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Scharf, J. Thomas. History of Saint Louis City and County, From the Earliest Periods to the Present Day: Including Biographical Sketches of Representative Men. In Two Volumes, Illustrated. Volume II . Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts & Co., 1883. [format: book], [genre: biography; history; proceedings]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
The earliest physicians in St. Louis were the army surgeons stationed at the military posts under the French and Spanish régimes, who in many instances settled in the community and identified themselves with its interests and life. As they were usually men of superior and good social position, they established a standard of medical practice which has ever since been maintained, and laid the foundations of a code of medical ethics which has caused the profession in St. Louis to occupy a foremost place in the world. 245 The first physician whose name is found in the early archives is
Dr. André Auguste Condé, a native of Aunis, in France, who was post-surgeon in the French service at Fort Chartes prior to the cession to England, and crossed the river with the few soldiers brought over by Capt. St. Ange de Bellerive, after placing the Bristish Capt. Stirling in possession of the other side, Oct. 20, 1765. Dr. Condé had married Marie Anne Bardet de Laferne, July 16, 1763, whom, with his infant daughter Marianne, he brought over with him to the new post. He received from Governor St. Ange, June 2, 1766, a concession, the fifth recorded in the "Livres Terriens," the "land-grant books," of two lots together in the village, fronting two hundred on Second Street, by one hundred and fifty deep, being the east half of the block next south of the Catholic Church block (now No. 58). On this lot he built for his residence a house of upright posts, with a barn and other conveniences, where he resided for some ten years, until his death, Nov. 28, 1776.
Dr. Condé was a gentleman of fine education, and a prominent man in the village in his day. He had an extensive professional practice, as well on the west as on the east side of the river, being for a time alone in his profession at this point. Having died intestate, the Governor appointed his relative, Louis Dubreuil, merchant, guardian to his two minor daughters, the oldest, Marianne, mentioned above, the second, Constance, born in St. Louis in 1768. An inventory of his estate, taken a few days after his death, includes the names (numbering two hundred and thirty-three) of all those indebted to him on both sides of the river for professional services rendered, comprising nearly all the inhabitants of the two places, and might almost serve for a directory had such a thing then been needed. His widow married a second husband, Gaspard Roubien, also a European, Sept. 19, 1777. They subsequently removed to St. Charles, where they both died.
Condé's eldest daughter, Marianne, was married to Charles Sanguinet, Sr., Aug. 1, 1779, and the second, Constance, first to Bonaventura Collell, a Spanish officer, in the year 1788, and secondly Patricio Lee, in 1797. Each of these ladies left a numerous progeny. The Sanguinets of St. Louis comprise the Benoists, the wife of the Hon. John Hogan, former member of Congress, William H. Cozens, etc., and the Lees of St. Charles, Mrs. Stephen and Mrs. Thomas Rector, the Rousseaus, Benjamin O'Fallon, and others.
Dr. Jean Baptiste Valleau was the second physician who settled at St. Louis. A native of France, in the Spanish service, he came to St. Louis late in the year 1767 as surgeon of the company sent up by Count Ulloa from New Orleans, under the command of Capt. Rios, to receive possession of the place. That they had come up expecting to remain, at least for a time, is evident, as immediately after his arrival in the place he made application for a lot in the village upon which to build a house for his family, which he had left in La Rochelle, France. Accordingly, he received a concession (No. 43) from St. Ange, dated Jan. 2, 1768, of the northeast quarter of the present Block No. 61, being one hundred and twenty feet on the west side of Second Street by one hundred and fifty feet deep west up the hill on the south side of Pine. After he received the grant of his lot, it was some little time before he could find any one to build his house, owing to the scarcity of workmen in that early day of the village. He then entered into the following agreement:
"I, Peter Tousignau, under my customary mark of a cross, not knowing how to sign my name, in presence of Mr. Labusci&eagrave;re, acknowledge that I bind myself to build for Mr. Valleau, surgeon in the Spanish service, a house of posts in the ground, eighteen feet long by fourteen wide on the outside, and roofed with shingles, with a stone chimney, and a partition in the centre of small square posts, with one outside door and another in the partition, two windows with shutters, well floored and ceiled with hewed cottonwood plank well jointed. The whole is to be completed by the 15th July next, subject to inspection, to be built on the lot of Mr. Valleau, adjoining Mr. Calvé's.
"In consideration of the sum of sixty silver dollars, which Mr. Valleau binds himself to pay to said Tousignau as soon as the house is completed, and to furnish all the iron and nails necessary for said house, but nothing else, the posts of the house to be round, of red oak.
"Thus covenanted and agreed in good faith between us, at St. Louis, April 23, 1768.
"TOUSIGNAU'S X MARK. VALLEAU. LABUSCI&eagrave;RE, witness."
In due time his house was completed and he in possession, shortly after which the quarter block south of and adjoining his was ordered to be sold by the Governor (the owner, one Calve, having left in the night to avoid his creditors), and was purchased by Valleau, with a small house of posts some sixteen feet square on it, for six hundred livres (about one hundred and twenty dollars), Sept. 26, 1768, Valleau then owning the east half of said block (now 11). Shortly afterwards having been much exposed to the effects of a hot sun in a new and to him deleterious climate, in riding back and forth between St. Louis and Bellefontaine, on the Missouri, where Rios' men were engaged in building a fort, he fell ill, and died at the close of November, 1768, at the house of Joseph Denoyer, nearly opposite his own, within a year of his arrival in the country. On finding his end approaching, in conformity with a custom almost uniformly followed by devout Catholics at that day, he executed his will on Nov. 23, 1768. He was but one of numerous others who fell victims to the unhealthful influences incident to all newly-settled countries in certain latitudes, particularly on water-courses. So universally was it the custom at that day in colonies for a sick person to execute his will, commending his soul to his Maker, that a man who died without having done so was deemed to have neglected one of his most important religious duties. It mattered little whether he possessed much or no property whatever to dispose of, the will appeared to be an essential to entitle him to burial with all the solemnities of the holy church in consecrated ground.
This will was as follows:
"Before the royal notary in the Illinois, province of Louisiana, in presence of the hereafter-named witnesses, was personally present Mr. John B. Valleau, a senior surgeon of His Catholic Majesty in the Illinois, being now at the post of St. Louis, in the French part of the Illinois, lying sick in bed, in the house of Denoyers, but sound of mind, memory, and understanding, as appears to the undersigned notary and witness, who, considering there is nothing more certain than death, nor nothing so uncertain as its hour, fearing to be overtaken by it without having disposed of the few goods which God has given him, the said John B. Valleau has made and dictated to the notary, in the presence of the undersigned witnesses, his last will and testament in the following manner:
"First, as a Christian and a Catholic, he commends his soul to God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, beseeching His divine bounty, by the merits of His passion, and by the intercession of the Holy Virgin, of Holy St. John, his guardian, and of all the spirits of the celestial court, to receive it among the blessed.
"The said testator wishes and ordains that his debts should be paid and the injuries occasioned by him, if there be any, shall be relieved by his executor hereinafter named.
"He declares, wishes, and ordains that Duralde, employed in the Spanish service, residing in this post of St. Louis, whom he appoints his executor, shall take possession of all his effects, situated in this colony of the Illinois and at New Orleans, either personal or real property, goods, effects, money, or anything belonging to the said testator at the day of his death, in whatever part of this colony they may be situated, without any reservation, appointing the said Duralde as the executor of this will, and praying him to undertake the charge as a last proof of friendship.
"The said Duralde shall make a good and exact inventory of the property belonging to said testator, shall make the sale thereof, and the money arising therefrom shall be sent by him to Madame Valleau or to her children, residing at La Rochelle, in the house of Madame Chotet, Main Street, revoking all other wills and codicils which I might have made before this present will, to which I adhere as being my last will.
"Thus made, dictated, and declared by the said testator, by the said notary and witnesses, and to him read and re-read, declaring to have well understood it, and wishing the said last will to he executed according to its tenor.
"Done in the room in which the said testator keeps his bed, the year one thousand seven hundred and sixty-eight, the twenty-third of November, about six o'clock P. M., in the presence of De Rive (Rios), civil and military Governor of the Missouri portion of the country, at present in this post of St. Louis, and of Joseph Papin, trader of this same place, witnesses summoned for the purpose, and who have with the notary and the testator signed these presents after the same was read conformable to the ordinance.
"FRANCISCO RIVE (RIOS).
It does not appear that any inventory of his personal property was taken, as no mention of it is to be found in the archives, nor of any sale, but they may have been sent to New Orleans, as was sometimes the case at that early day in our history. But his executor, Martin Duralde, proceeded without delay to dispose of his two lots, which was done at public sale on Sunday, Dec. 11, 1768.
Dr. Valleau's is the first will on record. He had brought up with him from New Orleans a box of one gross packs of playing cards, to assist him in getting through the long and tedious winter months of this
then out of the way part of the world. After his death, Duralde, his executor, not finding sale for them except at great loss, kept the box in his store for two or three years, when, finding they were almost ruined by water leaking from his roof just over the place where he kept them, he received permission from the Governor to dispose of them at auction.
Dr. Antoine Reynal appears from the archives to have been the third surgeon in St. Louis, from about the year 1776. In the year 1777 he purchased from one Jean Huge the west half of the block on the east side of Third Street, from Market to Chestnut Streets, with a log house at the south end, fronting on Market Street, opposite the Catholic graveyard. The north end of this lot, at the southeast corner of Chestnut and Third Streets, is now occupied by the Missouri Republican building. Dr. Reynal lived here for about twenty-three years, and sold the property to Eugenio Alvarez in November, 1799. He subsequently removed to St. Charles, where he died.
Of Dr. Bernard Gibkins, the fourth physician, we know but little, except that he was in St. Louis in the years 1779 and 1780, as we find him the possessor of a house and lot at that period. But of what nationality, where from, or whether he died here or removed from the place, is not found in the archives of the day.
Dr. Claudio Mercier came up to St. Louis from New Orleans early in 1786. His native place was Lavisi&eagrave;re, Dauphiny, France, where he was born in the year 1726. He had resided for a time in New Orleans, where he had acquired some property, and left a will there when he came up to St. Louis, which he had executed in 1784. He added a codicil to this will at St. Louis, dated May 17, 1786, in which he reaffirms his first will, emancipates his negro woman Francoise, gives one hundred dollars to the poor of St. Louis, and appoints John B. Sarpy his executor. He died unmarried at St. Louis, on Jan. 20, 1787, aged sixty-one years. It does not appear that he practiced here.
Dr. Philip Joachim Gingembre (Ginger) came early in the year 1792 to St. Louis, and purchased a small stone house at the northwest corner of the present Olive and Second Streets, where he lived for some years. He then went to France, leaving his house unoccupied and closed. Not returning after some years' absence, the house, which was going to ruin, was publicly sold by order of the then Governor, Trudeau, to pay his creditors.
Dr. Antoine Francois Saugrain, born at Versailles, Prance, Feb. 17, 1763, came to St. Louis to reside with his wife and two children, from Gallipolis, Ohio, in the year 1800. Here he continued in the practice of his profession until his death, May 20, 1820, at the age of fifty-seven years. Dr. Saugrain when but a youth had made the acquaintance of Dr. Benjamin Franklin in Paris, through whose representations of the country he came to the United States, after the recognition of our independence. After remaining a time in Philadelphia, he, in the winter of 1787-88, being then twenty-four years of age, proceeded with two other young Frenchmen, Messrs. Pique and Raguet, to Pittsburgh. Early in the spring of 1788, having been joined there by an American, a Mr. Pierce, the four left Pittsburgh in a flat-boat or broad-horn, then so called, with their horses and baggage, to descend to the Falls of Ohio, now Louisville. Dr. Saugrain subsequently joined those Frenchman who, about 1790-91, emigrated from France to establish the new settlement of Gallipolis, in Ohio, in what is now Gallia County, then a wilderness. He remained some nine or ten years in this locality, during which period he was married on March 20, 1793, in Kanawha County, Va., just opposite the place, to Miss Genevieve Rosalie Michaud, the eldest of the two daughters of John Michaud, Sr., one of the settlers of Gallipolis, from Paris; and here two of their children were born, viz., Rosalie and Eliza. The first became in after-years Mrs. Henry Von Phul, and the second Mrs. James Kennerly, both of St. Louis. The Michaud and Saugrain families removed together from this place, Gallipolis, to St. Louis in the year 1800. Dr. Saugrain immediately entered upon the practice of his profession, and at the date of the transfer to the United States, 1804, was the sole practitioner in the village, and the last of the old French stock. In addition to the two daughters they brought with them from Ohio, Mr. and Mrs. Saugrain raised to maturity several other children born in St. Louis, two sons, Alfred, now deceased, and Frederick, yet living; Harriet, who married Maj. Thomas Noel, United States cavalry, both deceased for some years, and Eugenie, still living, the widow of John W. Reel, a former merchant of St. Louis. The family of old John Michaud, who died June 29, 1819, aged eighty-one, comprised several sons, all now deceased, and two daughters, Mrs. Dr. Saugrain, and a second who became the wife of Dr. Robinson, formerly of the medical corps of the United States army. The lineal descendants of Dr. A. F. Saugrain are quite numerous, comprising the Von Phuls, Kennerlys, Noels, Reels, Saugrains, and others. Henry Von Phul, a sketch of whose life appears elsewhere, and who married the eldest of the daughters of Dr.
A. F. Saugrain, was one of the earliest of the American merchants of St. Louis, honored for his uprightness, and universally esteemed by the community among whom he lived for the largest portion of his prolonged life. James Kennerly was a Virginian by birth, and a merchant in the early days of the Territory. The widows of these two gentlemen still survive at an advanced age.
During the early period of Dr. Saugrain's residence in St. Louis there was also located here a Dr. Watkins, with reference to whom we have been able to learn nothing save only the name. There was also a Jesuit priest named Didier, who used to prepare teas and other simple remedies for any who were ailing, 246 but who was not an educated physician. Dr. Saugrain had had a thorough scientific and medical education in Paris, and was fully qualified in all the professional learning of the day. He relied almost exclusively upon ptisanes and vegetable remedies, regarding calomel as a virulent poison that never should be taken into the human system. He left behind him the reputation of a good physician and a thorough gentleman.
Dr. Saugrain was one of the early advocates of vaccination. In the Missouri Gazette of June 7, 1809, we find a card in which he calls attention to the value of vaccination as a preventive of smallpox, and announces his readiness to vaccinate any who should apply. 247
A similar announcement by Drs. Mason and Gebert is found some years later (in March, 1823), viz.:
"Drs. Mason and Gebert will be prepared on the 1st of April to vaccinate those persons who wish to avoid that dreadful disease, smallpox. The utmost punctuality may be relied on."
The next name of a physician which appears in these early papers is that of Dr. Farrar, whose card first appeared in the Gazette May 24, 1809, as follows:
"Dr. Farrar will practice medicine and surgery in St. Louis and its vicinity. He keeps his shop in Mr. Robidoux's house, Second Street."
Dr. Farrar was a man of considerable note, and the most conspicuous among the early practitioners of the city.
Dr. Bernard Gaines Farrar, 248 son of Joseph Royal Farrar, was born in Goochland County, Va., July 4, 1785, but his parents removed to Kentucky in the autumn of that year. He commenced the study of medicine at the age of fifteen in the office of Dr. Selmon, of Cincinnati, studying afterwards with Dr. Samuel Brown, of Lexington. He attended lectures in Philadelphia at the University of Pennsylvania in 1804, and subsequently graduated from the Medical Department of Transylvania University, Lexington, Ky. He located first at Frankfort, Ky., but in the fall of 1806, at the suggestion of Judge Coburn, one of the Territorial judges of Missouri, who was his brother-in-law, he moved to St. Louis, and was the first American physician who permanently established himself west of the Mississippi. From this fact and the high character which he sustained he was in later days spoken of as the "father of the professional in St. Louis." He rapidly acquired a large practice and extended reputation, not unfrequently being called upon to take long journeys to see critical cases. Not more by his skill as a physician and surgeon than by his great kindness of manner and devoted attention to his patients did he win friends and secure patrons. He was tender-hearted, and suffered greatly in the suffering of his patients, and yet, when there was duty to discharge, when he had aught to do to relieve such suffering, none could be firmer than he. He excelled particularly in tact, and seldom erred in prognosis. He was bold and decided in character and prompt in execution. He was specially dextrous in the various manipulations that are demanded in obstetric practice, which was a department of professional work and study in which he took special pride
and interest. He attained some distinction also as a surgeon.
One of his first operations was an amputation of the thigh, performed on a man by the name of Shannon, who, when a youth, accompanied Lewis and Clark on their expedition to the Pacific Ocean. In 1807 Shannon undertook a second expedition, under the auspices of the general government, to ascertain the sources of the Missouri. At a point eighteen hundred miles up that river he was attacked by the Black-feet Indians, and wounded by a ball in the knee. He was brought down to St. Louis, and successfully operated on by Dr. Farrar. In those times the case was considered as an evidence of great skill, in view of the distance which the patient had traveled, and the low state to which his constitution had been reduced by the accident. This same Mr. Shannon afterwards received an education in Kentucky, and became one of her best jurists. He was subsequently elevated to the bench. Judge Shannon often said, and even declared on his death-bed, that he owed both his life and his honors to the skill of Dr. Farrar.
Dr. Farrar made the recto-vesical section for the removal of a calculus which had become attached to the fundus of the bladder several years earlier than Sansom, who is recognized as having the prior claim by virtue of having been the first to publish such a case. In the war of 1812, Dr. Farrar served as a surgeon, and also as a soldier in defending the State against the depredations of the Indians. His reputation became widely extended, and he was offered a professorship in his Alma Mater, the Medical Department of Transylvania University, which was then the only medical school west of the Allegheny Mountains, but declined the position. He was a member of the first Legislature under the Territorial form of government, and very active and influential in the affairs of the community. He died of cholera July 1, 1849, being within three days of sixty-four years of age.
In the discharge of his professional duties, Dr. Farrar was both physician and friend. No company or amusement could make him neglect his engagements, and he was ever ready at the call of the poor. Indeed, with respect to remuneration for his services, it was in most cases virtually optional whether payment was made at all. The convenience of all was the rule that governed him. He was always generous and disinterested, and history can produce few instances in which a life of such intense devotion in relieving the diseases incident to his fellow-men was less rewarded by pecuniary emolument. This utter want of selfishness and extreme pecuniary carelessness formed perhaps one of the most distinctive traits of his character. Among his professional brethren he was universally beloved and esteemed. He was a gentleman in the highest sense of the term, and well deserved their respect and consideration. His acknowledged professional skill, his goodness of heart, his polished urbanity, his high sense of honor and his noble generosity of nature endeared him to all.
With reference to a number of other physicians whose names appear in professional cards in the early numbers of the Missouri Gazette there is little to say. Some of them were men of sterling merit and great ability, but records are wanting as to details of their lives. Yet it may be a matter of interest to note the names of some of these pioneers and the wording of their cards.
A few of them are given in the order in which they appear in the newspaper files:
April 26, 1810. "Dr. William Reynolds has removed from Kaskaskia to Cahokia, and has commenced the practice of medicine in conjunction with Dr. Truman Tuttle."
March 14, 1811. "Dr. Wilkinson has just opened a handsome assortment of medicine at the house of Mr. Manuel Lisa, lately occupied by Fergus Moorhead, Esq."
March 21, 1811. "Dr. William Reynolds has opened a shop of fresh and genuine medicines in the house of Maj. N. Jarrot, Cahokia, where he will be found."
Jan. 4, 1812. "Dr. J. M. Read, from Baltimore, offers his professional services to the citizens of this place and its vicinity.
His residence is in the north end of Madame Dubreuil's house, and next to Maj. Penrose's, where he can be found by those who may wish to consult him."
July 25, 1812. "Dr. Simpson will practice medicine and surgery in the town and vicinity of St. Louis. He keeps his shop in the house adjoining Mr. Manuel Lisa, and formerly occupied by Fergus Moorhead, Esq."
Oct. 1, 1812. "Drs. Farrar and Walker associated in the practice of medicine."
Sept. 30, 1815. "Dr. Quarles will practice medicine and surgery in the town of St. Louis and its vicinity. He may be found at his shop opposite Mr. Patrick Lee's, on Main Street."
Jan. 13, 1816. "Drs. Simpson and Quarles having formed a connection, the business will in future be conducted under the firm of Simpson & Quarles."
Dr. Simpson was prominent in various ways, and the following additional facts in his life will be read with interest:
Dr. Robert Simpson was born in Charles County, Md., in 1785, of a family which had been long in this country. At an early age he studied medicine in Philadelphia, and graduated from a college the name of which is now forgotten. In 1809 he entered the United States army as assistant surgeon, and was ordered to duty at St. Louis. In his official capacity as assistant surgeon he accompanied the troops that established Fort Madison, on the upper Mississippi, remaining there about a year, when he returned to St. Louis. In connection with the late Dr. Quarles he established the first drug store in St. Louis, and about the same time was appointed postmaster. He held also, at various times, several other offices of honor and public trust. In 1823 he was appointed collector of St. Louis County, which position he held three years. In 1826 he was elected sheriff of St. Louis County, and served two terms. Subsequently he engaged in merchandise, transacting business on Main Street, between Market and Chestnut Streets, in the same building with the Missouri Republican. Still later he was elected city comptroller, and was also cashier of the Boatmen's Savings Institution and member of the State Legislature. He had not practiced medicine for a long time prior to his retirement from active business. Throughout life he was remarkably robust and strong. He died at his residence, No. 2911 Washington Avenue, in the eighty-eighth year of his age. In all the relations of life none were more favorably known than himself in St. Louis through more than a half-century. The geniality of his temper won him hosts of friends, and his high sense of honor and incorruptible integrity gained him the admiration of all who knew him. It is but a few years since that he knew and was known by almost every inhabitant of the city and the surrounding country; but the immense increase of population, together with the retirement demanded by his great age, in his late years made him less known to the citizens at large.
In connection with the statement that Drs. Simpson and Quarles established the first drug store in St. Louis, it may be noted that in August, 1808, there appeared in the Missouri Gazette an advertisement that Aaron Elliot & Son had received from New York a large supply of drugs and medicines, which they offered to the inhabitants of Ste. Genevieve on as good terms, they claimed, as could be obtained anywhere in the country. This was several years before the establishment of the drug store in St. Louis by Drs. Simpson and Quarles. From the same advertisement it would appear that the supply of patent medicines for "all the ills that flesh is heir to" was as liberal in the early years of the century as at the present time. The following list of these articles is taken from the advertisement mentioned: "Church's Cough Drops, Turlington's Balsam of Life, Bateman's Drops, British Oil, Steer's Opodeldoc, Hill's Balsam of Honey, Godfrey's Cordial, essence of peppermint, Lee's New London Bilious Pills, by the gross or less quantity, Anderson's do., Hooper's Female do., Liquid True Blue, Maccaboy and Cephalick snuff, chemical fireboxes, ‘one of the best inventions in the known world for travelers.’"
Dr. Samuel Merry was also one of the early practitioners in St. Louis. He graduated in medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, and in 1833 was appointed receiver of public moneys at St. Louis, which office he held for twelve years. His time was taken up chiefly with his practice, which was large and burdensome, while the duties of the receiver devolved, in great part, upon his deputy.
The following are some additional cards that are found among these early papers:
Nov. 2, 1816. "Dr. Edward S. Gantt offers his professional services to the citizens of St. Louis and its vicinity."
Aug. 23, 1817. "Dr. G. P. Todson has the honor of acquainting the inhabitants of St. Louis and its vicinity that he has taken possession of the shop formerly occupied by Mr. Alex. Laforce Papin, opposite Landreville's stone building on Main Street, and determined on a permanent residence in St. Louis to practice physic, surgery, and midwifery."
April 24, 1818. "Dr. Arthur Nelson tenders his professional services to the citizens of St. Louis and its vicinity."
Jan. 1, 1819. "Doctor Gebert (lately from France), having received a regular diploma from the faculty of medicine in Paris, has the honor to offer his services to the inhabitants of St. Louis and its vicinity as a physician and surgeon. He lives at the house of Mr. Benoit, opposite Mr. Paddock's boardinghouse."
Jan. 15, 1819. "Dr. William Carr Lane's office on Third Street, late Reed's."
June 9, 1819. "Dr. G. P. Todson's office in Perras' house, on Second Street, Block 57.
Feb. 2, 1820. "Dr. Mason, from Philadelphia, offers his services to the inhabitants of St. Louis and its vicinity."
March 19, 1823. "Drs. Mason & Gebert having formed a copartnership, respectfully offer their professional services to the public."
Sept. 13, 1824. "Medical Notice. Elisha Embree, M. D. Medicine and surgery in the city and vicinity of St. Louis."
Jan. 18, 1827. "Stammering. Mrs. Leigh's St. Louis institutions for correcting impediments of speech. Mr. A. Yates, New York, assistant in conducting Mrs. Leigh's agency for correcting impediments of speech in the Western States, informs the public that he has established an institution for correcting impediments of speech at St. Louis, Mo."
Nov. 29, 1827. "Dr. Auguste Masure, lately arrived from Europe, offers his professional services in the different branches of physic, surgery, and midwifery to the public."
Aug, 12, 1828. "Dr. Harding, late of Kentucky, tenders his professional services to the citizens of the city and county of St. Louis."
March 17, 1829. "Dr. H. Gaither respectfully tenders his services to the citizens of St. Louis and its vicinity."
July 28, 1833. "Dr. Charles Geiger respectfully announces to the citizens of St. Louis and its vicinity that he has established himself in this city with the intention of devoting himself to the practice of medicine, surgery, and midwifery."
As the years went on the number and influence of the physicians increased. We give here sketches of the lives of some who were eminent in the profession, of others who became prominent in other ways, and others whose lives are noteworthy by reason associations.
Dr. Clayton Tiffin was among the most prominent of the early practitioners. He was raised and educated in and near Chillicothe, Ohio, mostly with his uncle, Edward Tiffin, who was Governor of Ohio at an early day and also a physician. Dr. Clayton Tiffin left Chillicothe as an assistant surgeon in the war of 1812, and served as surgeon until the war closed, when he settled in St. Louis. He had great energy, and was an eminently practical man. During his residence in St. Louis he carried on a more extensive practice than any other man who ever lived here, becoming quite wealthy through his profession. He was of a restless disposition, and after some years of prosperous practice went over the plains to Utah and then to California, finally moving in 1846 to New Orleans, where he again entered practice. Here he soon built up a large business, especially among the river men, many of whom had been his friends and patrons while he was practicing in St. Louis. He was a skillful surgeon, and is believed to have made the first successful Caesarian operation in the Mississippi valley. He died in New Orleans about 1856, and his remains were brought to St. Louis for interment.
Dr. Herman Laidley Hoffman, another pioneer was born Oct. 17, 1796, in Winchester County, N. Y. Having had the advantages of a superior literary and medical education, Dr. Hoffman left New York in the fall of 1819, and, as he said, "with his doctor's degree in his pocket and his worldly goods in a valise," started for St. Louis, then a place of about four thousand inhabitants. In those days it was necessary for a physician to keep his own drugs and medicines. Dr. Hoffman opened a drug store on the west side of Main Street, about sixty feet north of Market Street. His practice increased rapidly, and by the time he had been settled in St. Louis four or five years he looked upon himself as a prosperous man. In 1826 he was one of sixty-five citizens comprising the old Phoenix Fire Company. While in Illinois in 1835 the stage in which he was riding upset, and his right hand was so badly injured as to necessitate its amputation at the wrist. By that accident he was deprived of one of the greatest enjoyments of his life, that of hunting, as he could no longer handle a gun. He soon learned to write with his left hand, his first essay in that line being the signing of the coupons to the city bonds, which, as treasurer, he was required to do. The doctor, it appears, continued in practice but a few years, abandoning it some fifty years ago. He subsequently resided principally in Cincinnati and Cleveland, where he carried on an extensive vineyard, but returned to St. Louis in 1874. He died Nov. 5, 1878. He was a man of fine literary ability, and an unpretending, upright citizen.
It was from the ranks of the medical profession that the first mayor was selected when the city was incorporated in 1823, and such an efficient and popular officer did Dr. William Carr Lane prove himself that he was nine times elected to that office. A sketch of his life will be found in the municipal chapter of this work. 249
Dr. Hardage Lane, another prominent physician of that period, was a cousin of Dr. William Carr Lane, and was regarded as one of the most accomplished members of his profession in the State. He had a large and lucrative practice among the best families of the city, and gave his attention closely to professional duties, so that he was less conspicuous in political circles and not so generally known as his cousin Mayor Lane. He died early in July, 1849, having practiced medicine in St. Louis for more than a quarter of a century. During the prevalence of cholera in that year he was employed day and night in his ministrations to those stricken with the pestilence. He was at last forced to yield to physical exhaustion and disease, and after an illness of two weeks died, a sacrifice to his convictions of professional honor and duty. He was very hospitable, and used to entertain a great deal of company. His wife was an accomplished woman and a leader in society, and they frequently gave the most elegant dinners and fashionable parties. Dr. Lane was a great reader, and kept himself abreast of the most recent progress in the profession.
Dr. Stephen W. Adreon was born in Baltimore in 1806. His father was Capt. Christian Adreon, a soldier of the Revolutionary war, and in the war of 1812 a captain in the Fifth Regiment of Maryland. In early life Dr. Adreon enjoyed all the requisite facilities for acquiring a liberal education, and after a protracted course of study graduated finally at the University of Maryland. About 1832 he came to St. Louis, turning his attention first to commercial pursuits, engaging in the wholesale dry-goods business. He did not long continue in mercantile occupations. His tastes for professional life led him to the study and practice of medicine, in which he continued with success to the end of his life. During his long career in St. Louis he was frequently called to occupy positions of responsibility in the administration of municipal affairs. During the incumbency of Mayors Kennett, King, and Filley he was a member of the Common Council. For a considerable period he was president of the Board of Health, discharging the responsible duties of that office with fidelity and skill. He served the public well in 1865 as health officer, and during the last year of his life was one of the managers of the House of Refuge, and ward
physician for the poor of the Eighth Ward. He died Dec. 9, 1867, leaving a wife and two sons.
Dr. Adreon enjoyed the confidence and respect of the community. He ranked well among his professional brethren, by his personal qualities entitling himself to the friendly esteem of the social circles in which he moved, and by his municipal services commanding the honor of the public. Agreeable in disposition, and liberal in the devotion of time and money to the interests of the city and to those who stood in need of his services, he died regretted by all who knew him.
Dr. Edwin Bathurst Smith, for nearly fifty years an honored citizen of St. Louis, was born in Essex County, Va., towards the close of the last century. His father, Edwin Bathurst Smith, of "Bathurst Place," Va., belonged to one of the most distinguished families of the Old Dominion, and was the only brother of Governor George W. Smith, who perished in the burning of the Richmond Theatre in 1811, an event rendered memorable as well as appalling on account of the large number and high social position of those, of both sexes, who perished in the flames on that lamentable occasion.
His grandfather, Col. Merriwether Smith, bore a conspicuous part in the struggle for independence, both as a member of the House of Burgesses of Virginia (serving on the committee which framed the of Rights), and as the author of the American "Crisis." He was subsequently a member of the Congress of the United States from 1778 to 1783. His mother, Sallie Monroe, descended through a long line of distinguished ancestors from Sir Robert Monroe, Bart., of Fulis, Scotland, who came to this country in 1642, and settled in the northern neck of Virginia, and whose descendants filled an important place in the early history of the country.
Dr. Smith acquired his early education in the literary institutions of his native State, after completing which he determined to qualify himself for the medical profession. With this view he went to England, bearing letters of introduction from his relative, President Monroe, to the nobility and gentry. On arriving in England he became the guest of the Marquis of Hawksbury, at whose suggestion he matriculated in the University of Edinburgh, at that time the most celebrated seat of medical learning in the world. In this institution he completed his medical education, after which he spent some time in visiting the various capitals of Europe for the purpose of gratifying his taste in the study of chemistry, botany, geology, and entomology, the pursuit of which was to him a source of pleasure through life.
On returning to America he settled in New Orleans, where, with all the energy of youth and a well-stored mind, he commenced the practice of medicine. As might be expected, he soon became prominent, both as a practitioner and a writer on medical subjects. He was one of the founders of the Medical College of Louisiana, in which institution he filled the chair of Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics. He felt a special interest in the treatment of yellow fever, the scourge of the Southern metropolis, and was the first one to introduce the refrigerant regimen in the treatment of that formidable disease, by giving his patients cold drinks to slake their thirst and allay their burning fever.
In the first epidemic of cholera in this country in 1832, which proved so fatal in New Orleans, as well as in other places in the South and West, he was untiring in his efforts to stay the progress of the plague, and in the same year was honored by the Governor of Louisiana in being appointed a member of the Western Medical Board, charged with the sanitary affairs of the State. The periodicals of that date contain many articles from his pen on medical and scientific subjects, which added to his reputation as a physician and scientist.
In 1838, when in the prime of life and in the successful practice of his profession, he was married to Miss Virginia Christy, the youngest daughter of Maj. William Christy, of St. Louis, so well known as one of its early settlers and most enterprising and honored citizens, a sketch of whose life and career is to be found in another part of this volume. The climate of New Orleans proved injurious to the health of his youthful bride, on which account Dr. Smith reluctantly consented to abandon the theatre of his successful labors and moved to St. Louis to reside. Here he spent the remainder of his life in literary and scientific pursuits, in gratifying his taste for letters, in looking after his property interests, and, assisted by his accomplished wife, in rendering his hospitable home the abode of domestic happiness and of social enjoyment to his and her numerous friends. Dr. Smith retained all his mental faculties to a ripe old age. On the 2d of February, 1883, after a brief illness, he died in his eighty-sixth year, respected and beloved by all who knew him.
Dr. Smith was a man of fine native ability and of refined and cultivated manners, a high-toned gentleman of the old school, with whom honor and integrity towered above all other considerations.
Dr. Meredith Martin, one of the oldest physicians now living in St. Louis, was born in Kentucky in 1805, and studied medicine in the office of Dr. B. G.
Farrar, commencing in 1828, the first student of medicine west of the Mississippi. He graduated in medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in 1832, and in 1838 married a daughter of John H. Gay, of St. Louis. His second marriage occurred in 1864, his wife being Mrs. Tracy, formerly Miss Morton, of St. Louis. He commenced practice in 1832, and was at once sent out to the Indian Territory to vaccinate the Indians, in which service he was engaged for several months, returning to the city at about the close of the terrible cholera visitation of that year. He then entered into general practice, and only within a few years has withdrawn from active service in the profession. He was three times elected president of the St. Louis Medical Society, viz., in 1840, 1842, and 1845.
Dr. E. H. McCabe was born in Adams County, Pa., in 1801; received his collegiate education at Georgetown College, and graduated in medicine at the University of Maryland in 1822. He came to Missouri in the following year, and practiced medicine for two years at Fredericktown, and then at Kaskaskia, Ill., for seven years. From the year 1833 to 1849 he was engaged in practice in St. Louis, being associated in business with Dr Lewis F. Lane, and afterwards with Dr. Hardage Lane. He was highly esteemed as a physician and as a Christian gentleman. In 1849 his health became so seriously affected as to necessitate his withdrawal from active professional service. He died June 4, 1855, having suffered for five years from epithelioma of the face.
Dr. William Beaumont, whose name is known all over the world in connection with the observations made upon the subject of gastric digestion in the case of Alexis St. Martin, the Canadian boatman, was for many years a resident of St. Louis, where he died April 25, 1853, after a painful illness of a few weeks' duration. At the time of his death Dr. Beaumont was in the sixty-eighth year of his age, having been born in Lebanon, Conn., in the year 1785. In 1812, after studying medicine at St. Albans, Vt., for two years, he joined the Sixth Infantry, with the appointment of assistant surgeon. For more than twenty years he was a member of the medical staff of the regular army, being stationed at various points on the Northern frontier. He served through the war of 1812 with distinction, being present, among other occasions of interest, at the capture of Fort George in May, 1813. In 1830 he was stationed at Jefferson Barracks, and afterwards in the arsenal at St. Louis. Two or three years later he resigned from the army and took up his residence in St. Louis. For many years he was considered by all odds the most prominent surgeon in the city, and enjoyed a large and profitable practice. He was not only popular among the people, but had an excellent reputation in the profession.
