his fertility of resource, and his unquenchable enthusiasm entitle him to a lasting and prominent place in any local history. Apart from the activity which Dr. Harris' efforts excited, his work may be summarized as the giving to St. Louis a high reputation in all educational circles, and the earning of foreign recognition for the metaphysical work of American students. In the conduct of the Journal of Speculative Philosophy, Dr. Harris has opened generously its pages to views however different from his own, and has thus done much towards the creation of a sodality among the students of mental philosophy. Born in Connecticut in 1835, he came to St. Louis in 1857, and while a resident was always connected with the public school system, as assistant teacher, principal of a district school, assistant superintendent, and finally as superintendent. Finally he changed his residence to Concord, Mass., and his departure was made the occasion of the handsomest honors, paid him by leading citizens, who appreciated his uninterrupted and invaluable services to the city. Dr. Harris has achieved a national (if we may not say an international) reputation, and his friends expect much from the greater leisure which his present life affords. His annual lecturing tours are looked forward to by many zealous students in Missouri, Indiana, Illinois, Tennessee, and Georgia, and identify him still with the intellectual life of the Southwest.

"Denton J. Snider has stood next to Dr. Harris, and has done much to further interests already sufficiently presented in our discussion of Dr. Harris' services. Since Dr. Harris' removal, Mr. Snider has specially represented the metaphysical interest, although,

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in addition to this, he has found time to contribute to various kinds of literature works whose value will be more and more appreciated. His ‘System of Shakespeare's Dramas’ is a work similar in general aim to those of Gervinus, Ulrici, Guizot, and takes rank with these. His study of the American state goes in quite a different direction, but can detract nothing from his reputation as a successful student. His ‘Delphic Days’ presents in poetical form and with remarkable effect the attempt of the modern consciousness to recreate the old Greek idyllic life. His other works in prose and verse, for our present purpose, need no special description. Apart from his connection with the various associations, such as the Philosophical Society, the High School Society, the Concord School of Philosophy, Mr. Snider has had all of his leisure occupied by classes of ladies and gentlemen, who have desired to have his conduct in their study of Homer, Herodotus, Greek history, Roman history, Shakespeare, and Goethe. His impress upon St. Louis thought is increasingly great.

"Born in Ohio in 1841 and graduated at Oberlin College, he came to St. Louis in 1864, and taught first in the College of the Christian Brothers, subsequently in the High School. After passing two fruitful years in European travel, Mr. Snider returned to St. Louis and resumed his position in the High School, until the pressure of his literary work and the numerous demands upon his time for the conduct of special classes caused him to devote himself entirely to the pursuits of the student.

"A. B. Kroeger was an indefatigable and successful student and litterateur, and was identified with the same set of gentlemen and ladies. His work on the ‘Minnesingers’ is recognized as a standard by Longfellow in his ‘Poets and Poetry of Northern Europe,’ and his other publications not only merited but received recognition as valid. Through the press, through the magazines, through separate publications, and above all, the irresistible force of example, Mr. Kroeger aided the intellectual development of St. Louis to an extent not to be measured by the shortness of his life.

"Born in Schwabstedt, duchy of Schleswig, in 1837, his father was a Lutheran minister, who, with his family, emigrated in 1848. Mr. Kroeger closed his school life when only eleven years of age; at fifteen was employed in a bank at Davenport, Iowa; went thence to New York, and began his residence in St. Louis in 1859, at which time he was the correspondent of the New York Times. In 1861 he was adjutant on the staff of Gen. Fremont; in 1863 assistant treasurer of the city of St. Louis; 1865-67, city treasurer; after which he devoted himself to literature, so far as time was spared by the demands of the daily struggle for existence. Apart from the ‘Minnesingers,’ Mr. Kroeger's most noticeable literary work was his studies in German history (‘Frederick Barbarossa, The Hohenstauffen’), ‘History of the War,’ and ‘Essay on Chatterton.’ Mr. Kroeger's literary and personal friendship with Henry W. Longfellow, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and William Cullen Bryant may indicate the esteem in which his work was held, and the loss to St. Louis when, in 1882, he died at the early age of forty-five.

"Mrs. Ella S. Morgan, while finding in other directions the field of her greatest intellectual activity, was nevertheless an important contributor to what may distinctively be called ‘the St. Louis movement.’ Through her translations for the Journal of Speculative Philosophy, through her interest and personal participation in all the associations for mental improvement, through the stimulus which she was able to afford, both by precept and by example, she merits the honor of mention as one of the first of the St. Louis ladies to appreciate and seek higher cultivation than was demanded by the local social life, and the additional honor which belongs to persistent pursuit of these interests. ‘Her literary taste,’ says one both able and discriminating in his judgment, ‘was very superior. As a critic of books, her opinions had great value. Through her reviews of books in various journals and periodicals, and especially in The Western, she rendered most useful service. She possessed an intellectual insight quite unusual, and an excellent power of presentment. These qualities, combined with her thorough mastery of German, give to her translations from the great German metaphysicians a value quite extraordinary. She grasped their meaning with rare penetration, and often gave a clear interpretation to the most abstruse and involved discussions.’

"Miss Anna C. Brackett, now a resident of New York, and well known as an educator and as a successful writer for our leading magazines, began her greatest activity in St. Louis, and belonged to the set which gathered around Dr. Harris. Directly through her work in the Normal School, and indirectly through her unremitting labors outside of her school, Miss Brackett left an indelible impress upon St. Louis, and is entitled to much of the credit of work since done by those whose enthusiasm she roused and whose energies she directed.

"Miss Mary E. Beedy, for many years connected with the High School, did much through her interest

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in mental improvement to awaken and strengthen our general activity. Her writings have mostly taken the form of lectures, and have been confined to few topics, but her influence in causing others to appreciate intellectual activity entitles her to a permanent place in our local records.

"Miss Sue V. Beeson, who began her career in our public schools as a pupil, and who, after the completion of her school education, entered upon her career as a teacher in the schools in which she had received her instruction, has always been prominent among the ladies interested in the speculative movement. For several years, in addition to her responsibilities as a teacher in the High School, and to that quiet but marked influence which belongs to those whose spiritual nature is so strong as to at once impress even a casual acquaintance, Miss Beeson has devoted much of her time to work in the classes conducted by Dr. Harris, Mr. Snider, and Mr. Bryant, and to the mutual improvement associations inaugurated by Mrs. Dr. Fischel and others. Miss Beeson's period of direct literary contribution has but begun, but the beginning promises much for the future.

"Professor George H. Howison, during his connection with the Washington University, was also an associate of the gentlemen already named, and his clear intellect, scholarly attainments, and persistent earnestness, added to the tone of this literary circle and strengthened its influence.

"Thomas Davidson, while his floruit belonged to the intermediate period of Dr. Harris' labors, represented the literary rather than the philosophical element. By his reputation as a classical scholar and a linguist, by the lucidity of his literary style, and by his incessant activity in the lecture field, Mr. Davidson did much to excite and encourage intellectual activity.

"F. Louis Soldan came into the service of the public schools in 1868, and from that time to the present his activity has been as increased as varied and valuable. Associated with the intermediate period of the movement which we are describing, Mr. Soldan not only sympathized actively with any concrete forms of activity, but, in addition, pursued other investigations, and through his work in the Aristotle Club, his papers in the High School Society, his addresses, educational and other, vindicated his claim to an eminent place among our local brain-workers. Later, Mr. Soldan has acted as director in numerous classes for the study of philosophy and German and Italian literature, while always responding cheerfully and ably to the frequent appeals for special papers, lectures, and addresses. His publications have been numerous, though mainly taking the shape of monographs. When we consider that Mr. Soldan has the responsibilities of our Normal School and the cares of directorship in many associations, we can appreciate the earnestness, persistency, and strength which alone can enable him to accomplish undertakings so numerous and so varied.

"Mr. B. V. B. Dixon's activity has been varied and constant. Apart from his daily work as instructor in the High School, he has manifested his intelligent interest in the claims of higher culture, first, by his lectures and addresses; second, by his monographs, contributed to magazines and journals, literary and scientific; third, by contributions of money and labor towards the support of enterprises which sought to promote our literary and art interests; fourth, by personal participation in the various discussions, associations, and classes which have been the manifestation of much of our intellectual effort; fifth, by his intelligent interest in our industrial life, and his work as an analytical chemist and metallurgist; sixth, by the inspiration of his example and by a rare ability to win the interest of others, and to present the claims of our higher nature in a way to stimulate others.

"Miss Grace C. Bibb, while in St. Louis, was connected as teacher with the Normal School, and through her efforts for the improvement of education gained a reputation such as to be invited to occupy the chair of pedagogics in the State University, a position which she still acceptably fills. Miss Bibb contributed to the furtherance of our mental activity by her example, by her essays and lectures, and by her personal enthusiasm.

"William M. Bryant came to St. Louis mainly because of the facilities offered by the city for the further pursuit of studies already more than begun. Becoming identified in interest with the circle represented by Dr. Harris, he became at once a marked factor in all of its intellectual progress. Through the formation of classes for the study of art and philosophy, through the efforts made for the higher education of those associated with him as assistant teachers, through his ready response to any calls upon his services as teacher, conductor, or lecturer, through his published works, and through his unremitting zeal and enthusiasm in the pursuits of the student, Mr. Bryant has been, and still continues to be, one of the most potent influences in St. Louis life. His distinctive claims are similar in kind to those of Mr. Denton J. Snider, although aesthetics has more peculiarly been adopted as his province.

"Rev. R. A. Holland, for many years rector of St. George's Episcopal Church, was not only an enthusiastic

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student with Dr. Harris and D. J. Snider, but also an effective writer and speaker, whose labors were not only an addition to the reputation of our city, but a perceptible influence in exciting general enthusiasm in study.