That which has made his name best known to the profession, however, is the publication of his papers on the "Physiology of Digestion and Experiments on the Gastric Juice" (published in Boston in 1834). While stationed upon the northern frontier he was so fortunate as to be called to attend a Canadian boatman named Alexis St. Martin, who had received a gunshot-wound in the abdomen that healed up in such a manner as to leave a fistulous opening. By means of this accidental fistula Dr. Beaumont was enabled to make a series of observations upon the nature of the gastric juice, and to solve many problems with reference to the subject of digestion which had previously been unknown.
Dr. George Engelmann was born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, Feb. 2, 1809, was educated at Frankfort, Berlin, Heidelberg, and Würzburg, removed to the United States in 1832, and settled in St. Louis in 1835, where he has practiced medicine ever since. He was president of the St. Louis Medical Society in 1852. In 1836 he was one of the founders of the Western Academy of Natural Sciences, which held regular sessions for several years. The St. Louis Academy of Science was organized in March, 1856, and continues a valuable organization to the present time. Of this society Dr. Engelmann was for many years the president, and has contributed much to the value and interest of its sessions and its publications.
For many years he carried on a very large and laborious practice, and was recognized as one of the leading practitioners in the city. He had a large midwifery practice, and was the first one in St. Louis to use the forceps in difficult cases, in which he was at first bitterly opposed by other practitioners.
In addition to the conduct of an arduous practice, he has made original investigations which have given him a world-wide fame as a botanist. He made meteorology an especial study, principally as connected with the sanitary status, and has kept a record of meteorological observations now for over forty-seven years. Dr. Engelmann has practiced medicine in St. Louis longer than any other physician now living. At the age of seventy-four he is still occupied with study and work which many a younger man would consider onerous, and manifests an enthusiastic interest in professional and scientific affairs which would put to shame the indifference of those who have far less right to rest upon their laurels than he has.
Dr. John Laughton was born in Sullivan County, N. H., in 1804. He attended two courses of lectures in the medical school of Woodstock, Vt., and one at the Berkshire Medical Institute, at Pittsfield, where he graduated Dec. 11, 1833. He then practiced medicine in Arlington, Vt., for six years, removing to St. Louis in the autumn of 1839. He built up a large business here, but of late failing strength and impaired health, with advancing years, have withdrawn him from active service in the profession. He was one of the incorporators of the St. Louis Medical College at the time when it separated from the St. Louis University, and has been one of the board of trustees constantly to the present time.
Dr. Alexander Marshall was born eight miles from Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1810, of Scotch-Irish parentage. His father dying when the boy was eight years of age, he went with his mother to Ireland, where he received his preliminary education. He pursued his medical education in Edinburgh, in the college of which the celebrated Professor Simpson filled the chair of surgery. In 1838 or 1839, Dr. Marshall came to the United States, and in selecting a location he made a tour of the principal Southern cities, spending two or three months in New Orleans, whence he came to St. Louis in the year 1840. He immediately commenced the practice of his profession. With reference to this portion of his life, he once stated to an intimate friend that when he came to St. Louis he had but six hundred dollars in his pocket, which he expected would last him about six months, but instead of consuming that amount his practice was such that he added six hundred dollars to his finances in that time. He continued to prosper in his profession, and by good management and economy accumulated an estate valued at three hundred thousand dollars. A year previous to his death he married a lady from Mississippi, who survives him. He died Oct. 21, 1875.
Dr. Henry Van Studdiford 250 was born on the 2d of April, 1816, in Parcippeny, Morris Co., N. J. It was intended by those to whose charge he had been committed (having been left an orphan at the age of eight years) to prepare and educate him for the ministry. This idea, however, was soon discarded as the character of their young relative and ward began to develop. While not lacking in that deep reverence for everything connected with religion which is so characteristic of the school in which he was reared, his family being devout Presbyterians, he was gifted with superabundant energy and activity of body and mind, and longed for a more exciting and combative sphere of life than that which generally falls to the lot of a clergyman. It was finally decided that he should become a physician, and having finished his academic course he entered the University of Pennsylvania, and in due time graduated at that institution. After practicing his profession for some time in the town of Madison, N. J., he determined to seek a more extended and a more promising field, and in accordance with this resolution removed to St. Louis, then a place of thirteen thousand or fourteen thousand inhabitants, where he arrived in 1839. He at once commenced the practice of his profession, and soon secured a leading place among the physicians of that period. Gifted with a suave and courteous manner, together with a splendid physique, he speedily won the confidence of his patients, which his skill as a physician developed into implicit trust.
About this time he met and married Margaret Thomas, the second daughter of Col. Martin Thomas, founder and first commandant, it is said, of the United States arsenal, a gentleman who, aside from his military standing, held the highest social position among the residents of old St. Louis, and possessed rare qualities of head and heart. The young physician, though a comparative stranger, mingled in that society, and encountered with success the by no means undistinguished coterie of professional men and officers. At this early period he had, aside from his professional attainments, given evidence of rare business qualifications. His superior foresight and judgment, together with an abiding faith which he seems ever to have cherished in the ultimate growth and prosperity of St. Louis, caused him to invest extensively in real estate, the natural and rapid increase in the value of which, together with the proceeds of a large and lucrative practice, have yielded him an ample fortune. Thus situated he has of late years withdrawn from the more laborious part of his practice, but still retains a large office business and occasionally responds to the calls of old and cherished friends. Though thus partially retired he has by no means lost his skill or his interest in his profession, and frequent demands are made by his professional brethren for his advice in consultations, on which occasions his deep penetration, keen analytical powers of mind, and ripe experience enable him to be of invaluable service in obtaining a correct diagnosis of disease.
His retentive memory and wonderfully clear judgment, aided by a long and varied practice and great prognostic skill and knowledge in the treatment of patients, fully account for his extended popularity and success. Gifted with a commanding presence
which would distinguish him in any assembly, his manners in ordinary intercourse would be considered rather reserved than otherwise; but among his more intimate friends this easily gives place to a more genial bearing, which discloses a mind well stored with professional and philosophical information, and a conversation full of anecdote and reminiscence, made peculiarly interesting by his long and varied intercourse with distinguished men. Strong in his likes and dislikes, as men of his type generally are, he seems to have adopted the advice of Polonius in forming his friendships, and prefers, rather than dull his palm with entertainment with each new-hatched, unfledged comrade, to grapple to his soul with hooks of steel those friends whom he has tried, gathering about him a coterie of strong and faithful companions, who, from many a quiet and unheralded act of kindness and generosity, have learned how to estimate his sterling personal virtues.
After a long, interesting, and active practice, Dr. Van Studdiford is still in the enjoyment of unbroken health and physical vigor, and of mental faculties that give no sign of impairment, the result of a careful observance of that moderation, temperance, and cheerfulness which his profession inculcates as the most effective agency of the prevention and cure of disease. Indeed, he might still be responding to the calls of an active and varied general practice but for the demands of a large office and consulting business, and a desire to enjoy the society of family and friends and the pleasures of study and research.
In looking over the biographical sketches of a considerable number of the eminent living and dead practitioners of medicine in St. Louis, one will be struck with the large number of those who came to St. Louis in the course of a few years, from 1840 to 1845. Among them were Drs. McDowell, McPheeters, C. W. Stevens, S. G. Moses, J. B. Johnson, George Johnson, John S. Moore, M. M. Pallen, Linton, and Wislizenus, all of whom have left the impress of their minds and character upon the profession by their work as teachers or as men of science.
Dr. Joseph Nash McDowell, one of the best-known physicians and surgeons who have ever "practiced in St. Louis, was born in 1805, and came to St. Louis in the spring of 1840 from Cincinnati, where he had been associated in the Cincinnati Medical College with Drs. Drake, Gross, and other distinguished men. On coming here he immediately set to work to organize a medical college. 251 He was a fluent and eloquent speaker, and was possessed of great wit. His voice and manner were like those of John Randolph, of Virginia. He was a natural orator, and possessed a remarkable power of adapting himself to his audience, so that he could entertain any company or society into which he might be thrown. He had an inexhaustible fund of anecdotes. It is said of him that he had a story for every bone, muscle, nerve, and vessel in the whole body, and that he used to enliven his lectures and stimulate the memory of the students by relating these stories, and so fixing the anatomical facts in their minds.
He was proverbially careless and improvident in pecuniary matters, kind and charitable to the poor, but ready to take advantage whenever opportunity afforded of those who had abundant means. He was very eccentric in some particulars. In the early years of his residence here he delivered a number of lectures against Jesuitism, his ire being aroused against the order, perhaps, by reason of the fact that the Jesuit fathers of St. Louis University had allowed a rival medical school to be organized under the charter of their college. These lectures created some excitement in the community, and Dr. McDowell was so impressed with the belief that his life was in danger that he made and wore a brass breast-plate, and always carried arms. The medical college building was so constructed as to be a formidable fortress, and his residence on the opposite corner was also planned so as to be capable of resisting an assault. He formed a plan to go across the plains and capture Upper California. For this purpose he purchased from the United States government fourteen hundred discarded muskets for two dollars and fifty cents each, which he stored in his house and in the basement of the college building. He also got together quantities of old brass and melted them up, and even took down the large bell of the college and had six cannon cast. All these arms were given by Dr. McDowell to the Southern Confederacy at the outbreak of the late war. It is said that several hundred young men, most of them graduates from the college, had promised to accompany Dr. McDowell on the proposed expedition to the Pacific coast.
Among other strange fancies which he had were those with reference to the disposal of the remains of deceased friends. Dr. Charles W. Stevens relates that within a day or two after he first came to the city as a medical student he attended the burial of one of Dr. McDowell's little children. The coffin was lined with metal, and after the body of the child had been place in it, was filled with alcohol and sealed tight. The grave was in Mr. Dillon's orchard. One year
afterward Dr. McDowell had the coffin exhumed, and removed the body of the child to a copper vase of suitable dimensions and shaped just like a diploma-case. This again was filled with alcohol and hermetically sealed. Two or three children died and were thus disposed of. No religious ceremony of any sort was held. The copper vases were taken at night, and a procession being formed by the students and other immediate friends of the doctor, each one carrying a light, were quietly deposited in a vault in the rear of the premises where he resided.
Once when on a hunting excursion he was much struck with a beautiful knoll at the commencement of the high ground just east of Cahokia. He purchased it, constructed a vault there, and when his wife died he placed her remains in a vault which he had had built there, where they remained until after his own death, when their son had them removed to Bellefontaine. At another time he purchased a cave near Hannibal and had masonry constructed with an iron gate at the entrance. He took a copper vase containing the body of one of his little children preserved in alcohol to this cave, and had it suspended from the roof of the cave by means of hooks. The gate at the entrance was broken down and the vase broken open by a company of roughs not long after, and the doctor gave up the idea of having it used as a place of deposit for the dead.
However, this method of disposal of the dead seems to have taken a firm hold upon his mind, for some time after, when he was quite sick and believed himself to be at the point of death, he called to his bedside his son, Drake McDowell, and his intimate friend and associate in practice, Dr. C. W. Stevens, and made them swear that in case of his death they would have his body placed in a copper vase with alcohol, and that they would then take it to the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky, and have it suspended from the roof of that cave, asserting that he had already made arrangements with the proprietor to allow it to be done.
In erecting the stone octagon building that served so many years for the purposes of the college he caused a foundation to be laid in the centre for a large column which was to extend up to the peak of the roof, and in which niches were to be prepared for the reception of copper vases containing the bodies of himself and members of his family.
It is said that the plan of the octagon building was suggested to him by the form of a very handsome stove which stood in the amphitheatre of the former college building, and which the doctor greatly admired. It was his intention to carry the structure up eight stories high, and surround the top with ramparts, making it a regular fortress; and the foundation walls were laid six feet thick with this in view. Lack of means alone prevented him from carrying out the plan.
When the war broke out in 1861, Dr. McDowell was very pronounced in the stand which he took in favor of the cause of the South, and, as already mentioned, he turned over to the authorities of the Southern Confederacy the arms which he had purchased and had had manufactured several years previously.
As the result of this his college building was confiscated by the United States authorities, and was used for some years as a military prison. Dr. McDowell himself went South and served as surgeon and medical director at different points during the war, after which he returned to the city, reorganized the faculty of the college, and practiced medicine until the year 1868, when he died. His remains are interred in Bellefontaine Cemetery.
Dr. John S. Moore was born in Orange County, N. C., in 1807. He was educated at Cumberland College, Princeton, Ky., graduating in 1826. He attended one course of lectures at Miami University, in Ohio. He then practiced for five years at Mount Vernon and Carlisle, Ill., having married Miss Morrison, of Princeton, Ky., daughter of one of the professors in the college. He started for Philadelphia to complete his medical education and secure a diploma, but meeting Dr. McDowell in Cincinnati, he was persuaded by him to enter the first class of the Cincinnati Medical College, at which, he graduated in the spring of 1832. He then practiced in Pulaski, Tenn. He removed to St. Louis in September, 1840, and took part in organizing the Medical Department of Kemper College, with which institution, under its various changes of name, he has been identified to the present time.
In accordance with the usual custom in those days, the various professors gave public lectures as introductory to their several courses. It fell to Dr. Moore, as the youngest member of the faculty, thus to give the first medical lecture delivered west of the Mississippi River.
He was dean of the college faculty and president of the board of trustees for a number of years. In 1869 he was elected vice-president of the American Medical Association. From 1849 to 1860, and during the war, he had a very large practice, but of late years has withdrawn from active business.
Dr. William M. McPheeters, who for more than forty years has been one of the leading medical practitioners
of St. Louis, was born in Raleigh, N. C., Dec. 3, 1815, and was the second son of the Rev. William McPheeters, D. D., a Presbyterian clergyman of great prominence and ability. William M. McPheeters was educated at the University of North Carolina, and subsequently studied medicine under Professor Hugh L. Hodge, of Philadelphia. In 1840 he graduated from the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania, after which he served for one year as resident physician at the Blockley Hospital, Philadelphia. Upon relinquishing this position in the fall of 1841, he removed to St. Louis, where he arrived October 15th of the same year.
In company with Drs. Charles A. Pope, S. G. Moses, J. B. Johnson, George Johnson, and J. I. Clark, Dr. McPheeters assisted in establishing the first public dispensary west of the Mississippi River. These gentlemen also inaugurated many important reforms, and brought to the practice of their chosen profession a devotion and skill which marked a new era in the medical history of St. Louis.
The high esteem in which Dr. McPheeters was held by those most competent to judge of his professional abilities is seen in the fact that he was early chosen Professor of Clinical Medicine and Pathological Anatomy, and afterwards of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, in the St. Louis Medical College, in which positions he served faithfully for fourteen years, and until he left home to join the Confederate army. He also occupied the same chair after the war in the Missouri Medical College, from 1866 to 1874, when he retired from the professorship to accept the position of medical director of the St. Louis Mutual Life Insurance Company.
From 1856 to 1861 he was surgeon of the United States Marine Hospital at St. Louis, and for a number of years was physician in charge of the medical wards of the St. Louis Hospital of the Sisters of Charity.
For eighteen years (from 1843 to 1861) he edited with great ability and success the St. Louis Medical and Surgical Journal, in which appeared numerous able articles from his incisive pen, among them being a history of the cholera epidemic in St. Louis in 1849, which attracted wide attention, and proved a valuable contribution to medical science. He is a member of the Obstetrical and Gynecological Society of St. Louis, of the St. Louis Medical Society, and of the Medical Association of the State of Missouri. Of the two latter societies he has been president.
In 1872, at the annual meeting of the American Medical Association, held in Philadelphia, he was elected vice-president of that body. He is a member also of the St. Louis Medico-Chirurgical Society, and has been elected an honorary member of the State Medical Associations of North Carolina and Arkansas.
During the late war Dr. McPheeters' sympathies were with the Southern Confederacy, and for three years he served as surgeon in the Confederate army, filling many important positions, among them that of medical director on Maj.-Gen. Sterling Price's staff. At the close of the war he returned to St. Louis, and resumed the practice of his profession. He has been twice married, the first time to Miss Martha Selden, of Virginia, who died about a year after her marriage; the second time to Miss Sallie Buchanan, of St. Louis, who is the mother of six children, and who for more than a third of a century has made his home one of great peace and comfort.
Dr. McPheeters is a man of such decided Christian character that a failure to refer to that fact would render this outline of his life conspicuouslv incomplete. For many years he has been a ruling elder in the Pine Street (now the Grand Avenue) Presbyterian Church, in which position he has served with marked fidelity. He was the first president of the St. Louis branch of the Western Society for the Suppression of Vice. Dr. McPheeters' learning and skill have won for him a wide reputation and the confidence of the entire medical profession wherever he is known, while his unswerving devotion to the duties of religion has endeared him to thousands who have received at his hands not only remedies for the ills that flesh is heir to, but also spiritual advice and consolation.
Dr. Adolph Wislizenus is a man of note among the physicians in St. Louis, having made for himself a name that is known all through the world of science by reason of his original observations and the careful researches which he has made. He was born in Rudolstadt in 1810. He came to St. Louis in 1840, and was associated in practice for five years with Dr. George Engelmann. He then made a tour through the southwestern part of this country, and into Mexico, making a thorough exploration of the regions through which he traveled, taking the altitudes of different points, examining the flora, the geological features, and making other observations which enabled him on his return to prepare a report of such value that it was published by the Senate of the United States in 1846-47. So far as the territory of the United States is concerned, this exploration has been virtually superseded by the more exhaustive researches of the government surveys; but Dr. Wislizenus' report is still the most complete and reliable with reference to the part of Mexico which he traversed. His original plan was to explore the territory of
Arizona and California, but he was taken prisoner at Chihuahua, and after being released he joined the United States army. On his return he spent some time in Washington, and then came back to St. Louis, where he has lived ever since, devoting his time, in the intervals of leisure from the arduous duties of a general practice, to scientific pursuits, being specially interested in botany and meteorology.
Dr. Charles W. Stevens was born June 16, 1817, in Pompey, Onondaga Co., N. Y. He was educated as a civil engineer and surveyor, but having come West, and finding little encouragement for success in that vocation, he commenced the study of medicine with Dr. Rogers, of Rushville, Ill. He graduated in 1842, at the Medical Department of Kemper College (now the Missouri Medical College), and located for practice in St. Louis. In 1844 he was elected Demonstrator of Anatomy in the Kemper College, which position he held for five years, when he took the same position in the St. Louis Medical College. In 1855 he was elected to the chair of general, special, and surgical anatomy in the St. Louis Medical College. About this time he went to Europe, and spent several months in professional study. After thirteen years' service he resigned the professorship in order to take the position of superintendent and physician to the St. Louis County Insane Asylum. This position he left in 1872, and has since then been engaged in practice in St. Louis, giving attention specially to the treatment of diseases of the nervous system. In 1861 he was appointed coroner of St. Louis County, to fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of Dr. Boislini&eagrave;re. He saw several months of military service during the war. In 1879 he was elected president of the St. Louis Medical Society.
Dr. Charles Alexander Pope, one of St. Louis' most distinguished surgeons, was born in the beautiful town of Huntsville, Ala., March 15, 1818. His father, Benjamin S. Pope, a man of rare literary culture himself, was careful that his son should have the advantages of a complete education. After thorough academic instruction in his native town, he entered the University of Alabama, at which institution he graduated at a very early age. Soon thereafter he entered upon the study of medicine with the same zeal and industry which ever characterized his whole professional career. Attracted by the well-deserved reputation of Dr. Daniel Drake, then at the height of his popularity as a teacher and lecturer, he attended his first course of medical lectures in the Cincinnati Medical College.
From Cincinnati he went to Philadelphia, and entered the University of Pennsylvania, from which institution he received the degree of M. D. in the spring of 1839, when just twenty-one years of age. The French school of medicine being at that time the most celebrated in Europe, Dr. Pope immediately after graduation went to Paris, where for two years he devoted himself with untiring industry to the special study of surgery, for which department of medicine he had a strong natural inclination, and for which he possessed superior qualifications. After his residence in Paris he also visited the great Continental schools, as well as those of Great Britain and Ireland. On returning from Europe he came to St. Louis, then the most attractive point in the Great West, where in January, 1842, he commenced his professional career. From the first he devoted himself with industry to the study and practice of surgery, and it was not long before his thorough medical training, studious habits, urbane manner, and high moral qualities brought him permanently before the public as a man of mark in his profession. His career was one of uninterrupted progress. Having already acquired reputation as a judicious, skillful, and successful operator, he was in 1843 chosen Professor of Anatomy in the St. Louis Medical College, then the Medical Department of the St. Louis University. His knowledge of
anatomy was minute and accurate, and his success as a teacher undisputed. In 1847, in accordance with his cherished desire, he was transferred from the chair of anatomy to that of surgery, which chair he continued to occupy and adorn for many years. In 1846 he was married to Miss Caroline, only daughter of Col. John O'Fallon, who as a tribute to the merit of his distinguished son-in-law erected out of his own ample means the large and handsome building known as the St. Louis Medical College; so that Dr. Pope was not only a distinguished professor in, but also a real benefactor to, this still flourishing medical institution.
In 1854 he had the high honor conferred upon him of being elected president of the American Medical Association, and the year following he presided at the meeting held in Philadelphia with dignity and acceptance. This gave him a national reputation, which he well sustained by his achievements in surgery, being constantly called on to perform all the more important and difficult operations, which he always did with eminent skill and success. He continued in the diligent pursuit of his profession until 1865, when, reluctantly yielding to the solicitations of his family, he resigned his professorship and gave up his large and lucrative practice with the view of spending a few years in European travel.
In 1870 he returned to St. Louis on a visit, when such a reception was given him as is rarely accorded to any one. The whole city, as it were, rose up to do him honor, and his entire visit was one continued ovation. He returned, however, to Paris to join his family, but scarce had tidings of his arrival been received before the whole city was startled by the announcement of his sudden and unexpected death, which occurred in the city of Paris, July 5, 1870, in the fifty-second year of his age.
Dr. Pope was an accomplished and high-toned gentleman and physician. He was not impelled as some men are by strong passions, but the elements were so combined in him as to form a character at once symmetrical and admirable, a character in which urbanity, suavity, candor, and high moral qualities constituted the Corinthian column.
Dr. Moses M. Pallen died in St. Louis, Sept. 25, 1876, at the age of sixty-six. He took his literary degree at the University of Virginia and his medical degree at the University of Maryland, at Baltimore. He practiced medicine for seven years at Vicksburg, Miss., and in 1842 came to St. Louis, where he had a remarkably successful career as a practitioner and teacher of medicine. He held the position of Professor of Obstetrics in the St. Louis Medical College for over twenty years, resigning about three years before his death on account of failing health. During the Mexican war he held the position of contracting surgeon at the St. Louis arsenal. He also performed the duties of health officer during Mayor Pratte's administration, and held that position during the prevalence of the cholera epidemic of 1849. He was one of the founders and earliest presidents of the St. Louis Academy of Science, and he was also president for several years of the St. Louis Medical Society.
Dr. Pallen was a terse and ready writer, and frequently contributed articles to the medical journals and newspapers on subjects of scientific and popular interest. He left four sons and two daughters. Of the former, Dr. M. A. Pallen, of New York, is well known in the profession on both sides of the Atlantic.
Dr. M. L. Linton was a native of Kentucky, where he studied his profession, but finished his preparatory course in Paris and Edinburgh. Having practiced with success in his native State, he came to St. Louis in 1843, and was elected to a professorship in the Medical Department of St. Louis University, which position he retained under its re-establishment as the St. Louis Medical College until the day of his death, In his distinguished career as a teacher he was associated both in friendship and fame with Dr. Pope, whose untimely decease he greatly mourned, their intimacy commencing when students together in Paris, and continuing warm and unbroken until severed by death.
Dr. Linton did not confine himself exclusively to matters pertaining to medical science, occasionally taking active part in the political movements of the day. He was a conspicuous member of the Missouri State Convention in 1861-62, which formed a provisional government for the State, with Hamilton R. Gamble as Governor, and he was also a member of the convention of 1865. As a teacher, he stood with the ablest and best. He was also a philosopher and a poet. Dr. Linton was an invalid for forty years; his body moved slowly, and frequently required a long rest; his mind was restless, resistless, quick, brilliant, and vigorous; his wit was sharp and his repartee unrivaled. His limited early advantage were only known to the associates of his youth. He had by the force of intellect and untiring mental industry become a polished scholar, learned in the ancient and modern languages. He died in June, 1812, in the sixty-fifth year of his age.
Dr. George Johnson was born in Georgetown, D. C., Sept. 12, 1817, and in his seventeenth year came to seek his fortune in St. Louis, which was then just beginning to attract attention as a prominent business
centre. Shortly afterwards he commenced the study of medicine with Dr. Beaumont, and after graduating at the University of Pennsylvania in 1841, became and for many years remained his partner. During the time he was pursuing his studies he received the appointment of assistant paymaster of the United States army at the arsenal in St. Louis, the emoluments of which office greatly facilitated his medical education. In 1846 he was appointed surgeon to the St. Louis Legion, under command of Col. A. R. Easton, and participated in the stirring scenes of the Mexican war. After his return from the war he was appointed surgeon to the United States Marine Hospital at St. Louis, but owing to ill health he resigned in 1853 and went to Texas to recuperate. Repeatedly he was obliged to leave the city on account of ill health, only to return at the earliest possible moment, for he could not endure being long separated from the many friends residing here, whom he loved and who were devotedly attached to him. Dr. Johnson was, in the highest sense of the term, a true man, brave and chivalrous in his bearing, and one upon whose hearty co-operation in every humane and philanthropic enterprise people could always rely. Although a man of delicate frame, and frequently a great sufferer from disease, he pursued his profession with a zeal and self-sacrificing devotion which greatly endeared him to his patients. He was the very soul of professional honor. No one had a more profound or outspoken contempt for the tricks of the charlatan, nor did any one ever more truly exemplify the character of the high-toned physician. He died in April, 1873.
Dr. Alfred Heacock is now the oldest medical practitioner in St. Louis, having graduated in medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in 1825, and having been engaged in the practice of his profession ever since, a period now of almost fifty-eight years. He was born in Norristown, Pa., May 18, 1804. After his graduation he located in Ohio, where he lived for seven years. He then moved to Terre Haute, Ind., where he practiced for eleven years, after which he removed to St. Louis, and has been here ever since. He chose a location in what was then the extreme northern part of the city, not far from the upper ferry landing, and he was not infrequently called out to cross the river and visit patients in the Illinois bottom lands and as far over as Collinsville. In 1829 Dr. Heacock received an ad eundem degree from Jefferson Medical College, and in 1847 the same honor from the Missouri Medical College. In 1853 he was elected to the Board of Aldermen, and was appointed a member of the Board of Health.
At the first meeting of the St. Louis Medical Society in 1883, Dr. Heacock was unanimously elected a member of that society without payment of dues for the remainder of his life.
Dr. S. Gratz 252 Moses was born in Philadelphia, Oct. 6, 1813. His ancestors, who were merchants noted for their strict integrity, came to this country in the last century, and settled in Pennsylvania. His father was a Philadelphia merchant, a gentleman of means, who gave his son a liberal education. In accordance with his enlightened views, Dr. Moses received his preliminary education at the school in Philadelphia of the late John Sanderson, an accomplished scholar and competent instructor. He then entered the Classical Department of the University of Pennsylvania as a sophomore, and graduated at that institution in 1832.
Dr. Moses commenced the study of medicine in the fall of 1832, under the direction of Isaac Hays, M. D., of Philadelphia, editor of the American Journal of Medical Science, and graduated in 1835 at the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania.
During the same year he began the practice of medicine at Bordentown, N. J., where he remained until 1839, in which year, owing to the kind of recommendation of the well-known Professor Nathaniel Chapman, of the university, he went to Europe as the private physician of Joseph Bonaparte, eldest brother of the great Napoleon, and ex-king of Spain, who for many years had been a resident of Bordentown. His connection with Bonaparte brought Dr. Moses into contact with the most distinguished men in France, especially the famous members of his own profession, and from the adherents of the empire, particularly from the Murat family, he received many attentions.
Dr. Moses returned to Philadelphia in 1840, and in the fall of 1841 removed to St. Louis, where he still resides, having been engaged, with but one interruption, in the practice of medicine ever since.
In 1842, with the assistance of Drs. J. B. Johnson, William McPheeters, Charles A. Pope, J. I. Clark, George Johnson, and others, Dr. Moses was active in the establishment of the first organized dispensary in St. Louis, and became its president, continuing as such throughout its existence. This praiseworthy enterprise was the suggestion of Mrs. Vital M. Garesch&eagrave;, a lady noted for her charities, and was sustained by contributions from the churches and by private subscriptions, notably from the Mullanphy family. The Rev. Dr. Eliot proffered the
basement of the Unitarian Church (then at the corner of Fourth and Pine Streets) for the dispensary, and the institution was managed by the above-mentioned physicians, who gave their services gratuitously for seven years, when the city established a dispensary of its own.
Dr. Moses was city health officer when the Hon. Luther M. Keunett was mayor, and assisted in organizing the sewer system and other important sanitary measures. He was also connected with the Medical Department of Kemper College in 1842 as lecturer on obstetrics and diseases of women, assisting Dr. William Carr Lane (who held that chair in the institution), and was afterwards chosen professor of the same branch of studies in Missouri Medical College. He resigned this position in 1853. During the civil war, being known to have Southern sympathies, and both of his sons being in the Confederate army, he was arrested at his office, by order of the United States provost-marshal, and, after a few days spent in the military prison, was, in company with other well-known citizens, sent under guard into the lines of the Confederacy. He at once volunteered his services, and assisted in caring for the sick in hospitals at Savannah, Ga. After the close of the war he returned to his home, and at once resumed his occupation.
Dr. Moses was one of the founders of the St. Louis Obstetrical and Gynecological Society, and was twice its president. He also assisted in establishing the Medico-Chirurgical Society, and continues to take an active interest in the affairs and debates of these associations. He is also a member of the St. Louis Medical Society.
In 1835, Dr. Moses married Miss Mary Porter Ashe, of Wilmington, N. C., a daughter of Col. Samuel P. Ashe, a planter and Revolutionary soldier, who was taken prisoner at the siege of Charleston by the British. Col. Ashe was a gentleman of high Standing and fine culture. By this marriage there were two sons and two daughters. The eldest son, Dr. Gratz A. Moses, is associated with his father in the practice of his profession; the younger, John A. is a merchant in Silver City, N. M.
In 1855, Dr. Moses married Mrs. Marie Atchison (widow), née Papin, a native of St. Louis, and a descendant of old French settlers. There have been no children by this marriage.
After forty-seven years of active practice of his profession, Dr. Moses is still in vigorous health, and engages daily in the performance of his arduous duties.
Dr. John B. Johnson was born at Fair Haven, Mass., in 1817. He prepared for Harvard College, but his mother's ill health interfered with his plans, and he did not complete his college course. He attended his first course of lectures at the Berkshire Medical College in Pittsfield, but not having the facilities for studying practical anatomy there which he desired, he went to Cambridge and entered the Harvard Medical School, and attended two courses of lectures. He then entered the competitive examination for a position as house surgeon to the Massachusetts General Hospital, in which he was successful, and held that position for a year, while the corresponding position of house physician was held by H. J. Bigelow. Being detained by the illness of a brother from attending the examination preliminary to graduation at Harvard, he passed the examination at Pittsfield, and received his diploma from Berkshire College in 1840. Afterwards he received an ad eundem degree from Harvard. He came to St. Louis in the spring of 1841, and, as previously stated, was associated with five other young physicians in establishing the first dispensary organized in the city. He ascribes much of his success in the early years of his practice here to the kindly interest taken in him by Theron Barnum, who was then the proprietor of the City Hotel, the principal hotel at that time. Dr. Johnson has for many years filled the chair of theory and practice of medicine in the St. Louis Medical
College, and has had a very large and lucrative practice among the leading families of the city. He has repeatedly been a delegate to the American Medical Nation, and was a constant member of the State Medical Association, of which society he was the president in 1852. Dr. Johnson's wife is a daughter of the late James H. Lucas, and a lady of rare accomplishments and graces of mind and character.
Dr. Thomas Barbour was a son of Philip C. Barbour, of Virginia, one of the judges of the Supreme Court of the United States. He was educated scholastically at the University of Virginia, and professionally at the University of Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia. He received the degree of Doctor of Medicine in 1830, and soon after settled for practice in Columbia, Tenn., where he became distinguished as a practitioner and as a man of science. He was elected Professor of Chemistry in Lagrange College, Alabama; in 1842, Professor of Materia Medica in the Medical Department of Kemper College; in 1843, to the chair of obstetrics and diseases of women and children, and finally, in 1846, when the medical professors of Kemper College were transferred to the University of Missouri, he was elected to the same chair, which he continued to occupy with distinguished abilities until the time of his death, which occurred in June, 1849.
At a meeting of the medical faculty of the University of the State of Missouri, held on the evening of June 23, 1849, the following preamble and resolutions were unanimously adopted:
"THAT WHEREAS, It has pleased an all-wise Providence to remove by death from our faculty and from his active and distinguished career of usefulness Doctor Thomas Barbour, Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children in this institution; therefore,
"Be it resolved, That, as co-professors and friends of the humble dead, it gives us some consolation thus publicly to testify to his pure character, his high professional attainments, and his distinguished ability as a teacher, and that we mourn sincerely the afflicting dispensation which has deprived our institution of his talents and services, and the community of his usefulness.
"Sacked, That we desire to be permitted to mingle our sorrows with those of his bereft wife and family for the irreparable loss they have sustained in the death of one so highly and so justly esteemed; and that Professor Barret, as the organ of our faculty, address a letter of condolence to Mrs. Barbour, and request of her the loan of the portrait of her lamented husband that a copy may be taken and placed in the medical hall of the university.
"Resolved, That the foregoing preamble and resolutions be published in the city papers, and that a copy thereof be sent to the widow and mother of the deceased.
"JOHN S. MOORE, M. D.,
Dr. Barbour was a man of high professional attainments, and especially skillful in the treatment of diseases of women and children.
Dr. Simon Pollak was born in Prague, Bohemia, April 14, 1816, and received his medical education in the universities of Prague and Vienna, graduating at the latter place in 1836. He then spent some months in visiting the hospitals of various European cities, after which he came to the United States and located in Nashville, Tenn., where he resided some years. He came to St. Louis in 1845, March 14th. About that time Dr. Clark resigned his position in the dispensary, and Dr. Pollak was appointed to that position. 253 This opened the way for him to a vast amount of unremunerative professional labor, and it was not until August 1st that he received any compensation for services rendered. His first professional fee was ten dollars, for attending a case of obstetrics. After that time he went on prosperously, and has been a very successful practitioner. In 1852 he secured the means through personal solicitation from the charitably-inclined citizens of St. Louis to establish the Missouri Institution for the Education of the Blind, which was supported for five years by such voluntary contributions, and then became a State institution. Dr. Pollak has been the attending physician to this institution ever since its establishment.
Having visited Europe in 1860, where he spent some months in the special study of ophthalmology, he returned to St. Louis, and in 1863 established the first eye and ear infirmary west of the Mississippi River. This institution is still maintained by Dr. Pollak, being held now at the Sisters' Hospital, in the western part of the city, as it had been for years at the same institution when located on Fourth Street. Over eighteen thousand cases have been recorded as treated in connection with this infirmary. Dr. Pollak was a member of the United States Sanitary Commission, and of the Western Sanitary Commission during the war, and also held the position of hospital inspector. He is a member of the American Medical Association, of the St. Louis Medical Society and Medico-Chirurgical Society, and has written many articles which have appeared from time to time in the columns of medical journals, especially those of the St. Louis Medical and Surgical Journal.