"Francis E. Cook, though belonging to the younger generation of students, has always displayed an intelligent interest in the various intellectual activities of our city, and has contributed to these not only a warm sympathy, but the aid of his own special labors, which he has rendered available to others through his contributions to our local magazines, and by his lectures and addresses.

"T. R. Vickroy, who has for many years been identified with our public school system, was, like Mr. William M. Bryant and others, drawn to this city by the facilities which it afforded for the pursuit of congenial studies. In addition to his efforts for a new phonetic system, his papers, lectures, and addresses, Mr. Vickroy has been prominently identified with the Kant Club, the Society of Pedagogues, and with other enterprises which represented the mental activity of our city, and in each of these he has borne his full share of the burden.

"James S. Garland was born in New Hampshire in 1842, removed to St. Louis in 1856, and has since been identified with all that is best in our city. When Dr. Harris formed a Kant Club, Mr. Garland became one of its earliest, most active and valuable members, and when Dr. Harris was engaged upon his translation of Hegel's Logic, he could find no more acceptable or capable coadjutor than Mr. Garland, to whom, in recognition of his services, the book was dedicated. Apart from the influence of his own career as a busy lawyer who still finds time to cultivate the amenities of life, and in addition to his personal identification with the various manifestations of the ‘St. Louis movement,’ Mr. Garland is entitled to be considered an important factor in our literary life through the unostentatious but always rationally generous aid which he gives to all literary and aesthetic interests, and to his personal efforts in behalf of the educational institutions of the city and State.

"William R. Walker has found time amid the cares of a constantly busy legal life to retain his interest in literature, and while his essays have been few, they have been of an excellence that most decidedly added to the reputation of St. Louis.

"Horace Hills Morgan 274 was born at Auburn, N. Y., on Jan. 22, 1839. Five years later his father removed with his family to St. Louis. At the age of sixteen he was matriculated as a student in Hobart College, Geneva, N. Y., but one year later gave up his connection with that institution and entered Williams College, where he was graduated with classical honors in 1859. In the autumn following Mr. Morgan was appointed to the position of assistant teacher in the St. Louis High School. In 1862 he was promoted to the position of first assistant, and in 1866 was made principal of the school, which place he has filled ever since with great acceptance and ability.

"Such is the brief story of a life that has been thus far outwardly uneventful, but yet filled, in these latter years especially, with varied and unremitting activity.

"His best thought and energy have been given to his vocation, and the high character and standing of the school of which he has been for seventeen years the head show how efficient his labors there have been. In his educational methods and the quality of the work produced he has always manifested an enlightened and progressive spirit, and has thus kept the school abreast of the most advanced educational movement of the time. On many occasions, with tongue and pen, he has ably vindicated the claims of the High School in general to its crowning position in our system of public education, but the admirable management of his school in this city has furnished his best argument in that behalf.

"While performing the engrossing and laborious duties of his profession with rare fidelity and devotion, Mr. Morgan has not been content to play the rôle of the mere pedagogue, but has addressed himself with nearly equal zeal to those problems of culture and society which ever claim the attention of the earnest student and public-spirited citizen. As the New York Nation very justly observes, in a notice of one of his books, ‘Mr. Morgan is one of that group of devoted students and men of culture who have done so much to elevate the character of society and tone of thought in St. Louis.’

"He has taken a leading part in the organization and management of clubs and societies in this city, formed for the study of art and philosophy, during the past twenty years. A director of the Public School Library for many years, he has rendered most efficient service in building up an institution of inestimable value to the community.

"Amid these manifold professional and public engagements, however, his pen has not been idle. He has published several works upon literary topics.

"But the more permanent productions of his pen

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by no means make up the sum of his literary activity. He has found time to contribute to the pages of the Journal of Speculative Philosophy, the Southern Law Journal, Education, American Journal of Education, The Western, and other periodicals. The last-named magazine was for a long time under his editorial management, and to him chiefly was due the large measure of success and reputation which it achieved. Its publication was suspended in 1882.

"Lectures, essays, and addresses without number upon a great variety of topics have won for him a still wider hearing in this and other communities.

"These are some of the results of the labor of a man yet in the beginning of his literary prime. It is safe to say that, if life and strength are vouchsafed to him, the future has much more and greater achievements in store.

"Charles Louis Bernays was born in the city of Mentz in 1815, and after the fullest education which could be furnished by wealthy and intelligent parents, he threw aside the profession of law for that of journalism. While still in Germany he made a reputation by his contributions to the Allgemeiner Augsburger Zeitung and the Deutsch-Französische Jarhbücher, whose editor at that time was our own Dr. Henry Boernstein. Together with Dr. Boernstein, he founded the Vorwaerts, but this being promptly suppressed by the French minister, the two gentlemen occupied their time as correspondents of the German newspapers, and had the honor of being the first to inaugurate this phase of journalism. In 1848, Col. Bernays concluded to emigrate to Missouri, but reaching St. Louis during the cholera season of 1849, he and Boernstein located themselves at Highland, Ill. Upon the purchase of the Anzeiger des Westens by Dr. Boernstein, Col. Bernays became its editor-in-chief. During the war Col. Bernays served as paymaster, and increased the number of those who had had experience of his ability and sterling probity. Returning after the war to his journalistic career, Col. Bernays became the best known of our newspaper men, using the columns of the Republican as well as those of the Anzeiger. His writings have been collected, and are to be republished by so competent an editor as his lifelong friend, Dr. Boernstein. Col. Bernays died in June, 1879.

"Col. Bernays, being a profound scholar with a natural taste for scholarship, did not confine his interest to journalism, but was always actively engaged in any gatherings that brought together earnest men and women whose object was intellectual culture. It was in the rôle of one whose own education was both profound and thorough, and who was ever alive to the value of earnest workers, that Col. Bernays, apart from his journalistic services, was specially helpful to our city.

"Professor J. K. Hosmer was born in Northfield, Mass., Jan. 29, 1834, graduated at Harvard College in 1855, and came to St. Louis in 1874. From 1860 to 1866, Professor Hosmer was in charge of the Unitarian Church at Deerfield, Mass. In 1866 he became connected with Antioch College as one of its professors. In 1872-74 he formed one of the faculty of the University of the State of Missouri, and in 1874 he accepted a professorship in the Washington University of this city. From 1862 to 1863, Professor Hosmer was corporal in the color-guard of the Fifty-second Massachusetts.

"Professor Hosmer, as an element of St. Louis life, has been with the foremost in his interested activity, but he has represented abilities peculiar to himself. His ‘Short History of German Literature,’ although appearing in a Western city and at about the same time as the one by Bayard Taylor, took at once so high a rank as to be adopted as a book of reference by Harvard and other leading colleges. His abilities have been so appreciated that the New York Nation keeps his name enrolled among those whom it mentions as its contributors. At home, his services are in constant requisition for the delivery of lectures and for the conduct of special classes of ladies and gentlemen. Apart from his scholarly attainments, Professor Hosmer has a singular power as a raconteur, if we may be permitted to use such a term with reference to a quality of written style. At home, Professor Hosmer's gifts are enhanced by the rare kindliness and helpfulness which is so much a part of his nature as probably to be unknown to himself.

"Professor C. M. Woodward was born in Fitchburg, Mass., in 1837. After completing the High School course he entered Harvard College, from which he graduated in 1860. From 1860 to 1865, Professor Woodward was principal of the Newburyport High School, except for a year, during which he was in the army. In 1865 he entered the service of the Washington University as assistant in the academic department. At the present time he is Thayer Professor of Higher Mathematics and Applied Mechanics, as well as dean of the Polytechnic Department, and director of the Manual Training School. Professor Woodward's vigorous enthusiasm in the subjects which specially absorb his interest is recognized by all with whom he comes in contact.

"Professor M. S. Snow was born at Hyannis, Mass., in 1842, and received his collegiate education at Harvard. Subsequently he carried on a school at Nashville,

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Tenn., whence, in 1870, he was called to a professorship in the Washington University, of whose collegiate department he is now the honored dean. His published literary work has taken the shape of lectures and contributions to the more sterling magazines. Professor Snow, as an element of the intellectual life of St. Louis, is not to be judged by the volume, or even by the quality, of his written work, for there has been no literary assembly since his residence in our city without his contributing personal sympathy and encouragement or else active effort.

"William B. Potter, born at Schenectady, N. Y., in 1846, and completing his technical course in 1869, has since been connected with the Washington University as Professor of Metallurgy. Professor Potter's attainments have caused his services to be sought by those who control many of our large industries, and the accuracy of his analyses has earned for him a high reputation. Quiet and unobtrusive, Professor Potter has the faculty of winning the kindly regard of those who come in contact with him, and his intelligent sympathy with any efforts towards rational progress gives him a marked influence in circles to whom the interests of metallurgy are wholly unknown.

"Professor Charles A. Smith, though occupied with investigations which directly belong to the industrial world, has been one of our most energetic and successful brain-workers. Born in the city, where he still resides, Professor Smith became connected with the Washington University in 1868. His papers upon subjects belonging to civil and mechanical engineering have been both numerous and valuable, while his own inventions have been of the greatest value.

"Francis E. Nipher was born at Port Byron, N. Y., 1847, and came to St. Louis in 1874. Professor Nipher's publications have been numerous and of great value, but they represent the least part of an incessant activity in his specialty of meteorology. It is impossible to characterize the work of the specialist, except by the respect paid to his work by other specialists, and a judgment formed in this way must give Professor Nipher high rank.

"Miss Annie Wall has found time not merely to win success as an instructress, to carry her own education in many directions, and to publish many valuable magazine articles, besides the two books which bear her name on their title-pages, but also to take an active and efficient part in the various literary gatherings of our city.

"Judge Nathaniel Holmes has always been a scholar, and while most of his work has been done through the Academy of Science, he has been no unimportant factor in our intellectual life.

"Albert Todd moved to St. Louis in 1839, and through his generous enthusiasm has participated in nearly all of the public movements of the city. To the literary development Mr. Todd has contributed by his lectures, his writings for the city press, and even more than by these through the warm interest which he always takes in the efforts of others.

"A. J. Conant was born in Vermont in 1821, and first came to St. Louis in 1857. As Mr. Conant is primarily an artist, and must receive his fullest consideration when we come to the art interests of the city, we make mention of him here only because of his study and articles upon archaeology. To Campbell's ‘Commonwealth of Missouri’ Mr. Conant contributed the very able chapter on the archaeology of Missouri, and during the meeting of the American Society for the Advancement of Science it became evident that Mr. Conant's labors had had not only interest for himself but value for the scientific world.

"Maj. J. B. Merwin has for many years been known as the editor of the American Journal of Education, and through this instrumentality he has done much towards elevating and rationalizing the educational thought of the Southwest. In addition to constant, ardent, and effective support of the interests of general education, the major has by his lectures and addresses manifested his active sympathy with movements which sought to promote the best interests of the community.

"Rev. J. C. Learned, the pastor of the Church of the Unity, has been so much to our city, that when, at one time, it seemed probable that he would remove, there was a feeling almost of consternation among those who are interested in the intellectual life and progress of the city. Apart from the labors of his own calling, Mr. Learned has found time always to be noticeable as a student, and to give freely of time valuable to himself in answer to appeals from our local lyceums and from classes of ladies and gentlemen who desired to study Emerson, Greek poetry, or other subjects under his guidance. His intellectual liberality and sympathy have made him an active supporter of any effort promising to advance mental development.

"Rev. W. Pope Yeaman was born in Kentucky in 1828, and accepted a call from the Third Baptist Church of St. Louis in 1870. In addition to his responsibilities as minister and pastor, Dr. Yeaman gave much time and aid to the interests of education, religious journalism, and missions.

"Rev. John Snyder was born in Philadelphia in 1842, graduated at Meadville in 1869, and had charge of the Second Unitarian Church in Hingham, Mass.,

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1869-73. In 1873, Dr. Snyder removed to St. Louis and became pastor of the Church of the Messiah. During the ten years of his residence in this city Dr. Snyder has been unremittingly active in promoting all efforts to secure a higher general culture, and his success has been such as to promise yet larger results in the future.

"Rev. T. M. Post was in 1847 called to the pastorate of the Congregational Church, from whose active ministry he has but just resigned. Dr. Post's ministerial record can find no place here, but it may be remarked that his pastorate has been sufficiently long to enable him to see the results of his labors. To our literature Dr. Post has been a constant contributor, but as literary fame has in no sense been his motive, it has been found impossible to procure a satisfactory list of his publications.

"Dr. Post has always actively sympathized with all efforts at intellectual development, and a strong and active mind, joined to a peculiarly fine imagination, and these rare powers tempered by the most healthy and sweetest of human sympathy, has rendered his work at once unique and invaluable.

"George E. Seymour, who was born in Ohio in 1833, and who removed to St. Louis in 1862, has always been a student, as well as a man engaged in active life. His work in various educational positions can receive no notice here, but his own mental power and activity entitle him to individual mention.

"F. F. Hilder has won a well-deserved reputation as an archaeologist and a man of general information. His contribution to ‘The Premium Essays upon the Three Americas' Railway’ is perhaps his most characteristic work, and is possessed of remarkable interest and power. Mr. Hilder is one of the number who are always appealed to for lectures, addresses, and ‘papers.’

"Rabbi S. H. Sonnenschein is one of the most active of our citizens, and is distinguished by an unusual eloquence, which is not the possession of many whose work is very valuable. In addition to his duties in connection with his congregation, Rabbi Sonnenschein is constantly occupied with literary work, much of which takes the form of lectures.

"W. Gilbert, one of the most enterprising of our successful business men, was born in Columbus, Ohio, in 1835. Coming to St. Louis in 1867, after ten years' experience in the book business, Mr. Gilbert was for a year the general manager of the St. Louis Book and News Company. In 1868 he began his career as a publisher of law-books, — a business which he has conducted with noticeable energy and success. Apart from his active business, Mr. Gilbert has always manifested an interest in the intellectual growth of the city, and has since the destruction of his fine library in 1873 again brought together a collection of four thousand volumes, one of the largest and most valuable of our private libraries.

"George E. Leighton is one of our capitalists whose naturally good intellect has been strengthened by education, and whose prominence in enterprises of public moment is due less to his financial standing than to the broad intelligence with which he deals with questions of social importance. His inaugural address as president of the Historical Society well illustrates the peculiar claims which he has already established upon the community.

"Miss Charlotte Smith, now a resident of Chicago, established and conducted the Inland Monthly. While it was intended to be local in the interests represented, it received the support of many of our best citizens, and Miss Smith has the respect and esteem of all who had occasion to know her work.

"Henry W. Williams was born at Williamsburg, Mass., 1816, and came to St. Louis in 1844. Previously Mr. Williams had practiced as a lawyer, and was at one time an editor in Michigan. Among the first to organize the legal specialty of the examination of land titles, Mr. Williams has during forty years been actively conversant with much of our local history. From time to time Mr. Williams has contributed to our city papers articles upon various subjects, some of which, written in 1877-78, found realization in the subsequent financial action of the United States Congress. Mr. Williams, in spite of his business cares, has preserved his literary tastes, and has collected one of the most valuable of our private libraries. He is one of the many people who, prevented by the cares of their daily life from creative contribution to literature, must yet outrank those whose only service has been the publication of a valueless pamphlet or book.

"W. H. Pulsifer is still too much engrossed with business interests and too modest to admit that he has a literary biography. At the same time, by his own success in the study of physical science, by his participation in efforts to sustain and improve our libraries, by his intelligent encouragement of any rational efforts, Mr. Pulsifer must receive mention, even against his will.

"Any summary would be incomplete if it failed to mention those who have encouraged and sustained our literary enterprises, although these co-laborers may have contributed nothing to our published works.

"Gentlemen such as James S. Yeatman, Wayman Crow, M. J. Lippman, James Richardson, Col. Thomas Richeson, Henry T. Blow, W. J. Gilbert,

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Thomas Allen, George E. Leighton, A. J. P. Garesch&eagrave;, George T. C. Reynolds, John Collier, Henry Hitchcock, Albert Todd, Silas Bent, E. A. Hitchcock, Dr. Walker, Gen. J. W. Noble, John O. Orrick, and James S. Garland; ladies such as Mrs. E. J. Lackland. Mrs. J. C. Learned, Mrs. William Ware, Mrs. Charles Nagel, Mrs. Dr. W. E. Fischel, Miss Susie Blow, Mrs. Beverly Allen, Mrs. D. Robert Barclay, Mrs. Isaac Cook, irrespective of their own direct literary labors, have been markedly important factors in the increase of our city's literary and aesthetic development.

"A very continuous and considerable activity has always been created and sustained by the Jesuit Brothers in charge of the St. Louis University, but as it has not specially challenged public attention, many are not aware of the source of a movement whose effects they feel. Of the young men educated at this institution many have attained distinction in the church, at the bar, in the profession of medicine, and in the less individualized fields of rational activity. During the past few years, under the auspices of Father R. J. Meyer, president of the faculty, there have been inaugurated courses of post-graduate lectures, and the attendance upon these has done much to incite the younger men to an intellectual activity which shall not be wholly absorbed by the cares of every-day life.

The following is a list of St. Louis authors and their contributions to literature:

Alexander, A. W. Contributor to the Inland Monthly.

Allen, Lyman W. Cont. to The Western: cont. to Princeton Poets.

Allen, Thomas; born in Massachusetts, 1813; St. Louis, 1842; died 1882. Family Magazine (N. Y.); Madisonian (D. C.); cont. Western Journal, Valley Monthly; Address to University Club, 1876; Proposed Expedition to Japan; Address on History and Resources of Missouri.

Allen, Mrs. L. B. G. Bobs and Nabobs, and other plays.

Amson, Arthur. Cont. Journal Speculative Philosophy.

Ashworth, T. M. Tom Chips.

Bailey, George W. A Private Chapter of the War.

Bailey, John J. Art, a Poem; cont. to The Western.

Bateman, W. O. Constitutional Law of the United States.

Bakewell, E. A. Addresses.

Barclay, D. Robert. Lectures.

Barret, Richard A. Cont. Inland Monthly.

Bay, W. V. N. Reminiscences of the Bench and Bar of Missouri.

Benton, Thomas H.; born in North Carolina, 1782; St. Louis, 1813; died 1858. Editor St. Louis Enquirer; Thirty Years' View; Abridgment Debates in Congress.

Beck, James P. The Doctor and the Lawyer.

Berg, Franz. Fisel.

Beedy, Mary E. Lectures.

Beeson, Miss Sue V. Cont. to Journal Speculative Philosophy and The Western.

Bernays, C. L.

Bent, Silas. Thermal Paths to the Pole; cont. Inland Monthly; Lectures.

Bernard, E. F. R. Xenophanes.

Bibb, Miss Grace C. Lectures; cont. to The Western American.

Blow, Miss Susie. Journal of Education; Addresses on Kindergarten System.

Block, Lewis J. Exile, a Poem; cont. to The Western, Journal Speculative Philosophy, and Inland Monthly.

Bland, Peter B. Cont. Western Journal, 1849; Speeches on Finance and Currency.

Blewett, Benj. Cont. The Western.

Boutwell, Mrs. Helen Willis. Cont. The Western.

Boyd, Rev. W. W. Lectures.

Bowman, Bishop. Lectures and Addresses.

Boudreaux, Father Fiorentin. Ascetical works.

Brown, B. Gratz, Lectures; Gradual Emancipation in Missouri; The Reform Movement.