Dr. B. F. Edwards, who practiced for over half a century in Illinois and Missouri, was born at Darnestown, Md., July 2, 1797. In 1820 he removed from
Kentucky to Old Franklin, in the Boone's Lick country, Mo., with Cyrus Edwards, his brother. There were living there Gen. Duff Green, the Gambles, and many other prominent Kentuckians. He then went back to Kentucky, and after a while removed to Edwardsville, Ill., where he settled, obtaining an extensive practice. His rides extended for forty miles, and so constant day and night were the calls for his services that he kept five horses as relays in responding expeditiously to the demands on his professional services. He next established himself for a short period in Alton, and in 1846 removed to St. Louis, where his reputation gave him at once an extensive practice. About the year 1850 he engaged in the California speculations, and shipped a lot of frame houses from St. Louis via the Horn to San Francisco, and erected them on the beach for sale to enterprising gold-seekers. He returned to St. Louis and resumed his practice until 1867, when he removed to Kirkwood, where he continued in practice till about two years before his death, which occurred April 27, 1877. Dr. Edwards was a man of robust virtues, an humble Christian, and a member of the Baptist Church.
Dr. E. S. Frazier was born in Todd County, Ky., in 1809. He was one of the first class which graduated from the Medical Department of Kemper College, the whole class numbering but three. He had practiced for some time before graduating in Salem, Ill. He then located in Liberty, near Peoria, and removed thence to Springfield. He married Miss Mary Moore, of Montgomery County, Tenn., a sister of Dr. John S. Moore, of St. Louis. Through the influence of his brother-in-law, he removed to St. Louis in 1847, being associated with Dr. George Johnson as resident physician of the Hotel for Invalids. This institution being abandoned after a few years, he entered general practice, and soon gained a large and lucrative business. He still continues to practice, though not so actively as in former years.
Dr. G. Fischer has been for a number of years one of the most prominent German physicians of St. Louis. He was born at Prague in 1812, and graduated at the university of that city in 1837. He practiced with eminent success in the city of his birth, but in 1848, having become involved in political difficulties, he found it necessary to leave that country, and determined to come to the United States, that he might rear his children in a free land. He has practiced medicine in St. Louis ever since that time, and has met with remarkable success, having won the respect and esteem of the profession and achieved popularity among the laity, two results by no means always attained by one man.
Among the great men whose name and fame must endure forever in the annals of surgery, that of John Thompson Hodgen will stand deservedly pre-eminent. He was born at Hodgenville, among the rugged hills of La Rue County, Ky., not far from the birthplace of Abraham Lincoln, on the 19th of January, 1826. His father, Jacob Hodgen, was an elder of the Christian Church. His mother, Frances Park Brown, was a woman of sterling worth, who contributed greatly to fashion the current of his infant thoughts, and to give them a healthy direction. He regarded her as the chief source of his aspirations for the good and noble, and his affection for her was deep, tender, and reverential. Her declining years were brightened by the lustre of his renown, and her dying moments soothed by his tender and matchless skill.
His early years were spent in the common schools of Pittsfield, Pike Co., Ill., and his collegiate course at Bethany College, West Virginia. In childhood he exhibited a fondness for medicine, and in his twentieth year he entered the Medical Department of the University of the State of Missouri, where, on the threshold of his career, his ambition, industry, and bright intellect marked him as a student of unusual promise.
He graduated in March, 1848; was assistant resident physician of the St. Louis City Hospital from April, 1848, to June, 1849, and was demonstrator of anatomy in his Alma Mater from 1849 to 1853. The energy with which he devoted himself to his profession secured him the chair of anatomy, beside Joseph Nash McDowell, which position he occupied from 1854 to 1858. From 1858 to 1864 he filled both the chairs of anatomy and physiology.
In 1864, the Missouri College building having been seized by the government and transformed into the Gratiot Street prison, and Dr. McDowell, its head, having gone South, Dr. Hodgen led a remnant of the shattered faculty in a noble effort to preserve the life of his Alma Mater. After earnest but ineffectual efforts he relinquished the task, and transferred his allegiance to the St. Louis Medical College, where he filled respectively the chairs of physiology and of anatomy with eminent ability. In 1875 he assumed the chair of surgical anatomy, of fractures and dislocations, and was created dean of the faculty, which position he held at the time of his death. During the eighteen years from 1864 to 1882 he taught clinical surgery at the City Hospital.
Meantime his valuable services were sought and employed by his country, then in the throes of civil strife, in the capacities of surgeon-general of the Western Sanitary Commission, 1861; surgeon United
States volunteers, 1861 to 1864; and surgeon-general State of Missouri, 1862 to 1864. Upon the restoration of peace he relaxed neither resolution nor industry wherever honor, science, or philanthropy called, he was always in the van. He served as consulting surgeon of the City Hospital from 1862 to 1882, and was president of the St. Louis Board of Health from 1867 to 1868, and a member of that body until 1871. In this position he was instrumental in organizing on an efficient basis the charity hospitals and dispensaries of the city, and in laying the foundation of that sanitary improvement that has since revolutionized the mortuary record of St. Louis. He was president of the St. Louis Medical Society in 1872, was chairman of the surgical section of the American Medical Association in 1873, was president of the State Medical Association in 1876, and was president of the American Medical Association in 1880.
Fame and emoluments crowned his labors, but he never paused or halted in his efforts to improve himself as physician, surgeon, and scholar. For renown and wealth he cared but little; he never sought an honor, and his simple tastes, unselfish nature, and busy habits suggested little thought of money. The author of brilliant achievements, he never vaunted his deeds, while his blunders were always in his mouth. Devotion to duty was the mainspring of his life; his only boast that he had never refused to heed the call of the suffering, had never paused to consider the reward, and had never failed to do his best. Conservative, honest, earnest, original, and bold, he was eminently a man of action, appalled by no difficulty, and superior to any emergency in practice. Quick and clear in apprehension, terse and forcible in expression, and a master of the elementary branches of the medical science, he was a powerful debater, whom no sophistry confused, and one who never lost sight of controlling principles nor confounded ideas with facts. In debate with the most distinguished surgeons of all nations, convened in the International Medical Congress at Philadelphia in 1876, he won substantial honors, and made a record that stamped him as a great man in the midst of the greatest the civilized world could produce.
He possessed decided mechanical genius, but many inventions worthy of note have been lost to science owing to the fact that he neglected to record them. Among the most important of those recorded, some of which have attained a world-wide renown, are wire-splint for fracture of the thigh; suspension-cord and pulleys, permitting flexion, extension, and rotation in fracture of the leg; forceps-dilator for removal of foreign bodies from the air-passages without tracheotomy, cradle-splint for treatment of compound fracture of the thigh, wire suspension-splint for injury of the arm, double action syringe and stomach-pump, hair-pin dilator for separating lips of the opening in the trachea, and as a guide to the trachea tube.
His chief contributions to medical literature were, Wiring the Clavicle and Acromion for Dislocation of the Scapular End of the Clavicle; Modification of Operation for Lacerated Perineum; Dislocation of both Hips; Two Deaths from Chloroform; Use of Atropia in Collapse of Cholera; Three Cases of Extra-Uterine Foetation; Skin-Grafting; Nerve Section for Neuralgia and Induration of Penis; Report on Antiseptic Surgery; Shock, and Effects of Compressed Air, as observed in the building of the St. Louis and Illinois Bridge.
His literary, mechanical, and operative contributions made him known in Europe and America, and afford the guarantee that his name and memory will endure as long as medicine and surgery are taught.
He died in his fifty-seventh year, April 28, 1882, of acute peritonitis, caused by ulceration of the gallbladder, and after a short and painful illness.
Remarkable for erudition and knowledge of the art he professed, untiring in study, an extensive and thorough reader, clearly digesting and appropriating ideas, he was noted for his solidity and sobriety of understanding, the legitimate fruit of industry and application. He loved his profession, and knelt at its shrine with the devotion of a priest. He was quick to cheer and help the meritorious and struggling young student and practitioner, and of a free and open nature. He was easy and familiar with the younger members of the profession, rejoiced in their emoluments, success, and honors, gave them their full meed of praise when merited, and never sought to monopolize the honors of his calling. Broad and liberal in his views, and original and independent in thought and action, he was the standard-bearer of progress in the medical profession. Possessed of a bold heart and a clear head, he yet had the keenest sympathy for suffering humanity. The poor, the halt, the lame, and the blind received his ministrations without price, and he made no distinction in his treatment between the rich and the poor.
In professional counsel and friendly intercourse he was the comfort and help of the young practitioner. No time was too inconvenient, no call too sudden, no patient too humble to claim immediate attention. Like the soldier on the eve of battle, he was ever ready to respond to the bugle-call, no matter when or where it sounded.
He knew every medical man in the city, and a large proportion of those in its vicinity and the adjoining States, not merely by name and reputation, but by the estimate he had formed of their personal and professional qualifications, and, remarkable for his knowledge of human nature, he was rarely deceived, save when sympathy swayed his judgment. His broad acquaintance, great personal influence, and unselfish alacrity to serve others made him, directly and indirectly, the almoner of many valuable professional places in the governmental and municipal service and in civil life. He always had a place for a deserving man, and a deserving man for a place. Numbers of medical men now prosperous and honored owe their first successes to his disinterested kindness. Under his apparently brusque manner and calm exterior his heart pulsated in sympathetic unison with the trials of all who came in contact with him. A man in the fullest and highest sense of the word, ever true to his convictions of right, loyal to his friends, tender in sickness and sorrow, wise and cultured from extensive and thoughtful reading, but much more so from direct and constant insight into the human frame in health and disease, the memory of John T. Hodgen will long be cherished as an enduring honor to St. Louis, the city of his adoption, and to the profession which he honored and ornamented, and to which he was a benefactor.
Dr. R. S. Holmes was born in Pittsburgh, Pa., Feb. 25, 1814. At the early age of thirteen he lost his father, but although deprived of parental guardianship at this important period, his education was not neglected. Having qualified himself he entered Jefferson College, at Cannonsburg, Pa., in which institution he was admitted to the degree of A. B. Sept. 30, 1835, just as he reached his majority. His preliminary education having been completed, he lost no time in commencing the study of his profession; and in October of the same year he went to Cincinnati and became the private pupil of Professor Gross, then connected with the Ohio Medical College, in which institution he attended his first course of medical lectures in the winter of 1835. After the close of the session, in the spring of 1836, he went to Philadelphia, and the following fall matriculated in the Jefferson Medical College, which was then just commencing its rivalry with the University of Pennsylvania. After remaining two winters in connection with this institution, he was admitted to the degree of Doctor of Medicine in the spring of 1838, his inaugural thesis being on the subject of chlorosis.
Immediately after graduating, in May, 1838, he went to Europe, where he spent a year in visiting the different capitals of the Old World, and in pursuing his studies in their various hospitals. In May, 1839, he returned home, and shortly thereafter wrote an article describing the church of Ste. Genevieve, in Paris, which was published in the Knickerbocker for 1840, and which displayed both literary and critical ability of a high order. In May, 1841, having obtained permission from the Secretary of War to that effect, he presented himself before the board convened in Philadelphia for the purpose of examining applicants for the post of assistant surgeon in the United States army. Twenty-two candidates presented themselves, only fourteen of whom were admitted to an examination, and of this number six only were approved. Dr. Holmes ranked third. On the 22d of August of the same year he received his commission, and immediately thereafter was ordered to Carlisle Barracks, where he entered upon his duties as assistant surgeon of the army.
From Carlisle he went to St. Peter's, where, how ever, he only remained a short time, having been ordered to join the army in Florida during the existence of the Seminole war. At the close of this war he was retained in that department until 1844, when he was ordered to Fort Preble, in Maine, and remained at that post until the succeeding year, when he was again ordered with the First Regiment of artillery to Florida, and was stationed at Fort Pinckney, near Pensacola. During his several residences in Florida, as in fact at other points where he was stationed, he occupied his leisure time in investigating the geological character of the soil and in studying the climate and diseases of those regions. The results of these investigations he gave to the world through the medical periodicals of the country.
On the breaking out of the Mexican war he accompanied the army first into Texas and afterwards into Mexico. His stay here, however, was of but short duration, for on the 28th of June, 1847, while at Point Isabel, Texas, he resigned his commission as assistant surgeon in the army on account of the death of his mother, which rendered his presence at home necessary. His withdrawal from the army was regretted by all the officers with whom he had been associated, and by whom he was highly esteemed.
In the spring of 1848 he came to St. Louis and commenced the practice of his profession, and in the fall of the same year was chosen Professor of Physicology and Medical Jurisprudence in the St. Louis Medical College, then the Medical Department of the St. Louis University. His first course of lectures was delivered during the winter of 1848 and 1849, and although but little time was allowed him for preparation prior to entering upon the important duties of
his chair, he succeeded to the entire satisfaction of his colleagues and class, as is shown by the fact that at the close of the session a meeting of the students of the college was held, at which resolutions were adopted thanking him in the most complimentary terms for his able and instructive course of lectures on physiology, and expressing their high appreciation of his character as a man and his ability as a lecturer.
In the spring of 1849, prior to the breaking out of the cholera, he again sailed for Europe, where he spent the summer in professional pursuits and especially in the study of microscopy. While in London he procured one of Rosse's celebrated microscopes of high power, and on his return devoted himself with his accustomed zeal and industry to the study of microscopic anatomy, with special reference to its bearings on physiology and pathology, in which department he acquired considerable expertness.
Daring the subsequent four years Dr. Holmes continued to discharge the duties of his chair with marked ability and with great acceptance to those who attended on his instructions. But his career of usefulness was destined soon to be cut short. In the month of August, 1854, worn out by close application to study and by the extreme heat of the weather, he was suddenly seized, while walking on the street, with an attack of paralysis affecting the right side. After lingering for two years the powers of body and mind began to fail rapidly, and continued to do so until the 26th of June, 1856, when he died, in the forty-second year of his age. As a practitioner of medicine, Dr. Holmes was bold, original, and successful. While connected with the army in Florida he had an opportunity of observing the malignant fevers of that climate, and he was among the first to recommend and carry out the practice of administering large doses of quinine in this form of disease, a practice the success of which is now universally acknowledged.
As a medical writer he stood deservedly high. He was a frequent contributor to the pages of the American Journal of Medical Sciences and the St. Louis Medical and Surgical Journal, in which he published articles on the Climate and Diseases of Florida and Texas, on Quinine, Malaria, and a number of other subjects, all of which showed him to be a close and faithful observer of nature, a bold and original thinker, and a clear and logical reasoner. His report, too, on Epidemic Erysipelas, read before the American Medical Association at its meeting held in May, 1854, and published in the transactions for that year, exhibited marked ability, and attracted attention and called forth complimentary notices from critics at home and abroad.
But his talent as a writer was not displayed in his contributions on medical subjects alone. In the domain of general literature, also, he has left behind many valuable evidences of the fertility of his intellect and the variety of his attainments. While in Europe, as well as after his return, he wrote frequently for the leading literary journals of the country; among them may be mentioned the Knickerbocker, the New York Literary New World, the New York Mirror, the United States Gazette of Philadelphia, the Philadelphia Inquirer, the North American of Philadelphia, the Pittsburgh Advertiser, and the St. Louis Republican, all of whose pages were at different times adorned by his pen. Many of these contributions are worthy of special notice, particularly the following: "Beauty, a use of the Hair;" "Use of the Hair among the Ancients;" "The Birds of Florida;" "Sketches of American Character," etc.
Dr. Louis Ch. Boislini&eagrave;re was born Sept. 2, 1816, on the island of Guadeloupe, W. I., of one of the oldest families of the islands. His father was a wealthy sugar-planter, and appreciating the value of a thorough education, he took his son to France in 1825 in order that he might have every advantage attainable. Here thirteen years were spent in scientific, classical, and legal studies at the most celebrated institutions of the day. He took a diploma as licentiate-in-law at the University of France, and returned to Guadeloupe in 1839, after the death of both parents. After spending some months there, and subsequently making an extensive journey through South America, he determined to leave the West Indies entirely and locate permanently in the United States. In 1842 he landed in New Orleans, but went almost immediately to Lexington, where he received polite attention from Henry Clay's family, to whom he had brought letters of introduction. He spent some time in this place, acquainting himself with the language and customs of the country. He then went to Louisville and took charge of the classical institute there, and the school prospered under his direction.
In 1847 his attention was attracted by the advantages that seemed to be afforded to young men in St. Louis, and after due deliberation he removed here. He had continued in Kentucky his medical studies which he had commenced in France, and in 1848 he graduated in medicine in the Medical Department of the St. Louis University. He immediately entered into practice, and has remained here ever since. In 1853, Dr. Boislini&eagrave;re took part in establishing, under the auspices of the Sisters of Charity, the first lying-in hospital and foundling asylum founded in America, and he still keeps up his connection with it.
In 1858 he was elected coroner of St. Louis County, the first physician who held that office. He was re-elected to the position in 1860, but resigned in December, 1861. In 1865 he was elected a member of the Anthropological Society of Paris. In 1870 he was elected to the Professorship of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children in the St. Louis Medical College. For a number of years he conducted a clinic for the diseases of women at the St. Louis (Sisters') Hospital, and now has a clinic at the St. Louis Medical College Dispensary. He was elected for two successive years president of the St. Louis Obstetrical and Gynecological Society. In 1879 he received the degree of LL.D. from the St. Louis University. He has written a number of medical and literary essays, which have appeared in various periodicals. In a ripe old age he retains the mental faculties and powers of his earlier manhood in full vigor, and is still busy as ever with the care of a large and burdensome practice.
Dr. F. Ernst Baumgarten was born Dec. 27, 1810, at Nordheim, kingdom of Hanover. He studied at Göttingen, and passed the State examination in surgery in 1831. He was appointed "mining surgeon," a government office, at Clausthal, the centre of the Harz Mountains mining districts. Later he went to the University of Jena, where he graduated in 1844. He edited a surgical journal, Zeitschrift für Chirurgen von Chirurgen, also an annual Chirurgische Almanack, and was permanent secretary of the Society of North German Surgeons. While still engaged in writing a text-book of surgery, of which only one part was published ("Lehrbuch d. primaer-mechanischen Krankheiten." 8vo. Osterode, 1843), he was pursuaded to emigrate to America in 1846. He practiced at Galveston until 1849, when he was induced, by repeated attacks of yellow fever, from which he suffered there, to seek a home farther North. He came to St. Louis in May, 1849, where he soon acquired a large practice, chiefly medical and obstetrical. He was one of the founders and for many years the secretary and librarian of the German Medical Society of St. Louis. He died Nov. 13, 1869, in consequence of injuries received by a fall from his buggy three days before.
Dr. Thomas O'Reilly was born in Virginia, County Cavan, Ireland, Feb. 11, 1827. He commenced the study of medicine in 1840, by apprenticeship to a druggist. He studied and attended lectures first at the Apothecaries' Hall, Dublin, and then at what was at that time called the Original School of Medicine, now the Ledwich School of Medicine. Next he served three years in the Meath Hospital as a clinical clerk to the celebrated Dr. William Stokes. He graduated in London at the College of Surgeons in 1849, and came to this country and to St. Louis in the same year. Arriving here in the midst of the epidemic of cholera, he immediately gained a large practice, and has been a busy practitioner ever since.
Dr. Adam Hammer was born in the Grand Duchy of Baden, Germany, Dec. 27, 1818, and received a thorough preliminary and medical education in the leading German universities, taking a special interest in mathematical studies. He was most thoroughly informed in all the literature of the profession. It was his ambition to be known as a surgeon, and above all things he abominated the practice of midwifery. He was an admirable diagnostician, and twice diagnosticated in the living subject an occlusion of the coronary artery of the heart, and the diagnosis was confirmed by post-mortem examination. He performed a number of successful plastic operations, and in two cases removed an entire upper extremity, including the scapula. He came to St. Louis in 1848. He was an enthusiastic teacher. He organized the Humboldt Medical College, and through his personal influence secured the means to erect the building for that institution, which still stands on the corner of Soulard and Closey Streets. The college was broken up during his absence in Europe, and on his return he was offered a professorship in the Missouri Medical College, which he accepted. After a few years he returned to Europe, and died there Aug. 4, 1878.
Dr. Edward Montgomery was born at Ballymena, near Belfast, Ireland, Dec. 20, 1816. He received his preliminary education in Belfast, and graduated in medicine at the University of Edinburgh in 1838. He practiced medicine for about four years in his native town, but removed to the United States in 1842, and after spending some years in the South, settled in St. Louis in 1849. Here he has continued in the practice of medicine ever since, and has enjoyed a very large and profitable practice. He has been an active member of various medical societies and association, having been president and vice-president of the St. Louis Medical Society, and of the State Medical Association. He has contributed papers on a variety of medical subjects to the medical journals. During the last few years he has withdrawn to some extent from practice on account of failing health, but he still attends a good many of his old families, who prefer his advice to that of any of the younger practitioners.
Dr. Benjamin Franklin Shumard, who died on the 14th of April, 1869, was esteemed as a physician, having, during the last years of his life, filled the chair of obstetrics in the Missouri Medical College,
and was far famed throughout the scientific world as a geologist and paleontologist. He was a corresponding or honorary member of many scientific associations in the United States and in Europe, and was honored and beloved at home as the president of the Academy of Science of St. Louis, an office to which he was re-elected at the beginning of the year, when his lingering illness had already taken away all hope that he would ever again personally preside over the meetings of that body.
Dr. Shumard was born at Lancaster, Pa., on the 24th of November, 1820. His father was a merchant, but he inherited his scientific tastes from his maternal grandfather, Mr. Getz, well known as an inventor, and who made delicate scales used in the Philadelphia Mint. His father afterwards moved to Cincinnati, and while living there, Dr. Shumard graduated at Oxford, Ohio, and returning to Philadelphia, he went through one course in the medical college of that city. His father then moved to Louisville, Ky., where young Shumard completed his medical studies in 1846. He then practiced for a short time in one of the interior towns of Kentucky, but subsequently removed to Louisville, where he devoted his leisure to the study of the fossils and shells in the adjacent county. He laid broad and deep, by arduous application, the foundations upon which his scientific reputation is built. His collection of organic remains was visited by Sir Charles Lyell and Edward De Verneuil when those distinguished savans were in Louisville, and the last named manifested his appreciation by the presentation of his magnificent work on the geology of Russia.
He was then appointed by Dr. David Dale Owen assistant geologist in the United States government survey of Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, for which he had been commissioned by the national government in 1846. He remained in that survey until the fall of 1856. The published reports of this important survey, in which Dr. Shumard took so prominent a part, will remain monuments of the industry, acquirements, and genius of their author. Besides his share in the publication of the reports, Dr. Shumard published a monograph, entitled "Contributions to the Geology of Kentucky," which abounded in original observations, and which made his name familiar to European geologists. This work is constantly referred to by home and foreign writers on the fossils of America.
In 1850, Dr. Shumard was appointed by Dr. John Evans to aid him in a geological reconnoissance of the Territory of Oregon, of which he prepared the paleontological report. He spent eighteen months in Oregon, and returned to Louisville in 1852, where he occupied nearly a year in making out the reports on paleontology for his brother, Dr. George Getz Shumard, who was employed under Capt. R. B. Marcy in the Red River exploration. In 1853, Dr. Shumard came to St. Louis, and was appointed assistant geologist and paleontologist of the Missouri Geological Survey, under Professor Swallow. He labored here until the summer of 1858, when he was appointed State geologist for Texas, and made a reconnoissance of almost the entire eastern and middle portions of that State, and had just got his specimens collected and arranged, when the war broke out, and he returned to St. Louis. In the survey of Texas, he found within the limits of that State the most complete series of geological formations to be found in any State in the Union, ranging as they do from the oldest paleozoic strata to the latest tertiary, and presenting an aggregate thickness estimated at not less than ten thousand feet. He succeeded in rescuing his library from Austin at the end of the war, but never returned to prosecute the survey.
Dr. S. T. Newman was born in Mississippi Nov. 30, 1816. His preliminary education was obtained in Augusta College, Kentucky, and he graduated in medicine at the Transylvania University, Lexington, Ky., in 1839. He practiced medicine for five years at Amsterdam, Miss., and then removed to Richmond, Ky., where he lived until 1856, when he came to St. Louis. He identified himself at once with the St. Louis Medical Society, and in 1860 was elected president of that body.
Dr. T. L. Papin is a grandson of Laclede, who was the founder of St. Louis. He was born in St. Louis in January, 1825, and obtained his literary education here, and his medical education partly here and partly in Paris. He graduated from the Medical Department of the St. Louis University, and then went to Paris, where he pursued his studies some years longer. He has been a teacher of medicine all through his professional life. In 1852 he was Professor of Clinical Medicine in the St. Louis Hospital, and in 1873 was appointed Professor of Clinical Gynecology in the Missouri Medical College, which position he resigned last year.
He has been the attending physician at all the Catholic asylums of various sorts, and was the originator of St. John's Hospital. After that hospital was well established, he suggested to some of his friends who were connected with the Missouri Medical College that they buy the property adjacent to the hospital and erect a new college building. This was done, and Dr. Papin was chosen president of the
Missouri College Building Association. In order to raise the money necessary for the building, he and Dr. Moore mortgaged their own property. The success of the effort, and the remarkable prosperity of the college since its removal, have been mentioned elsewhere. Dr. Papin justly feels that he contributed very largely to the success of the school, not only by carrying out the Building Association plans, but by the hospital facilities which he provided and secured for them. He is not now connected with the college, and only retains his gynecological clinic at the hospital, which is probably the most largely attended of any in the city.
Dr. James C. Nidelet 254 is descended from some of the most noted pioneer families of Missouri. His grandfather, the well-known Gen. Bernard Pratte, was born in Ste. Genevieve, Mo., and was educated at the Sulsipitian College, Montreal (Canada); and returning to St. Louis, married Emilie I. Labadie, a native of the town, and daughter of Sylvester Labadie and Pélagie Chouteau. His father, Stephen F. Nidelet, of French extraction and a native of San Domingo, arrived in Philadelphia when but seven years old, and ultimately became a member of the prominent silk house of Chapman & Nidelet. While visiting St. Louis he met and married on Aug. 12, 1826, Celeste E., daughter of the Gen. Pratte above mentioned. He returned with his wife to Philadelphia, where, on the 15th of January, 1834, James C. Nidelet was born.
Young Nidelet acquired his early education in Philadelphia, at the classical school of John D. Bryant, a famous instructor in that city. In 1844 he was taken by his parents to St. Louis, where his father spent the rest of his life, dying in 1856, after having won the respect of a large circle of friends. His widow is yet living, a sprightly and well-preserved lady of seventy-three years. In her day she was one of the belles of St. Louis, and, despite the lapse of years, her recollections of pioneer times are very distinct and interesting.
James C. Nidelet attended the St. Louis University for a year or two, and in 1847 and 1848 St. Mary's College, Emmittsburg, Md. In 1849 he entered St. Louis University again, and spent five years there, but left in 1853 while on the point of graduating. He then prepared for the Military Academy at West Point, but failing to receive an appointment as cadet, applied himself to the study of medicine. His first tuition was obtained in the practical experience of a drug store, and for three years he was employed in the well-known houses of Bacon, Hyde & Co. and Barnard, Adams & Co. He then attended the St. Louis Medical College, under Dr. C. A. Pope, and the Missouri Medical College, under Dr. Joseph N. McDowell. He graduated in 1860, and began the practice of medicine.
In December, 1861, he joined the Confederate army, and served as chief surgeon under Gens. Price, Maury, and Forney in the Army of East Tennessee and Mississippi. During the last year of the war he was transferred to the Trans-Mississippi Department. His service embraced four years of desperate and bloody warfare, and he was in every engagement in which his army corps participated. Among the most memorable of these conflicts may be mentioned those attending the capture of Vicksburg, and the sanguinary fields of Corinth, Big Black, Iuka, and the famous retreat from Hatchie. During all this period of exposure to the dangers and privations incident to the war, Dr. Nidelet was never wounded and never lost a day from sickness, his splendid constitution carrying him safely through trials to which weaker natures would have succumbed. He was always to be found where the danger was greatest, and where there was the greatest need of the prompt assistance of the surgeon. His composure amid the storms of shot and shell and the awful distractions of the battlefield was proverbial, and repeatedly won the commendation of his superiors.
Frequently, with the din of conflict raging about him, he performed operations that would have made many a hospital practitioner famous. His four years service in the war gave him a practically unlimited experience in every branch of surgery, especially that appertaining to the treatment of gunshot-wounds, and in July, 1865, he returned to St. Louis rich in knowledge of the surgeon's art but extremely poor in purse. The "Drake Constitution," which was then in force forbade him to practice medicine, because he could not take the oath, and at one time, while struggling against adverse fortune, he was on the point of leaving for the Pacific coast. During the winter of 1865-66, however, he formed an engagement with his old Alma Mater, the Missouri Medical College, and assisted in gathering the scattered faculty together once more. In the winter of 1866-67 the college was reopened, and as Professor of Anatomy he was for four or five years engaged in his favorite pursuit of teaching medicine. He had large classes, and contributed materially towards bringing the historic old institution into popular favor again. He then engaged in the private practice of medicine with distinguished success.
In 1875-76, Dr. Nidelet was appointed police commissioner, and for two of the four years of his term
was vice-president of the board. He signalized his administration by a determined effort to suppress the lottery business, which then flourished without let or hindrance in St. Louis, and such success crowned his labors that more than fifty dealers were convicted and fined. As a consequence he incurred the hostility of the "lottery ring," and charges of corruption were made against him. His indictment was sought at the hands of several successive grand juries, but he was accorded almost searching investigation, which resulted in the utter failure of his enemies to make even a plausible case of official misconduct against him.
The following estimate of Dr. Nidelet's standing as a physician and surgeon is furnished by a gentleman who has known him from a boy, was several years intimately associated with him, and is familiar with his professional career.
"Dr. Nidelet is a good physician in every sense of the word, being thoroughly and scientifically educated for his profession. His success has been as great as that of any practitioner of his years in St. Louis, and he has a very large and growing patronage. His judgment is accurate, and in the diagnosis of diseases selection of suitable remedies he is distinguished. I cannot say that he has any specialty, but he strikes me as being a fine specimen of the symmetrically-developed doctor. His professional standing is excellent, and he enjoys the respect of his in the profession as a high-toned and honorable man."
Dr. James M. Youngblood was born in Tennessee on the 16th of December, 1833. He was reared in Tennessee and Kentucky, and graduated at the St. Louis Medical College, receiving also the ad eundem degree from Dr. Joseph N. McDowell, of McDowell College.
On the breaking out of the civil war Dr. Youngblood was at heart and in feeling a Southern man, but was opposed to secession and in favor of upholding the government. Hence he sought a position in which he could do the most good on both sides. He accordingly joined the army as a surgeon, and in 1863 was placed in charge of Gratiot Street prison, and served in that capacity till 1864. In that year he was sent South with Col. Thomas C. Fletcher's regiment, the Forty-seventh Missouri, and arrived just after the battle of Nashville. Dr. Youngblood was a man of benevolent disposition and charitable to the poor. When his death, which occurred Jan. 24, 1879, became known in the neighborhood, many poor children and their parents called at the office of their benefactor, manifesting regret for the loss of a dear friend.
He married a daughter of Edward J. Xaupi, who survived him, together with five children. A few months before his death he was chosen a member of the School Board.
On April 1, 1881, Dr. A. B. Nichols died at his home in Sparta, Wis. Dr. Nichols was well known in St. Louis, where he had many friends. He was born in Northfield, Vt., in 1842. After traveling about the country for some time he settled at Racine, Wis., where he studied and made wonderful progress in medicine. In 1862 he entered the army as an aid to an assistant hospital surgeon. He attended to hospital duties for about two years. Dr. Nichols was present at the battle of Pittsburgh Landing, and his skillful treatment, during and after the battle, of wounded soldiers gained him favor with the surgeon-general and many other high officers. In 1864 he removed to Sparta and settled there, following his profession until his death. Dr. Nichols left a wife and one child, a son.
That the complaint of over-crowding in the medical profession is no new thing is apparent from the following paragraphs, which appeared editorially in the Missouri Medical and Surgical Journal of August, 1845:
"We have a list of the names of one hundred and forty-six persons who are endeavoring to obtain a livelihood by the practice of the healing art in this city, which includes the homoeopathists, Botanies, Thompsonians, etc. Of this number probably ninety or one hundred hold diplomas. With a population of forty thousand, each would have two hundred and seventy-four persons to attend upon, supposing the whole number to be equally divided; but when we consider the fact that about one-third of the number have a large practice, we are not surprised that a large number are not able to collect enough to pay their expenses, and the consequence is that many, after spending ‘from one to three years and the means which they brought to the city,’ leave and settle in the smaller towns in the surrounding country. Some, who are favored by circumstances, hold on, hoping that with the rapid growth of the city they will finally obtain a lucrative practice; others, determined to be employed, resort to whatever will obtain their ends, regardless of proper respect for themselves or their profession, by giving their professional services for little or nothing and a constant endeavor to build themselves up by injuring the professional reputation of their colleagues. Real merit never goes long unrequited, and it is an acknowledgment of weakness for any one to slander the whole profession because forsooth he has not sufficient merit to retain a lucrative practice.
"While the facilities for obtaining a medical education in St. Louis are not surpassed by those of any city in the West, and the city in its rapid strides to greatness has anything but a sickly appearance, it cannot rationally be supposed that its inhabitants are bound to sustain all the ambitious of the profession who prefer to practice in the West; nevertheless they are always glad to rent them offices."
Medical Societies. There are a number of medical societies in St. Louis, which will be noticed in the order in which they were organized. Those of
the regular school of medicine are the St. Louis Medical Society, the German Medical Society, the St. Louis Medico-Chirurgical Society, the St. Louis Obstetrical and Gynecological Society, the Beaumont Medical Club, and the Scientific Association of German Physicians.
ST. LOUIS MEDICAL SOCIETY. In 1836 a medical society was organized, which was incorporated by a special act of the Legislature Jan. 25, 1837, under the name of the Medical Society of the State of Missouri. For some years its meetings were held monthly from May to November and semi-monthly from November to May, but after 1846 it virtually suspended. In 1850 a new organization was formed, which, under the name of the St. Louis Medical Society, has done a good deal of valuable work and wielded a large influence. Its first officers were B. G. Farrar, M. D., president; Hardage Lane, M. D., vice-president; B. B. Brown, M. D., recording secretary; J. B. Johnson, M. D., corresponding secretary; Y. D. Boiling, M. D., treasurer. The presidents since its first organization to the present time have been the following: B. G. Farrar, M. D., in the years 1836 and 1837; Hardage Lane, M. D., in 1838, '39, '43; Meredith Martin, M. D., in 1840, '42, '45, '65; William Beaumont, M. D., 1841; Stephen W. Adreon, M. D., 1844; Josephus W. Hall, M. D., 1846; R. P. Simmons, M. D., 1850; David Prince, M. D., 1851; George Engelmann, M. D., 1852; John Barnes, M. D., 1853; Thomas Reyburn, M. D., 1854, '57; John S. Moore, M. D., 1855; William M. McPheeters, M. D., 1856; E. H. McGintie, M. D., 1858; M. L. Lenton, M. D., 1859; S. T. Newman, M. D., 1860; M. M. Pallen, M. D., 1861; J. S. B. Alleyne, M. D., 1864; William Johnston, M. D., 1866; A. Hammer, M. D., 1867; Edward Montgomery, M. D., 1868; John H. Walters, M. D., 1869; John T. Hodgen, M. D., 1870; E. H. Gregory, M. D., 1871; E. F. Smith, M. D., 1872; Francis G. Porter, M. D., 1873; G. Hunt, M. D., 1874; J. M. Scott, M. D., 1875; G. M. B. Maughs, M. D., 1876; T. F. Prewitt, M. D., 1877; Thomas Kennard, M. D., 1878; L. Ch. Boisliniere, M. D., 1879; H. H. Mudd, M. D., 1881; William Dickinson, M. D., 1882; and William L. Barret, M. D., 1883.
It is a somewhat remarkable fact that two of the greatest men in the profession that the medical society has numbered among its members never occupied the president's chair, viz.: Dr. Joseph N. McDowell and Dr. Charles A. Pope, the former being a skilled surgeon and the founder and for thirty years the dean of the first medical college established west of the Mississippi River, the latter a most skillful and expert surgeon and for nearly thirty years Professor of Surgery in the St. Louis Medical College.
The St. Louis Medical Society, like all such organizations, has had its times of special interest and profit and its periods of depression and little value. At times its meetings have been fully attended, papers of interest and scientific value have been presented, and discussions have taken place which attracted the attention of physicians throughout this section of country. At other times its halls have been the scene of heated and bitter wrangling, mutual recrimination, charges and counter-charges of professional discourtesy or of unprofessional conduct. On one or two occasions the bitter animosities and differences of opinion growing out of personal antagonism between members have nearly wrecked the society; but the faithful work of some loyal members has kept it alive, and it still continues to be a valuable and profitable organization. Its meetings have been regularly held on Saturday evening of every week.
For a number of years in the early history of the St. Louis Medical and Surgical Journal, abstract reports of the meetings of the Medical Society were published in that journal. For several years now full reports, taken by a short-hand reporter and revised by a committee on publication, have formed a considerable and valuable part of the Journal's contents. The meetings of the society were held in 1835 in Masonic Hall, in 1850 at Westminster Church, afterwards in a hall at the corner of Fourth and Chestnut Streets, then in the commercial school, then for a time in the office of Drs. Jordan and Shumard. When the Academy of Science had its building at Seventh and Myrtle Streets, adjoining the St. Louis Medical College, the building erected by Col. O'Fallon, the Medical Society held its sessions in the Academy Hall. After the burning of that building, arrangements were soon made by which the society meetings have been held at the Polytechnic Building, at Seventh and Chestnut Streets, in a room well adapted for the purpose. One valuable feature of the society is the arrangement made some years ago with the Public School Library, by which the society turns over to the library the membership fees of three dollars per annum for four years, thus securing to the members not only the usual privileges of membership during that time, but also a life-membership ticket after that time, the library agreeing to expend all money so received for medical publications under the direction of the library committee of the Medical Society.
Any reputable regular practitioner resident in the city of St. Louis is eligible for membership in this society. Application for membership may be made
writing by the party seeking admission, or verbally by some member. The application is referred to the committee on elections, to whom must be exhibited the diploma of the applicant. A favorable report of this committee is equivalent to an election, although formally a favorable vote of three-fourths of the members present is necessary in order to constitute an applicant a member. An admission fee of five dollars is required, and a payment of dues to the amount of three dollars each year thereafter. The present membership of the society is not far from one hundred and seventy-five.
The officers of the society for 1883 are: President, William L. Barret, M. D.; Vice-President, G. F. Dudley, M. D.; Recording Secretary, A. H. Ohmann-Dumesnil, M. D.; Corresponding Secretary, Garland Hurt, M. D.; Treasurer, W. E. Fischel, M. D.
THE GERMAN MEDICAL SOCIETY ("Deutsche Medicinische Gesellschaft") was organized in 1850. The society subscribes to the leading European medical journals, and these circulate among the members according to a definite plan. The membership is lirnited to twenty-five. The society has accumulated a large library. The present officers are Dr. G. Baumgarten, president; Dr. Hugo Kinnier, secretary; Dr. W. E. Fischel, treasurer; Dr. George J. Engelmann, librarian.
THE ST. LOUIS MEDICO-CHIRURGICAL SOCIETY was first organized in 1873 under the name of the Medical Club, as a result of a state of affairs in the St. Louis Medical Society, which had led a considerable number of members to cease attending its sessions. There is no permanent presiding officer of this society, some member being chosen at each meeting to preside on that occasion. The secretary, treasurer, and librarian each serve one year. The present officers are George Roman, M. D., secretary; J. P. Kingsley, M. D., treasurer; W. A. Hardaway, M. D., librarian.
When first organized the club met in a hall at Twelfth and Pine Streets, then for several years in room of the Mercantile Library Association. Later, when an arrangement was made to regularly for the most valuable European journals, the meetings were held statedly at the office of the librarian; but as the membership of the society increased and the value of the journal list became more apparent, it was deemed best to secure permanent quarters for the meetings of the society and for a reading-room. Accordingly, a convenient hall was secured in a most desirable location on Washington Avenue near Jefferson Avenue. This has been fitted up with comfortable chairs, cases for books and periodicals, tables for reading and writing, etc. Already the nucleus of a valuable library has been collected through gifts of members and by an arrangement with the Medical Journal and Library Association, by which the exchanges of the Courier of Medicine and the books received by that journal for review are deposited in this room, and are at the disposal of its members.
The following is an alphabetical list of the members of this society: G. Baumgarten, L. Ch. Boislini&eagrave;re, J. K. Bauduy, John P. Bryson, C. E. Briggs, N. B. Carson, C. O. Curtman, D. V. Dean, J. O'F. Delaney, George Engelmann, George J. Engelmann, W. E. Fischel, W. H. Ford, W. A. Frazier, R. M. Funkhouser, E. H. Gregory, E. C. Gehrung, D. C. Gamble, W. C. Glasgow, A. A. Henske, B. M. Hypes, T. E. Holland, W. A. Hardaway, George Homan, J. B. Johnson, E. W. Jamison, W. C. Kennett, J. P. Kingsley, A. P. Lankford, James M. Leete, E. S. Lemoine, I. N. Love, E. Montgomery, J. M. B. Maughs, C. E. Michel, S. G. Moses, G. A. Moses, H. H. Mudd, M. P. Morrell, E. M. Nelson, R. J. O'Reilly, T. F. Prewitt, T. L. Papin, S. Pollak, M. H. Post, P. G. Robinson, E. W. Saunders, P. V. Schenck, James M. Scott, A. B. Shaw, H. N. Spencer, I. G. W. Steedman, A. J. Steele, F. L. Stuever, H. Tuholske, C. A. Todd, O. A. Wall, B. T. Whitmore.
Applicants for membership must be recommended by two members. The name is referred to the executive committee, and posted for two weeks in the hall of the society. If the executive committee report favorably upon the application the name comes before the society, all the members having been notified by postal card of the election. Two adverse ballots exclude an applicant from membership. No physician is eligible for membership in this society until after having practiced medicine in the city for a period of at least two years. The admission fee is ten dollars, and the annual dues are the same amount. The meetings of the society are held on alternate Tuesday evenings throughout the year, and the discussions are regularly reported in the St. Louis Courier of Medicine. A paper is read at each meeting by some member of the society, the order of reading being determined by lot.
THE ST. LOUIS OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL SOCIETY was organized in 1877. Meetings are held on the third Thursday evening of each month, except July and August. Papers are read by the members in turn, and discussions follow upon the paper or verbal reports of cases. The discussions are taken down by a short-hand reporter, and are published
in the St. Louis Courier of Medicine, and have been generally regarded as of very considerable interest and value. The meetings are held at the houses of the different members, and one fact that has had a pronounced influence in sustaining the interest and attendance upon the meetings has been the custom of adding a social to a scientific interest by the serving of a supper to the members after the regular business meeting has been concluded.
The officers of the society for the current year are T. L. Papin, M. D., president; W. H. Ford, M. D., vice-president; Walter Coles, M. D., recording secretary; M. Yarnall, M. D., corresponding secretary; T. F. Prewitt, M. D., treasurer.
The following list embraces the present membership of the society: W. L. Barret, L. Ch. Boislini&eagrave;re, W. Coles, George J. Engelmann, W. H. Ford, E. C. Gehrung, E. H. Gregory, G. M. B. Maughs, E. Montgomery, S. G. Moses, G. A. Moses, William McPheeters, T. L. Papin, T. F. Prewitt, and M. Yarnall. Drs. George Engelmann and Adolph Wislizenus are honorary members.
THE BEAUMONT MEDICAL CLUB was organized in April, 1879, by a number of the younger men of the profession, for the purpose of medical discussion and social intercourse. The meetings were held monthly for a couple of years, but have been discontinued of late. The first officers were I. N. Levi, M. D., president; W. H. Frazier, M. D., secretary; and George Homan, M. D., treasurer. The officers last elected were George Homan, M. D., president; E. M. Nelson, M. D., secretary; J. R. Lemen, M. D., treasurer.
THE SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION OF GERMAN PHYSICIANS ("Wissenschaftliche Verein Deutsche Aerzte") was organized in the fall of 1881. The society meets every other Friday, and at each meeting an essay is read, followed by discussion, pathological specimens are shown, cases presented, and the usual business routine gone through with. Every member is compelled to read an essay when his name is called in the alphabetical order. The society has commenced the formation of a library, for which there is already a respectable nucleus. The present membership numbers twenty-one. There is no permanent president, the presiding officer being selected at each meeting. The secretary is Dr. George Richter; Treasurer, Dr. Joseph Sprigelhalter; Librarian, Dr. A. Alt.
Medical Schools. The history of medical education in St. Louis is an interesting chapter in the history of the profession.
MISSOURI MEDICAL COLLEGE. In 1840, when Joseph Nash McDowell came to St. Louis from Cincinnati, there was a literary institution west of the city, where the old county farm lies just east of the insane asylum. Some of the original stone buildings of the college are still standing. This institution was incorporated with a university charter under the name of "Kemper College." It was established under the auspices of the Episcopal Church, and President Hutchinson was then at its head. Dr. McDowell set to work with enthusiasm, and organized a faculty of medicine to work under the charter of this institution and to be known as the Medical Department of Kemper College. The first course of lectures was delivered in the winter of 1840-41 by the following faculty: Joseph Nash McDowell, Professor of Anatomy and Surgery; John S. Moore, Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children; Josephus W. Hall, Professor of Theory and Practice of Medicine; John De Wolf, Professor of Chemistry; Hiram L. Prout, Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics.
These lectures were delivered in a building erected for the purpose on the high bank of Chouteau's Pond, at the corner of Ninth and Cerré Streets, where the Wainwright brewery now stands.
In 1847, Kemper College having failed, owing to the lack of financial backing, the Medical Department became the Medical Department of the State University, and was so conducted until the general organization of the State University, when a separate charter was procured, under which the college is now conducted as the Medical Department of the Missouri Institute of Science, more commonly known, however, as the Missouri Medical College.
The stone octagonal building on the corner of Eighth and Gratiot Streets was erected for the use of the college, and was occupied by it until the war, when it was confiscated by the United States government and used as a military prison. After the close of the war, when the faculty was reorganized, lectures were again delivered in the same building for three or four years. In 1874 a joint-stock company was formed for the purpose of erecting a new college building. The capital stock of this company amounted to fifty thousand dollars, most of which was taken by members of the faculty. The present site was purchased, and an excellent building erected at the northeast corner of Lucas Avenue and Twenty-third Street at a cost of twenty-five thousand dollars. During the last year the building has been improved and enlarged at an expense of fifteen thousand dollars.
The college is now in a most flourishing condition, with classes numbering between two hundred and three hundred each year. The faculty, as constituted at present, is as follows:
William M. McPheeters, M. D., Emeritus Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics; John S. Moore, M. D., Professor of Principles of Medicine and Hygiene; G. M. B. Maughs, M. D., Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women; P. Gervais Robinson, M. D., Professor of Practice of Medicine and Clinical Medicine; J. K. Bauduy, M. D., LL.D., Professor of Psychological Medicine, Diseases of Nervous System and Clinical Medicine; Charles B. Michel, M. D., Professor of Histology and Opthamology; H. Tuholske, M. D., Professor of Clinical Surgical Pathology; Otto A. Wall, M. D., Ph. G., Professor of Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and Pharmacy; C. A. Todd, M. D., Professor of Anatomy and Diseases of the Ear and Throat; J. P. Kingsley, M. D., Professor of Physiology and Clinical Professor of Diseases of Children; T. F. Prewitt, M. D., Dean, Professor of Principles and Practice of Surgery and Clinical Surgery; C. O. Curtman, M. D., Professor of Chemistry; P. V. Schenck, M. D., Clinical Teacher of Gynecology; C. A. Todd, M. D., Demonstrator of Anatomy and Curator of Museum; Justin Steer, M. D., Assistant Demonstrator; Adjuncts: A. B. Shaw, M. D., Adjunct to Professor of Clinical Medicine and Lecturer on Physical Diagnosis; F. Stuever, M. D., Adjunct to Professor of Ophthalmology; J. R. Lemen, M. D., Assistant to Chair of Surgery.
Hotel for Invalids. In the summer of 1848 the upper stories of the large house situated on the corner of Second and Walnut Streets, previously known as the Paul House, were fitted up as a "hotel for invalids" which was conducted under the supervision of Drs. W. L. Barret and John S. Moore, of Missouri Medical College, as consulting physicians, and Drs. Frazier and Johnson, as resident physicians and surgeons.
Post-Graduate School of the Missouri Medical College. The object of this school is to give practitioners of medicine and recent graduates facilities and advantages for special studies and practical instruction such as cannot be afforded in the ordinary courses of lectures. The faculty of the Post-Graduate School is constituted as follows:
Professor P. Gervais Robinson, M. D., Dean of the Faculty, Physical Diagnosis; Professor John S. Moore, M. D., Malarial Diseases; Professor A. B. Shaw, M. D., Clinical Medicine; Professor A. P. Lankford, M. D., Surgery; Professor H. Tuholske, M. D., Diseases of the Genito-Urinary Organs; Professor T. F. Prewitt, M. D., Surgery; Professor T. L. Papin, M. D., LL. D., Diseases of Women; Professor George J. Engelmann, M. D., Secretary of the Faculty, Operative Midwifery; Professor J. P. Kingsley, M. D., Diseases of Children; Professor Charles E. Michel, M. D., Diseases of the Eye; Professor H. N. Spencer, M. D., Diseases of the Ear; Professor W. A. Hardaway, M. D., Diseases of the Skin; Professor O. A. Wall, M. D., Ph. G., Urinology.
The school was organized in 1880 under the charter of the Missouri Medical College, and its classes are held in the building of that college.
ST. LOUIS MEDICAL COLLEGE. In 1836, after frequent consultations between the trustees of the St. Louis University on the one hand and the St. Louis Medical Society on the other, an agreement was entered into for the appointment of a medical faculty in connection with the university. A constitution was prepared and ratified by both parties, and the Medical Society selected as the first faculty Drs. C. J. Carpenter, J. Johnson, William Beaumont, E. H. McCabe, H. Lane, and H. King. A prospectus of the medical lectures was published annually with that of the literary department of the university, but the medical department was not actually put into operation until the fall of 1842. In the mean time (in 1841) the St. Louis Medical College had been organized, and in 1842 it was chartered as the Medical Department of the St. Louis University. In 1855 it became independent, and was incorporated under its present name, incorporators being John O'Fallon, James H. Lucas, Luther M. Kennett, James Clemens, A. L. Mills, Trusten Polk, G. Penn, W. G. Eliot, James E. Yeatman, J. Laughton, Thomas Allen, and H. D. Bacon.
It was originally located on Washington Avenue facing Tenth Street, where the building still stands, on the grounds of the St. Louis University. The present building is located on the northeast corner of Seventh and Myrtle Streets. It is a large, well-constructed, and substantial building, which was erected for the use of the college in 1850 by the late Col. John O'Fallon. The whole building was remodeled and renovated some three years ago, and an addition built at the rear for the chemical laboratory. There are three lecture-rooms and two dissecting-rooms and a library, besides the museum and smaller rooms set apart for the faculty and other uses.
Last year a building was erected upon the adjoining lot especially for dispensary purposes. On the first floor are a drug-room, waiting-rooms for male and female patients, consultation-room, and amphitheatre for clinical lectures. On the second floor are the rooms for the gynecological clinic of Professor Boislini&eagrave;re, and those for the dental college, laboratory, and operating-room. Several thousand patients have been treated in the year and a half since the dispensary was organized.
The faculty own the buildings, and supply the necessary appliances for teaching and illustration from the income derived from tuition fees. There is no endowment. The course of study in this school is a graded one, extending over three years, the first being devoted to theoretical and demonstrative branches, and the practical subjects and specialties being taken up in the second and third years.
The first dean of the faculty was James V. Prather, M. D., the second was Charles A. Pope, M. D., the third John T. Hodgen, M. D., and the fourth and
present dean is J. S. B. Alleyne, M. D. The faculty is composed of the following physicians and surgeons:
A. Litton, M. D., Professor of Chemistry and Pharmacy; J. B. Johnson, M. D., Professor of the Principles and Practice of Medicine; E. H. Gregory, M. D., Professor of the Principles and Practice of Surgery and Clinical Surgery; J. T. Hodgen, M. D., 255 Professor of Surgical Anatomy, Special Fractures and Dislocations, and Clinical Surgery at the City Hospital; J. S. B. Alleyne, M. D., Dean, Professor of Therapeutics and Materia Medica and Diseases of Children; E. F. Smith, M. D., Professor of Clinical Medicine and Pathological Anatomy; L. Ch. Boislini&eagrave;re, M. D., Professor of Obstetrics; G. Baumgarten, M. D., Professor of Physiology; H. H. Mudd, M. D., Professor of Anatomy and Clinical Surgery at the City Hospital; H. H. Mudd, M. D., Demonstrator of Anatomy; John Green, M. D., Lecturer on Ophthalmology; W. L. Barret, M. D., Lecturer on Diseases of Women; J. M. Scott, M. D., Lecturer on Clinical Medicine; G. A. Moses, M. D., Lecturer on Clinical Gynecology; N. B. Carson, M. D., Assistant to the Chair of Surgery; W. C. Glasgow, M. D., Clinical Lecturer on Physical Diagnosis; W. E. Fischel, M. D., Lecturer on Therapeutics; J. Friedman, M. D., Demonstrator on Chemistry; Edward Evers, M. D., Lecturer on Histology; R. Luedeking, M. D., Lecturer on Pathological Anatomy; J. P. Bryson, M. D., Lecturer on Diseases of the Genitourinary Organs; W. A. McCandless, M. D., Frank R. Fry, M. D., Assistant Demonstrators of Anatomy.
HUMBOLDT INSTITUTE ODER DEUTSCHE. This institution was organized as a German medical college in 1859. Lectures were delivered regularly, and two classes were graduated. It was discontinued during the war, and in 1866 was reorganized as the Humboldt Medical College. The faculty included the following: Dr. F. J. Bernays, Professor of Chemistry and Pharmacy; Dr. G. Bernays, Professor of Materia Medica and Midwifery; Dr. D. Goebel, Professor of Physics and Higher Mathematics; Dr. A. Hammer, Professor of Anatomy, Surgery, and Diseases of the Eye; Dr. F. M. Hauck, Professor of Physiology; Dr. T. C. Hilgard, Professor of Botany, Zoology, and Comparative Anatomy; Dr. C. Roesch, Professor of General and Special Pathology and Therapeutics and Clinical Medicine; Dr. E. Schmidt, Professor of Pathological Anatomy, gerichtlichen Medicine, and Psychiatry.
The first course of lectures was given during the winter of 1866-67. The organization of the college was effected with a view to promoting a higher standard of medical education. In their prospectus the faculty announced the purpose of having a longer term than that of any other medical college in the country, of arranging a graded course, and of affording facilities for instruction in the different specialties.
The faculty at that time consisted of the following gentlemen: D. Goebel, Ph. D., Professor of Natural Philosophy; A. Wadgymar, M. D., Professor of Chemistry and Botany; H. S. Leffingwell, M. D., Professor of General and Descriptive Anatomy; D. V. Dean, M. D., Professor of Physiology, Histology, and Toxicology; G. M. B. Maughs, M. D., Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children, and Acting Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics; I. P. Vaughan, M. D., Professor of Theory and Practice of Medicine; A. Hammer, M. D., Professor of Principles and Practice of Surgery, Ophthalmology, and Clinical Surgery, and Acting Professor of Pathological Anatomy; Hon. James J. Lindley, Professor of Legal Medicine; A. J. Steele, M. D., Prosecutor and Demonstrator of Anatomy; Charles Heyer, Assistant to Chair of Pathology, Anatomy, and Curator of Museum; P. J. Lingenfelder, Assistant to Chair of Clinical Medicine.
The building of the Humboldt College stood and still stands on the lot directly fronting the City Hospital, extending from Linn to Closey Street, upon the south side of Soulard Street. It was an admirable location, and the building was convenient and well arranged for the purpose.
Lectures were delivered for three successive winters, but after the close of the session of 1868-69 most of the members of the faculty resigned, and the college was given up.
ST. LOUIS COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS. After the abandonment of the Humboldt Medical College in 1869, an organization was effected under the name of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, under the leadership of Professor Louis Bauer, who had then recently come to St. Louis from Brooklyn. The faculty consisted of
Louis Bauer, M. D., M. R. C. S., Professor of Surgery; Montrose A. Fallen, M. D., Professor of Gynecology; Augustas F. Barnes, M. D., Professor of Obstetrics; T. F. Prewitt, M. D., Professor of Surgical Anatomy and Diseases of the Skin; J. K. Bauduy, M. D., Professor of Diseases of the Mind and Nervous System; John Green, M. D., Professor of Ophthalmology; G. Baumgarten, M. D., Professor of General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy; I. G. W. Steedman, M. D., Professor of Clinical Surgery and Diseases of the Genito-Urinary Organs; W. B. Outten, M. D., Professor of Descriptive Anatomy: A. J. Steele, M. D., Professor of Military and Minor Surgery, Fractures and Dislocations; F. H. McArdle, M. D., Professor of Chemistry; J. M. Leete, M. D., Professor of Physical Diagnosis and Diseases of the Chest; J. M. Scott, M. D., Professor of Practice of Medicine; Charles E. Briggs, M. D., Professor of Physiology; William L. Barret, M. D., Professor of Diseases of Children; James F. Johnson, M. D., Professor of Materia Medica and Toxicology; William T. Mason, LL. B., Professor of Medical Jurisprudence: A. G. Jackes, M. D., Demonstrator of Anatomy, and Curator of the Museum.
The second year Dr. Barret withdrew from the faculty. Dr. Briggs took the Professorship of Diseases
of Children, and LeGrand Atwood, M. D., became Professor of Physiology. In the course of this second year dissensions sprang up between members of the faculty, and the scheme was abandoned at the close of the year. The building in which the two years' lectures were delivered stands on Locust Street, between Tenth and Eleventh Streets.
It is believed that the first endeavor in the way of a "practitioners' course," with reference to which so much has been said and done within the last few years, was made in connection with the College of Physicians and Surgeons. Special courses of lectures were delivered on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday evenings at eight o'clock, commencing Monday, Nov. 1, 1869; gynecology, Mondays, by Professor Pallen; ophthalmology, Wednesdays, by Professor Green; orthopedic surgery, Fridays, by Professor Bauer. Physicians and advanced students of medicine were cordially invited to attend.
The present St. Louis College of Physicians and Surgeons 256 was incorporated in 1879 by James O. Broadhead, William Hyde, Louis Bauer, M. D., Isaac Cook, Gustav Woltman, Charles P. Warner, L. M. Rumsey, A. A. Millier, Ellis Wainwright, and A. S. Barnes, M. D., and a faculty was chosen. A building was procured on the southwest corner of North Market and Eleventh Streets, which had been previously used for similar purposes. This was fitted up conveniently, a dispensary was organized, and material was thus secured for illustration by clinical lectures. The regular work of the college was commenced in the autumn of 1879, a class of five members being graduated in the spring of 1880. Each succeeding class has increased in numbers.
This college demands of its students a certain amount of knowledge and mental training as preliminary to admission, and requires a three years' graded course of study.
The present faculty is composed of
Louis Bauer, M. D., M. R. C. S., Eng., Dean; William B. Hazard, M. D., Secretary and Registrar. General Departments: Louis Bauer, M. D., M. R. C. S., Eng., Professor of Principles and Practice of Surgery and Clinical Surgery; Algernon S. Barnes, M. D., Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women; Robert M. King, A. M., M. D., Professor of Physiology, Histology, and Clinical Medicine; William G. Moore, M. D., Professor of Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and Clinical Medicine; G. Wiley Broome, M. D., Professor of Anatomy; George W. Hall, M. D., Professor of Practice of Medicine and Clinical Professor of Infantile Diseases; Frank L. James, M. D., Professor of Chemistry and Toxicology. Special Departments: William B. Hazard, M. D., Professor of General Pathology and of Nervous and Mental Diseases; L. H. Laidley, M. D., Professor of the Theory and Practice of Gynecology; R. A. Vaughan, M. D., Professor of Diseases of Children, with Clinic; Joseph G. Lodge, Esq., Professor of Medical Jurisprudence; John T. Larew, M. D., Professor of Minor Surgery; A. D. Williams, M. D., Professor of Ophthalmology and Otology; Edward F. Raband, M. D., Lecturer on Pharmacy; G. Wiley Broome, M. D., Demonstrator of Anatomy.
THE ST. LOUIS SCHOOL OF MIDWIVES was founded in 1854 as Mrs. Carpentier's School of Midwives, and graduated one class after a four months' term of instruction each fall. It was incorporated and placed under its present director, Dr. George J. Engelmann, in 1874, with an English and German class. Dr. W. E. Fischel was the instructor of the English class. This was given up after three years' trial, as there seemed to be no demand for instruction by English-speaking women, and now only the German class is held. Two courses are given annually, one continuing from March 1st to June 12th, the other from September 1st to December 18th. The names of the incorporators were Dr. George J. Engelmann, Mrs. L. Carpentier, Dr. G. Baumgarten, Dr. John T. Hodgen, Dr. Ph. Weigel, Dr. A. Wislizenus, the latter four constituting the board of advisers. The present board consists of Dr. A. Wislizenus, president; Dr. G. Baumgarten, secretary; Dr. Hugo Kinner, and Dr. George J. Engelmann. The school is held at the residence of Mrs. Carpentier, 911 Chouteau Avenue.
THE COLLEGE FOR MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS was incorporated April 11, 1882, and its first session commenced Nov. 11, 1832. It is intended to be what is indicated by the name, a school for instruction in special branches, but does not grant diplomas, only certificates of attendance upon the lectures in one or more branches or in the full course as the case may be. The faculty consists of the following: Thomas F. Rumbold, M. D., Professor of Diseases of the Nose, Throat, Ears, Lungs, and Heart; Edward Borck, A. M., M. D., Professor of Diseases of Children and Clinical Surgery; Hon. Frederick T. Leder-gerber, Professor of Law, Forensic Medicine, and Toxicology; W. B. Outten, M. D., Professor of Railroad Surgery; J. H. Mclntyre, A. M., M. D., Professor of Gynecology. Besides the instruction imparted by these members of the faculty lectures have been given by William Dickinson, A. M., M. D., Professor of Ophthalmology; B. Roemer, M. D., Professor of Diseases of the Nervous System and Venereal Diseases; Garland Hurt, M. D., Etiology, Hygiene, and Management of Diseases; A. H. Ohmann-Dumesnil, A. M., M. D., Skin Diseases; H. Marks, M. D., Demonstrator of Anatomy, Lecturer on Pneumonia.
Non-resident professors: David Prince, M. D., Plastic Surgery, Electro-Therapeutics, and Massage; William A. Byrd, M. D., Surgical Lesions of the Abdominal Viscera; Hiram Christopher, A. M., M. D., Medical Chemistry and Urinology; A. E. Prince, M. D., Demonstrator of Operative Ophthalmology.
THE ST. LOUIS COLLEGE OF PHARMACY was organized in the spring of 1865. 257
At first the meetings of the college were held in the dispensary building of the St. Louis Medical College, and the chairs originally established were those of chemistry and botany, materia medica, and pharmacy. At this time the officers and faculty of the college were:
President, A. Leitch; Vice-Presidents, E. L. Massot and E. Sauder; Corresponding Secretary, J. O'Gallagher, M. D.; Recording Secretary, C. L. Lips, M. D.; Treasurer, M. W. Alexander; Register, J. R. Coleman, M. D.; Board of Trustees, ex officio the officers of the College, E. L. Massot (chairman), J. McBride (secretary), Col. J. O'Fallon, Henry Shaw, I. H. Sturgeon, Drs. J. Barnes, C. Roesch, J. Laughton, M. M. Pallen, Gr. Engelmann, J. T. Hodgen, and Messrs. W. Primm, H. Kirchner, T. Kalb, F. W. Sennewald, E. Fasold, W. D'Oench; Faculty, A. Wadgymar, Professor of Chemistry and Botany; J. S. B. Alleyne, M. D., Professor of Materia Medica; J. O'Gallagher, M. D., Professor of Pharmacy.
The college is now located at the southeast corner of Fifth and Olive Streets, and its officers are F. W. Sennewald, president; Charles Getner, vice-president; Edmund P. Walsh, secretary; W. C. Bolm, corresponding secretary; and S. Boehm, treasurer.
Hospitals, Dispensaries, Medical Charities. ST. LOUIS MULLANPHY HOSPITAL (SISTERS' HOSPITAL). It was in 1828 that the Sisters' Hospital was first instituted. In that year John Mullanphy donated to Joseph Rosatti, then bishop of the Catholic diocese, in trust for this hospital, one hundred feet of ground fronting on Fourth Street and running to Third Street, on the south side of Spruce Street. A small building was erected at first, the remainder of the lot being devoted to a garden and orchard. As occasion required new buildings were erected, until not only the whole frontage on all three streets was covered, but the rear of the lot also, leaving a large area in the centre, used as a promenade by convalescent patients. The first building occupied by the sisters was a log cabin. The four sisters who came here in 1828 were Sister Frances Xavier, who was the first Lady Superior here, Sister Rebecca Dellone, Sister' Frances Regis, and Sister Martina. They were members of the order of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent Vincent de Paul, which was established at Emmittsburg, Md., in 1809, by Mother Seton, a daughter of Dr. Bailey, a celebrated surgeon of New York City. In 1831 four more sisters joined the little community in St. Louis.
In 1831 the corner-stone was laid of the brick building which stood so many years on the corner of Fourth and Spruce Streets. It was the first hospital of the kind established west of the Mississippi, and it has acquired the unquestioned confidence of the community. It is not, however, a public charity in the general acceptation of the term. The public use it, but it is intended to be and should be self-sustaining. Those who are able, go there and pay for attendance, preferring it either to a public or a private hospital, and strangers especially and persons who have no homes of their own prefer it generally to other institutions of the kind.
In the growth of the city westward the original location became an undesirable one for a hospital, and in the middle of July, 1874, the patients were removed to a fine new building in the western part of the city, one square east of Grand Avenue. The building fronts on Montgomery Street, toward the south; the north side is on Cardinal Street, the east side on Colman Street, and the west on Bacon Street.
The cost of the building was not far from one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. The area of the site was five hundred by two hundred and fifty-five feet. The hospital buildings present a stately appearance as one approaches the place along Grand Avenue, the vast pile of brick looming up, with the white facings, above the surrounding elevations. The main buildings, together with the east and west wings, are four stories high, while the connecting wings have a height of only three stories. The interior arrangements of the hospital are all that modern improvements could suggest. The buildings will accommodate three hundred patients comfortably, and contain fifty private rooms, which are all large and elegantly furnished, also large and well-ventilated wards devoted to the different departments of medicine and surgery. The specialties are thoroughly recognized, and we find
distinct departments of surgery, general medicine, diseases of the chest and throat, diseases of women, and diseases the eye and ear. In addition to the usual accommodations, there is also a large and rich polyclinic, consisting of the departments of surgery, medicine, diseases of chest and throat, diseases of women and children, and diseases of the eye and ear. In these clinics patients are treated gratuitously, and medicine is furnished at moderate rates.
There are at present twenty sisters connected with hospital, the entire institution being in charge of Sisters Theresa and Servente.
The names of the Sisters Superior who have had charge of this hospital, with their terms of service, are the following: Sister Frances Xavier, for five years; Sister Rebecca Delorne, for one year; Sister Seraphina, three years; Sister Alexis, twenty-five years; Sister Anacaria, two years; Sister Mary Rosa, four years; Sister Theresa, one year. The medical staff at present comprises the following: E. H. Gregory, M. D., surgeon-in-chief; N. B. Carson, M. D., surgeon; P. Y. Tapper, M. D., assistant; S. Pollak, M. D., surgeon to department of eye and ear; W. C. Glasgow, M. D., physician to department of diseases of the chest and throat; L. L. McCabe, M. D., physician to male medical department; B. T. Whitmore, M. D., assistant; G. A. Moses, M. D., physician to female medical department; F. A. Glasgow, M. D., assistant.
Dr. E. H. Gregory, surgeon-in-chief of the hospital, was born near Russellville, Ky., Sept. 10, 1824. He was educated in Kentucky, at an institution of which his father had charge. He graduated in medicine from the Medical Department of the St. Louis University in 1849, and after practicing medicine for two or three years in Cooper and Morgan Counties, Mo., removed to St. Louis in 1852. He has been connected with the St. Louis Medical College as Demonstrator of Anatomy and Professor of Surgery since 1852, and has for many years been at the head of the medical organization of the Sisters' Hospital. He is a popular lecturer, an able surgeon of conservative tendency, and has had the best success in ovariotomy of any operator in St. Louis.
ST. ANN'S WIDOWS' HOME, LYING-IN HOSPITAL, AND FOUNDLING ASYLUM. This institution was organized May 12, 1853, and was incorporated in March, 1859, in the name of the Sisters of Charity. It was originally situated in the southern part of the city, on the corner of Marion and Minard Streets, in a house hired for the purpose. The present building on the southeast corner of O'Fallon and Tenth Streets was erected in 1857-58, and was first occupied Sept. 8, 1858. The physicians who have had professional charge of the lying-in hospital were Dr. L. Ch. Boislini&eagrave;re, from 1853 to 1861; Dr. Shumard, 1861 to 1865; E. L. Feehan, 1865 to 1874; Dr. William Reilly, 1874 to 1879; Dr. A. A. Henske, from 1879 to the present time.
The ground on which this building was erected was donated by Mrs. Ann Biddle, and the institution takes its name from her. The lying-in patients accommodated in this hospital (including private patients) number from one hundred and twenty-five to one hundred and fifty per annum. The number of infants received (born in the house and brought thither as foundlings) was three hundred and eighty-five in the year 1882.
ST. VINCENT'S INSTITUTION FOR THE INSANE, situated on the southeast corner of Marion and Decatur Streets, was founded Aug. 10, 1858, by the Sisters of Charity. The archbishop by way of encouragement gave them a lease for ten years on their present building, which was originally built for an orphanage. By 1867 the sisters had paid for the house. During the next year they built an addition and raised the old building one story. There is now a centre building fronting on Decatur Street and two wings. In 1881 the sisters were incorporated under the name of St. Vincent's Institution for the Insane, under the management of the Sisters of Charity, with. Sister Julia as superior. The building is large, well ventilated, and fitted up with every convenience necessary for an institution of that character. The grounds on which the building stands cover an entire block, and are laid out in shady walks. All classes of insane persons and of all denominations, without regard to the duration of the disease or its curability, are admitted; also a limited number of those addicted to the use of opium and other stimulants to excess. A farm belonging to the institution, a short distance in the country, affords a source of much pleasure and recreation for the patients during the spring and summer. The asylum is private. Patients who are able pay, and what is left after defraying the actual expenses goes towards the support of the charity patients, of whom there is an average of forty-five in the house. Dr. John A. Seavy was the first physician in charge of the institution, and its present medical attendants are Dr. Jerome K. Bauduy, who has been the attending physician for nearly a score of years, and Dr. A. B. Shaw, who has recently been associated with him.
DISPENSARY. As heretofore stated, the first free dispensary for the gratuitous treatment of the poor was established by Drs. S. G. Moses, William McPheeters,
George Johnson, J. B. Johnson, C. A. Pope, and Joseph Clark. Drs. Beaumont and Hardage Lane were the consulting physicians. The six young physicians first mentioned pledged each other that they would each give an hour a day to the work at the dispensary and take charge of out-door cases in one of the city wards, and that they would carry on the work for five years. The out-door service in the different wards was changed every six months, so as to equalize the work as much as possible. Dr. Moses was president of the organization. Through the kind offer of Dr. Eliot, the basement of the Unitarian Church, which then stood on the northwest corner of Pine and Fourth Streets, was placed at their disposal, and was occupied for some years. At the end of the first year the dispensary was several hundred dollars in debt. At that time an ordinance was passed by virtue of which the president of the dispensary was made an honorary member of the Board of Health, and an appropriation of five hundred dollars per annum was secured, thus enabling them to procure a stock of medicine and lighten the expense materially. A number of philanthropic citizens contributed generously to the support of the undertaking, among whom the Mullanphy family may be mentioned specially. Collections were taken up in the churches for the same object. Gradually the debt was extinguished, and when the dispensary was given up, seven years after its establishment, it owed nothing. It was discontinued because the city established a public dispensary and withdrew the appropriation for medicines for this charity. The colleges also had established dispensaries, and the original dispensary seemed to be no longer needed.