Brockmeyer, H. C.; born in Prussia, 1828; St. Louis, 1857. A Foggy Night at Newport; letters on Faust in Journal Speculative Philosophy; Lectures.

Brookes, Rev. J. N. Is the Bible True? How to Read the Bible; Marantha, or the Lord Cometh; Central Christian Advocate.

Brackett, Miss Anna C. The Education of American Girls; Poetry for Home and School; Rosenkranz's Pedagogics; cont. to Journal Speculative Philosophy, Atlantic, New England Journal of Education, American Journal of Education.

Bryant, William M.; born in Indiana, 1843; St. Louis, 1873. Hegel's AEsthetics; Philosophy of Landscape Painting; Lectures; associate editor of The Western; cont. to Journal Speculative Philosophy, American Journal of Education.

Bryan, W. J. S., Associate editor The Western; Addresses.

Blackwood, W. Gardner. Cont. Western Journal.

Buell, James W. A Short Tour of St. Louis; Life of Jesse James; Legend of the Ozarks.

Burlingham, Rev. A. H.; born in New York, 1822; St. Louis, 1866. Lectures.

Byers, W. N. Cont. Valley Monthly.

Calmer, Father H. M. Lectures on History and Anthropology.

Carter, J. H. Cont. city press; Rollingpin's Almanacs; Lectures.

Campbell, R. A. Commonwealth of Missouri; Missouri State Atlas; The Four Gospels in One; Gazetteer of Missouri; Chiromancy.

Casselberry, Evans. Cont. Western Journal.

Castlehun, F. K. Palms.

Guilds, C. F.

Chauvenet, Regis. Chemical Analysis of the Coals, Iron Ores, etc., of Missouri.

Chauvenet, William. Manual of Spherical and Practical Astronomy; Treatise on Elementary Geometry; Treatise on Plane and Spherical Trigonometry; Inaugural Address, Washington University.

Clements, Miss Hilda C. The Song of Steam, a Poem.

Clarke, Enos. Lectures.

Conant, A. J. Archaeology (Switzler's History of Missouri); Archaeology (Commonwealth of Missouri); Transactions St. Louis Academy of Science; Lectures.

Cooper, Isaac J. Cont. Western Journal.

Cook, Francis E. Associate editor of The Western; Songs, Poems, etc.; Readings; Lectures.

Collet, Oscar W. Cont. The Western and city press.

Cole, Miss S. E. Cont. The Western.

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Cobb, H. Cont. Western Journal, Western Journal and Civilian, Inland Monthly.

Crane, Newton. Cont. Scribner's Monthly.

Crunden, F. M. Lectures; Readings; cont. The Western, American Library Journal, Missouri Democrat.

Davidson, Thomas. The Pantheon and other Essays; editor Western Educational Monthly; cont. The Western, The Nation, The Boston Advertiser, Journal of Speculative Philosophy, city press, American Journal of Education; Lectures.

Darby, John F.; born in North Carolina, 1803; St. Louis, 1827; died 1882. Personal Recollections; cont. city press.

Dacus, J. A. A Tour of St. Louis; Annals of the Great Strikes in the United States; cont. city press, Valley Monthly.

Davis, T. G. C. Cont. Inland Monthly.

D'Arcy, H. I. Associate editor The Western; Lectures; cont. Journal of Speculative Philosophy.

De Smet, Father.

Deutsch, William. Exercises for Allen's New Method; cont. The Western.

Dixon, B. V. B. Selections in Appleton's Reader; associate editor The Western; Lectures.

Diehl, Conrad. System of Drawing.

Diekenga, I. B. The Worn-Out Shoe, a Poem; Between Times; Tom Chips; cont. Valley Monthly, Inland Monthly.

Des Montaignes, Francis. Cont. Western Journal.

Eads, Jas. B. Cont. Transactions St. Louis Academy of Science; Report on Mississippi Jetties; Protest against Bill for the sale of Bank Stock; On the Jetty System; Physics and Hydraulics of the Mississippi River.

Edwards, Richard. The Great West.

Eliot, Miss Ida M. Cont. Journal of Speculative Philosophy; Poetry for Home and School.

Eliot, Rev. W. G. Early Religious Education; Emancipation in Missouri: Great Social and Moral Questions of the Day; Woman's Work and Education in America; Discipline of Sorrow; Home Life and Influence; Dignity and Moral Uses of Labor; Discourse before the Old Guard of Missouri; Doctrine of Christianity; Lectures and Addresses.

Ellis, Miss Anna C. Unforgiven.

Engler, E. A.; born in St. Louis, 1856. Cont. American Journal of Mathematics, Hardy's Elements of Quaternions, Popular Science Monthly, Transactions St. Louis Academy of Science, Kansas City Review of Science and Industry; Time-Keeping in London.

Engelmann, Dr. Geo.

Eyser, John. Liebestrange.

Fastre, Father Joseph. Translations.

Finkelnburg, G. A. Lectures.

Fitzgibbon, J. H. Cont. Western Journal. Foy, Jas. H. Moody vs. Christ and His Apostles.

Foy, Peter L. Lectures.

Frings, Chas. H. Die Behandlung der Amerikanischen Weine.

Fulton, Rev. John. Lectures.

Garland, Hugh. Cont. Western Journal.

Garland, James S.; born in New Hampshire, 1842; St. Louis, 1856. Translation Hegel's Logic; cont. to The Western.

Galway, T. F. The Jesuits (tr. Paul Feval); cont. to The Western.

Garrigues, Miss Gertrude. Cont. Journal of Speculative Philosophy and The Western.

Gantt, Col. T. T. Cont. to The Western.

Garrett, Thomas E. Freemasonry and Education; The Three Stages; cont. to city press.

Glover, Samuel T. Cont. Inland Monthly.

Green, Dr. John. Cont. to The Spectator; Lectures.

Goebel, G. Langer als ein Menschenleben in Missouri.

Gould, D. B. City Directories, 1873-83.

Green, John. City Directories, 1845, 1847, 1850, 1851.

Goodman, C. H. Cont. Appleton's Journal.

Gibert, Madame. French Readers.

"Grey, Ethel." Cont. Western Journal.

Graham, Alexander J. Cont. Western Journal.

Harrison, Edwin. Transactions of Academy of Science.

Hamilton, A. F. Lectures; cont. Valley Monthly, Western; editor of Journal.

Harts, Father M. M. Lectures on the Feudal System.

Hayes, Richard. Transactions of Academy of Science.

Hawks, Bishop C. S.; born in North Carolina, 1812; St. Louis, 1843. Boys' and Girls' Library; Library for My Young Countrymen; Uncle Philip's Conversations for the Young; Friday Christian.

Harris, William T. Journal of Speculative Philosophy; Appleton's Readers; Hegel's Logic; Lectures and Addresses; cont. to The Atlantic, The Western, North American Review, New England Journal of Education, American Journal of Education, Inland Monthly; Johnson's Cyclopaedia.

Hackstaff, G. C. Hackstaff's Monthly, 1880.

Haven, C. H. St. Louis Monthly Magazine, 1878.

Helmuth, William T. Arts in St. Louis.

Helper, Hinton R. Impending Crisis; The Three Americas' Railway; Oddments of Andean Diplomacy.

Hibberd, S. S. Cont. Journal of Speculative Philosophy.

Hertwig, John G. Cont. to The Western.

Heylen, Father Louis. Lectures.

Hinchman, Miss Laura. Cont. to The Western.

Hill, Britton A. Cont. Valley Monthly, city press, Inland Monthly; Liberty and Law; Absolute Money.

Hitchcock, Henry. Lectures.

Hill, Father W. H. Sketch of St. Louis University; Ethics; Elements of Philosophy; Rhetoric.

Hilder, F. F. Cont. Transactions of Missouri Historical Society, Kansas City Review, Criterion, Grain Review, St. Louis Sportsman; Prize Essay, Three Americas' Railway; Lectures.

Holmes, Judge Nathaniel. Cont. Transactions of St. Louis Academy of Science; The Authorship of Shakespeare; The Geological and Geographical Distribution of the Human Race; Lectures.

Howison, Professor George H. Analytical Geometry; The Mutual Relations of the Department of Mathematics; Lectures.

Holland, Rev. R. A. Lectures; cont. to Journal of Speculative Philosophy, The Western, and city press.

Howard, C. L. Geography.

Hobart, E. F. Western Educational Journal, Western Educational Review.

Hopewell, M. The Great West.

Hosmer, Professor James K. The Thinking Bayonet; Memoir of Dr. G. W. Hosmer; Short History of German Literature; A Corporal's Notes of Military Service in the Nineteenth Army Corps; cont. to Atlantic, The Western, New York Nation, North American Review; Lectures.

Hoit, T. W. Cont. Inland Monthly; Rights of American Slavery; The Model Man.

Hoyt, J. G. Relations of Culture and Knowledge; Inaugural Address, Washington University; Lectures and Addresses.

Hotchkiss, C. W. Cont. Monthly Journal, 1861.

Hogan, John; born in Ireland, 1805; St. Louis, 1845. History of Methodism in the West; The Resources of Missouri; Thoughts on St. Louis; cont. Republican, Christian Advocate.

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Hubbard, Mrs. Clara. Merry Games and Songs.

Hughes, Father T. Lectures on Natural Ethics.

Illsley, Charles E. Lectures; cont. to The Western.

Jameson, H. W. Rhetorical Method; Selections for Reading; associate editor of The Western.

Jordan, B. Cont. to The Western.

Kargau, E. D. Poems.

Kendrick, A. A. Central Baptist, 1870.

Kennedy, S. M. Home Circle and Temperance Oracle, 1873; home press, 1860.

Kennedy, R. V. City Directories, 1857, 1859-60.