CITY HOSPITAL. At the meeting of the City Council on the 10th of July, 1845, an ordinance was passed directing the appointment of a committee of five to select a building site and cause plans to be made for a city hospital. The committee selected a tract of ground, embracing about twenty-eight acres, in the city common, at the head of Soulard Street and west of St. Ange Avenue, bounded north by Linn Street and south by Lafayette Avenue, the same ground where the hospital now stands. This site was originally occupied by the St. Louis cemetery. The land was surveyed by Henry Kayser, city engineer, and contracts were awarded in August of that year for the construction of the building. The hospital was partly completed (the original plans as prepared by Thomas Walsh were not fully carried out), and was immediately put to use in August, 1846. The building was then one hundred and eleven feet long by fifty and a half feet wide, which was but the northern half of the whole front, originally designed to be two hundred and thirteen feet in length, with extended wings on each side running westwardly. It was three stories in height, inclusive of stone basement nine feet above ground. Besides rooms for domestic purposes and officers' quarters, there were on the principal floor three wards for patients, and on the second floor six wards. The wards measured from nineteen by nineteen and a half to nineteen by thirty-eight feet. The part of the building then completed cost $17,068.57. Drs. John S. Moore and M. M. Fallen, health officers under Mayor Bernard Pratte, were appointed to take charge of the hospital, and to have the sick removed from the St. Louis Hospital, where they had previously been attended to at the city's expense.
The succeeding mayor, Peter G. Camden, was empowered to appoint, by and with the consent of the Council, a resident physician to serve one year at a salary of two hundred dollars per annum; four attending physicians, to be selected from the medical schools of the city alternately, each physician to serve three months; four consulting physicians to serve one year, and one steward and one matron, at a yearly salary, respectively, of six hundred and two hundred dollars.
The hospital could accommodate about ninety patients, and was supplied with few conveniences. The grounds were not inclosed. The following was the staff of officers under the first organization: Dr. David O. Glasscock, resident physician; Col. N. Wyman, steward; Mrs. Susan F. Wyman, matron; Drs. B. Bush Mitchell, J. B. Johnson, Charles A. Pope, and Thomas Barbour, attending physicians; Drs. William Beaumont, John S. Moore, Thomas Reyburn, and J. N. McDowell, consulting surgeons. The second resident physician was Dr. D. M. Cooper, assisted by Drs. E. F. Smith and John T. Hodgen. Dr. David Prince, now of Jacksonville, Ill., was resident physician of the hospital during the cholera season of 1849 until the epidemic had to a great extent subsided, when he was succeeded by Dr. T. Y. Bannister, who held the position until 1857. He was succeeded by Dr. O. C. Johnson, and he by Dr. L. T. Pine; then followed in order Drs. A. Jaminet, J. V. L. Brokaw, R. H. Paddock, Charles Spinzig, J. W. Hall, E. D. Clark, J. G. Morgan, T. F. Prewitt, G. Hurt, and D. V. Dean, who still holds the position, and under whose charge the institution has been greatly improved in efficiency and equipment, while the expense of administration has been materially diminished.
On May 15, 1856, the hospital was almost wholly destroyed by fire, which broke out about three o'clock in the morning in the lecture-room in the southwest wing of the building, and in a few hours only a ruin
was left. The patients were all removed, and those who were unable to assist themselves were carried to the Sisters' Hospital at Fourth and Spruce Streets, where they were cared for. Only one life was lost, that of an insane Italian, who rushed back into the flames after having been once rescued. Arrangements were then made for the use of a part of the United States Marine Hospital and of the buildings on the county farm until the hospital could be rebuilt. In May, 1857, the main building and extension of the hospital were completed, but were not occupied until the following July. The total cost of rebuilding the hospital was $46,079.16; the engines, outhouses, fences, etc., cost about $16,000.
The grounds of the hospital contain some eight acres. An ornamental garden about forty feet wide lies between the front of the building and Linn Street, on which it fronts. The main building is in the shape of an "L," the wing facing toward Lafayette Avenue.
During the years 1873-74 a new wing was erected on the Lafayette Avenue side of the lot four stories in height, including the basement. It is "T"-shaped, measuring thirty-four by one hundred and twenty feet and thirty-eight by fifty-six feet. This has relieved to a considerable degree the overcrowded condition of the hospital, but the building is still inadequate to the requirements of so large a city as St. Louis.
THE HOUSE OF INDUSTRY was opened Oct. 1, 1872, for the reception of patients, and was devoted to the treatment of women who were sent thither on certificate of the examining physicians under the "social evil" registration law. Dr. E. P. Powers was the resident physician until the spring of 1875, when Dr. P. V. Schenck was appointed to that position, and the hospital was made a general female hospital for the reception of all the female patients of the city, except such cases of emergency and night cases as cannot be carried to such a distance. The building is a fine brick structure, situated upon high ground in the western part of the city, one mile west of Tower Grove Park. The present superintendent is Dr. George F. Hulbert.
THE UNITED STATES MARINE HOSPITAL, 258 for the treatment of sick and disabled seamen of the merchant marine, is situated on Marine Avenue, south of the United States Arsenal, in the southern portion of the city overlooking the river, and is distant about three miles from the custom-house. The surgeon in charge is Dr. Henry W. Sawtelle. The local quarantine station is about twelve miles below the city, and during the sickly season all vessels hailing from epidemic regions are carefully inspected, good accommodations being provided for those persons who are detained for examination or treatment.
By the act of 3d March, 1837, an appropriation was made, and authority given the President of the United States to cause to be selected suitable sites for marine hospitals on the Western waters for the benefit of sick seamen, boatmen, and all other navigators on the Western rivers and lakes, restricting the number to three on the Mississippi, three on the Ohio, and one on Lake Erie. To accomplish its provisions the President was authorized to call to his aid a board of the medical staff of the army. The commission appointed under the provisions of this act reported in November, 1837, which report was laid before Congress with the documents accompanying the President's message to the second session of the Twenty-fifth Congress. In that report, among other sites selected and contracted for, was one at St. Louis, for the sum of seven thousand four hundred and sixty-eight dollars.
The board of surgeons, in their report, state: "From the most authentic information in their reach, there were at that time navigating the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers 638 steamboats, requiring the employment of 15,950 hands, and the number of officers and hands navigating those rivers in keel- and flat-boats was estimated at 30,000, making the aggregate number engaged in navigating those rivers 45,940 men." The same report, when remarking on the site selected at St. Louis, says, "St. Louis, as the site selected for the third and last hospital on the Mississippi River, presents such superior and evident claims over every other town on the upper portion of the river that it is hardly necessary to enumerate them."
By the act of the 29th of August, 1842, Congress appropriated the sum of seven thousand four hundred and sixty-eight dollars, the amount which had been stipulated in the contract made by the board of surgeons with William C. Carr for the site selected by them at St. Louis. The money not having been appropriated and paid within the time stipulated, Mr. Carr having declined executing the conveyance, and no further action having been taken by Congress, the money appropriated reverted back to the treasury.
The Treasury Department, however, contracted for the maintenance of patients at the Charity Hospital in St. Louis, at three dollars per week for each one, board, lodging, nursing, medical attendance, etc., supplied by the hospital. At these prices the funds
assigned went but little way in supplying the numerous persons claiming aid.
On the 13th of January, 1846, Hon. James H. Relfe introduced into Congress a resolution instructing the Committee on Commerce to inquire into the expediency of establishing a marine hospital at St. Louis. The necessary legislation was secured, and a board of surgeons appointed in 1848 to select a site, the amount of the purchase-money being limited to ten thousand dollars. In 1849 the additional sum of twenty thousand dollars was appropriated. A site was selected on the ground known as the Magazine lot, situated about half a mile below the United States Arsenal, and between Carondelet Avenue and the Mississippi River, which was transferred to the medical service by the War Department in 1850. In January, 1852, the hospital was under roof, and about the 1st of August, 1855, was occupied by the Marine Hospital patients, who were then divided between the City Hospital and the Charity Hospital. After the act passed for the erection of the Marine Hospital, Dr. J. N. McDowell was appointed hospital physician.
The building erected in 1855 is a parallelogram, one hundred and eight feet by eighty-seven. It has three floors, a basement, an attic, and a cupola, and the roof is pyramidal. Each floor on both east and west sides has open porticoes, fifty-four feet by ten, which are connected with the wards by large central and end halls. On each floor are eight large rooms or wards, with small rooms on the extreme corners, which open into the side hallways. The kitchen, convalescents' and attendants' dining-rooms, dispensary, office, and surgeon's quarters are on the first floor, the wards for patients being on the second and third. While the external conditions are excellent, the grounds being high and rolling, with a free circulation of air, the internal arrangements, both as regards ventilation and easy management, are defective, the only escape for the impure air, except through the windows and doors, being found in the octagonal cupola, four sheet-iron pipes passing through the roof, six small skylights, and four wooden shafts opening from the outside into the east and west attic rooms, with no provision to convey the foul air from the wards to the attic.
During the civil war the hospital was used for the sick and wounded of the army, and to meet the emergency temporary wards were constructed of rough material after the barrack plan on three sides of a square just north of the main building, the stone walls around the court forming an oblong square, within which were built a large stone powder magazine and a wooden tank-house. The wards are four hundred and fifty-one feet in length, nineteen and one-fourth in width, and nine and one-half in height, which, with the present average number of patients, gives sixteen hundred and forty-nine cubic feet of air-space per man. They are well ventilated by thirteen wooden shafts passing through the centre of the roof. A piazza extends entirely around the outside of the building.
Three experiments have been made at heating the main building. Originally hot-air furnaces were used, and subsequently fireplaces and stoves, which in turn gave place to a steam-heating apparatus. Through some defect, however, sufficient heat could not be maintained by the latter method, and the apparatus was removed several years ago. Stoves and open grates have since been depended upon. The pavilion wards are also heated by means of large stoves.
In the autumn of 1879 the temporary pavilion wards were repaired sufficiently to make them suitable for winter use. The walls were clap-boarded, a new composition roof and stone porches were built, and the open spaces under the veranda sheathed. During the summer of the same year an abundant water supply was obtained by tapping the city main on Marine Avenue in front of the hospital, and the old tank-house was torn down, together with the remaining portion of the stone wall at the south end of the court which originally formed the square. The stone powder-house or magazine still remains, and is used to accommodate the engine, boiler, and laundry. Ground was broken for the new executive building of the hospital Sept. 15, 1881, and the building was completed and ready for occupation Feb. 15, 1882. The plans were prepared under the direction of the surgeon-general. The building stands on the northwest portion of the reservation, commanding a fine view of the river and surrounding country. It is a brick structure, forty-four feet front by forty-two, with limestone caps for the windows and doors, and a veranda in front, and is connected with the pavilion wards by a covered way. It has two floors and a basement, attic and observatory. The basement rooms are used principally for store-rooms.
The surgeon's office, reception-room, dispensary, and operating-room are on the first floor, and the second floor is occupied as quarters for the steward and attendants. The main hall is ten feet wide, with a marble-tiled floor, and the interior trimmings are of Eastlake design. All the doors have transoms, which operate by patent fastenings. The rooms are provided with ventilating registers which open into
flues and terminate in the attic, from which point tin tubes are carried immediately under the slate roof to the ventilating louvres in the roof lunettes of the observatory. The first floor is heated by a furnace and open grates, with anthracite coal as fuel. The second floor is heated by means of small stoves. The dispensary, operating-room, and officers' bath-room are provided with hot water from a cylinder boiler, with proper attachments to a small base-heater. The building contains all the latest improvements and conveniences, and is admirably adapted for its purposes.
QUARANTINE HOSPITAL. Prior to 1854 the quarantine station was on Arsenal Island, but as the southern part of the city became more densely peopled, objections were made to the hospital being kept in that location, and arrangements were made for its removal to a location some eleven and a half miles south of the city. In 1855 two small, badly-ventilated buildings were constructed for the reception of such patients as might be taken from the boats, and a stone house already upon the property refitted for the residence of the officers. In 1867 four large buildings upon Arsenal Island were removed to quarantine, and thus a first-class hospital was established there. This hospital was discontinued as a general hospital, but is continued now as a smallpox hospital, and during the yellow fever season of 1878 yellow fever cases were taken there. Dr. A. Montgomery was the resident physician in 1867; in 1869, Dr. Thomas Fox had charge, and in 1870, Dr. Robert A. Burgess. Then followed Drs. S. H. Brokaw and R. A. Anderson. The latter officer was in charge of the hospital when it was discontinued as a general hospital.
ST. LUKE'S HOSPITAL. Two preliminary meetings were held in the early part of the month of November, 1865, in a room in the Mercantile Library by a few zealous Episcopalians, for the purpose of considering the advisability and the need of establishing a hospital for the sick, and for furthering other church work in a portion of the city needing the labors of a missionary. Those present were Rev. J. P. Cannon, M. D., and William H. Thompson, R. H. Spenger, H. S. Brown, J. R. Triplett, E. H. Mead, B. E. Walker, Charles Thaw, R. M. Wilson, W. T. Mason, B. A. Corbett, E. P. Curtis, M. N. Burchard, J. Percival, F. A. Lane, Henry Brown, V. W. Knapp, Herbert Bell, M. Williams, James Mitchell, W. B. Crittenden, and Mr. Donaldson.
At their suggestion a meeting was called by Bishop Hawks in the basement of St. George's Church of the rectors and members of the Episcopal Church in the city, to which the whole matter was referred. At that meeting there were present of the clergy the Rev. Drs. Berkley and Schuyler, and the Rev. Messrs. McKim and Spencer; of the laity, J. P. Down, J. W. Luke, Edward Mead, R. H. Franklin, J. F. Madison, Francis Hawks, H. S. Brown, Charles Mauro, Judge W. F. Ferguson, and Dr. J. J. Clark. Articles of organization were approved, and the name "St. Luke's Association" was adopted.
A building was erected for a hospital on an elevated plateau with spacious grounds between Ohio and Sumner Streets, and was in many respects admirably adapted to the purpose. The first patient was not admitted until the following April. The first medical staff was composed of Drs. J. B. Johnson, J. S. B. Alleyne, J. J. McDowell, J. J. Clark, E. S. Lemoine, F. V. L. Brokaw, T. F. Prewitt, and James P. Gallagher.
During the summer of 1866, St. Louis was visited by that fearful scourge, Asiatic cholera, and St. Luke's Infirmary was thrown open to the public for gratuitous treatment of cholera patients during its continuance. The history of the hospital was for years one of financial embarrassment and painstaking, earnest endeavor on the part of the board of trustees to secure and wisely dispose of the funds necessary to make it a success.
In September, 1867, an important step was taken in the right direction. It was resolved "that, for the purpose of insuring greater efficiency in the household management, a board of lady visitors be constituted, to consist of two ladies for each city parish." The experience of over three years convinced the friends of the hospital that in its then location it was too far removed from the centre of population, and particularly inaccessible for surgical patients brought in from railroads and demanding immediate care. A removal was, therefore, determined upon and effected in the month of March, 1870, to the corner of Elm and Sixth Streets.
Upon this removal rooms were furnished by the ladies of Christ Church and St. George's, and also the Good Samaritan room by Mrs. Triplett. A new interested seem to be aroused among the ladies by reason of the nearness and accessibility of the hospital. In November, 1873, Dr. Pottinger was elected visiting physician, and Dr. Hodgen invited to act as surgeon-in-chief, and Dr. Pallen as assistant. In June, 1873, the hospital was removed to a building on the north side of Pine Street, between Ninth and Tenth Streets.
At the annual meeting in 1874 the board reported the hospital as entirely out of debt. For some years every effort has been put forth to secure the means for erecting a building for the hospital. This has at
length been accomplished, and now the hospital (the corner-stone of which was laid on the 26th of June, 1881) is located at the northeast corner of Washington Avenue and Twentieth Street. The structure, which cost forty-one thousand dollars, is built on land donated by Henry Shaw, and was dedicated on Whitsunday, May 28, 1882. Messrs. Barnett & Taylor were the architects of the building, in the internal arrangements of which, under the supervision of Dr. John Green, every device and appliance for the care of the sick suggested by modern science has been carried out. The outside walls are double, with air-chambers between, and the floors are of marble or of yellow-pine stained and waxed. The other woodwork is of sweet-gum, with ash and cypress, oiled. The plumbing and ventilation are in accordance with strict sanitary conditions. There is a fire-proof Whittier elevator, large enough for a cot and patient, and the rooms are furnished luxuriously, most of them being memorial gifts, as, for instance, the reception-room, furnished by Mrs. Kennett; the waiting-room, by Mrs. Sides; the private parlor, by Mrs. Foster; two rooms to the memory of the late Dr. John T. Hodgen, by E. C. Simmons and Mrs. Tyler; the Schuyler room, by Christ Church; the Holy Communion room, by the church of that name; Trinity room, by Trinity Church; Mount Calvary room, by Mount Calvary Church; the Susan E. Larkin, St. Barbara's, and Buchanan memorial rooms, by ladies who withhold their names; and other rooms by Mrs. Wainwright, Mrs. Thornburgh, Mrs. Whitelaw, Mrs. Pickham, Mrs. Plant, Mrs. Dimmock, Mrs. Lewis, and others. The internal management of the hospital since 1872 has been under the control of the Sisterhood of the Good Shepherd.
In that year the Sisterhood transferred their residence from Baltimore to St. Louis, and immediately took charge of the internal management of the hospital. They also have control of the Protestant Episcopal Orphans' Home, which they relinquished in 1874 to establish the School of the Good Shepherd for Girls. This was carried on for three years at 1532 Washington Avenue, and was then removed to 2029 Park Avenue, where it is now. There are now in the order eight full sisters, one probationer, and three associated sisters.
The present medical staff of St. Luke's Hospital are Drs. H. H. Mudd, junior surgeon; E. S. Lemoine, J. S. B. Alleyne, John Green, W. L. Barret, W. E. Fischel, M. H. Post, William Porter, R. H. Realhofer, G. F. Gill.
THE PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL ORPHANS' HOME, on Grand Avenue, at the head of Lafayette Avenue, was organized in 1848 by Rev. Whiting Griswold, rector of St. John's Church. Its first site was the corner of Eleventh and North Market Streets. Its present home was erected in 1873 at a cost of forty thousand dollars, on land given by Henry Shaw. It has endowments amounting to about forty thousand dollars, and provides for about sixty children at a time. Carrie V. Burchard is matron, and Rev. Benjamin E. Reed is chaplain.
THE ST. LOUIS EYE AND EAR INFIRMARY, AND INFIRMARY FOR DISEASES OF THE THROAT, was incorporated Dec. 23, 1871. It was located at Nos. 1407 and 1409 North Twelfth Street (between O'Fallon Street and Cass Avenue), and was established for the gratuitous treatment of all poor persons suffering from affections of the eye, ear, and throat. The dispensary was open daily (except Sunday) from 1 to 2.30 o'clock P. M.
The following gentlemen composed the board of trustees:
James E. Yeatman, president, William G. Eliot, John B. Johnson, Albert Todd, Carlos S. Greeley, Henry Hitchcock, William Glasgow, Jr., secretary and treasurer; consulting physicians, J. B. Johnson, M. D., William M. McPheeters, M. D., T. L. Papin, M. D., John T. Hodgen, M. D., E. H. Gregory, M. D., G. Baumgarten, M. D.; attending surgeons, John Green, M. D., H. N. Spencer, M. D., William C. Glasgow, M. D., Charles A. Todd, M. D.
After being sustained for a couple of years at the site mentioned, the staff discontinued their service as such, and Dr. John Green transferred the infirmary to St. Luke's Hospital, in connection with which it is still carried on.
ST. JOHN'S HOSPITAL is one of several enterprises carried on under the fostering care of the Sisters of Mercy, an order established in the city of Dublin, Ireland, by Miss Catherine McAuley. The sisters first came to St. Louis in 1856, and established a school at Tenth and Morgan Streets. As they gained influence and means they undertook other work, and in 1871, at the suggestion of Drs. Papin and Yarnall, they established an infirmary for women and children. This rapidly grew and necessitated enlargement of accommodations and extension of facilities until now, besides the main building on the corner of Morgan and Twenty-third Streets, to which they moved in 1861, wings have been erected on each of those streets, and accommodations are now afforded for one hundred and fifty patients, which can readily be increased to two hundred as occasion demands. The medical service is now under the direction of the faculty of the Missouri Medical College, whose fine building on Twenty-third Street and Lucas Avenue is directly connected with the hospital. One wing of
the building is devoted to male and another to female patients, and different wards are set apart for surgical and medical cases, while there is a considerable number of single rooms which patients can have to themselves with the privilege of employing any physician whom they may choose. The sisters also conduct a school for poor girls, and an industrial school for children, and supply lodging for deserving women out of employment. Mother De Pazzi, the Superior, has been with the convent since its organization.
ALEXIAN BROTHERS' HOSPITAL. The order which conducts this institution was established in Germany in the fourteenth century, during the prevalence of the plague known as the "black death," and for the purpose of ministering to its victims. It has since been devoted to the care of the sick and insane. The St. Louis branch was established in October, 1869, and chartered March, 1870, with Brother Stanislaus Schwiperich as its first president, and Brother Prochus Schutte as secretary. The first house occupied (a small one) was bought with the grounds in 1870; the present building (the corner-stone of which was laid June 6, 1873) has a front of one hundred and seventy-six feet by a depth of thirty feet, and was opened for patients June 4, 1874. The building, which is situated at Jefferson Avenue and Osage Street, is of an imposing exterior, and is fitted up with every appliance for the care and comfort of its inmates. It will accommodate one hundred patients. The grounds contain about four and a half acres, and bear eloquent testimony to the industry and gardening skill of the brothers. During the year 1881 nine hundred and thirty-six patients were treated. The hospital is open to people of all denominations, and the poor are received without charge, but those able are expected to pay. It is mainly supported, however, by collections and donations. The present officers are Brother Jodacus Schiffer, president; Brother Hubert Cremer, vice-president; Brother Dominieus, secretary; Brother Proehus, treasurer. The hospital is attended by Drs. Gregory, Lutz, and Wesseler.
THE ST. LOUIS LYING-IN CHARITY AND LYING-IN HOSPITAL. This charity was incorporated Nov. 30, 1874, its object being "to inaugurate an institution whereby a mother with a family of dependent children could be, in the hour of her extremity, attended to and relieved of her suffering, as also one whereat the sick and helpless of her sex could at all times apply for medical and surgical aid."
A board of directors was appointed, consisting of Drs. John B. Johnson, president; George J. Engelmann, secretary; John T. Hodgen, Philip Weigel, A. Wislizenus, and G. Baumgarten. The medical staff consisted of Dr. George J. Engelmann, physician-in-chief; Dr. G. Baumgarten, consulting physician; and Drs. E. M. Nelson, Edward Evers, W. Wyman, W. E. Fischel, A. M. Bierwirth, and I. N. Love, attending physicians. The members of the graduating classes at the St. Louis School of Mid-wives volunteered their services to nurse patients of the charity during the following year.
A committee of prominent ladies from different parts of the city was organized, and took an active part in raising funds, and in other ways extending the influence and usefulness of the organization, while the leading druggists filled gratuitously prescriptions written by the medical staff for patients of the charity. The first patient was attended at her own home under the auspices of the charity Jan. 22, 1875.
One year after the organization of the out-door department it was deemed practicable to inaugurate the hospital. This was done by renting the building 2834 Franklin Avenue, now occupied by the Children's Hospital, which was partially furnished and opened Dec. 1, 1875.
In March, 1877, the hospital was moved to the building on the northwest corner of Clark Avenue and Fifteenth Street, where the work was continued until the close of the year 1879, when it was found necessary to give it up for lack of means to continue it. During the five years of its existence a great deal of good was accomplished.
THE MISSOURI EYE AND EAR INFIRMARY was founded in 1876 by Dr. R. Gebser, and incorporated in August of that year. Dr. Gebser carried on the infirmary at his own expense for three and a half years, until his death, since which time it has been kept up by Dr. W. A. Frazier, who was associated with Dr. Gebser. The infirmary is located at 1304 Chestnut Street, and has been the means of affording relief to a large number of worthy poor.
CONVENT AND HOSPITAL OF THE FRANCISCAN SISTERS. In 1865 four sisters of the Order of St. Francis (better known as Franciscan Sisters) came from Germany and built a convent near Carondelet, south of the River des Peres. This was burned in 1877, and the sisters removed to St. Louis, purchasing from Father Henry, of St. Lawrence O'Toole's Church, the lot (one hundred by one hundred and twenty-seven and a half feet) on which their convent now stands, at the southeast corner of O'Fallon and Fourteenth Streets. The sisters who first came in 1865 afterwards returned to Germany, but not before others had come to supply their places. In 1877, Sister Bernarda Passman, banished from
Germany for political reasons, came to St. Louis, and was made Mother Superior, which position she has since retained. In January, 1878, the Order at St. Louis was chartered, with Sisters Bernarda Passman. Alfonsa Cormann, and Cecilia Hawig as incorporators. Their house was erected in 1878-79, and Pius Hospital (as they call it) received its first patient on Jan. 1, 1880. The sisters, of whom there are now twenty in the establishment, also provide board and lodging for servant-girls out of place, at low rates and on easy terms of payment.
ST. LOUIS PROTESTANT HOSPITAL. In the spring of 1881 a "Medical Mission" was organized under the supervision of a committee from the board of directors of the Young Men's Christian Association. Rooms were fitted up in a building that belonged to the association, a small stock of drugs was procured, and a medical staff was appointed consisting of Drs. L. H. Laidley, E. M. Nelson, F. R. Fry, E. W. Saunders, and M. H. Post. Circulars were sent out, and one of the physicians was in attendance at certain hours every day. The dispensary work was carried on under this form of organization, except that Dr. Saunders withdrew from the medical staff, until about the end of the year, when the work was enlarged by fitting up the remaining rooms of the building as a hospital for the reception of patients. In the autumn of 1882 an organization was effected under the name of the St. Louis Protestant Hospital Association, and a charter was procured. The incorporators were E. O. Stanard, E. H. Semple, Charles W. Barstow, J. G. Chapman, S. M. Dodd, George W. Parker, W. P. Mullen, E. P. V. Bitter, George A. Baker, F. L. Johnston, George S. Edgell, James H. Wear, and I. M. Mason.
The officers of the Medical Mission transferred to the new association all their medicines and hospital stores and furnishings. The following gentlemen constitute the medical staff of the hospital, in connection with which the regular dispensary service is still maintained: Drs. L. H. Laidley, E. M. Nelson, M. H. Post, G. Armstrong, W. G. Moore, P. Y. Tupper, and Frank P. Johnson.
It is still the day of small things with this institution, but it promises to become one of great value and usefulness.
ST. LOUIS INSANE ASYLUM. In St. Louis City and County, up to within a few years, no provision for the insane poor had been made, and the county authorities were finally compelled to make such arrangements as enabled them to send their insane to the State asylum at Fulton. This plan, however, was found expensive and inconvenient, and the necessity of having a county insane asylum was plainly suggested. The matter came up before the County Court at different times during the years of 1861 and 1862, but no definite action was taken until the 20th of April, 1864, when the motion of Judge Fisse, submitted Dec. 10, 1863, to erect a county insane asylum, was taken under consideration by the court. The original motion contemplated a building with a capacity for one hundred patients, but when the matter came to be discussed it was generally admitted this was insufficient to meet the wants of the county. In the mean time, William Rumbold, county architect, was instructed to prepare plans to be submitted to the court. On the 21st of July, 1864, the first allowance in connection with the project was made by the court for the purchase of a tract of land in the vicinity of the county poor-house, which was deemed advisable to include in the ground, consisting of one hundred and forty arpens. The inception of the enterprise was attended with the usual delays and difficulties. On the 21st of August, 1864, the plan prepared and submitted by Mr. Rumbold was approved, but the work did not commence till late in the fall. The site chosen was an elevated piece of ground a short distance west of the county poor-house, being part of what is known as the county farm, from which there is a wide prospect on all sides of an undulating and fertile country. The work progressed steadily, and as the design of the architect, in character and extent, became evident the magnitude of the undertaking began to excite alarm. Mr. Rumbold always maintained that the building could not have been made smaller and meet the wants of the county, and that the future would even render necessary a further increase of accommodation, and time has shown that even he underestimated the demands that would be made upon the asylum. Mr. Rumbold died during the progress of the work, and was succeeded by Edward Mortimer, superintendent, and John F. Durham, assistant.
The general appearance of the edifice is that of a massive, substantial structure, built to endure, and for a practical purpose rather than for architectural display. It consists of a centre building five stories in height, with wings three stories in height branching out at the east and west sides. Each of these wings terminates in what architects call "an arm," or, more intelligibly, a building broader and higher than the body of the wing, and forming a cross at either end of the edifice. The projections thus formed, and also by the centre building, which is considerably broader than the wings, relieve the structure from monotony of appearance. The centre building is ninety-six
feet by seventy-six feet. The body of each wing is seventy-six feet in length by forty-four feet wide, and the arms are sixty-seven feet in length by forty feet wide. The total length of building is three hundred and thirteen feet ten inches. The foundation walls are built of stone, and are constructed of solid masonry, and descend six feet below the surface of the ground. The basement walls are also of stone, and are strong and solid; their height to floor of first story is eleven feet. At the highest point, the altitude is one hundred and ninety-four feet. In the arms of the wings there are five stories. There are in the entire building about four hundred and thirty-seven windows. On the first story, in either arm of the wings, and also in the main buildings, there are large windows, adorned by beautiful stone pillars of the Corinthian order. The main entrance is on the north side, to which there is an approach of massive stone steps, and is also handsomely ornamented. The walls are of brick, with stone facings, and the stone used in the construction of the base is all North St. Louis limestone, and is a handsome and compact material. All the other cut stone is from Joliet, Ill. On the south side of the centre building there is an open portico, supported by brick piers running up the entire height of the main building, thus affording a pleasant out-door promenade for patients on each story.
The lower part of the dome is of brick, and the dome proper of iron rib work, similar to that of the court-house, covered with copper. There is also an observatory, from which a magnificent view may be obtained.
The interior of the building is admirably arranged for the treatment of insane persons, and is well supplied with every convenience. The ventilation is excellent, and the water supply ample. The boilers and engines, the main kitchen, laundry, and officers' quarters are located in a brick out-building about one hundred feet distant from the main building, which is connected with it by a subterranean railway running through a tunnel of about one hundred and four feet in length, through which food and other necessaries are carried to the main building. The cost of construction, etc., was about seven hundred thousand dollars. The building was first occupied April 23, 1869. The only fault to be found with the asylum is that it is inadequate to the demands made upon it. In the report of N. de V. Howard, superintendent, to Charles W. Francis, health commissioner, April 1, 1881, he says, "I must again call your attention to our crowded condition. Although one hundred and nine patients have been discharged and sixty-six transferred to other institutions, there are still three hundred and forty-three in a house which was built to contain two hundred and fifty. I can't pack them much closer. The number admitted, two hundred and fifteen, is larger than that of any preceding year. It should be borne in mind that an insane asylum is not like a hotel in that it has ‘always room for one more.’ If the insane are herded together like sheep they may be expected to fight like tigers. If the overcrowding here becomes much worse you must prepare for the occurrence of homicides and other serious accidents in spite of all the surveillance that can be exercised, and then the cry of bad management will be raised. In my violent hall I have only five available single rooms: it contains thirty-nine patients. One small associate dormitory contains seven patients every night."
The superintendents have been successively Drs. Charles W. Stevens, T. R. H. Smith, William B. Hazard, J. K. Bauduy, E. S. Prazer, and N. de V. Howard, the present incumbent, who has served for seven years. Drs. Bauduy and Frazer were what were then styled "visiting superintendents," Drs. Fichtenkamp, Leffingwell, and Howard being successively the "resident physicians."
THE HOUSE OF REFUGE. The present building, on Louisiana Avenue, between Gasconade and Osage Streets, was erected in 1858, and cost about sixty-four thousand dollars. It originally consisted of a centre building four stories in height, with wings on the east and west sides of three stories each. When the institution was opened it had a capacity of about three hundred inmates and all the necessary business offices and apartments. Previous to its erection, the building used for house of refuge purposes was the small structure some little distance east, and now used for the female branch of the institution. On the 15th of February, 1865, the east wing and centre of the new building were destroyed by fire. The value of furniture, clothing, and bedding was five thousand dollars. There was an insurance of twenty thousand dollars on the building, which was applied to restoring the west wing. This wing is the principal branch of the institution, and is occupied by the male department. The old building is still occupied by the girls' department. The daily average of children for the year ending April 10, 1881, was two hundred and thirty-four. The amount expended in the maintenance of the institution during the same time was about thirty-five thousand dollars. John D. Schaeffer is the superintendent, and the managers are the mayor, ex officio, Theophile Papin, John Schnell, James E. Cowan, and George Bain.
LITTLE SISTERS OF THE POOR. In May, 1868, several French sisters arrived in St. Louis and established the order of Little Sisters of the Poor. The location of their first house was on Morgan Street, near Eighteenth, but it was subsequently removed to its present location at Nineteenth and Hebert Streets. The incorporators were Hortense Marie, Marie Barnard, Barbara Vackeus, Elizabeth Vergne, Elizabeth M. Neville, Frances Schever, Elizabeth Stern, Marie Brent, Marie Garabalda, and Anselme Bouvidase. The object of the institution is to aid the poor and care for the aged and infirm. The institution was chartered July 14, 1870, and the corner-stone of the present building was laid in the following year. The structure was finished in 1875, and dedicated October 24th of the same year. Although commodious, it was insufficient on account of the increasing number of poor and infirm inmates, and in September, 1882, the corner-stone of an addition which nearly equals the original house was laid. Sister Hortense Marie became first president of the board of officers. She was followed by Sister Marie Blanche, the present manager.
Medical Journalism. The greatest part of the literary effort of St. Louis physicians has found expression in the pages of medical journals, and the St. Louis periodicals of this class have contained much of real value to the profession. In the order in which they were established, the various medical journals of the city have been as follows:
St. Louis Medical and Surgical Journal. The first number of this periodical, which was the first medical journal published west of the Mississippi River, was issued in April, 1843. Many other medical journals have been started in St. Louis since its advent, but most of them have had a brief existence, while the Journal has continued to the present time, increasing in influence and circulation. Its publication was temporarily suspended during the war, but with that exception and the omission of one issue at the time of the great fire that occurred during the epidemic of cholera in 1849, it has appeared regularly from the time of its establishment to the present day. The founder of the journal was Dr. M. L. Linton, who was at first the sole editor and proprietor, but after a time he associated with himself Drs. McPheeters and Fourgeaud, the former of whom continued to assist Dr. Linton in the management of the journal until the war. At the close of the war the journal was revived by Dr. T. J. White, who was succeeded in the editorial chair by Dr. G. Baumgarten, who conducted the publication with marked ability for three years. In 1871, Drs. Edgar and Gill assumed the editorial and business control. In 1878, Dr. Edgar sold the journal to its present proprietor, Dr. Thomas F. Rumbold, under whose management it has been enlarged and its circulation greatly increased. It is at the present writing in the fortieth year of its publication, and is in a very prosperous condition. For three years prior to 1883, Dr. A. H. Ohmann-Dumesnil was associated with Dr. Rumbold in the editorial management. A feature of special interest and value in the journal for several years has been the publication of full reports of the discussions at the meetings of the St. Louis Medical Society. These discussions are reported by short-hand, and then corrected and revised by the publication committee of the society, thus securing a complete report of the meetings, and preserving in a permanent form much valuable medical truth that would otherwise fail to be brought before the profession.