Keemle, Col. Charles; born in Pennsylvania, 1800; St. Louis, 1817. The Emigrant; St. Louis Enquirer, 1825; Beacon, 1827-32; Commercial Bulletin, 1834; Saturday News, 1837; City Directory, 1837.

Keller, Father Joseph S. Reveille, 1845-50; Lectures.

Killian, B. D. Western Banner, 1859.

King, Dr. H. Cont. Western Journal.

King, Moses. St. Louis Temperance Monthly, 1873.

Knox, T. N. City Directory, 1845, 1854.

Krum, John M. Cont. Western Journal.

Krum, Chester H. Addresses.

Kroeger, A. E. The Minnesingers of Germany; H. von Meissen's Cantica Canticorum; Fichte's Critique of the Philosophical System; The Future of the American Republic; cont. to The Western, city press, Journal of Speculative Philosophy; correspondent New York Times; History of the War; Essay on Chatterton.

Kayser, Alexander. Cont. Western Journal.

Lackland, Mrs. R. J. Cont. Journal Speculative Philosophy.

Learned, Rev. T. C. Unitarianism, its History and Principle; cont. The Western; Lectures and Addresses.

Leighton, George E. Addresses.

Litton, Abram. Transactions Academy of Science.

Little, Arthur C.

Loughborough, J. Cont. Western Journal, Inland Monthly.

Ludlow, N. M. Dramatic Life as I found It.

Lueken, D. N. Der Deutsche Sprachsehüler; Sketch Maps for Geography.

Mallinckrodt, J. F. Novissimum Organon.

Martling, James A. Poems; Homer's Iliad; cont. Journal of Speculative Philosophy.

Marvin, Bishop E. M. Cont. Valley Monthly; To the East by way of the West; Sermons.

Macartney, G. W. Inland Monthly, 1819.

Manford, Erasmus. Manford's Magazine, 1864.

MacLellan, George B. Cont. The Western.

Mason, Miss Helen M. Cont. to the magazines.

McAnally, D. R. Life and Letters of Bishop Marvin; Lectures.

Meeker, J. R. Cont. The Western.

Metcalf, Thomas. A System of Dictionary Work.

Meyer, Father R. J. Lectures on Christian Ethics.

Mills, James E.

Mitchell, Mrs. Ellen M. Cont. Journal Speculative Philosophy, and to The Western.

Morgan, Horace H. Literary Studies from the Great British Authors; Topical Shakesperians; Representative Names in English Literature; Premium Essays; Defense of High Schools; Lectures and Addresses; cont. to Journal Speculative Philosophy, Western Educational Journal, Southern Law Review, American Journal of Education, Education, Williams' Athenseum; editor of The Western, 1875 to 1882.

Monser, J. W. An Encyclopedaedia of the Evidences.

Morgan, Mrs. E. S.; born in St. Louis, 1847; died 1883. Cont. Journal Speculative Philosophy; The Western.

More, Robert. Cont. The Western; Lectures.

Morrison. City Directory, 1852.

Montague, William L. City Directories, 1853-55.

Morris, Miss Cora W. Cont. Inland Monthly, city press.

Nagle, Charles. Lectures.

Nipher, Francis E., born in New York, 1847; St. Louis, 1874. Cont. The School Laboratory, American Journal of Science and Arts, Nature, Review of Science and Industry, Transactions St. Louis Academy of Science, London Philosophical Magazine.

Nolan, Miss Mary. Central Magazine, 1873-81.

Parmer, Enrique. Maple Hall Mystery; cont. The Western, city press.

Paxton, James A. City Directory, 1821.

Perry, John. Cont. Western Journal.

Perry, Miss Mary E. Cont. The Western.

Pope, Dr. Charles A.

Pope, William S. Lectures.

Post, Rev. T. M. Skeptical Era in Modern History.

Prout, Dr. H. A. Cont. Western Journal.

Potter, William B.; born in New York; 1846, St. Louis. Cont. Geological Survey of Ohio; cont. Geological Survey of Missouri; Geological and Metallurgical Papers for New York Academy of Science; Earthworks of Southeastern Missouri; cont. Transactions St. Louis Academy of Science.

Pratte, Bernard. Cont. Western Journal.

Primm, Wilson; Cont. Illinois Monthly Magazine; Orations and Addresses.

Purinton, Miss Julia M. St. Louis Magazine, 1873 — 76.

Randolph, Frank Fitz. Cont. The Western, Inland Monthly.

Reed, Mrs. Hope Goodson (Curtis). Cont. The Western.

Reavis, L. U. St. Louis, the Future Great City; The Missouri Commonwealth; A Change of National Empire; Thoughts for Young Men of America; cont. Inland Monthly.

Reynolds, Governor T. C. Lectures; Addresses.

Riley, C. V. Born in England, 1843; St. Louis, 1868; Lectures; Potato Pest; cont. Scientific American, American Naturalist, Popular Science Monthly, American Agriculturist, New York Tribune, Valley Monthly, Commonwealth of Missouri, Johnson's Cyclopaedia, Farmers' and Planters' Cyclopaedia, Trans. St. Louis Academy of Science, Atlas of Missouri, Appleton's American Cyclopaedia.

Richardson, Mrs. Lucy S. Cont. The Western.

Risk, T. F. Western Journal, 1848.

Rosenstengel, William H. German Reader; Hilfs und Uebungsbuch in der Deutschen Sprache; Addresses and Orations; cont. The Western.

Roesler, Frank. Cont. The Western.

Robert, Rev. P. G. Cont. The Western, city press.

Robyn, Henry. New Song-Books for Schools.

Royce, G. M. The Little Bugler; Lectures.

Russell, W. H. H. Cont. city press.

Sander, Euno. Transactions Academy of Science.

Sandford, William F. Cont. The Western.

Schuyler, William; born in St. Louis, 1855. Librettos; cont. city press.

Schmidt, Adolf. Transactions Academy of Science.

Seaver, H. E. Greek Readings.

Seymour, George E.; born in Ohio, 1833; St. Louis, 1862. Series of Arithmetics; New Method of Double Entry; cont. to The Western, American Journal of Education, Holbrook's Normal, Barnes' Educational Journal, Educational Reporter; cont. city press; Lectures.

Sheprad, Elihu H.; born in Vermont, 1795; St. Louis, 1821; died in 1876. Autobiography; History of St. Louis and Missouri.

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Sherman, Gen. W. T. Memoirs.

Shaw, Robert. Creator and Cosmos.

Shumard, B. F. Transactions Academy of Science.

Sherrick, Miss Fannie Isabelle. Love or Fame, and other Poems; cont. Republican.

Slayback, A. W. Cont. Valley Monthly; Addresses.

Sloss, J. L. City Directory, 1848.

Smith, Sol. Theatrical Apprenticeship; Theatrical Management for Thirty Years.

Smarius, Father. Lectures.

Smith, Spencer. Transactions Academy of Science.

Smith, Charles A.; born in St. Louis, 1846. Railroad Gazette; Graphical Estimates of Earthwork; Continuous Guides; Engineering News; American Engineer; Proceedings of the Master-Mechanics' Association; Journal of American Engineering Societies.

Smith, Miss S. F. Cont. The Western.

Smith, Miss Charlotte. Inland Monthly, 1872-78; The Wasp, 1873.

Snyder, Rev. John. Addresses; Readings; cont. city press.

Snider, Denton J.; born in Ohio, 1841; St. Louis, 1864. System of Shakespeare's Dramas; The American State; Delphic Days; A Soul's Journey; Walks in Hellas (two series); Clarence, a Tragedy; Lectures; cont. Journal Speculative Philosophy; associate editor The Western.

Snow, M. S.; born in Massachusetts, 1842; St. Louis, 1870. Cont. Proceedings Missouri State Teachers' Association, 1872; Encyclopaedia Britannica; Lectures; cont. The Western, Southern Quarterly Review.

Soule, C. C.; born in Massachusetts, 1842; St. Louis, 1869. Romeo and Juliet, a Travesty; Hamlet Revamped; Lectures.

Soldan, F. Louis. Amerikanisches Lesebuch; Essay on the Darwinian Theory; Dante's Inferno and Purgatorio; Grube's Method of Teaching Arithmetic; Lectures; cont. Journal Speculative Philosophy, The Western, American Journal of Education.

Sobolewski, E. Cont. Journal Speculative Philosophy.

Sonnenschein, Rabbi S. H. German Poems; Lectures.

Spaunhorst, H. J.; born in Hanover, 1828; St. Louis, 1836. Lectures.

Strotholte, Dr. A. Cont. Journal Speculative Philosophy.

Stevenson, Miss V. E. Cont. The Western.

Sule. Marshall Mars.

Strong, Miss M. E. Conquered, a Novel; Readings.

Stevenson, J. C. H. Lectures.

Stagg, Edward. Cont. Western Journal.

Tanner, Henry. City Directory, 1866.

Tafel, R. L. Latin Pronunciation and Latin Alphabet.

Taylor, Isaac W. Cont. Western Journal.

Tarver, M. Western Journal, 1848-51 (6 vols.); Western Journal and Civilian.

Thomas, E. H.

Thrailkill, J. W. Cont. Inland Monthly.

Thompson, Col. J. M. Cont. The Western.

Thomas, John E. Shakesperian Readings; History of St. Louis.

Thomson, A. B. Addresses.

Tice, John H. Elements of Meteorology; cont. Western Journal, Inland Monthly, city press; Relations Between Matter and Force.

Todd, C. A. Cont. The Western, city press; Lectures.

Todd, Albert; born in New York, 1813; St. Louis, 1839. Lectures; cont. city press, Inland Monthly.

Todd, Mrs. Albert. Poems.

Tracy, J. L. Cont. Valley Monthly.

Tracy, J. M. Cont. The Western.

Twining, E. H.; born in Massachusetts, 1829; St. Louis, 1877. Lectures; cont. The Western.