The Missouri Medical and Surgical Journal was started in May, 1845. It was under the editorial management of Dr. R. F. Stevens, and was a twenty-four-page monthly, the subscription price being two dollars per annum. Towards the close of the year it passed into the hands of Drs. J. N. McDowell and Thomas Barbour, the latter of whom assumed the entire charge in April, 1846, Dr. McDowell's time being taken up with the preparation of a work on surgery and surgical anatomy. In May, 1847, Dr. Coons was associated with Dr. Barbour in the conduct of the periodical. At the commencement of the third volume the proprietors congratulated themselves on having a subscription-list of three hundred, and upon the fact that during the preceding few weeks they had received "some fifteen or more new subscribers." In September, 1848, this journal was merged into the St. Louis Medical and Surgical Journal.
The St. Louis Probe was established in 1850, by Drs. Coons and Atkinson. It had only an ephemeral existence, and we have been unable to learn any particulars in regard to it.
The St. Louis Medical Reporter was established in 1866 under the editorial management of Drs. O. F. Potter and J. S. B. Alleyne. It was a thirty-two-page semi-monthly. It continued for three years, and was then discontinued. It was ably edited and well printed, and illustrations were liberally used. Changes in the publishing house and editorial management had an unfavorable effect, and after the completion of the third volume the publication was discontinued.
The Humboldt Medical Archives was established in 1868 by Drs. A. Hammer and J. C. Whitehill.
It was designed to be an exponent of the teachings of the school of pathology of which Virchow was the leader, and to take an advanced position in all professional matters. Dr. Hammer's connection with the Archives ceased at the end of the first year, but Dr. Whitehill continued to edit and publish it until 1874, about which time he left St. Louis. During a part of this time he was alone, but most of the time he had assistant and associate editors, among whom were Drs. E. A. Clark, E. F. Smith, E. H. Gregory, J. S. Moore, L. Ch. Boislini&eagrave;re, E. Montgomery, A. Hammer, J. S. B. Alleyne, and Thomas Kennard. After the first two volumes were published the word "Humboldt" was dropped from the title, and the journal was known simply as the Medical Archives.
The St. Louis Clinical Record was established in 1874 by Drs. W. A. Hardaway and A. B. Shaw, the latter of whom only remained in connection with the journal one year. After two years the journal passed into the hands of Dr. W. B. Hazard, who carried it on until the middle of 1882, at which time the publication was discontinued.
St. Louis Courier of Medicine. In the fall of 1878 a number of physicians in St. Louis, together with some of their friends, formed an association under the style of the Medical Journal Association of Missouri. The object of the association was to establish and sustain a first-class medical journal, which should be devoted exclusively to medical and scientific matters, and maintain the highest possible standard of literary merit with the best attainable mechanical execution. The officers of the association during its first year were John T. Hodgen, president; H. N. Spencer, secretary and treasurer; P. G. Robinson, G. A. Moses, and John P. Bryson, executive committee.
The name chosen for the new journal was The St. Louis Courier of Medicine and Collateral Sciences. The first number appeared in January, 1879, under the editorial management of Dr. A. J. Steele, with Dr. W. A. Hardaway as associate editor, and Dr. E. W. Schauffler, of Kansas City, as corresponding editor. At the end of that year Dr. E. M. Nelson was appointed editor, and has filled that position ever since. Drs. G. A. Moses, John P. Bryson, Isaac N. Love, C. A. Todd, W. A. Hardaway, and W. C. Glasgow have been members of the corps of editors for one or more years, the present staff comprising Drs. E. M. Nelson, W. A. Hardaway, John P. Bryson, and W. C. Glasgow, together with several corresponding editors in other leading Western cities.
At the end of the first year the membership of the association was extended and the name was changed to "The Medical Journal Association of the Mississippi Valley." In 1881 the association was formally incorporated under the name of the Medical Journal and Library Association of the Mississippi Valley. In accordance with an arrangement made in the establishment of the Courier of Medicine, the exchanges and books for review are preserved in a library, to which all members of the association have free and unrestricted access for purposes of consultation, and already quite a valuable reference library has been accumulated. This is at present kept with the library of the Medico-Chirurgical Society in the hall of the latter. After publishing the Courier for two years an arrangement was made with the medical publishing house of James H. Chambers & Co. by which they assumed charge of the business management, while the association retains control of the literary management, appointing the editor and directing the general policy of the Courier.
The arrangement has proved a very satisfactory one. The influence of the Courier is constantly increasing, and it has become a very handsome property, as well as a credit to those who have been concerned in founding and carrying it on.
The Alienist and Neurologist is a journal devoted to a consideration of affections of the mind and nervous system. It is a quarterly, owned and edited by Dr. C. H. Hughes, whom long experience as superintendent of the State Insane Asylum and years of special study of all forms of nervous disease have qualified to edit such a journal with credit to himself and satisfaction to the readers. The Alienist and Neurologist is making a fine success in every way and constantly gaining in reputation and value.
Medical Books. The following list comprises the titles and authors of the medical books which have been written by St. Louis physicians so far as the editor has been able to ascertain them:
A Practical Treatise on Diseases of the Bye. By B. B. Carter, M. D. Edited, with additions and test-types, 259 by John Green, M. D. Philadelphia: Henry C. Lea & Co., 1875.
Outlines of General Pathology. 260 By M. L. Linton, M. D.
Lectures on Diseases of the Nervous System. By J. K. Bauduy, M. D. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1874.
Reports on Yellow Fever. By W. Hutson Ford, M. D. St. Louis: George O. Rumbold & Co., 1879.
Prolapse of the Umbilical Cord, its Causation and Treatment. 261 By George J. Engelmann, A. M., M. D., etc. New York: William Wood & Co., 1874.
The Mucous Membrane of the Uterus, with Special Reference to the Development and Structure of the Deciduae 261. By George J. Engelmann, A. M., M. D. New York: William Wood & Co., 1875.
Labor among Primitive Peoples, showing the Development of the Obstetric Science of to-day from the Natural and Instinctive Customs of all Races, Civilized and Uncivilized, Past and Present. St. Louis: J. H. Chambers & Co., 1882.
The Nurse and Mother. By Walter Coles, M. D. St. Louis: J. H. Chambers & Co., 1882.
Lectures on Orthopedic Surgery. By L. Bauer, M. D.
Diseases of the Ear. By A. D. Williams, M. D. Cincinnati, 1873.
Hygiene and Treatment of Catarrh. By Thomas F. Rumbold, M. D. St. Louis: George O. Rumbold & Co., 1881.
Essentials of Vaccination. By W. A. Hardaway, M. D. Chicago: Jansen, MeClurg & Co.
Holmes' System of Surgery. American edition. Sections on Injuries of the Chest, by Alfred Poland; and Injuries of the Abdomen, by George Pollock. Edited by Dr. John T. Hodgen.
The American Encyclopedia of Medicine, now in course of publication by William Wood & Co., has articles on Measles and Roetheln, by Dr. W. A. Hardaway, and on Abortion and its Importance to the General Practitioner, by Dr. George J. Engelmann.
Specialties. A noticeable feature in the history of the medical profession is the remarkable development of specialism within the past few years. The first department to be differentiated from the rest as a specialty was that concerned with diseases of the eye and ear, and for many years this was the only special department represented in St. Louis. Then the treatment of diseases of the throat became more and more prominent as a special branch of practice, and still later the treatment of diseases peculiar to women, of diseases of the skin, and of diseases of the genito-urinary organs has been made more or less distinctly the work of individuals whose peculiar skill or advantages have qualified them as specialists in these departments. The men whose success and skill have so notably developed this tendency to specialism and whose names are identified with their several departments, in some cases with a national or even European reputation, are still among the active workers of the day. They are now making their records, and their fame is still increasing. They are not yet a part of the history of the profession, but when the time shall come in which it may be proper to commemorate their lives and work, it will be to the historian a pleasant task to note and record the eminent success and skill of a considerable number of St. Louis specialists.
In ending this brief sketch the writer is aware that many readers will close the book in disappointment at not finding here the names of the middle-aged and younger men of the profession, who are doing the greater part of the practice and are wielding the strongest influence in the profession and among the laity, so far as matters medical are concerned, at the present time. But it has seemed to him that history deals with work done and records completed, and that a history of the medical profession in St. Louis has to do with the men now living and working here only so far as these men were associated more or less intimately with those whose work is done, or as they are identified with institutions which may be considered permanent elements in the life of the city. In accordance with this view it has seemed to him best to leave unsaid much that might with truth and pleasure be said of men with whom he is daily in more or less intimate association, having full confidence that when the time shall come in which their lives shall be a part of the history of their city, able pens will he found to delineate those lives and set them in their proper places.
Homoeopathy in St. Louis. 262 The pioneer of homoeopathy in Missouri was John T. Temple, A. M., M. D., who settled in St. Louis in 1844. Dr. Temple was a native of King William County, Va., and had a classical and collegiate education, obtained at Lexington, Va. He graduated in medicine at the University of Maryland in 1824, and practiced in Washington, D. C., until 1833, at which time he moved to Chicago, Ill., then a frontier post. In 1843, Dr. Temple became a convert to homoeopathy, and in the following year, as stated, removed to St. Louis. In 1848 he established the Southwestern Homoeopathic Journal, which he maintained for two years, until he went to California, where he remained two years. In 1857 he assisted in founding the Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri, and was its dean and Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics until shortly before his death, which occurred in 1877. Dr. Temple was a skillful physician and worthy man, and was known among his fellow-practitioners in St. Louis as the "Nestor of homoeopathy." He was a valuable contributor to the medical literature of the day, many of his articles being copied into foreign journals, and was constantly on the alert to defend the cause of homoeopathy. The next in order of arrival was Dr. Spaulding, who moved to St. Louis from Flatbush, N. Y., in 1846. He also was a convert to homoepathy, a man of fine attainments, and an excellent physician. He died two years after his arrival.
During the same year four other homoeopathists made St. Louis their home, Dr. Ira Vail, from Kentucky, a fine physician, who remained only a short time, removing to New Orleans, where he obtained a large practice; Dr. Steinestel, an accomplished scholar and excellent physician, who had a large practice, but died in 1849 of cholera; and Drs. Houghton and Hough, partners, from Tennessee. Dr. Hough died of consumption in the following year, and Dr. Houghton removed to New York in 1853.
Dr. J. T. Vastine, a well-educated physician, came to St. Louis from Pennsylvania in 1849. He won many friends to homoeopathy, and became a professor in the Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri. He died in 1872, greatly mourned and honored. He was succeeded in his practice by his son, Dr. Charles Vastine.
Dr. Thomas Griswold Comstock, 263 next in order among the homoeopathic physicians of St. Louis, was born at Le Roy, Genesee Co., N. Y., July 27, 1828. His parents, Lee and Sarah Comstock, were natives of Lyme, Conn., and his mother was a lineal descendant (seventh generation) of one of the English Pilgrim families that came over in the "Mayflower." His father was a soldier in the war of 1812, and his uncle, the late Dr. John L. Comstock, of Hartford, was the author of Comstock's "Philosophy," "Geology," "Chemistry," etc., standard text-books, which were popular in the schools of thirty years ago. He also served in the war of 1812 as a surgeon.
Young Comstock, after finishing his education at Le Roy, removed to St. Louis, and studied medicine with the late Dr. J. V. Prather, one of the founders of the St. Louis Medical College, and its first Professor of Surgery. Dr. Prather resigned in 1847, and subsequently the late Dr. Pope received the appointment. The present St. Louis Medical College was then the Medical Department of the St. Louis University. Under the tutelage of Professor Prather, Dr. Comstock entered the Medical Department of the St. Louis University, and in March, 1849, received the degree of Doctor of Medicine.
Immediately after graduation he began to investigate the merits of the homoeopathic system of medicine, having formed the idea that in the treatment of some diseases it was superior to the "old school." In 1851 he went to Philadelphia, and having attended lectures, graduated at the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania.
He then returned to St. Louis and began practice, meeting with flattering success, but, regarding himself as still a student, he went to Europe a year later, and spent some time at the medical schools of Berlin, Prague, London, Paris, and Vienna. He remained two years at the University of Vienna, and was admitted to the degree of Doctor of Midwifery after a rigorous examination before the faculty of Vienna, made in the German language.
In 1857, Dr. Comstock returned to St. Louis and resumed practice. Although he had adopted the homoeopathic system, he became noted for his conservatism, or, rather, a liberal eclecticism which willingly accepted all that seemed to be good in both schools.
During the late war he was appointed surgeon of the First Division of the enrolled militia of Missouri, but he declined the appointment. He has been attending physician of the Good Samaritan Hospital for twenty years, and at present is one of the consulting physicians. He is a frequent contributor to medical journals, and his writings are characterized by exceptional breadth and vigor.
The cares and responsibilities of a large practice do not appear to absorb him to the exclusion of affairs around him, and he exhibits a keen interest in all movements for the benefit of the community. Among the enterprises which have elicited his warm sympathy and support are the Humane Society and the Citizens' Committee. In religion he is an earnest Episcopalian.
A friend of Dr. Comstock, who has known him intimately for many years, describes his character in the following words:
"He is a man of broad intellect and catholic views. Always liberal in thought, he exercises charity where differences begin. He has acquired various cultures, and made large attainments beyond the limits of his profession. Choice and rare objects of art have an unusual interest for him. The idea of beauty in all its forms seems to delight and fascinate him. The world would have lost a first-class physician, but would have gained in the fields of art had he chosen another profession. He possesses a choice library, probably the most extensive and costly of any physician in St. Louis. It abounds in works not only in the mother tongue, but in learned volumes in Latin, French, German, and other languages, in all of which the doctor is very proficient. He is a man of wide and varied reading in every field of thought.
"As a physician, he stands very high. He could not be content with any abbreviated or partial course of study. He has made himself equally master of the allopathic and the homoeopathic systems of practice. He has not only an exact and exhaustive knowledge
of his chosen profession, but he also has what culture and science do not always give, a curious run of luck. It seems to follow him in all things. He belongs to that fortunate class of men to whom work and study come easily, and is able to indulge in cultivated tastes and beautiful things. Feeling the need of rest and change, he consigns his patients to proper hands, drops all things, runs off to Europe, attends a course of lectures in London, Vienna, or Paris, gathers up the points of medical advancement there, and comes back as quietly as he went, and resumes an immense practice, and all his home work comes to him again. His ideal of a doctor seems to keep him a perpetual student.
"A full, rounded intellect, well developed, and well informed, characterizes the doctor. He enjoys society and clubs and art, but none the less close application to his professional and literary studies. In the very prime of life, there can be no reason why he should not continue to grow intellectually, and in full ripeness of his years become one of the leading physicians in the West."
Although a general practitioner, his specialty in medicine is gynecology, and in this branch he has superior attainments and a large experience.
Homoeopathy made steady progress from 1849 to 1857, during which time Drs. B. M. Peterson, D. R. Luyties, E. A. Fellerer, and others appeared on the scene.
It was in 1857 that the charter of the Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri was obtained by Drs. Temple and Peterson, and in this year also Dr. E. C. Franklin moved to St. Louis from Dubuque, Iowa. This gentleman was already well and favorably known in New York, San Francisco, Panama, and Iowa, but his fame has since become widespread as the "chief founder, teacher, and acknowledged authority in homoeopathic surgery." It is due largely to his skill as a surgeon and instructor that homoeopathic surgery has reached the proud place it now occupies. Dr. Franklin was converted to homoeopathy by being himself cured by homoeopathic remedies when all others had failed. In 1860 he was appointed demonstrator of anatomy in the Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri. In 1861 he entered the United States army as surgeon; in 1864 was appointed to the chair of surgery in the Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri, and in 1867 published "The Science and Art of Surgery." Soon after this Drs. Franklin, P. G. Valentine, and others succeeded in prevailing upon the city Board of Health to give the homoeopaths a day to lecture in the City Hospital. In 1871, Dr. Franklin was appointed surgeon of the Good Samaritan Hospital, and in 1876 became dean of the Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri. In 1879 he received and accepted a call to a professorship in the Michigan State University at Ann Arbor, where he now resides.
In 1858, Dr. William Tod Helmuth another physician who has since won a national reputation came to St. Louis from Philadelphia. At the age of twenty (in 1853) he graduated in medicine at the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania, and in two years thereafter was Professor of Anatomy in the same college, which position he held until he came West. In 1855 he published a work entitled "Surgery, and its Adaptation to Homoeopathic Practice," a late new edition of which is a large handsome volume, and is a text-book in the homoeopathic colleges. In 1859 he was appointed to the chair of anatomy in the Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri, and elected registrar of the faculty. He held the same chair until 1865, when he took the chair of theory and practice. About this time he visited Europe, and on his return, finding disagreements in the faculty of the college, he used his influence in 1869 to aid the establishment of a new medical school, to be called the St. Louis College of Homoeopathic Physicians and Surgeons. In this new school he filled the chair of surgery until 1870, when he accepted a call to the chair of surgery in the New York Homoeopathic Medical College.
It would be impossible, in so brief a history of homoeopathy in St. Louis, to give a sketch of all the physicians, but no history would be valuable for reference or correct in facts that did not allude to one other physician. Dr. G. S. Walker.
George S. Walker 264 was born June 19, 1820, in Allegheny County, Pa. His medical training was preceded by a thorough literary course in Jefferson College, Pennsylvania, from which institution he was graduated in 1844. This preliminary training doubtless laid the foundation for those eminent attainments in literature and art by which he has been especially distinguished among the men of his profession, and which, while they adorn his domestic and social life, give added vigor, precision, and breadth to his medical opinions.
After leaving college he taught for two years in the academies of South Carolina and Georgia, thus confirming and establishing his literary tastes and culture, while at the same time he was constantly exploring the field of professional knowledge. To enlarge and perfect his medical acquirements, he devoted the years
of 1846-47 to attendance upon lectures in the schools of Philadelphia, and then began the practice of his profession near Pittsburgh. Soon, however, the gold fever of 1849 broke out, and Dr. Walker was one of its earliest subjects. Yielding to the prevailing excitement for profitable adventure, he became an "Argonaut," and remained nearly three years on the Pacific coast. With a mind stored with reminiscences of the struggles of those exciting days, he returned to the States by the Isthmian route, entered upon another course of lectures in Philadelphia, and was graduated in 1852. In the previous autumn he had been married to Miss A. C. McKain, of Allegheny City, Pa., a lady whose high social qualities and varied accomplishments, and especially her pure and cultivated taste in music and art, have long made her the delight and ornament of the beautiful home over which she so gracefully presides. Of the four children of this union but one survives, a promising boy, who inherits apparently his father's strength, energy, and fine mental balance, with his mother's refined and delicate tastes.
While visiting St. Louis, in April, 1852, Dr. Walker was so much impressed with its advantages as a field of professional labor that he determined to make it his home. He was then of the allopathic school in medicine, and so remained until 1860. The claims of homoeopathy having been presented to his attention, he candidly investigated them and became satisfied of their validity. He did not conceal his convictions, and was summoned by his professional brethren to appear before the medical society of which he was a prominent member and answer to the charge of infidelity to their faith. He replied in a defense which has become memorable as the vigorous protest of an independent mind, but, though unable to answer him, they "cast him out of their synagogue." This, however, was an unintentional kindness, for it resulted in placing him at the head of the new school of medicine.
In May, 1861, Dr. Walker entered the United States army as surgeon of the Sixth Missouri Infantry Volunteers, but acted during the greater portion of his service as brigade surgeon under Gen. Sherman.
He has held the chair of obstetrics, or gynecology, in medical colleges of the city for eleven years, occupying prominent official positions in the medical societies of which he has been a member, and has repeatedly been elevated to the presidency of the Society of Homoeopaths. He has also been president of the Western Academy and American Institute of Homoeopathy, and an honored member of the American Medical Association (allopathic). In these places and relations his profound learning, his sparkling wit and genial humor, and above all his great talents and accomplishments have made him of the first consideration, and responsibilities have devolved upon him which were as honorable as they were onerous. He is a member of the Academy of Science of St. Louis, and takes a warm interest in all its proceedings, notwithstanding the absorbing demands of a large and successful practice. He is also a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He was for some time associated with Dr. William Tod Helmuth in the editorial labors of the Homoeopathic Observer, and with Dr. T. G. Comstock in the conduct of the Occidental, medical journals published in St. Louis. His lectures, addresses, and orations, of which a number are preserved in permanent form, have attracted the attention of first-class minds throughout the country.
Dr. Walker has a fine physique, is exceedingly fond of field sports, and devotes to them the brief intervals for recreation which he is able to snatch from absorbing professional labor. He has purchased land near Lake Detroit, Minnesota, on which he is about to erect a cottage for summer resort, where, with his family and friends, he proposes to enjoy his few remissions from arduous professional toil.
A career of such unbroken success and distinction would seem to lack none of the conditions of happiness, but Dr. Walker is no exception to the common rule of life. Death has not spared his household treasures, and he has suffered much and keenly from their loss. He has, however, had the consolation in all his afflictions of the wide and generous sympathy of unnumbered friends.
With unimpaired mental and physical health and vigor, Dr. Walker is still devoted to the labors of his profession.
There are upwards of seventy-five homoeopathic physicians in St. Louis, a few of whom are devoting their skill to specialties with marked success. Among the latter may be mentioned Drs. J. A. Campbell, oculist and aurist; J. Martin Kershaw, mental and nervous diseases; and S. B. Parsons, surgery. Dr. Campbell, however, is the only one who has entirely given up general practice.
The first homoeopathic pharmacy in St. Louis was established by Dr. Wesselhoeft, and the next by Dr. John T. Temple. Subsequently Dr. D. R. Luyties established one, which in 1859 passed into the hands of E. & H. Luyties. In 1861, H. C. G. Luyties, brother of the doctor, became its proprietor, and is still the owner of what has grown from small beginnings to be one of the finest homoeopathic pharmacies in the West. Mr. Luyties edits and publishes a journal called the Homoeopathic News.
In 1867, John W. Munson opened Munson's Western Homoeopathic Pharmacy. Under the successful management of Mr. Munson and his chief assistant, William F. Bockstruck, who is now a partner, this has also become one of the prominent pharmacies of the West. This pharmacy also publishes a journal called Munson & Co.'s Homoeopathic Bulletin.
HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICAL COLLEGE OF MISSOURI. On the 23d of November; 1857, the General Assembly of Missouri passed an act to incorporate the Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri, located at St. Louis, and appointed the following trustees: John M. Wimer, George R. Taylor, Robert Renick, Samuel C. Davis, and Gen. Bernard Pratte. This charter was proposed and drawn up by Dr. John C. Morgan, and after revision was enacted through the combined influence of Drs. John T. Temple and H. B. Peterson, who were at that time the leading homoeopathic physicians in St. Louis. In 1859, by invitation, several of the most prominent representatives of homoeopathy in the West met in St. Louis to make arrangements for the establishment of a college under the charter. In accordance therewith the following persons were appointed professors in the first faculty of the college: R. E. W. Adams, M. D., of Springfield, Ill., Professor of Theory and Practice of Medicine; B. L. Hill, M. D., of Cleveland, Ohio, Professor of Institutes and Practice of Surgery; J. Brainard, M. D., of Cleveland, Ohio, Professor of Chemistry and Medical Botany; A. R. Bartlett, M. D., of Aurora, Ill., Professor of Physiology and General Pathology; E. A. Guilbert, M. D., of Dubuque, Iowa, Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children; John T. Temple, M. D., of St. Louis, Mo., Professor of Materia Medica; and William Tod Helmuth, M. D., of St. Louis, Mo., Professor of Anatomy. The officers of the faculty were John T. Temple, dean, and William Tod Helmuth, registrar.
The calamity of civil war determined the board of trustees to close the doors of the college during the years of 1860, '61, '62, and '63. In 1864 lectures were renewed under more favorable auspices than during any of the foregoing sessions, and an entire change of organization was effected in the faculty by the appointment of resident professors. With but few changes in the faculty the college continued to prosper and had little to contend with until the fall of 1869, when, as has been previously mentioned, Dr. Helmuth organized the "St. Louis College of Homoeopathic Physicians and Surgeons," with almost an entirely new faculty.
The Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri, however, still maintained its prestige and popularity, and though the classes in each were small, both colleges labored with determined zeal and vigor to be foremost in the race for educational preferment. After the close of the second year, in 1871 the new college succumbed and closed its doors.
In the spring of 1872 another college sprang into existence styled the "St. Louis Homoeopathic College of Medicine and Surgery;" but it met with such feeble encouragement from the profession that the enterprise was abandoned before the lecture season opened.
From this time until 1880 the college was prosperous and harmonious. At the close of the session of that year (1880) the managers of the institution, for financial reasons, decided upon a change, and obtained a new charter and a new name, the "St. Louis College of Homoeopathic Physicians and Surgeons." This new enterprise, however, did not meet with the approval of all the profession, and accordingly some of the friends of the old college, under the leadership of Dr. William C. Richardson, issued an announcement for the next season, 1880-81, which contained a "Note to the Alumni and Profession," of which the following are extracts: "The faculty and board of trustees to whom were confided, a few years since, the interests and welfare of the Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri saw fit at the close of the last course of lectures, for reasons best known to themselves, to abandon the name and prestige established during an honorable and praiseworthy career of over twenty years. They have organized an entirely new college, under a new name, ignoring the old, thus throwing the alumni out of an acknowledged Alma Mater."..."It is now the intention of the present board, under a new charter, to perpetuate the record and maintain the good reputation of the old institution and its graduates." Accordingly the college was re-established under its old name, and for two years both institutions were maintained.
The number of students in both colleges being about equal to and no more than the former classes of the old college, the faculties of both colleges, though they had become somewhat estranged, were finally convinced that, divided, neither college was likely to prosper. The union of the two faculties was therefore proposed and consummated, and the college, under the old name, the Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri, in the fall of 1882 commenced the college term under more promising auspices and with better educational advantages than it had ever had during its long and eventful history. The following are the officers and faculty for the
present year, 1882-83, viz.: C. W. Spalding, M. D., president; S. B. Parsons, M. D., secretary; William Collison, M. D., treasurer; Philo G. Valentine, A. M., M. D., business manager. Honorary Board of Trustees, John M. Harney, John H. Crane, Azel B. Howard, Gen. John W. Noble, Hon. E. O. Stanard, Hon. John B. Henderson, Right Rev. C. F. Robertson, D. D., Bishop of Missouri. Officers of Faculty, W. A. Edmonds, A. M., M. D., dean; W. B. Morgan, A. M., M. D., registrar. Faculty of Medicine, W. A. Edmonds, M. D., Professor of Diseases of Children, and dean; C. W. Spalding, M. D., Professor of Physiology and Clinical Surgery; William C. Richardson, M. D., Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology; J. Martine Kershaw, M. D., Professor of Brain, Spinal, and Nervous Diseases; James A. Campbell, M. D., Professor of Ophthalmology and Otology; Philo G. Valentine, M. D., Professor of Theory and Practice; Adolph Ulemeyer, M. D., Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics; W. John Harris, M. D., Professor of Clinical Medicine, Hygiene, and Sanitation; Irenaeus D. Foulon, A. M., LL. B., Professor of Medical Jurisprudence; J. T. Kent, A. M., M. D., Professor of Principles and Practice of Surgery; W. B. Morgan, M. D., Professor of Anatomy and Demonstrator; Lee H. Dowling, M. D., Professor of Chemistry and Toxicology. There have been upwards of three hundred and fifty graduates of this college since its organization.
THE MISSOURI SCHOOL OF MIDWIFERY was chartered in 1875. It holds two sessions yearly, each of twelve weeks' duration, and has a lying-in hospital attached, and a course for physicians desiring to pursue this specialty. The first president was Alfred E. Reiss, M. D., now dead. He occupied the chair of obstetrics, and the same chair in the Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri. He graduated from the latter college in 1868, and went to Europe, where he spent three years in the Obstetrical Department of the University of Vienna, taking the highest honors. He then entered the Prussian army as assistant surgeon in the Franco-German war, was promoted to surgeon, and had charge of the general hospital at Sedan, for the management of which he received acknowledgment and thanks from the eminent Dr. Bilroth. As a lecturer he had good command of language, and was altogether an excellent instructor.
Dr. Wm. C. Richardson was the first secretary, and is now president of the Missouri School of Midwifery, and also Professor of Diseases of Women and Children, which chair he also held in the Homoeopathic College of Missouri. He graduated in the same class with Dr. Reiss. He was for several years editor of the obstetrical department of the Western Homoeopathic Observer, and was afterwards editor and proprietor of the Homoeopathic Courier. In 1876 he published a small treatise on "Cholera Infantum, and other Diseases of Children," and in 1878 a text-book on "Obstetrics." which has become a standard authority, not only in the medical schools of this country but of Europe. He is a fine, free, and ready speaker, and a very successful lecturer.
THE GOOD SAMARITAN HOSPITAL was founded in 1857 by the Rev. Lewis E. Nollau, at that time pastor of St. Peter's Lutheran Church. It was opened in a modest way, occupying a small building which contained about seven rooms. For the first few years it was supported mainly through the personal efforts of Rev. Mr. Nollau, aided by voluntary subscriptions principally from among the German population. Dr. E. A. Fellerer was the first physician, and continued in charge until early in 1859, when Dr. T. G. Comstock was also appointed attending physician. These two gentlemen were the medical attendants until 1862. The hospital was first incorporated in 1859, when a new hospital building was begun, the cornerstone being laid in August of that year and finished in 1861. The board of trustees, to whom the credit of erecting the new hospital was due, were Samuel Plant, Russell Scarritt, Francis Whittaker, Adolphus Meier, Frederick Bolte, Francis Hackemeier, and Rev. Louis E. Nollau. The patients
were removed to the new quarters in March, 1861. The building is situated on Jefferson Avenue, at the head of O'Fallon Street, and is a fine edifice, capable of accommodating one hundred and sixty patients. It was scarcely opened when the civil war broke out. Soldiers wounded at the memorable capture of Camp Jackson, and many patients from the military camps, who at that time could not be accommodated in the military hospitals, were admitted. In the fall of 1861 arrangements were made to care for a larger number of patients from the army for a reasonable compensation from the government. Afterwards the board of directors rented the building to the United States government for use as a military hospital for two years.
The hospital was originally intended for a charitable institution, and during the lifetime of Mr. Nollau this idea was carried out as far as practicable, but there being no permanent endowment for its support, it is now maintained in part by patients paying when they have the means, only a limited number being treated gratuitously. Mr. Nollau, the founder, died Feb. 6, 1869.
Besides the two physicians mentioned as having been connected with the institution since its organization, Drs. Helmuth, Walker, Luyties, Gundelach, Franklin, Parsons, Campbell, and others have served at different periods as medical attendants. The hospital has a number of well-arranged rooms, where private patients may be treated in accordance with any practice and by physicians of their own selection.
THE ST. LOUIS HOMOEOPATHIC DISPENSARY was organized in 1864, and was opened in March, 1865, with the following officers, viz.: Dr. C. W. Spalding, president; Mrs. Dr. William Tod Helmuth, treasurer; and Dr. E. C. Franklin, secretary. The board of trustees consisted of Drs. C. W. Spalding, E. C. Franklin, and T. J. Vastine, Mrs. T. G. Comstock, Mrs. W. T. Helmuth, Mrs. G. S. Walker, and Mrs. John T. Temple. A charter of incorporation was procured from the Circuit Court in March, 1866, and a constitution and by-laws were adopted during the same month. Dr. S. B. Parsons was appointed attending physician for the first year. In 1868, Dr. E. C. Franklin was appointed to the entire charge of the dispensary, the duties of which position he faithfully performed for a number of years. The dispensary has been carried on in the building of the Homoeopathic Medical College of Missouri, and large numbers have been treated daily by the different members of the faculty. At this free dispensary, during the college term, clinics are held daily, and patients are examined and prescribed for before the classes.
THE CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL was organized by certain benevolent ladies and gentlemen of St. Louis, with Dr. W. A. Edmonds at the head of the medical department.
HOMOEOPATHIC SOCIETIES. There are two organizations of homoeopathic physicians in St. Louis which are specially worthy of mention, the Hahnemann Club and the St. Louis Society of Homoeopathic Physicians and Surgeons. The former is intended for social as well as literary purposes. The latter, which is composed of physicians in the city and vicinity, elects its officers quarterly, except the secretary, who is elected annually. The present secretary is Dr. W. B. Morgan.
Of works by homoeopathic practitioners we find the following from the pens of St. Louis physicians:
Helps to Hear. By James A. Campbell, M. D. 12mo, pp. 108. Chicago: Duncan & Brothers, 1882.
Diseases of Infants and Children. By W. A. Edmonds, M. D., etc. 8vo, pp. 293. New York: Boericke & Tafel, 1881.
Richardson's Obstetrics. By William C. Richardson, M. D.
Diseases of the Brain and Nervous System. By J. M. Kershaw, M. D.
A Complete Minor Surgery, the Practitioner's Vade-Mecum, including a Treatise on Venereal Diseases. By E. C. Franklin, M. D., 1882.
The St. Louis Clinical Review is the principal homoeopathic journal of the city, edited by Dr. Philo G. Valentine. 265
The Eclectic School of Medicine. 266 Eclecticism as a distinctive branch of medical practice may be said to have first presented itself for public recognition in St. Louis with the incorporation of the American Medical College of St. Louis in May, 1873. The first session of the college was held in the fall of that year and the spring of 1874. The following gentlemen compose its board of trustees: J. S. Merrell, president; N. C. Hudson, vice-president; Dr. P. D. Yost, secretary; Dr. E. Younkin, treasurer; Dr. Albert Merrell, A. Sumner, Dr. W. V. Rutledge, Dr. John W. Thraillkill, Dr. George C. Pitzer, Dr. W. W. Houser, and B. H. Dye, B. L. The faculty consists of the following members: George C. Pitzer, M. D., dean, Professor of Theory and Practice of Medicine, and Clinical Lecturer at City Hospital and the College; Albert Merrell, M. D., Professor of Chemistry, Pharmacy, and Toxicology, and Clinical
Lecturer on Diseases of Children at the College; P. D. Yost, M. D., Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children, and Clinical Lecturer on diseases of Women at the College; E. Younkin, M. D., Professor of Principles and Practice of Surgery and Clinical Surgery, and Clinical Lecturer on surgical cases at City Hospital and at the College; W. V. Rutledge, M. D., Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics; T. B. Owens, M. D., Professor of Anatomy and Physiology; John W. Thraillkill, M. D., Professor of Ophthalmology and Otology, and Clinical Lecturer on Ophthalmic and Aural Surgery; J. H. Wright, M. D., Professor of Microscopy and Histology; B. H. Dye, B. L., Professor of Medical Jurisprudence.
Professor Thraillkill came to the city in 1861, and has enjoyed a lucrative practice up to within a year, when failing health compelled his retirement from active professional life. Professor Rutledge came to the city in 1868, and has been in active practice ever since. Professor Merrell moved to St. Louis from Cincinnati in 1871, and Professor Yost came at the time the college started. These gentlemen have been identified with the college since its foundation, and Professors Pitzer and Younkin joined them shortly after the first course of lectures.
The American Medical College has enjoyed uninterrupted prosperity since its foundation, and its graduates now number but a few less than three hundred and fifty. The college was first located on the southeast corner of Olive and Seventh Streets, afterwards at 913 Pine Street, and now occupies a building erected by the faculty expressly for the purpose at 310 North Eleventh Street in 1878, the corner-stone having been laid July 15, 1878.
Among the practitioners of the eclectic school, Dr. John W. Thraillkill published in 1869 a small volume entitled "Essay on the Causes of Infant Mortality;" and Dr. George C. Pitzer published last year one on "Electricity in Medicine and Surgery."