Van de Velde, Father J. Lectures.

Verhaegen, Father P. J. Lectures.

Vickroy, T. R. Lectures; English Grammar Circles; cont. The Western, Journal Speculative Philosophy.

Wall, Miss Annie. Is Lying Easy? (translation) Outlines of English History; cont. The Western.

Walker, William R. Cont. Journal Speculative Philosophy and The Western.

Waldo, William. Cont. The Western.

Ware, Mrs. William. Cont. The Western.

Ware, James E. Valley Monthly.

Waugh, Alfred S. Cont: Western Journal.

Waterhouse, Sylvester. The Protectorate of the Holy Places; Reflections on the Southern Rebellion; The Dangers of a Disruption of the Union; Eulogy on Chancellor Hoyt; The Resources of Missouri; Educated Labor in Missouri; Memorial to Congress for the Improvement of the Mississippi River; Commercial Suggestions; Papers on Jute in United States Documents; Sketch of St. Louis, United States Census 1881.

Weaver, Rev. G. S. St. Louis, 1854-60. Christian Household; Hopes and Helps; Aims and Aids; Ways of Life.

Westbrook, Mrs. Harriet. Cont. Western Journal.

Wells, Mrs. Erastus. Madame Lucas.

Wherry, Col. William M. Cont. The Western.

Williams, Henry W. Cont. city press.

Willson, Z. G. Western Monthly; associate editor TheWestern; Lectures.

Wislizenus, Fred. Librettos; Lectures.

Witte, C. Pronouncing German Dictionary.

Woerner, J. G.; born in Würtemburg, 1826; St. Louis, 1837. Correspondent New York Herald, German Tribune; Amanda, the Slave, a Play.

Woodward, Calvin M. Cont. Valley Monthly; Pamphlets on Manual Education; Lectures; History of the St. Louis Bridge.

Wyeth, Mrs. George M.

Wyman, Edward. Cont. Western Journal.

Webb, Dr. R. D. Cont. Western Journal.

Welling, Dr. George. Cont. Western Journal.

Zuendt, E. A.; born in Wiirtemburg, 1819; St. Louis. Lyric and Dramatic Poems; Jugurtha, a Tragedy; Dramatic Fairy Tales. 275


Abbott, E. Valley Farmer, 1853; Central Baptist, 1876.

Aldrich, H. L. Western Insurance Review, 1872-83.

Allen, G. S. The Evening Gazette, 1838.

Allen, James W. Weekly Hesperian, 1867; St. Louis Evangelist, 1873.

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Allen, W. S. The Evening Gazette, 1838.

Alis, Karel. Pozor Bohemian Gazette, 1864-67.

Alexander, A. W. Contributions city press.

*Allison, R. D. Dispatch, 1876.

Anderson, Josiah. People's Organ, 1850; St. Louis Price-Current, 1864-65.

Biker, L. H. St. Louis Christian Advocate, 1872.

Baird, E. T. St. Louis Presbyterian, 1853-59; St. Louis Christian Advocate, 1872.

Barclay, D. Robert. Dispatch.

Bakewell, R. A. Shepherd of the Valley, 1851-54.

*Bagly, Miss F. M. Contributor to city press.

Babbington, G. L. Children's Advocate, 1874.

Beadle, Hiram. Education and Health Journal, 1874.

Beck, James P. St. Louis Times.

Bemis, Frank M. National Prohibitionist, 1880.

*Bernays, C. L. Anzeiger, Republican.

Birch, James H.; born in Virginia, 1804; St. Louis, 1826; St. Louis Enquirer.

Bowlin, J. B.; born in Virginia, 1804; St. Louis, 1833; Farmers' and Mechanics' Advocate, Missouri Argus.

*Boernstein, Henry; born in Hamburg, 1805; St. Louis, 1849. Anzeiger des Westens.

Bruere, M. G. Staats Zeitung, 1872-73.

*Brown, B. Gratz; born in Kentucky, 1826; St. Louis, 1849. Missouri Democrat, 1854.

Browne, W. W. Ladies' Pearl.

Bradley, B. F. Industrial Press, 1872-73.

Budd, George K. New Era, 1848.

Buell, James W. City press.

Burgess, F. H. Evening Chronicle.

Byers, W. V. Republican.

*Cahill, John F. El Comercio del Valle.

Campbell, Wm. M. New Era, 1844.

*Charless, Joseph. Missouri Gazette, 1808.

*Chambers, A. B. Republican, 1837.

*Churchill, Samuel B. St. Louis Bulletin, 1834.

Chamberlin, H. Herald of Religious Liberty, 1844-48.

Clark, George B. Times.

Clements, James. The Guardian, 1866.

Clark, Wm. P. Commercial Bulletin, 1834-37.

Corbin, A. B. Missouri Argus, 1836-37.

Coons, Frank A. St. Louis Monthly, 1873.

*Colman, Norman J. Rural World, 1864-83.

*Coulter, W. F. St. Louis Grocer, St. Louis Druggist.

*Cockerill, John A. Post-Dispatch, Cincinnati Enquirer, Baltimore Gazette, Washington Post.

Cortambert, Louis. Revue de l'Ouest, 1854-65.

Cox, Charles E. The Truth, 1870.

Cox, A. F. St. Louis Observer, 1858.

*Coloney, Myron. The Valley Review and St. Louis Journal of Commerce, 1870.

*Crane, Newton. Spectator, Globe-Democrat, Democrat.

Crossman, R. B. Weekly.

Crockett, J. B. New Era, 1848.

Crandall, P. A. The Valley Review and St. Louis Journal of Commerce, 1870.

Crowell, Wm. Western Watchman (Baptist).

Cuddy, Wm. St. Louis Daily Express, 1858-59.

*Cundiff, J. H. R. Republican.

Dameron, Logan D. Christian Advocate.

*Daenzer, Carl. Anzeiger des Westens, Mississippi Blätter, 1859-75.

Davis. Fountain, 1848-50.

*Dillon, John A. Evening Post, Missouri Democrat, Post-Dispatch, Spectator, Globe-Democrat; Lectures.

Dougherty. Missourian, 1845.

Edwards, Richard. The People's Press.

*Edwards, John N. St. Louis Times.

Ellis, V. P. Commercial Bulletin, 1834; The Native American, 1846.

Elliott, Charles. Central Christian Advocate.

*Ewing, Henry. St. Louis Times, 1871.

Faris. St. Louis Times.

Fayel, William. Republican.

Farr, D. B. St. Louis Observer, 1880-83.

Faerber, W. Pastoral Blatt, 1874-76.

Farris, R. P. St. Louis and Memphis Presbyterian, 1876; St. Louis Presbyterian; Missouri Presbyterian, 1866-70.

Fawcett, James L. Morning Herald, 1853.

Ferguson, P. G. Democrat.

Ferguson, William. Central Baptist.

Field, Joseph. Reveille, 1845-50.

Field, Matthew. Reveille, 1845-50.

*Field, Eugene. Evening Journal, St. Louis Times.

Finney, T. M. Central Christian Advocate, 1872.

*Fishback, George W. Democrat.

Fishback, W. P. Democrat.

Fisher, C. S. St. Louis Times.

Fitzgibbon, J. H. The Practical Photographer, 1875.

Finlay, R. S. Liberia Advocate, 1846-48.

Fleming. Herald, 1820.

Flagg, E. Evening Gazette, 1845.

Flint, Weston. St. Louis Daily Tribune, 1870.

Fox. Commercial Journal.

Follett, J. B.

Foreman, S. B. St. Louis Enquirer, 1825-26; Herald, 1820; St. Louis Times, 1827-32.

Ford, Patrick H. St. Louis Enquirer.

Ford, S. H. Christian Repository, 1872-73.

*Foy, Peter L. Dispatch, 1869-71.

Foster, G. G. St. Louis Pennant.

Fox, E. W. Exporter and Importer.

Foote, A. R. Home and Grange, 1874.

Frings, C. H. Zymotechnic News, 1870.

Garesch&eagrave;, A. J. P.; born in Cuba, 1823; St. Louis, 1839. St. Louis Times, 1869-70.

Garrett, Mrs. E. Republican.

Garvey, Richard. Daily Tomahawk.

Garrison, J. H. The Christian, 1874.

Gambs, E. F. Philatelist.

George, Rev. S. C. Weekly Mail.

Gilson, George W. Democrat.

*Gouley, George Frank; born in Delaware, 1832; St. Louis, 1861. Freemason, 1867-74; Voice of Freemasonry.

Gonter, C. G.; born in Pennsylvania; St. Louis, 1846. Morning Signal, 1852; St. Louis Letter-Sheet and Price-Current, 1852-79.

Goodrich, H. P. Herald of Religious Liberty, 1844-48; Fountain, 1848-50; St. Louis Herald, 1850.

Green, Gen. Duff. St. Louis Enquirer, 1823-25.

Griffith, B. Young Reaper, 1872-73.

*Grissom, D. M. Daily Evening Intelligencer; Union, 1864; Dispatch.

*Grosvenor, William M. Democrat; Addresses.

Hall, Sergeant. Emigrant and General Advertiser.

Hay, J. S. St. Louis Evening Lender, 1873.

Harlow, William M. Snatches and Sketches, 1874.

Harkness, W. H. St. Louis Journal of Commerce; Journal of Agriculture, 1871-72.

Halpin, T. M. Home press, 1860.

Haven, C. H. St. Louis Review and Chronicle.

-- 1614 --

Hays, Samuel. Fountain, 1848-50.

Henley, J. J. Fireside Visitor, 1872-73.

Hessoun, Joseph. Atlas, 1873-83.

Hermann, Henry. Humorist, 1881-83.

Helmich, Anton.

Henson, R. S. Baptist Teacher, 1872.

Heemann, E. W. Westliche Post, 1864; Volks Zeitung, 1866.