The Dental Profession. 267 The early history of the dental profession in St. Louis is involved in considerable obscurity. From the very nature of the calling, especially when St. Louis was in its infancy, it attracted but little public attention. The profession itself was only in embryo; the individual members of which it was finally composed were only slowly gravitating towards each other, and had not as yet felt the effects of organization and associated action. But the spirit of inquiry had taken strong hold of the individual members, and where societies and associations had been formed for mutual consultation and improvement they were stimulated to new exertions in the direction of dental progress. The enthusiasm of the leading members of the new profession knew no bounds. No specialty of the healing art had more earnest or more able seekers after truth in its ranks than this.
The earliest regular practitioner of whom any record remains is Dr. Paul, who published the following card in the Missouri Gazette of Dec. 21, 1809:
"A well-bred surgeon dentist, Dr. Paul, has the honor of informing his friends in particular, and the public in general, that he is prepared to practice in all the branches belonging to his profession, viz., extracting, cleaning, plugging, and strengthening the teeth, also making artificial ones."
On the 28th of December, 1830, Dr. D. T. Evans informed "the citizens of St. Louis and its vicinity that he has established himself in this place for the purpose of devoting himself to the practice of dental surgery."
When Dr. Isaiah Forbes settled in St. Louis in 1837 there were ten dentists in the city, including Dr. Forbes. Most of these, however, seem to have been transient practitioners, as the next year found them all gone but three, Dr. Forbes, Dr. Edward Hale, Sr., and Dr. B. B. Brown. Drs. Hale and Brown both remained long enough to build up lucrative practices. These three dentists were the only ones who achieved any considerable degree of success in the next seven years, and in them the dental fraternity were well represented. Affable and courteous in their deportment, skillful in all that pertained to dental operations, and warmly attached to the calling which they had chosen, they exerted a benign influence upon the future of the profession, which has reached down to this day. Dr. Brown left for California in 1849, during the gold mania, and died in Sacramento about 1875. Dr. Hale became known as one of the best practitioners in the Mississippi valley, and remained in practice till about 1864, when failing health compelled him to give up his profession, and a few years afterwards he died in New Jersey. About 1840 Dr. A. M. Leslie located in St. Louis. Although a dentist, he had also been trained as a gold-beater, and he soon turned his attention to making gold foil. Not long afterwards he established a dental depot, having purchased a small stock of goods in the dental line which had been sent out to St. Louis from Troy, N. Y. That was the beginning of the extensive establishment long known in the entire West as A. M. Leslie & Co.'s Dental and Surgical Depot, which has but recently
been transferred to the St. Louis Dental Manufacturing Company. Alexander Heburn established a dental depot in St. Louis in 1877 or 1878, and the St. Louis Dental Manufacturing Company has the consolidated stocks of the two former companies, making one of the largest dental establishments in the West. Between 1840 and 1845 the number of dentists in the city was increased by the arrival of Drs. Aaron Blake, Isaac Comstock, J. S. Clark, and Edgerly, and in the next few years Dr. Potts, Dr. Samuel B. Fithian, Dr. H. J. McKellops, Dr. C. W. Spalding;, and a little later Dr. H. E. Peebles and Dr. Dunham. Many others in the mean time had made more or less persistent efforts to establish themselves, but failing to meet with sufficient encouragement sought other fields of labor. Drs. Potts, Blake, Comstock, Peebles, Edgerly, Dunham, Barron, and Clark have all passed away, while Drs. McKellops, Spalding, and Forbes are still practicing their profession in St. Louis. These were for the most part men of sterling worth, and it was to a great extent through their efforts, and especially through their liberal and enlightened views as regards the amenities and responsibilities of professional life, that the St. Louis dentists came to be held in so high repute among their confr&eagrave;res in the profession throughout the United States. Among them, Dr. John S. Clark was somewhat prominent in the advocacy of new methods of practice. If not the first who made use of rolled cylinders of gold foil for filling teeth, he was certainly entitled to the credit of bringing the new method into general use and carrying it up to a high degree of perfection, but he conferred a much greater boon upon the profession by his investigations in relation to the treatment of teeth with dead pulps. He claimed that he first made use of barbed broaches for the removal of dead and decaying pulps, and for carrying disinfecting agents into the pulp canals, thus preparing them for being filled in such manner as to avoid subsequent inflammation and formation of alveolar abscess. Dr. Clark spent several years in New Orleans, where he published a dental journal, but subsequently returned to St. Louis, where he died in 1866. Dr. Forbes is at this time the oldest practitioner in the city, having been identified with nearly all of the beneficent and progressive efforts of the profession for forty-six years. He had constructed, upon plans furnished by himself, a dental chair in 1838, which is still in existence, and which shows unmistaken evidences of constructive ability, and adaptation to the purposes for which it was intended. It is now in possession of Dr. Fisher, on Washington Avenue.
Dr. C. W. Spalding reached St. Louis April 4, 1849. He was an earnest advocate of the use of cylinders in filling teeth, and had for a long time a lucrative practice; was for several years a professor in the Ohio College of Dental Surgeons at Cincinnati, and was president for one year of the American Dental Association during its early history.
Dr. McKellops was energetic and tireless in his efforts to attain a high position as an operator, and at an early period of his professional career acquired an enviable reputation among his St. Louis associates, which gradually extended throughout the United States.
He has been for many years an active member of the American Association, of which he has been elected president. Although Dr. McKellops was closely associated with the group which has just been considered, he is no less closely identified with the next group, which comprises the active members of which the profession is now composed.
The period from 1840 to 1865 was one during which were wrought many changes of the most vital character in the dental profession, and in no other place were these changes more marked than in St. Louis. Before the commencement of this period dentists were to a great extent unassociated, and, as an almost necessary consequence, selfish and reticent, each one claiming that he was in possession of the knowledge which enabled him to perform many important operations which others could not perform. Operating-rooms and laboratories were closed with the most sedulous care against all intruders, lest some less enlightened practitioner should avail himself of the opportunity of inspecting instruments, and perhaps also gain some knowledge of methods of manipulation, and thus become more formidable as a competitor in business.
The St. Louis dentists, almost to a man, discarded these narrow and unprofessional views, and no body of practitioners in any country exerted a greater influence in bringing about those radical changes which resulted in a complete revolution in sentiment and practice throughout the whole profession. Organization into associations, thereby bringing the members into closer relationship with one another, aided these beneficent movements, and the formation in 1850 of the St. Louis Dental Society was an important step in the development of the profession.
This society was organized with Dr. Dunham as presiding officer, and has ever since numbered among its members the leading practitioners of the city. In 1858 the American Dental Review was established by A. M. Leslie, and was edited by C. W. Spalding, Isaiah Forbes, and Henry E. Peebles. The Review
was at first a quarterly, and did good work until 1863. It was conducted with ability, and exerted a powerful influence for good upon the mass of the profession. For about a quarter of a century the standing of the dental fraternity was determined by those who have been already mentioned, but about 1865 the influence of a younger class of practitioners began to be felt, which has steadily increased as the years have passed by. Of these some have attained a degree of excellence and skill in their operations which cannot be surpassed by any other operators wherever found, and although the number of those who have reached the goal which is nearest to perfection is small, it is not relatively smaller than in the most favored cities of this or any other country. At the commencement of this epoch in the history of the profession, or shortly afterwards, societies of dentists had been formed in nearly all of the States and cities in the Union, the members of which met at stated periods, when every practitioner freely imparted what he had gained by experience and observation to his fellow-members, in the true spirit of professional fraternity. The St. Louis dentists took an active part not only in the city and State societies, but also in the American Association, the Western and Mississippi valley societies, and the State associations of the neighboring States. The Missouri State Association was organized in 1865 in St. Louis, principally through the efforts of St. Louis dentists, and it is still wielding a great influence for good upon the profession through the State.
The Missouri Dental College, of St. Louis, was organized in July, 1866, chartered the following month, and reincorporated April 21, 1881. The present officers are H. H. Mudd, president; A. H. Fuller, secretary; G. Baumgarten, treasurer. The location of the college is on the northeast corner of Seventh and Myrtle Streets, in the building of the St. Louis Medical College, and the infirmary is situated on the adjoining lots on Myrtle Street. The plan of organization in this school differed somewhat from that of other dental schools in that it was more closely connected with the medical system of education, the students being required to take the regular medical course of the St. Louis Medical College, so far as the chairs of anatomy, physiology, chemistry, materia medica, and surgery were concerned, while the peculiar training which was necessary to fit them for the special practice of dentistry was furnished by a corps of professors and demonstrators who were dental practitioners.
The dental school, however, was a separate organization, and managed its own business concerns, the occupants of the medical chairs named above being also members of the dental faculty. The theory upon which the school was founded was that the proper basis of a dental education was the same as of a medical education; that a knowledge of anatomy, physiology, chemistry, materia medica, and surgery was necessary in both; that the best possible opportunity for obtaining a knowledge of these branches was found in a medical school, and that the special instruction should commence where the divergence from the courses in general medicine took place which led to the studies that were required by the special dental practitioner. The importance of this "new departure" will be more clearly appreciated when we turn for a moment to the history of the dental schools which have been subsequently established.
A few years after the Missouri School had commenced its operations, the Harvard Dental School was established upon a similar basis in connection with the Medical Department of Harvard University, another essentially upon the same principle at Ann Arbor in connection with the Medical Department of Michigan University, and soon another connected with the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, besides schools connected with medical colleges and essentially upon the same plan established at Indianapolis, Iowa City, Kansas City, Chicago, and San Francisco. Since then a majority of the dental colleges in this country have followed to a greater or less extent the example set them by the Missouri Dental College. The high prices charged for admission to the Missouri School, together with the rigid examinations to which students are subjected before they can obtain a degree, are not favorable to the production of large classes, but no school has turned out a larger proportion of good operators or more judicious practitioners than this. The first faculty of the Missouri Dental College was made up of the incumbents of the five chairs of the St. Louis Medical College mentioned before, while the three special chairs were filled by Drs. Henry E. Peebles and William H. Eames, and Dr. Homer Judd, who was also dean of the faculty.
The first president of the college was Dr. Isaiah Forbes, who filled that position for fifteen years. His successor, the present incumbent, is H. H. Mudd, M. D. The present dean is H. H. Mudd, M. D. The first secretary was Frank White, M. D.; the present secretary and treasurer have already been named.
The faculty is constituted as follows: Isaiah Forbes, D. D. S., Emeritus Professor of Institutes of Dental Science; A. Litton, M. D., Professor of Chemistry and Pharmacy; J. S. B. Alleyne, M. D., Professor of Therapeutics
and Materia Medica; G. Baumgarten, M. D., Professor of Physiology; H. H. Mudd, M. D., Professor of Anatomy; W. H. Eames, D. D. S., Professor of Institutes of Dental Science; A. H. Fuller, M. D., D. D. S., Professor of Operative Dentistry; W. N. Morrison, D. D. S., Professor of Mechanical Dentistry; J. G. Harper, D. D. S., Demonstrator of Operative Dentistry; C. Mathiason, D. D. S., Demonstrator of Mechanical Dentistry; J. Friedman, M. D., Demonstrator of Chemistry; H. H. Mudd, M. D., Demonstrator of Anatomy.
The new infirmary erected one year ago, in connection with the dispensary of the medical college, affords every facility for practical laboratory work; and a dental clinic has been organized, which has already become a valuable means of instruction, besides affording relief to a large number of charity patients.
The curriculum is so arranged that the dental student can, by the study of a few additional subjects, put himself in a position to enter, at the completion of his dental course, the third or senior class of the St. Louis Medical College, and eventually obtain the degree of Doctor of Medicine by one additional year's work.
In 1869 the Missouri Dental Journal made its first appearance. It differed somewhat from other dental journals in that each number was divided into three separate departments, each one of which was under the supervision of one or more members of the editorial corps. It was hoped that by this method each department would receive adequate attention, and that none would be neglected, as had too often been the case with the older journals. The success of the Missouri Dental Journal in finding favor with the profession was demonstrated by the rapid increase in the number of its subscribers, as in a few years its patrons were found in nearly every State in the Union, as well as in South America, Europe, Asia, and elsewhere. The Journal was edited by Dr. Homer Judd, assisted in the operative department by Drs. Henry S. Chase and Edgar Park, and by William H. Eames and William N. Morrison in the mechanical department.
Most prominent as an inventor of useful implements in the profession of St. Louis stands the name of Dr. James Morrison, the senior member of the former firm of Morrison Brothers. After practicing a few years in St. Louis, he turned his attention to the construction of dental chairs and other dental appliances. He went to England, where he remained six years, during which time he invented and patented a dental chair, which was admirably adapted to meet the wants of the dental practitioner. He then returned to St. Louis, and from 1869 to 1873 was engaged in constructing an iron chair, for which it is claimed that it has the greatest range of motions of any chair brought out before or since, and which is now in very general use. His next effort was to construct a dental engine by means of which a rotary motion could be conveyed to a variety of instruments from a fixed lathe, making use of a flexible shafting and jointed arm, with belts and pulleys, in order to enable the operator to use the engine in his operations within the mouth. This effort was a complete success, and a dental engine constructed essentially upon the Morrison plan is now considered an almost indispensable appliance in every dental office. Seven different patents were obtained by Dr. Morrison upon his various improvements. Dr. William N. Morrison claims to have constructed the first gold crown of a tooth from heavy plate gold, and he has also been much interested in testing the feasibility of replanting and transplanting teeth, which has attracted considerable attention during the last ten or twelve years in this country.
Dr. Bowman has been quite prominent among the dentists of the West as an earnest advocate of the use of gutta-percha dissolved in chloroform for filling pulp canals, especially when the canals are very small.
Dr. Homer Judd, whose name figures prominently in the history of the dental profession of St. Louis, was born at Otis, Berkshire Co., Mass., March 29, 1820, the son of Asa and Ada Judd. The Judd family emigrated to Massachusetts from England at an early period, and a genealogical record of the family has been published which embraces more than eighteen hundred names, and extends down to the year 1845. Dr. Judd's father, Asa Judd, was a farmer of respectable standing, and represented his town several years in the General Assembly of Massachusetts. Homer attended the common schools of the neighborhood, and afterwards enjoyed the higher advantages of Lee and Worthington academies. In 1847 he graduated from the Berkshire Medical College at Pittsfield, Mass. He was a good student both at the academies and at college, and in addition to the Greek and Latin learned during his scholastic course, has since acquired a knowledge of the French, Spanish, German, and Italian languages, and some acquaintance with Hebrew and Sanscrit. His tastes, in fact, have always had a literary cast, and he has spent much time in study and research.
Dr. Judd commenced the practice of medicine and dentistry at Ravenna, Ohio, but after two years' residence at that place he removed to Santa Fé, New Mexico, and was the first professional dentist to fill
tooth in that Territory. After remaining there one summer he returned to Ohio, and subsequently moved to Warsaw, Ill., where he practiced medicine and dentistry for twelve years. At Warsaw he served as a member of the school board for several years, and one year as superintendent of the public schools. In 1847 he became a member of the Independent Order of Odd-Fellows at Ravenna, Ohio, passed through the chairs of his lodge at Warsaw, and was chosen as its representative to the Grand Lodge which met at Chicago in 1859. He then removed to St. Louis, where for many years he was actively engaged in the practice of dentistry, and was looked up to as one of the leaders in his profession. Dr. Judd has been called upon by his brethren to fill a number of important positions, among them those of president of the American Dental Association, Missouri State Dental Association, and St. Louis Dental Society, dean of the Missouri Dental College for seven years, and editor of the Missouri Dental Journal for five years.
During the civil war he served as acting assisting surgeon, United States army, on the hospital steamers running to Vicksburg; and after the battle of Shiloh, Dr. Judd offered his services and was employed as one of the four surgeons charged with the care of five hundred wounded soldiers on board a hospital steamer. His labors in this connection were so arduous that his health became impaired, and he was compelled to visit Minnesota for rest and recreation. Subsequently he was appointed surgeon of the Fortieth Regiment Missouri Volunteers, and served with them at the battles of Franklin, Nashville, and Spanish Fort. For some months after the close of the war he remained in the service, being stationed at Huntsville, Ala. In August, 1865, he was honorably mustered out of service, and returned to St. Louis, where he resumed the practice of dentistry.
Dr. Judd now resides at Upper Alton, Ill., and is justly regarded as being one of the most distinguished men in his profession. He is a member of the American Medical Association, St. Louis Medical Society, St. Louis Academy of Science, American Dental Association, St. Louis Dental Society, and various other associations, being also an honorary member of the California, Illinois, Iowa, Sixth District of New York, and other dental societies. In March, 1853, he was married, in Pittsfield, Ill., to Miss Emily F. Hodgen, of that place. They have had three children, one son, who died at the age of six years, and two daughters. 268
Public Health in St. Louis the Epidemics of the City. St. Louis has become a very healthy city from a very unhealthy one, and this change, which has taken place since the adoption of a system of general drainage, is probably due to the fact that the porous underlying rock on which the city stands is dry and permits foul matters and poisonous moistures to filter through it speedily. There seems to be a general consent of opinion as to the wholesomeness of the Mississippi River water for drinking purposes, and the climate of the city, although changeable and subject to sudden and extreme periods of heat and cold, does not appear to be provocative of pulmonary affections. Malarial and intestinal disorders have very generally been ameliorated with improved sewerage and good water, and these facts represent probably about the sum of the advantages which St. Louis has over competing cities from a sanitary stand-point. Of course more is claimed, as, for example, this, from a newspaper in April, 1880,
"Dr. J. Berrien Lindsley, of Nashville, Tenn., member of the sanitary council of the Mississippi valley, asks the very pertinent question, ‘How is it that St. Louis is, by its mortality reports, shown to be the most healthful large city in the world?’
"The question of Dr. Lindsley, so often asked, is certainly capable of an answer which will perfectly elucidate the causes, and it is worth being answered. In the first place, the geographical position of the city favors its sanitation. Near the centre of a valley extending from the Northwest mountains to the Gulf of Mexico, traversed by an immense and rapidly-moving current of water, which occasions a constant series of atmospheric currents of frequent alternation and in velocity of from five to seventeen miles per hour, weekly mean, the pure, almost frosty air of the mountains sweeps to the gulf, alternating with the breezes from that warm sea backwards to the north, thus preventing, as a usual thing, any prolonged season of very high or extremely low temperature. It is exceptional that we suffer from prolonged hot or cold seasons, although we may at times have to contend for a short space with both extremes. While this constant aerial movement tempers the atmosphere, it serves also to remove constantly the exhalations of a large city, replacing the foul with fresh air, which, by our system of streets and alleys, permeates every nook of our domiciles.
"Our streetage is in excess of any other city. The squares or blocks are small, few larger than three hundred feet square, each square or block intersected by broad paved alleys, which secure free ventilation to the rear of all dwellings.
"Secondly, the topographical features of the city are, in the main, most favorable both to underground artificial and surface natural drainage. From the river-front westward the ground rises in gradually increasing series of undulations, the surface of porous clay resting, at varying depths, upon a limestone substratum. The elevations permit of an admirable system of sewage, which extends to a length of about two hundred miles (the last official report is 195.26 miles), being daily extended. The law requires, and the requirement is complied with, that every house shall be connected with the sewer wherever it can be reached, so that with few exceptions, and these in the outskirts of the city, all foul matter is washed directly to the river by
twenty-five million gallons of water, which is daily furnished by the water-works, in addition to the varying rainfall.
"The natural drainage is favored by our lack of what is called good paving, the loose macadam allowing rapid penetration to the porous clay, through which the water finds ready underground access to the neighboring streams. Besides favoring water drainage, the configuration of the city site, as shown by a physician of the city, favors another very important drainage in the form of surface air-currents, diurnal, and especially nocturnal, when the heavier air, falling to the ground, occasions movements which simulate those of fluids, creating, even without wind, constant change, as the heavier atmosphere, sinking toward the lower outlets, is replaced by the lighter, newer air. St. Louis has no need for crowding its population, and does not. There are no underground tenements, those lurking-places and breeding-nests of diseased minds, morals, and bodies, and indeed but very few above-ground tenements such as most large cities are cursed with. Thousands of the laboring class own their homes, and, with few exceptional localities, dense crowding is unknown, and even then it does not compare with what is considered crowding in other cities.
"Another most important factor in causing good health is an abundance of water unequaled for healthfulness. It is a common joke for the citizens of the North and East to ridicule the hue that our drinking-water at times possesses, but it is a fact well known to seamen that no water throughout the world is as self-preservative as that which stains the blue waters of the gulf for miles beyond the jetties. A cask of Mississippi water may travel a year, and at the last be sweet, pure, and wholesome. It is consumed at the rate of more than fifty gallons per diem to each person, estimating the population at half a million."
To these things must be added good food, abundant, cheap, and various; a frugal working class, having good wages, steady and constant employment, temperate habits, and the domestic ways of the Germans, and thus securing a good degree of exemption from the nervous afflictions of the average American people.
The claim that a vastly improved condition of the public health of St. Louis has resulted from a more effective sanitary and drainage system is certainly substantiated by the results of the following tables, when we eliminate from them the vitiated figures which prove nothing whatever. It is to be observed that each of the census years happens to be bad for comparison, showing a heavier mortality bill than the years preceding and succeeding it:
Here is the evidence of a very substantial, not to say remarkable improvement, and it accords with the development of the sanitary improvements. The returns of mortality statistics only begin in 1847, in which year we have the data for eight months, on the basis of which the deaths for twelve months that year were 3600 in a population of 48,000, in round numbers, equal to a rate of 75 in the 1000. In 1848 the rate was about 41.6 in a thousand; in 1849 (the cholera year) it was 132.7 per thousand, or 13¼ in a hundred. In 1850 (reflex cholera year) the rate was 58.5; 1860, it was 38.5; 1870, for population returned, 21.5, for actual population, 26.67; 1880, the total was 7035 in a total of 350,000, equal to 20.1 per thousand. The steady and persistent ratio of amelioration is very apparent in these figures, in which, besides, we have presented the maximum of adverse circumstances and the minimum of population.
The proper mortality statistics of St. Louis, as has been observed, do not begin until 1847, and we have only fragmentary data relating to antecedent periods, such as may be gleaned from the meagre chronicles and from the newspapers. The only great epidemic that has visited St. Louis was the cholera in 1849, when the disease more than decimated the people. The cholera was severe also in 1866, and its effects were felt at two or three other dates. Of other epidemics we have no certain data, but on several occasions a bilious form of malarial fever appears to have prevailed with great severity, and to have been very fatal. This was the case probably in 1821, and the Spanish garrison seems to have suffered considerably at times.
The smallpox has visited St. Louis at regular intervals, and once or twice has been epidemic. This seems to have been the case in 1801, which year is known in the annals of the village as "l'annee des picotés, or de la picoté" (year of the pitted, or smallpox year). There are no details of this visitation, but it was repeated several times, the Mississippi River providing a thoroughfare for its travel, such as
this loathsome disease likes to take possession of. Inoculation began to be superseded by vaccination about the time that St. Louis became an American town. In 1803 the doctors of Philadelphia had issued a circular to the whole profession, inculcating the virtue and duty of vaccination. That circular is as follows:
"PHILADELPHIA, April 12, 1803.
"We, the subscribers, physicians of Philadelphia, having carefully considered the nature and effects of the newly-discovered means of preventing, by vaccination, the fatal consequence of the smallpox, think it is a duty thus publicly to declare our opinion that inoculation for the kine or cowpox is a certain preventive of the smallpox, that it is attended with no danger, may be practiced at all ages and seasons of the year, and we do, therefore, recommend it for general use. John Redman, A. Kuhn, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Say, C. Wistar, Jr., John R. Coxe, S. F. Conover, E. Perkins, M. Leib, F. Pascalis, James Dunlap, T. T. Hewson, Charles Caldwell, W. P. Dewees, Isaac Sermon, J. P. Minnick, Adam Seybert, W. J. Jacobs, Isaac Cathrall, John Kmeele, J. C. Rousseau, Réné La Roche, Elijah Griffiths, G. F. Alberti, Joseph Strong, W. Shippen, Samuel Duffield, Thomas Parke, P. S. Physick, S. P. Griffiths, J. Woodhouse, P. E. Glentworth, William Currie, John Porter, James Stuart, James Proudfit, James Gallaher, Thomas C. James, B. S. Barton, George Pfeiffer, William Barnwell, James Mease, John C. Otto, J. Reynolds, J. Church, A. Blayney, William Budd, Joseph Pfeiffer, Edward Cutbush."
"Philadelphia Dispensary. The attending and consulting physicians have informed the managers ‘that they had for these eighteen months past inoculated for the cowpox, and found it mild, unattended with danger, and a full security against the smallpox, and expressing their wishes that the superior advantages of the cowpox may be fully experienced by the objects of this charity.’ Therefore, Resolved, That we do entirely accord with the sentiments of the physicians, and earnestly recommend to the poor of the city to embrace the means now offered of preserving themselves and families from a dangerous and loathsome disease by the newly-discovered and happy mode of inoculation for the cowpox, which will be daily performed by the physicians at the dispensary.
"Published by order of the board of managers,
"WM. WHITE, Prest.
"Aug. 25, 1803."
Not long after the establishment of the Missouri Gazette, as heretofore stated, Dr. Saugrain, the leading physician of St. Louis, a man of great scientific attainments and liberal culture, published a card, offering his services in vaccination, and alluding to the above-quoted circular as if it were indeed (as it was) a convincing and final argument.
On the 30th of October, 1822, the Missouri Gazette published the following mortuary statistics of St. Louis, the first we have beer, able to come across:
"The number of interments in this town from the 17th of March last to the 29th inst., in the several burying-grounds, amounts to one hundred and three, as appears by the following statement:
"Number of interments in the Catholic burying-ground from the 17th of March to the 29th of October:
"It is worthy of remark that most of the adults buried in the Catholic churchyard were of an advanced age. Of twenty-five, the whole number, two, a man and his wife, were considerably over ninety, three over seventy, and several over sixty. It is observable also that a majority of burials in that ground were children.
"In the other burying-grounds it seems that almost the whole number of burials during the time above specified were of grown persons, and two-thirds of them males."
These are pretty good data, and they do not show by any means a good bill of health. The population of the town in 1822 did not exceed 4500. It was estimated at 4000 in 1820, and 103 deaths for seven months and a half means 165 deaths per annum, equal to 36.66 per 1000 of population.
On Aug. 20, 1823, was passed the first ordinance of the new city looking to an effectual mode of gathering the actual statistics of mortality. The title of this is sufficiently definite,
"An ordinance to compel a report of the deaths in the city of St. Louis." In this ordinance it was provided that every practicing physician or association of physicians within the city shall, on the Monday of each week during the months of June, July, August, September, and October, and the first day of every other month in each year, make a report in writing to the mayor of the city of each death happening under his or their immediate notice, stating in such report as accurate as may be the disease or cause of death, age, sex, name, and length of residence of deceased within the city.
This was intended to give fuller effect to a previous health ordinance looking to the annual appointment of a health commissioner for each ward, "whose duty it shall be, under the direction and superintendence of the mayor, to watch over the health of the city, and to carry into effect" the various ordinances relating to their functions.
In 1832 the cholera made its first appearance in this country, and after devastating the Eastern seaboard, traveled westward to the Mississippi. Its dreaded approach was not unheeded by the citizens of St. Louis, who, on September 10th of that year, convened in town-meeting, with the following result:
"Town-meeting, Monday evening, Sept. 10, 1832. Pursuant to public notice previously given, a large and respectable meeting of the citizens of St. Louis assembled at the town hall for the purpose of taking into consideration measures for cleaning the city, to avert as far as possible the dreadful disease called cholera.
"Gen. Bernard Pratte was called to the chair, and Dr. H. L. Hoffman appointed secretary. On motion of Dr. H. Lane, an address from the special medical Board of Health of New York was read for the information of the meeting.
"Mr. Cohen, Col. Strother, Mr. Rule, N. Newman, Esq., Mr. Grimsley, and Dr. H. Lane severally addressed the meeting, when, on motion of J. Newman, Esq., the following resolutions were unanimously adopted:
"Resolved, That the chair appoint a committee of ten to report to the Board of Aldermen such measures as they may deem necessary for cleaning and purifying our city, and such other measures as they may think requisite to avert the dreadful disease now raging in our Eastern cities, and that Gen. Pratte be chairman of said committee. Thereupon the chairman appointed the following gentlemen: Dr. William Carr Lane, Dr. C. Campbell, T. Grimsley, Edward Tracy, Thomas Cohen, John Newman, Esq., Col. Strother, N. Ranney, and William K. Rule."
In a short time the disease invaded the town, and the Missouri Republican said, about a month after the town-meeting, that,
"we had hoped to be able to furnish a complete report of the number of cases and deaths since our last publication, but we find it impracticable. The physicians, whose duty it is to report daily, cannot obtain time from their professional duties to attend to this requisition. All of them are unremittingly engaged in the discharge of their cheerless labor. The whole number of cases reported since the 9th instant up to last evening is 93, of which 33 have terminated fatally."
On the 6th of November we find the following happy report:
"The cholera is rapidly disappearing from among us, very few cases having occurred in the past week, and those few in a comparatively mild and mitigated form. Many of our citizens fled from the disease, and are scattered throughout the surrounding country. We hope they will find themselves in as much safety at home. Some of our city officers have thought it best to retire to the country and take care of number one. As they no doubt take a lively interest in the welfare of their constituents, and will be glad to hear how we get along without them, it is proper to state that the people of the city have borne the deprivation of their services with fortitude. The remaining public authorities, aided by the zealous charity of the reverend clergy and of private individuals, have done much for the interest of the city and for the cause of humanity. The sick have been ‘visited,’ the dying comforted, and the dead decently buried.
"The clergy have been active and zealous in relieving the sufferers, and especially the Catholic priests have been untiring in the work of kindness. Day and night they followed close upon the track of the destroyer, ready to administer to the sufferers the comforts of both worlds. But, above all, that pious and self-devoted band, the Sisters of Charity, deserve and will receive the thanks of the community. In addition to the regular hospital in their care, they have volunteered to take care of the cholera patients, and while many others, much more responsible to society, thought only of their own safety, these excellent persons courted the danger and labor and privation, and all for ‘the luxury of doing good.’ Truly their reward is not here.
"We should be doing injustice to our own feelings, we should do injustice to the feelings of our whole community if we were to pass unnoticed the excellent conduct of the medical faculty throughout this trying emergency. They were incessantly engaged in the duties of their profession, and most of them were allowed but little rest during the two weeks in which the disease prevailed with the greatest violence. They as cheerfully visited the abodes of infamy and misery as the residence of the more wealthy citizen, and to all who asked their time and talents were assiduously devoted, without the prospect of fee or reward. Their services will long be remembered by our citizens.
And at the end of the next week the last vestige of the disease had disappeared.
But St. Louis did not escape so lightly when visited by the cholera in 1849. The epidemic of that year was terribly fatal, and we do not think that even the records of mortality from yellow fever in New Orleans can show a parallel degree of severity in an attack of pestilence. This year was one which "old inhabitants" will not soon forget, for it was fraught with peculiar disasters. In London the great fire followed the plague and did service as a purifier, thus making amends in some degree for the havoc, ruin, and calamity it wrought. But in St. Louis, in 1849, the plague followed the fire. At least, although the cholera had begun to rage before that disaster, it did not rise to its greatest height until several weeks after. The day of the fire was the 17th of May; the cholera had made its first appearance in the last days of December, 1848. The first week of January, 1849, there were 8 deaths from cholera reported, one-eleventh of the total mortality. In the week ending July 2d there were 903 deaths, 619 from cholera, showing a very sickly season independent of the epidemic. For the week ending July 16th the deaths were 867; from cholera, 639. On the 10th of July the deaths from cholera alone were 145, a very high death-rate indeed, if it was ever equaled in any city of the same population outside the tropics. The large increase of deaths from other causes besides cholera proceeded from malaria, nervous and physical exhaustion in consequence of anxiety, loss of rest, and nursing, and from what the doctors called bilious diarrhea, doubtless the well-known choleraic disorder of the bowels, modified by climatic and malarious complications, which always seem to attend upon an epidemic of cholera. During the week of the maximum intensity of the disease that ending July 16th the deaths from cholera alone were at the rate of 36,400 per annum, 57.3 per cent, of the entire population. The deaths from all diseases were at the rate of 47,944 per annum, 75.5 per cent, of the entire population.
The contemporary journals give what is probably the best, certainly the most graphic, history of the ravages and desolations of this epidemic. But, preliminary to quoting these, it will be best to give an
abstract of the corrected mortality statistics as they are given, in a revised form, in the Western Journal for 1851, pp. 264-65:
The first mention of the appearance of the disease is in a journal of the date of January 19th, in which we are told that,
"Since our last we have ascertained that five deaths from this disease have occurred in this city during yesterday and the evening previous, and one new case on Collins Street, reported to the health officer. Two of the deaths were in a family on Sixth Street, between Locust and St. Charles, one at the corner of Eighth and Wash, one on Wash; between Eighth and Ninth, and one at the Sisters' Hospital. From two of the families where death occurred several members were sent to the hospital, prostrated with the disease; these, we are informed, are cases of local cholera. In view of the appearance of this disease in our city four additional street inspectors were yesterday sworn in by the recorder."
But there was no panic; the disease was allowed to run along. There is no further mention of it until May 5th, when it is simply said that the sexton of a single cemetery reported to the register ten interments of persons dead of cholera in twenty-four hours. On May 11th the fact that the disease was making progress was recognized:
"The physicians report to the register the existence of twenty-six new cases of cholera from seven o'clock P. M. of Wednesday to six P. M. of Thursday. During the same time nine deaths from cholera were reported to the register, but we are inclined to believe the entire return at the end of the week from the several places of interment will show a greater mortality than is here set down."
"Forty-seven cases were reported to the city register yesterday, of which twelve proved fatal. Nine of the above cases were taken from the boats, of which three have died."
"At six o'clock last evening twenty-four cholera cases had been reported at the register's office, six of which terminated fatally. This is a falling off from the average mortality of last week of four per day.
"The city having purchased of John A. Stephenson the steamer ‘Hannibal’ for the purpose of using her as a quarantine or a hospital boat, she was towed down to the quarantine station on Wednesday evening by the steamer ‘Whirlwind.’ One great difficulty which has heretofore been much complained of has been the trouble of landing steamboats at the island, and on this account boats have sometimes violated the quarantine regulations. This move on the part of the city will obviate this difficulty entirely, as it will be as easy to land beside the quarantine boat as at the wharf. It is intended, we are informed, to use the boat as a hospital in case of an epidemic. She is to be moored at a point near the foot of Duncan's Island, where there is plenty of water for the largest class boats at any season of the year. The price paid for the ‘Hannibal’ was ten hundred and fifty dollars, which, in addition to the expense of towing her down and mooring her, will make her cost about eleven hundred dollars. The machinery of the ‘Hannibal’ had been removed previous to the purchase. Dr. Leavenworth, quarantine physician, is having his laboratory and lodgings removed to the boat, so that at all hours of the night and at all times of the day he will be on hand for the examination of arriving steamers."
"The city register makes the following statement in regard to the health of the city:
"The whole number of deaths from all causes for the seven days ending Sunday night, the 13th inst., was 273, of which 181 were from cholera. The interments daily from the last disease were as follows:
"The number of deaths reported for Monday, the 14th inst., was twenty-one, being eleven less than on the 8th, the heaviest
day, showing a decrease in this particular disease. The entire number of deaths on Monday was thirty-six. This is really frightful mortality, and although it may be argued that the pestilence is abating in the number of its victims and in its virulence, it still has terrors enough to alarm most any one."
Next day after this, May 17th, the great fire took place, and public attention was so exclusively directed to that as to leave the cholera out of sight. Indeed, in a narrative written next year, it was said that,
"As at the battle of Aboukir the blowing up of the ‘L'Orient’ had the effect of causing an utter suspension of hostilities for the space of half an hour, only to be resumed with increased fury, at least on the part of the British, so this conflagration had the effect, for a few days, of so far drawing public attention from the presence of the cholera as almost to cause it to be generally believed to have been actually superseded by the fire. But this delusion was of but short duration. In a few days, the excitement caused by the fire having subsided, the cholera again began to command the public attention by, not a return (for it had not disappeared, being only temporarily merged and lost sight of in the accompanying great calamity), but an increase of virulence."
The next current mention of the progress of the disease is on June 15th:
"The sexton of seven cemeteries, viz.: the City, Catholic, Methodist, Holy Ghost, Christ Church, German Protestant, and Lutheran, reported fifty-nine interments during Tuesday, forty-seven of which were reported as having died of cholera."
On the 19th of June the following was the report:
"For the week ending Sunday the number of interments, as reported to the register, was as follows:
"Monday, 8 cemeteries reported 48 in all, 40 of the cholera.
"Tuesday, 7 cemeteries reported 60 in all, 47 of the cholera.
"Wednesday, 9 cemeteries reported 83 in all, 65 of the cholera.
"Thursday, 10 cemeteries reported 68 in all, 58 of the cholera.
"Friday, 9 cemeteries reported 74 in all, 62 of the cholera.
"Saturday, 9 cemeteries reported 74 in all, 61 of the cholera.
"Sunday, 8 cemeteries reported 85 in all, 69 of the cholera.
"Total, 492; 402 of the cholera."
There was complaint at the showing of these figures, and a disposition to charge neglect. It was said that,
"The cholera is still sweeping off its scores of victims every day, and this at a time when the atmosphere is pure and elastic, and there appears to be no good reason for the prevalence of the mortality. It seems to be well ascertained, however, that the epidemic is confined to particular localities, and that efforts of a sanitary kind must be directed to these districts, if anything is to be done at all, to arrest the progress of the malady. St. Charles Street and Washington Avenue, west of Eighth, parts of North St. Louis, and some localities in the southern part of the city are represented to be the principal seats of the pestilence. Efforts should now be directed to the purification of these quarters."
"The week previous to this the mortality was 224, and the deaths by cholera 173, showing an increase of 49 on the whole number, and 26 on deaths by cholera.
"The cholera proper appears to confine itself entirely among the newly-arrived immigrants, who are compelled by their restricted means to lodge in the city suburbs or in low, unhealthy places in the city, where disease very naturally is most readily contracted. The strangers who visit us from the neighboring States may, if they take the ordinary precautions, do so with impunity. Nearly one-third of the deaths, it will be seen by the above table, occurred among children five years of age or under."
But this did not satisfy the citizens. They determined to take things in their own hands, called a public meeting, and appointed a committee to look after the proper sanitary measures which should be adopted in an emergency of this sort. On June 26th, as the current report informs us,
"The committee appointed by the chairman of the mass-meeting, at least a portion of them, met yesterday morning at the Planters' House, and an address to the mayor and City Council, and an ordinance embracing the provisions of the recommendations of the mass-meeting were adopted, and forthwith the committee in a body waited upon the mayor at the town hall and laid them before him. In response to the address, the mayor assured the committee of his hearty wish and entire willingness to co-operate with the citizens and the Council in any measures that might be adopted to stay the ravages of the disease, or mitigate the sufferings of the destitute who might be attacked with it. He gave some painful and frightful accounts of what he had already witnessed, and his inability to do more than he had done. The two boards of the City Council having adjourned over until Wednesday evening, the mayor instantly summoned them to meet at four o'clock P. M. yesterday.
"Said ordinance was then taken up for consideration, and after slight amendment, read three several times and passed, the vote being ayes eight, noes one. The ordinance as passed by the aldermen is in substance as follows:
"First, that in order to check the future spread of the cholera now raging among us, and to carry into effect in the best manner the views of our citizens, as expressed by them in public meeting, touching said disease, a committee shall be and hereby is appointed, to be termed ‘the Committee of Public Health,’ consisting of the following-named persons, heretofore named at said public meeting, to wit: T. T. Gantt, R. S. Blennerhassett, A. B. Chambers, Isaac A. Hedges, James Clemens, Jr., J. M. Field, George Collier, L. M. Kennett, Trusten Polk, Lewis Bach, Thomas Gray, William G. Clark."
But nothing could arrest the headway of the disease now. On June 28th the report said,
"The official reports of interments for the week ending Monday last, and including all the cemeteries in the neighborhood of the city, shows the total number for that period to be 763, of which 164 were children from the age of five and under. The deaths from cholera for the same period are reported at 589.
"In view of the terrible pestilence now prevailing in our midst, the officers of Washington University have deemed it expedient to bring their scholastic year to a rather sudden and premature termination, and permit those students residing at distance to return to their homes.
"The clergy of the Presbyterian Church in this city have set apart this day (Thursday) as a day of public fasting, humiliation, and prayer. All persons are affectionately invited to join with them in the religious services of the day.
"At a meeting of the committee designated by the ordinance passed by the City Council, held yesterday evening at the Planters' House, were present Messrs. Gantt, Chambers, Clark, Field, Hedges, Gray, Polk, and Blennerhassett. Absent, Messrs. Clemens, Collier, Kennett, and Bach. On motion, T. T. Gantt, Esq., was called to the chair, and J. M. Field appointed secretary.
"The meeting being informal, they not having been officially advised of the passage of the ordinance, the following address and proceedings were had:
"Resolved, That the public school-house on Seventh Street, in the First Ward; the public school-house in the Fifth Ward, on the corner of Ninth and Wash; public school-house near Mound Market, in the Sixth Ward; and the St. Vincent schoolroom (Catholic), in the Fourth Ward, be and they are hereby set apart as temporary hospitals, and we request that all destitute poor be sent to those places. Arrangements will be made in the other wards as soon as the city can procure proper tenements.
"Resolved, That Messrs. Blennerhassett, for the First Ward; Polk, for the Fifth Ward; William G. Clark, for the Sixth Ward; Thomas Gray, for St. Vincent's school-room, in the Fourth Ward, be appointed to carry out the above resolutions, and provide for the temporary accommodations of patients until other provisions are made.
"Resolved, That two physicians be appointed to attend to each of the temporary hospitals hereby established, and that they be empowered to procure all the medicine and attendance necessary, and establish a medical depot not only for the sick in the hospitals, but also for all destitute poor in the ward."
This was the way to fight the epidemic, but it would not yield to any such measures at present. On June 29th we read,
"We have been nattering ourselves that the prevailing epidemic was abating, but on collecting the facts our hopes are dissipated. It is, in fact, on the increase, and now becomes a serious, and the only question, ‘What shall be done to stay it?’ By the report below it will be seen that, according to the returns of eleven cemeteries, there were on Wednesday 132 interments, of which 109 were from cholera, only 23 from other causes. These returns do not include the Methodist cemetery in an authentic shape, nor the Hebrew. We learn indirectly that there were interments in the Methodist cemetery, 6 of which were from cholera, and 2 from other causes. If this be true, it gives a total for Wednesday of 140 deaths, of which 115 were by the prevailing sickness, considerably exceeding the reported mortality of any other day. Even if the report from the Methodist be not correct, those which are known to be so show that this disease is on the increase, and give just and sufficient cause to awaken all good and humane men to prompt and efficient action."
June 30th there was a wail of querulous despondency,
"An examination of the daily reports which have been published for some weeks past of the ravages of the cholera in this city presents the melancholy fact that at least three-fourths of the mortality is confined to emigrants from foreign countries. We think that this is quite a reasonable estimate, and we call attention to it now with the hope of inducing some effort to improve the condition of those who seem, from local or other causes, doomed to the grave.
"At least one-third of the population of St. Louis is composed of foreigners. They have been increasing every year, bringing much wealth to the city, improving their own condition, and enhancing the value of everything around them, contracting too many of the habits and enjoying the comforts of Americans. Within the last few months, however, a greatly increased number of foreigners, principally from England and Germany, have arrived, and thus they have unfortunately brought disease and death with them to such an extent as to carry alarm whenever an arrival is announced."
July 1st the Committee of Public Health was vigorously at work, employing every means in its power, as evidenced by the following:
"Resolved, That the special block inspectors observe the following regulations:
"1. To visit and thoroughly examine each tenement and the premises in their several districts at least once every day, and notify the occupants, and also the owners thereof, forthwith to remove to the most convenient street or alley anything that they may deem injurious or offensive, or that ought to be removed. And if the same shall not forthwith be removed, then they will immediately remove the same, and charge the expenses thereof to the occupants first, if they be able to pay them; if not, then to the owners: and if neither the occupants nor the owners can pay the same, then shall the same be paid by the city.
"2. That such examination be made at least once every day.
"3. That they procure a sufficiency of scavenger- and slop-carts to remove all the filth from every part of their district once each day.
"4. To examine and ascertain the number of persons occupying any tenement and their condition; and whenever the number and condition is such as in the opinion of the inspector endangers the health of the occupants or the neighborhood, to report immediately the facts to the president of the committee, or to the members of the committee from the ward in which it exists.
"5. To cause forthwith all sick, destitute persons to be removed to some one of the hospitals selected and designated by this committee.
"6. Keep a strict account of every expense necessarily incurred in removing nuisances or sick persons, and report the same to this committee.
"7. They shall have power to engage the necessary vehicles and means for carrying the sick to the hospitals above specified.
"8. That all the matter carried off by the scavenger- and slop-carts be hauled to the scavenger-boat near the foot of Walnut Street.
"9. That such inspectors immediately report to the members of the committee for their ward all such persons as may either neglect, refuse, or oppose any order or step given or taken to effect the objects of their appointment, in order that the members of this committee may effectually enforce the provisions and objects of the ordinance of the 27th June inst.
"NOTICE. The attention of the block inspectors and citizens generally is particularly directed to the order with regard to the disinfecting fires to-night, so that the whole city may be thus purified at once. The materials should be procured by the block inspectors to-day, and deposited in prescribed quantities at the proper places ready for use at 8 o'clock P. M.
"NOTICE. The Committee of Public Health hereby give notice that they have made arrangements for the immediate reception of all indigent persons suffering with cholera at the Hotel for Invalids, corner of Second and Walnut Streets; at
the St. Louis Hospital, corner of Spruce and Fourth Streets; at the City Hospital, and at the public school-houses in the First and Sixth Wards.
"Suitable cars for the conveyance of the sick will be kept in waiting at the various hospitals, and also at the public school-houses in the Fourth and Fifth Wards, and will be sent immediately on application to the parties in need of them. The block inspectors and all friends to humanity are requested to use their endeavors to have all indigent persons attacked with the epidemic removed from their dwellings to the hospitals at the earliest possible moment, as upon this depends the greatest chance of relief being afforded.
"The Committee of Health have recommended that Monday (to-morrow) shall be observed as a day of humiliation, fasting, and prayer. As a Christian community, and recognizing the overruling power of Providence, this recommendation will not be disregarded. Never was there a time in the history of any city that more imperiously demanded a humble and contrite appeal to the interposition of the Almighty than now exists in St. Louis. The churches and all religious denominations, we have no doubt, will cordially and zealously unite in observing the recommendation. All must admit its propriety and necessity.
"Every good and right-thinking man will, out of respect to the religious opinions and belief of his neighbors, give it his acquiescence. He will close his store or place of business and surrender the day to the purposes indicated, and permit those in his employ to participate in devotional exercises, and to enjoy some relaxation from toil. The prompt and hearty co-operation of the citizens thus far in all the recommendations and suggestions of the committee gives assurance that this request will be strictly observed by all.
"In compliance with the recommendation of the Committee of Health, we will not issue a paper on Tuesday morning. Advertisers for that day will please send in their favors today."
On July 4th there was the following mortality:
"Total, one hundred and sixty in all, one hundred and twenty-eight of cholera. This report shows five more deaths from cholera than has occurred any day since the epidemic has prevailed in our city."
And new and greater additions were made to the authority of the Committee of Public Health:
"Yesterday evening the City Council passed an ordinance vesting in the mayor and Committee of Public Health the necessary powers to enforce quarantine regulations on all emigrants from shipboard, and on all sick, diseased, infectious, or unclean persons. The ordinance, we have no doubt, will receive the sanction of the mayor."
The weekly report at this time was enough to cause a panic:
"By the daily report made to the register's office, for the week ending Sunday last, it appears the total number of interments was as follows:
On July 6th we are told,
"Yesterday afternoon His Honor the mayor, Dr. Barret, the visiting physician, and several other gentlemen visited the quarantine grounds, and were well satisfied with the arrangement and condition of the persons there. As yet the committee have not been able to perfect their arrangements, but in the course of to-day and to-morrow they will have accommodation erected on shore sufficient for any present probable demand.
"There are now at the quarantine ground one hundreds one persons, all of whom are comfortably provided for on board the steamboat ‘St. Louis.’ These are all Germans, of whom there were yesterday evening only four sick, two women and two children. An Englishman landed at the quarantine ground died yesterday, the only death that had occurred up to a late hour last evening. Dr. Haussler, a German, is resident physcian at quarantine. Dr. Carrow continues to perform the duties of health officer. He is stationed at the Montesano House with a boat and crew, and boards all boats from the South."
The point selected for quarantine was the lower end of Arsenal Island. July 16th the following is reported:
"The following shows the number of interments daily for the week ending yesterday:
"The total number of interments in the several cemeteries of the city for the week ending Monday, July 16th, is shown by the following table, copied from the register's official report:
"Total for the week, 867.
"Of the above number, 197 were children of the age of five years and under."
"The following table shows the number of interments each day for the week ending Saturday, the 21st:
"For the same period last week there were 722 deaths from cholera and 215 from other diseases. Compared with the same period the previous week, the above table shows a decrease of 386 deaths from the cholera and 18 from other diseases."
The disease now suddenly lost its terrors, and the mortality fell off at once almost to nearly normal rates. The causes of this were (1) the new quarantine arrangements; (2) a general betterment in the state of the atmosphere and temperature; (3) a general flight of citizens from the place. This last cause probably was much more efficient than the others in checking the ravages of the pestilence. The proof that there was such a general expatriation at this time is found in the sudden drop in the number of deaths from other diseases besides cholera between the middle of July and the middle of August.
On August 8th, the journal heretofore quoted said,
"The following report is copied from the statements of the several sextons, made to the register, for the week ending Monday, the 6th. It exhibits a greatly reduced mortality in this city, and the almost total disappearance of the cholera from among us. It justifies us, also, in inviting the return of our own citizens, and the visits of all who have business or desire intercourse with us. The re-establishment of quarantine regulations and proper attention to cleanliness of our streets will insure us against any further disease during the present season:
The same paper reviews the facts and points the moral of the epidemic in the excellent article which follows:
"We have taken the trouble to procure from the register's office an authentic statement of the whole number of interments in the cemeteries of this city from the 23d day of April to the 6th day of August, 1849. The laws of this State in regard to interments in public burial-grounds are very severe, and we have no reason to suppose that they have been disregarded in any instance. In some cemeteries it is understood that they report a greater number of deaths, for two or three weeks, than is here set down, amounting to some fifty or sixty, but we account for the discrepancy by supposing that there were cases of interments of persons dying at the coal-mines, several miles from the city, and in which no regular certificates, such as the law requires, were furnished. It has been stated that large numbers of persons dying in St. Louis have been interred in Illinois and in the surrounding country, of which no note has been taken. We do not believe this is true to any considerable extent, and we are quite certain that more persons have been brought to the city graveyards from abroad, for the purpose of interment, than have been taken from the city with a view to interment elsewhere.
"What a fearful tale is told in this chronicle of death's doings! In a little over one hundred days six thousand persons have been committed to the grave, and this out of a population of less than sixty thousand! This is an awful mortality, perhaps greater than has ever occurred in any city of the United States with the same population. It is to be observed, however, that a good many hundreds of these persons were not really citizens of St. Louis, but had just landed here, bringing the seeds of death within them, and, still more unfortunate, carrying death into whatever quarter they went. To this cause, indeed, is to be attributed a vast portion of the mortality which has been recorded; and if the people are wise they will avoid, as far as possible, contributing to similar epidemics hereafter, by insisting upon greater regard to cleanliness and the proper ventilation of the houses occupied by these people, and by compelling the owners of all such places as ‘Shepard's Graveyard’ to fill them up and put the houses in proper and healthy condition. There are numberless such places in the city, and we only specify this one because the people are more familiar with it than with others.
"TABLE OF INTERMENTS in the severa1 public cemeteries attached to St. Louis from the 23d day of April to the 6th of August, 1849.
These figures, in fact, were below, not above the frightful aggregate, as the revised table given in a preceding page proves. The results of this terrible pestilence, which retarded the city's progress temporarily, were important in their bearing upon the improvements made in the city's sanitary condition. Better quarantine arrangements were at once made; better provision for cleanliness in streets and highways, and improvements in every other sanitary regard. But, more than all, the determination to give St. Louis a thorough and effective sewer and drainage system was a consequence of this epidemic.
The cholera could not be completely got rid of for several years. In January, 1852, the following table was made up from the register's records:
Table showing the weekly mortality of St. Louis during the years 1849-51.
There was a slight outbreak of the cholera in 1855, but the disease did not again visit St. Louis with any violence until 1866. In that year it became epidemic once more, and threatened at one time to get beyond control, as it had done in 1849.
The approach of the disease, slow and gradual, was not unheeded by the citizens who bore 1819 still fresh in their memories. The newspapers recited the history of that stricken year as an example, and some of the articles written on the subject have a positive value, for example,
"As early as 1847, the first year of that decade so remarkable for the vast immigration from Europe, there were numerous cases of ship fever, some of which were brought to St. Louis, and communicated the contagion of that disease to some of our citizens. The next year, cholera prevailing in Europe, the emigrant ships brought over a great deal of disease, which was pronounced cholera; and in the latter part of the year infected New Orleans, where, before January, 1849, cholera had assumed an epidemic form. The New Orleans Picaynne of Dec. 14, 1848, noticed the arrival of the ship ‘Swinton,’ from Havre, with German emigrants, after a passage of only thirty-nine days, and sixteen deaths on the passage, which were subsequently acknowledged to have been of cholera. On the 27th of that month there was an alarm in St. Louis on account of deaths supposed to be from cholera, on board the steamer ‘Alton,’ from New Orleans. The cholera prevailed through the winter months in New Orleans, and on all the boats from thence going up the Mississippi and Ohio there were cases of it. On the 17th of January the St. Louis board reported six cases of local origin, though it was doubted whether so early as this there were any cases not traceable to communication with New Orleans. An ice-blockade in February stopped navigation, and little mention of the disease was made until its reopening. On the 28th of March the St. Louis Board of Health reported twenty-four cases of cholera for the week before, mostly from New Orleans. On the 9th twenty-six cases for the week were reported, but only four residents of the city. During April and May the cholera broke out at several points on the Missouri River, and was on every boat on the Mississippi and Missouri. On the 8th of May, in St. Louis, the weekly deaths by cholera had gone up to one hundred and seventy-eight, and on May 14th to one hundred and eighty-five, but fell off for two weeks after the great fire."
And so forth, the article concluding with a pretty complete account of the course and progress of the pestilence by way of warning. This article was written in April, but the disease did not break out until July. On the 9th of August one of the daily journals reported the progress it had made in the following terms, which, though calm and cautious, give evidence of the little under-current of alarm:
"As was to be anticipated from the prevalence of the disease throughout the country and the unusual heat of the weather, some cases of sporadic cholera have occurred in this city. So far, however, the cases have been comparatively few and isolated, and have mostly occurred among persons whose constitutions were weakened and deteriorated by vicious or irregular habits, or whose residence and modes of living were unfavorable to health.
"Since the appearance of the disease the members of the Board of Health, the mayor, and other city officers connected with the health department, have been actively engaged in taking precautionary measures, and endeavoring to improve the somewhat objectionable sanitary condition of the city, and to this end, at a recent meeting of the Board of Health, the following address to the citizens was promulgated:
"‘ST. LOUIS, MO., Aug. 8, 1866.
"TO THE CITIZENS OF ST. LOUIS:
"As it is now fully ascertained by the Board of Health of the city of St. Louis that there are some cases of cholera among us, and having taken all the precautions in our power, we would most earnestly request of the citizens of St. Louis to assist us in carrying out the sanitary regulations of the city.
"President of Board of Health." I hereby cordially concur in the above recommendations.
"JAMES S. THOMAS,
"Mayor of St. Louis.’"
The disease made progress, but active steps were taken to meet it. Under date of August 11th we read that,
"The sudden and unusual coolness of Thursday night, followed by the close murky atmosphere of yesterday, resulted, as might be expected, in a somewhat increased number of cases of cholera, forty-three cases were reported at the health office. Many of these, however, were of a mild character, yielding easily to medical treatment.
"The following are the names of the physicians appointed by the board to attend to those unable to pay:
"First District. D. A. Roach. Orders can be left at the drug store on Carondelet Avenue between Russell and Anne.
"Second District, Dr. William S. Golding. Leave orders at his office, corner Fourth and Walnut.
"Third District, Dr. S. T. Newman, corner of Washington Avenue and Fifth Street.
"Fourth District, Dr. R. B. McAuliff, corner of Broadway and Carr.
"Fifth District, Dr. James O. Gallagher. Orders can be left at 722 Broadway, Tenth Ward, and at James McBride's drug store, on Filth between O'Fallon and Biddle.
"They also resolved to appoint two drug stores in each ward at which medicines can be obtained by poor people free of charge."
On the 16th, the following was issued:
"ST. LOUIS, Aug. 15, 1866.
"Whereas, It has been represented to me that the wants of those suffering from cholera might be alleviated and the sanitary condition of the city more fully attained by the appointment of a number of citizens in each ward, whose duty it should be to inquire into the condition of the infected neighborhoods, to use such remedies as necessity demands by supplying to the poor medical advice, having medicines made up for them, and using disinfectants.
"Now, therefore, I, James S. Thomas, mayor of the city of St. Louis, do hereby appoint the following citizens, and request them to carry out the objects above set forth:
"First Ward, Col. Koehler, Col. Vahlkamp, John C. Finck, Charles Strittwetter, Toney Faust, George Meisbach.
"Medicines will be supplied at drug store 259 Carondelet Avenue; also at Mol's drug store, Carondelet Avenue.
"Second Ward, Col. Chris. Ploeser, Julius Conrad, Charles W. Gottschalk, Phil. Michel, Capt. Chris. Overbeck, John Pullis, Henry Amburg, Charles R. Fritsch.
"Medicines will be supplied at Geniff's drug store, 35 Carondelet Avenue; also at H. Distlehorst's, corner of Seventh and Soulard.
"Third Ward, William Rumbold, Amadee Valle, C. C. Simmons, William H. Maurice, Edward Mead, John G. Copelin, Dr. William Taussig, E. P. Rice, R. C. Rennick, Frederick Heitkamp, Emile Winter, Herman Schepmann, Dr. T. F. Rumbold.
"Medicines to be supplied at drug store corner Seventh and Chouteau Avenue.
"Fourth Ward, William H. Godfrey, G. W. Dreyer, Tony Niederweiser, George Walbrecht, Frank Boehm, D. C. L. Lips, Limberg, Dr. Thomas Scott, J. C. Barlow, P. Wiles, W. Vanzandt.
"Medicines will be supplied at drug store of Enno Sanders, corner of Fourth and Walnut Streets, and at drug store corner of Seventeenth and Market.
"This committee is requested to convene at Tony Niederweiser's at ten o'clock A. M. to-day,
"Fifth Ward, Erastus Wells, John Cairns, Joseph Conn, A. J. P. Garesche, James Quigley, John MeBride, John Jackson, L. Burns, John Ivory, Hampton Woodruff. Medicines can be supplied at drug store corner of Fifth and Market, and at drug store corner of Seventeenth and Market Streets.
"The committee is requested to meet at the hall of the Board of Aldermen at ten o'clock to-day.
"Sixth Ward, William G. Eliot, B. R. Bonner, Joshua Cheever, James Blakely, Charles G. Ramsey, John S. Thompson, Levin Baker, Jacob Merrell, James Scollay, William H. Benton. Medicines to be supplied at Crawford's drug store, corner of Eighth and Washington Avenue, and McGintie, corner of Olive and Fifteenth Streets.
"Seventh Ward, James T. Mercer, C. F. Walther, J. H. Gerdemann, Anson Comstock, John O'Brien, William Lanmann, H. Steinberg, A. Heute, Ernst Krepper. Medicines to be supplied at Walton & Co., Morgan and Third Streets, and at the drug store corner of Seventeenth Street and Franklin Avenue.
"This committee is requested to convene at J. H. Gerdemann's, corner Seventeenth and Franklin Avenue.
"Eighth Ward. The committee of this ward will be appointed by Dr. Horatio Wood, and will receive instructions from him. Medicine will be supplied at drug store corner of Washington Avenue and Broadway, and at drug store corner of Seventeenth and Franklin Avenue.
"Ninth Ward, M. W. Hogan, P. Driscoll, D. McAuliffe, John H. Neirmeyer, William Powers, John Amende, William Stenkemeyer, Edward Quinlivan, H. J. Shauhoest, Phil. McDonald, Casper Stalle. Medicines will be supplied at James J. McBride's drug store, on Fifth Street, between Biddle and O'Fallon, and at Knawb's drug store, corner of Fifteenth and Cass Avenue.
"Tenth Ward, Charles W. Irwin, Joseph Hodgeman, John McGuire, E. P. Gray, Frank Overstolz, Samuel Gaty, Charles E. Anderson, L. Garnett, Levy Ashbrook, J. O. Codding, L. Vanderwater, N. Madden, E. D. Jones. Medicines will be supplied at corner of North Market and Broadway, at drug store corner of Ninth and Chambers Streets, and at drug store corner of Broadway and Salisbury.
"The committee is requested to convene at National Hall, corner of Chambers Street and Broadway, at ten o'clock A. M., 16th inst.
"The citizens named in the above will act under the direction of the gentleman first named in their respective wards, and his action in the premises will be sustained by the chief executive.
"In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the city of St. Louis to be affixed this 15th day of August, 1866.
"J. W. HEATH,
"JAMES S. THOMAS,
"Mayor of St. Louis.
At that time the Board of Health was proceeding with energy, suppressing nuisances and promoting hygienic measures of every kind. The commissioners, Messrs. Belt, Stifel, King, Finn, Krieger, and the health officer, made short work of everything prejudicial to hygiene that was brought to their attention. Stagnant ponds, offal, garbage, public and private nuisances of all sorts were dealt with by the strong hand. One of the hotels was declared a nuisance, and so were slaughter-houses, alleys, and everything that was malodorous. Many donations were received; much gratuitous advice likewise. It was all gravely reported, for example,
"Communication of James Lyttle, in regard to a cheap and simple preventive of cholera, received and read.
"This disease will never spread among people with sulphur in their stockings. Put half a teaspoonful of flour of sulphur into each of your stockings and go about your business; never go out with an empty stomach; eat no fresh bread nor sour food.
"Not one of the many thousand who have followed this, my advice, has been attacked by cholera. So says the celebrated Dr. Hering in his medical work published some years ago.
"The most powerful disinfectant is sulphuric acid gas (the fumes of melted sulphur)."
Meantime the disease had become quite severe.
"The following is the mortuary report for the week ending Friday, 17th of August, so far as included in the reports from the different cemeteries:
"Of the above, 241 were children under five years of age, and 2 still-born. Deaths from cholera, 532.
"Owing to the press of business at the health office, the regular mortuary report has not been made up, and the above
figures comprise only the cemetery returns, without including deaths at City Hospital, quarantine, and smallpox hospital. Subsequently we were informed that the report from the city cemetery was 127 deaths, of which all but 11 were of cholera. We were unable to ascertain whether this includes the deaths occurring at quarantine and the smallpox hospital. The total number treated at the City Dispensary during the week by Drs. Folsom and Grissom was 489 cases. The various committees still prosecute their labors energetically, and lime, copperas, and other disinfectants were liberally distributed."
Among those whom the pestilence carried off were Col. I. Weidemeyer, county auditor. He was fifty-three years old, and had served the Union cause efficiently during the civil war, being colonel in command of the Forty-first Missouri Infantry. On September 24th, Hampton Woodruff succumbed to the plague. He was a member of the Board of Delegates in the City Council, and highly esteemed. Since the outbreak of the cholera he had done great service as an active member of the sanitary committee of his ward. He was forty-eight years old at the time of his death, a native of Baltimore, Md., but for twenty-five years a citizen of St. Louis. He was a butcher and wholesale cattle-dealer, president of the Butchers' Association, a "bright" Mason, and a man of honorable prominence for scrupulous integrity and exemplary business capacity.
For the week ending August 24th the death table was as follows:
"Nativities. United States, 526; Ireland, 260; Germany, 297; England, 17; Belgium, 2; France, 22; Canada, 14; Switzerland, 6; Italy, 8; Sweden, 4. Total, 1156.
"Sexes. White males, 647; white females, 470; colored males, 28; colored females, 11. Total, 1156. Of this number 206 were children under five years of age.
"Admissions to the City Hospital during the week, 275; ditto to quarantine, 2; treated at the dispensary by Drs. Folsom and Grissom during the week, 290.
"The above total of the deaths is somewhat below the actual aggregate, inasmuch as the returns from Arsenal Island are only partial, including only those persons who died in the City Hospital, no return being made as to the number of poor persons interred on the island during the week who died in other parts of the city. The number of interments of this nature must at least be over one hundred, which will increase the total mortality to nearly thirteen hundred. This is somewhat a startling aggregate when compared to the weekly returns we are accustomed to see published, which rarely exceed one-fifth of the above number, but now that the mysterious and merciless epidemic, which has caused so much sorrow and desolation, is rapidly subsiding, it is comparatively easy to contemplate the fact with calmness, and to realize that after all the cholera has paid us but a flying visit, far less destructive and prolonged than its former well-remembered visitations.
"By one of the strange fluctuations common to our anomalous climate, the usually hot, sultry weather incident to August has been exchanged for the cool atmosphere and cloudless skies of the Indian summer. Within the last few days thin coats and light pants have been at a discount; people have ceased to sit on their door-steps in the evening, or to lie uncovered under breezy mosquito-bars, while some have twinges of rheumatism, and others gloomy intermittents and chills. We are not disposed, however, to quarrel with the weather just now. Who knows how much these clear, cool breezes have assisted in ex-purging from the air the invisible blight which has shed the gloom of the ‘shadow of death’ round so many households? Certain it is that the decrease of mortality and the cool weather were simultaneous in their commencement."
The press and the people consoled themselves with the reflection that things were not nearly so bad as they had been in 1849. They said,
"The cholera this year broke out on the 29th of July, the first case of which proved fatal.
"The mortality report for the week ending July 6th of the present year was: Total number of deaths, 135, of which 89 were children under live years of age. Friday, July 13th, 122; Friday, July 20th, 183; Friday, July 27th, 190; Friday, August 3d, 208. No cholera cases as yet officially reported.
"On the 10th instant no report was furnished. For the week ending Friday, August 17th, there were 895 deaths, of which 648 were from cholera; for the week ending Friday, August 24th, there were 1156 deaths, of which 918 were reported as cholera cases.
"During the month of December, 1848, the census of the city was taken preliminary to a revision of the wards for the adjustment of ward representation in the City Council. It was then found to be 63,781, and the highest number of deaths from cholera for one week during 1849, by the above table, is found to be 639.
"The census, which has lately been completed, gives us a population of over 204,000. The deaths from cholera during the past week, being but 918, in proportion to the population of the city as compared with that of 1849, would show that as yet there is no reason for alarm, and the more especially so as will be seen from the above table that we are rapidly approaching the season when the cholera ceased to be an epidemic in 1849. Severe as has been the visitation upon our city, it has been far less destructive than at the time above alluded to. Vigilance should not as yet be relaxed; sanitary measures should still be enforced with rigor until the frosty nights come.
"During the past day or two the cholera seems to be far less malignant and deadly than during the early part of the week, and we have good reason to believe that it will soon disappear altogether, notwithstanding the mortuary report for this week shows an increase over the past week."
The disease now began to subside, as the report for September 9th shows:
"Nativities. United States, 349; Belgium, 2; Sweden, 1; England, 11; Canada, 2; Germany, 80; Ireland, 122; Italy, 1; Norway, 2; France, 10. Total, 580.
"Sexes. White, males 271, females 282; colored, males 17, females 10. Total, 580. Of these 209 were children of five years and under, and 13 infants still-born.
"Deaths at City Hospital during the week, 61; St. Louis, 2; Good Samaritan, 1.
"Admissions to City Hospital, 132; Quarantine, 12.
"Treated at City Dispensary during the week by Drs. Folsom and Grissom, 235.
"The above report is complete, with the exception of the returns of a few of the cemeteries which had not been received at the health office up to a late hour Saturday evening. It also does not include the full number of interments at Arsenal Island. The interments on the island from the City Hospital are given, but owing to some confusion on the island, the old clerk having been discharged, no return was made on Saturday as to the number of those who died on the island during the week, or of those bodies sent there for interment from various parts of the city. In the absence of the actual figures, the health office estimates the number of interments on the island, irrespective of those from City Hospital, given above, as 158, of which about 100 were of cholera. This increases the total mortality arising from the epidemic during the week to 429, which, even allowing for the incompleteness of the cemetery returns, must be considered as a very satisfactory total as compared with that of the preceding.
"The cemetery returns for Friday are embodied in the above report, and hence it is unnecessary to give the details. The total number of deaths from cholera was 27, indicating, as on previous days, the rapid decrease of the disease. The police reports for the twenty-four hours ending Saturday morning at eight o'clock show 29 cases and 23 deaths."
The subsidence of the epidemic was officially announced by the mayor, who issued the following address:
"ST. LOUIS, Sept. 13, 1866.
"Whereas, from information received from various sources, and also a resolution from the honorable the Board of Health, and from my own knowledge, I am gratified in being able to proclaim to our citizens that the cholera no longer prevails as an epidemic in our midst.
"I desire to return the sincere thanks of myself and the citizens of St. Louis to the honorable the Board of Health, and to the several ward committees, for their efficient action in assisting the sick, aiding in the burial of the dead, and disinfecting the houses, yards, and alleys throughout the city.
"I request the committees not to desist from their labors, but continue for a while longer, and desire the citizens to continue to be watchful in regard to the cleanliness of their premises and in their diet.
"In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the city of St. Louis to be affixed this 13th day of September, A. D. 1866.
"J. H. HEATH,
"JAMES S. THOMAS,
Deaths at the City Hospital, 33; at the St. Louis Hospital, 15; at the Good Samaritan Hospital, 2.
Admissions to the City Hospital, 102; to the Quarantine Hospital, 2.
Treated at the City Dispensary by Drs. Folsom and Grissom, 213; treated at the Third District Health Office by Dr. Gill, 89.
Next week there was a still further reduction of the death rate:
"The following is an abstract of deaths in St. Louis for the week ending Friday, September 21st:
The city in a short time returned to its customary salubrity.
The following are the mortality returns for St. Louis according to the census of 1880:
Among the annual reports to the mayor and Council of St. Louis in May, 1882, none are more full and interesting than those of the clerk to the health commissioner, from which we abstract the following matters of durable interest:
"During the year 1881 there occurred in St. Louis 8410 deaths from all causes, which sum total was exceeded in the last fifteen years only by that of 1873, when the deaths aggregated a sum of 8551, and the annual death-rate was 30.5 per thousand. In that ear 837 deaths occurred from smallpox, and the deaths from the seven principal zymotic causes were 29.7 per cent. of the total mortality. In the preceding year, with 1591 deaths from smallpox, a total of 8047 deaths occurred, and the annual death-rate was 29.8 per thousand. It will become apparent from a consideration of the tables which will follow, that the advance in the number of deaths and the annual death-rates has been universal throughout the land.
"The relative percentages of the deaths by classes for the past three years is as follows:
"It will be seen that the zymotic deaths have advanced four per cent. in the year 1881 over that of 1880. This increase is due in special to the heavy mortality in 1881 from cerebro-spinal fever, from which cause 314 deaths occurred. The mortality from diarrhoeal diseases in children under five years of age also largely increased, being 686 against 488 in 1880."
Scharf, J. Thomas. History of Saint Louis City and County, From the Earliest Periods to the Present Day: Including Biographical Sketches of Representative Men. In Two Volumes, Illustrated. Volume II . Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts & Co., 1883. [format: book], [genre: biography; history; proceedings]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
Persistent link to this document: http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/file.php?file=scharf2.html