Henry, Isaac M. St. Louis Enquirer.

*Hilpert. Tribune.

Hincliffe, J. N. Miner and Artisan, 1850.

Hill, William. Missouri Democrat, 1852; Sentinel, 1850; Union, 1850.

Higgins, R. S. People's Organ, 1841; Daily Morning Herald, 1854.

Hillgaertner, George. Neue Zeit, 1864.

Hinton, J. T. Missouri Baptist, 1844.

Hodgman, S. A. The Presbyterian Casket, 1853.

Holbrook, D. B. Evening Gazette, 1838.

Halton, H. H. St. Louis American.

*Hodnett, D. A. St. Louis Times, 1869-71.

*Howell, C. N. Republican.

Holt, Miss Fanny. Woman's Journal, 1872.

*Hodges, William R. Spectator.

Howard, J. R. Bible Advocate, 1850.

*Houser, D. M. Missouri Democrat, Globe, Globe-Democrat.

Husman, George. Grape Culturist, 1870.

*Hutchins, Stilson; born in New Hampshire, 1838; St. Louis, 1865. North Iowan, Dubuque Herald, St. Louis Daily Times, St. Louis Dispatch, 1873.

Huntley, Stanley. Republican.

Huntington, J. V.

*Hume, George C. Evening Journal, Dispatch.

*Hyde, William. Republican.

Hyatt, H. S. Mississippi Valley Progress, 1874-76.

Jameson, E. H. E. St. Louis Times, 1864.

Jacoby, L. S. Der Missionsbote, 1873.

Jackson, S. B. Mississippi Valley Grocer, 1881-83.

Jones, Jonathan; born in Ohio, 1813; St. Louis, 1841; died, 1883. Cont. city press.

*Kargan, E. D. Anzeiger.

Kennedy, R. V. Home press, 1860.

Keilsan, B. D. Western Banner, 1859.

King, Moses. Temperance Monthly, 1873; Lectures.

*Knapp, George. Missouri Republican.

*Knapp, John. Missouri Republican.

*Knapp, C. W. Republican.

Koch. Missouri Handels Zeitung, 1857.

Krum, John M.; born in New York; St. Louis, 1840. Missouri Justice.

*Keemle, Col. Charles. Commercial Bulletin, 1843; Saturday News, 1837; Reveille, 1845-50.

Lawless, Luke E. St. Louis Enquirer, 1826.

Lange, Louis. Die Abendschule, 1859.

Lewis, E. A. Daily Intelligencer, 1854-57.

Leftwich, W. W. Ware's Valley Monthly, 1876.

Libby, J. W. Gospel of Temperance, 1867.

Lindemann, J. C. Evang. Luth. Schulblatt, 1869-72.

Longuemare, Eugene. Evening Bulletin, 1859; Daily Bulletin, 1860.

Lovejoy, E. P. St. Louis Observer, 1833.

Loehr, Adelbert. St. Louis Daily Chronicle, 1857.

Logan, J. B. Ladies' Pearl; Cumberland Presbyterian, 1852-57.

Loring, James M. Cont. city press.

Luther, J. H. Central Baptist, 1870-73.

Lynds, T. W. Gospel of Temperance, 1867.

Maury, Charles. St. Louis Engineer.

Mallett, I. A. Commercial Daily List, 1859.

Mantz, Charles A. St. Louis Times.

Mahoney, D. A. St. Louis Times, 1866-67.

Marmaduke, J. S. Public Opinion; St. Louis Journal of Agriculture, 1871-72; St. Louis Journal of Commerce.

Marmaduke, Vincent. St. Louis Journal of Commerce.

Mclntyre, J. W. American Sunday-School Worker, 1872-77.

Manford, Erasmus. The Golden Age, 1853-57; The Golden Era, 1855.

McCullagh, J. B. Correspondent Democrat, Chicago Republican, Democrat, Globe, Globe-Democrat; editor Cincinnati Enquirer.

*McKee, Henry. Globe-Democrat.

*McKee, William. Evening Gazette, Barnburner, Sentinel, Union, Democrat, Globe, Globe-Democrat.

*McHenry, Estill. Dispatch, St. Louis Times.

*McHenry, William H. Dispatch, 1869-72.

Mclntosh. Weekly Courier, 1867.

McAnally, D. R. St. Louis Christian Advertiser.

*McAnally, Rev. M. Christian Advocate.

*Merwin, J. B. American Journal of Education.

*Mitchell, A. S. New Era, 1848; Daily Evening News and Intelligencer, 1852.

Mills, George. Times, Globe-Democrat, Morning News.

Moss, Lemuel. National Baptist, 1872-76.

Mountfort, A. Pioneer Journal, 1869.

Moore, J. C. The Cavalier, 1867.

Mullin, William J. Catholic Cabinet; Catholic News-Letter, 1847.

Mullin, Thomas. Catholic Banner, 1839.

Negus, George. St. Louis Evening Post, 1869.

Nettelbaum, F. Missouri Schulblätter.

Norrell, Joshua. Western Journal, 1816.

*Noxon, Mrs. Annie Robertson. Cont. Republican.

Nollan, F. Der Friedensbote.

*Olshausen, Arthur. Westliche Post.

*Olshausen, Theo. Westliche Post.

O'Madigan, Dan. Western Celt, 1871-75.

*O'Neill, F. R. Republican.

Orr, William. St. Louis Beacon, 1827-32; The Herald, 1820.

*Paschall, Nathaniel. Republican, New Era.

Parker, N. H. Valley Review and Journal of Commerce, 1880.

Patton, J. H. Bible Advocate, 1850.

Page, James N. St. Louis Presbyterian, 1852.

Paxon, Stephen. Sunday-School World, 1873.

Peshek. Pozor Bohemian Gazette.

Peck, J. M. Republican.

Peckham, James. Evening Bulletin, 1859; home press, 1861.

*Penn, S., Jr. Missouri Reporter, 1842-45.

*Phelan, Father. Western Watchman.

Pickering, L. Union, 1848.

Pinckard, P. M. Sabbath-School Star, 1864-70.

Price, Celsus. St. Louis Times.

*Preetorius, Emil. Westliche Post.

*Preuss, Edward.

*Pulitzer, Joseph P. Post-Dispatch, Orations and Addresses.

Rainwater, C. C. St. Louis Times.

Ray, David B. Baptist Battle-Flag, 1876; American Baptist Flag, 1880.

*Ramsay, Charles G. Commercial Bulletin, 1836-37; New Era, 1844-50; Daily Evening News and Intelligencer, 1850; Evening News, 1853-66.

*Reavis, J. R. Spectator.

*Reefer. Jewish Tribune.

Riley, C. V. American Entomologist, 1871-76.

-- 1615 --

Robert, P. G. Church News, 1873.

Rombauer, R. J. Neue Welt, 1871.

Robbins, B. H. Sunday Morning, 1873; Knights of Honor Magazine, 1881-83.

Ruth. Evening Gazette, 1845.

Ruggles. Mirror.

Saler Francis. St. Louis Daily Chronicle (Ger.), 1857; Der Herald des Glaubens, 1853-83.

Schneider, F. A. H. Demokratische Presse, 1853-55.

*Schurz, Carl. Westliche Post; Lectures.

Schutte, George A. The La Salle, 1873.

Seeman, A. C. The Mirror.

Singleton, William R. Daily Evening Gazette, 1842.

Smith, G. W. Daily Commercial Bulletin, 1869.

*Smith, Arden R. Republican, Evening Chronicle.

Smiley, R. L. Temperance Watchman, 1873.

Snow, D. J. Temperance Battery, 1853.

Sonnenschein, S. H. Jewish Tribune, 1881.

Spitz, Rabbi. Jewish Tribune, 1881.

*Spalding, Josiah. Missouri Republican.

Spaunhorst, H. J. Amerika.

Stone, P. P. Merchant and Banker, 1875.

*Stevens, W. B. St. Louis Times, Globe-Democrat.

Staley. People's Organ, 1850.

Steele. Workingman's Advocate, 1831.

Stone, Mrs. M. H. The Mirror.

Stone, Mrs. S. I. Spectator.

Sylvester, R. H. St. Louis Times.

Taylor, J. D. St. Louis Evening Post and Mystic Family, 1845-48.

Taylor, John M. City press.

Teasdale. Central Baptist, 1873.

Temple, George. Democrat.

Thayer. Democrat.

Thomas, William L. St. Louis Commercial Gazette, 1875-83.

Thompson, H. M. American Inventor, 1881.

Treat, Judge Samuel. Missouri Reporter.

Trotter, D. W. R. Central Christian Advocate.

Tracy, J. L. Dispatch.

Ustick, T. W. Watchman.

Vickroy, T. R. Phonetic Teacher.

Vance. Fountain, 1848-50.

Van Antwerp. Missourian, 1845.

Valland, L. F. Missouri Democrat.

*Waterloo, Stanley. Evening Chronicle, Republican.

Walther, C. W. F. Der Lutheraner, 1853-73.

Walster, A. Otto. Volksstimme des Westens, 1878.

Watson, Thomas. St. Louis Pennant.

Weston, H. J. Baptist Quarterly, 1872.

Wenzell. Missouri Blatter.

Wetmore, Alphonso. Saturday News, 1837.

Werz, H. Missouri Schulbote, 1861-65.

Willstaedt, L. Figaro, 1874.

Williams. Weekly Courier, 1867.

Willich, L. Puck, Lantern.

Wilhartity, A. Neue Welt, 1869-71.

Widmar, R. M. St. Louis Journal of Commerce, St. Louis Handels Zeitung, 1857-59.

Willett, Edward. St. Louis Times.

Wilbush, A. Demokratische Presse, 1853-55.

Willis, M. W. City press.

*Wolcott, W. V. Journal of Commerce, Puplic Opinion, Journal of Agriculture, Evening Journal.

*Woods, Dr. S. B. Evening Chronicle.

Wolf, John. Tribune Francaise.

Will. Friedensbote, 1849.

*Yeaman, Rev. W. Pope; born in Kentucky, 1832; St. Louis, 1870. Central Baptist, 1871-72, 1876-77; Lectures.

Zider, H. F. St. Louis Courier, 1874-75; St. Louis Dry-Goods Reporter and Price-Current, 1873-74.

"The private libraries of St. Louis have only recently begun to be considerable, either in extent or in character. This fact is largely due to the mixed character of our population. While the French element predominated, business, political life, and social affairs elicited the chief interest. The German element has to a great extent been composed of men and women whose energies were absorbed by industrial pursuits, and their artistic sympathies found the most satisfactory expression through music. Hence, while in our musical history the Germans lead in representation, and while names like Boernstein and Bernays are eminent in the ranks of our local writers, yet the sympathy through literary forms has not been the commonest manifestation. The other elements of a primarily foreign population would naturally find their time sufficiently occupied without the devotion of much time to special literary culture. The native American population has largely consisted of those to whom the struggle for existence was too immediate to leave leisure for extensive reading.

"The few individuals who had accumulated private libraries were most frequently men of retired lives, and the dispersion of their effects by death or removal has destroyed all but the recollection of their collections. In some cases, as in that of Governor Reynolds, valuable libraries were confiscated or destroyed during our civil war.

"Using library as a word intended to express a reasonable number of valuable books, collected with reference to some rational and distinctive aim, private libraries are owned by the following ladies and gentlemen: 277

Mrs. Beverly Allen, *Gerard B. Allen, Mrs. Thomas Allen, Mrs. D. Robert Barclay, *Dr. G. Baumgarten, Mrs. Francis P. Blair, *A. F. Blaisdell, Miss Susie Blow, Rev. W. W. Boyd, *Maj. Bryan, W. J. S. Bryan, Mrs. J. J. Cole, E. C. Coleman, D. F. Colville, *Newton Crane, *F. M. Crunden, *Eugene Cuendet, H. I. D'Arcy, H. A. Diamant, *John A. Dillon, B. V. B. Dixon, *William R. Donaldson, W. B. Douglas, *H. L. Dousman, George D. Drake, John N. Dyer, James B. Eads, *Lucien Eaton, *George S. Edgell, *Dr. W. E. Fischel, Rev. John Fulton, Rev. Dr. Ganse, *Col. T. T. Gantt, *James S. Garland, James C. Ghio, *W. J. Gilbert, *William J. Glasgow, *Samuel T. Glover, Dr. John Green, George D. Hall, W. G. Hammond, *Britton A. Hill, *E. A. Hitchcock, *Henry

-- 1616 --

Hitchcock, Clarence Hodge, *James K. Hosmer, Mrs. G. L. Hughes, *Halsey C. Ives, *Horatio Jones, *Archbishop P. R. Kenrick, *Rev. F. M. Kielty, Chester M. Krum, Mrs. R. J. Lackland, *Rev. J. C. Learned, *George E. Leighton, J. H. Lionberger, Henry Lucas, Dr. Karl Luedeking, Judge G. Madill, William McBlair, Gustav V. R. Meeohein, *H. H. Morgan, J. W. Noble, James O'Fallon, John O'Fallon, John C. Orrick, C. S. Pennell, John D. Perry, *Rev. T. M. Post, *W. H. Pulsifer, *Eben Richards, F. L. Ridgley, *L. B. Ripley, *E. C. Robbins, *Rev. M. Schuyler, *William L. Scott, *George E. Seymour, J. H. Sheets, *J. R. Shepley, *H. T. Simon, R. B. Smith, *D. J. Snider, *M. S. Snow, *F. L. Soldan, S. H. Sonnenschien, H. S. Spaunhorst, Dr. A. Strotholte, *Maj. Suteo, H. C. Thorn, *George F. Toner, *Charles H. Turner, E. H. Twining, *Mrs. W. H. Waters, *Sylvester Waterhouse, *H. W. Williams, *Mrs. William Young.

"The publishing business in St. Louis has neither employed large capital nor been of more than individual importance. To this there are notable exceptions in the direction of law, which, through the efforts of F. H. Thomas & Co., George I. Jones, and W. J. Gilbert, has become an interest of magnitude, while the publications have a high reputation. Mr. Jones has, furthermore, done much for the city by the high character of his miscellaneous publications, such as Hosmer's "History of German Literature," Snider's "System of Shakespeare's Dramas," Morgan's "Topical Shakespeariana," Woodward's "History of the St. Louis Bridge;" and in the direction of educational publications, Henry W. Jameson has done enough to entitle him to personal mention."

Among the publishers, David B. Gould 278 has achieved a well-earned reputation as the directory-maker of St. Louis. He was born in Caldwell, Essex Co., N. J., Sept. 7, 1844. He appears to have inherited his faculty for book-making, for his grandfather, Stephen Gould, is said to have been the first publisher of law books in America. The house which he founded in New York City is still in existence, being now conducted by Banks Brothers, his great-nephews. The Goulds settled in New Jersey as early as 1700, and were prominent and public-spirited people of that region.

Young Gould received the usual common-school education, and attended college, but did not graduate, being impatient to mingle in the active affairs of life. In 1864 he went West as clerk of the Ordnance Department of the United States army, and was located at Fort Scott, Kan., where he remained until the close of the war, when he returned to his old home; but finding the sphere too contracted for one of his enterprising disposition, again removed to the West, and in 1866 began at Chicago the compilation of directories. In connection with this business he was identified for some years with some of the most important places in the West and South.

In September, 1871, he located permanently in St. Louis, and commenced the publication of the "St. Louis City Directory," which he has issued annually ever since. Mr. Gould has given this work his entire time and attention, and for completeness, correctness, careful attention to details, etc., his publications are not surpassed by any similar works in America. He employs such system and energy in the business that, although the growing population of St. Louis compels the yearly addition of from five thousand to seven thousand names to the directory, the period employed in getting out the work has, during the past ten years, been shortened thirty days. In addition to this great undertaking, he publishes a "St. Louis Business Men's Directory," a "Blue-Book of St. Louis," and a "Map of St. Louis." Mr. Gould has also published directories of Peoria, Springfield, and Bloomington, Ill., and it is his intention to cover, as rapidly as practicable, every important point in the West and South.

Of his standing as a business man it may be said that he very early secured the confidence and good will of the people of St. Louis, and has retained them ever since. He at once identified himself with the city, and there has hardly been a public movement of any kind since he established his residence in which he has not taken a prominent and active part. Questions of transportation, both by rail and river, have engaged much of his attention. He was a delegate from St. Louis to the River Improvement Convention at St. Paul, and was secretary of that body, which did more for the improvement of the upper Mississippi than all previous agencies. Upon this and kindred topics he has written much for the public press. There is hardly a citizen who has devoted more time and money, proportionately to his means, to advance the interests of St. Louis, and there is certainly none who has exhibited such implicit and enthusiastic faith in the future of the city, as is shown by his large investments, made from the profits of a prosperous business. He is an ardent promoter of the pending scheme to reconstruct the streets of St. Louis with granite, and in this, as in all things else, displays the earnestness of a man of liberal and enterprising views, who has not only the courage to express them, but the energy to carry them out.

Innumerable enterprises claim and receive Mr. Gould's support. He was the founder and father of the St. Louis Club, and for three years was a director and chairman of its house committee. He is a director in the Provident Savings Institution,

-- 1617 --

one of the enterprising and flourishing banks of the city. He is also a member of many fraternities, but while willing to do his share of the work, has preferred that others should fill the offices and enjoy the honors.

Mr. Gould's wife is Emma E., the only daughter of Dr. M. V. Allen, of Chicago, and a direct descendant of Gen. Ethan Allen, the Revolutionary hero. They have three interesting children.

Mr. Gould has a beautiful residence at 3457 Chestnut Street, St. Louis, and an elegant summer house at Oconomowoc, Wis., where in the intervals of business he enjoys life rationally, finding no greater pleasure than in the society of his family and friends.

"The following is a list of the publishers of St. Louis:

"Advocate Publishing House, American Baptist Publication Society, American School Book Company, M. S. Barnett, C. R. Barnes, Becktold & Co., Belford, Clark & Co., Bollman & Son, "W. S. Bryan, R. A. Campbell, James H. Chambers, Christian Publishing Company, Norman J. Coleman, Concordia Publishing Company, Charles B. Cox, Logan D. Dameron, Everts & Co., P. J. Fox, Gilbert Book Company, David B. Gould, Historical Publishing Company, E. F. Hobart & Co., G. I. Jones & Co., Journal of Commerce, Moses King, J. J. Lawrence, J. C. McCurdy & Co., National Publishing Company, Parson & Co., Review Publishing Company, Scammell & Co., J. T. Smith & Co., Spectator Publishing Company, St. Louis Magazine Company, St. Louis Religious Press Association, W. H. Stevenson, Sun Publishing Company, F. H. Thomas & Co., Thompson, Tice & Lillington, N. D. Thompson & Co., William F. Wernse & Co., Charles F. Anderson, E. F. Gambs, Barker & Pritchard, Charles Jennings, Ferd. P. Kaiser, W. H. Kerns, Louis Lange, John B. Lee & Bro., Frank McDavitt, James H. Matthews, George W. Matthews, McClelland & Winter, Samuel H. Soyster, St. Louis Baptist Publishing Company, St. Louis Board of Publication, Thomas & Stone."

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Scharf, J. Thomas. History of Saint Louis City and County, From the Earliest Periods to the Present Day: Including Biographical Sketches of Representative Men. In Two Volumes, Illustrated. Volume II . Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts & Co., 1883. [format: book], [genre: biography; history; proceedings]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
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