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Edwards, Richard; Hopewell, M.; Ashley, William; Barry, James G.; Belt and Priest; Casey, John; Hall, W.; Labaum, Louis A.; Leduc, Mary Philip; Lisa, Manuel; O'Fallon, Benjamin; Piernas; Port Folio; Risley, W.; Stoddard, Amos; Williams, Henry W.; Yore, John E. Edwards's Great West and Her Commercial Metropolis, Embracing a General View of the West, and a Complete History of St. Louis, from the Landing of Ligueste, in 1764, to the Present Time; with Portraits and Biographies of Some of the Old Settlers, and Many of the Most Prominent Buisiness Men . St. Louis: Office of Edwards's Monthly, A Journal of Progress, 1860. [format: book], [genre: biography; history; letter; narrative]. Permission: St. Louis Mercantile Library
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Note from page 54: 1. W. G. Hofstetter, of the United States Recorder's Office, assisted us much in guiding our search in the old records with which he is so familiar.

Note from page 55: 2. Dr. Robert Simpson is the oldest American citizen, who came earliest to St. Louis. He was the first to keep a drug-store, he has been assessor, sheriff, county court judge, and physician in the army, and there are none who held these offices before him now alive. He is the oldest postmaster, has been connected with all the important phases in the early history of St. Louis, and we exceedingly regret that his biography is not in this work.

Note from page 76: 3. These cities were not founded by the French.

Note from page 85: 4. These were some of the French families, for whom Mr. Sappington had a high respect.

Note from page 101: 5. Since the above was written, Mr. Crooke is deceased.

Note from page 120: 6. It was through his advice that the old City Hall was torn down, being unsuitable to the requirements of the city, and a plan for one of a structure of larger dimensions, with all the modern conveniences, was determined upon. A portion of land was purchased, but the land was found to be too valuable to complete a City Hall, which had been commenced, and other buildings were erected, which were devoted to commercial purposes. The whole of that part of Main street then commenced to be improved, and the Merchants' Exchange is situated in the midst of stately buildings.

Note from page 193: 7. Mr. Benoist is recently deceased.

Note from page 206: 8. Mr. Andrew M'Laughlin disposed of his fine hotel at Ellicotts' Mills to much advantage, owing to the prestige and success which it had attained.

Note from page 240: 9. Colonel Auguste Chouteau's journal, a fragment of which is preserved in the Mercantile Library of St. Louis, though inaccurate as regards historical dates, certainly furnishes the only authentic information concerning the first settlement of St. Louis.

Note from page 241: 10. Colonel Auguste Chouteau's journal.

Note from page 241: 11. Idem.

Note from page 241: 12. In the journal of M. Chouteau, written in his native tongue, there is some alteration in the manuscript as regards dates, and the author, feeling some doubts whether the alterations had been made by him, has adopted the generally received opinion as regards the time of the arrival of the party who came from Fort de Chartres to commence the village.

Note from page 243: 13. Colonel Auguste Chouteau's journal.

Note from page 246: 14. Marbois's History of Louisiana, p. 136.

Note from page 250: 15. Vide Livre Terrein. The various grants in this old record book designate the appellation of the streets on or about the time they were named by the inhabitants.

Note from page 250: 16. This street was commenced being opened in 1803.

Note from page 251: 17. Vide Livre Terrein and Archives.

Note from page 251: 18. Ibid.

Note from page 251: 19. Archives.

Note from page 252: 20. These mills were situated on what is now known as Chouteau's Pond. A lime mill stands at present on the old site.

Note from page 253: 21. Hunt's Minutes, No. 3, page 72.

Note from page 255: 22. La Prairie des Noyers and La Prairie Catalan took their names from individuals. La Prairie de Cul de Sac was thus called because the centre of the prairie was hollowed out in a way resembling the bottom of a bag.

Note from page 255: 23. See History of the Conspiracy of Pontiac, by Francis Parkman, jr., where the whole plot to destroy the garrison is detailed. See also Carver.

Note from page 255: 24. We are inclined to think that St. Ange de Bellerive resided in the house of Madame Chouteau, for when his death took place in 1774, he was residing with her. There is another circumstance which strongly supports this conjecture. Laclede Liguest was unmarried, and was a great deal absent from St Louis, trading to New Orleans, and it is not probable that the commandant-general would reside from choice in a house where there was no one to see to his domestic comforts. As he was boarding with Madame Chouteau at the time of his death, as recorded in the archives, it is almost certain that he resided with her when Pontiac visited St. Louis.

Note from page 256: 25. There was only one fortification then, which had just been completed, standing on Fourth near Walnut street. It was built in the shape of a tower, and from it Walnut street took its name at that time as Rue de la Tour. The tower was well built, and many of the inhabitants of St. Louis can still remember when it was used as a prison.

Note from page 256: 26. The Illinois Indians were composed of three tribes — the Kaskaskias, the Peorias, and the Cahokias.

Note from page 257: 27. It is recorded in a statement in Hunt's Minutes, made by Colonel Auguste Chouteau, that Piernas arrived in St. Louis on the 29th of November, 1770. This is certainly an error, as the first baptism that was made in the church was in June, 1770, and the wife of Piernas was present on the occasion. The Spanish governor remained in St. Louis several months before he assumed the reins of government, and resided in the house of Laclede Liguest.

There is another document now in the United States Recorder's office, which will set the matter at rest as regards dates. We give the translation:

"To His Excellency Don Pedro Piernas, Captain of the Infantry, and Lieutenant-Governor of the establishment of Illinois and its dependencies, belonging to his Catholic Majesty.

"The inhabitants of St. Louis humbly pray you, that since the establishment of this post, there has been no survey in fact, and that all the lands which have been cultivated, and which have been conceded to them, are for the most part in a state of confusion; that they do not know the lines, and it is necessary that the lands should be measured and bounded by a surveyor, so that all can effectually work what belongs to them.

"In consideration of these facts, may it please your Excellency, to appoint some one to make a survey as soon as convenient, so as to remove all the difficulties which have been rife many years among neighbors.

"Your petitioners continually pray for your prosperity.

"St. Louis, October 7th, 1770.
Mark of Mr. RONDEAU.
Mark of Mr. RIDDE.

The reply of Piernas is as follows: —

"In view of this request, and knowing the worth and capacity of Mr. Duralde: we have named and officially appoint him surveyor of this colony of Illinois, and the dependencies of his Catholic Majesty, for to survey, measure, and bound the lands of individuals who require him, and the fees, according to the established tax, will be paid him by those individuals by whom he may be employed.

"ST. Louis, October 9th, 1770.


Note from page 260: 28. See the will of St. Ange de Bellerive, filed in the Spanish Archives at St. Louis, and recorded, where it is stated that he is a Spanish officer, in the service of his Catholic Majesty.

Note from page 260: 29. Book Second. This confirmation was witnessed by Laclede Liguest, Condé, and others of the primitive inhabitants.

Note from page 261: 30. When Galvez left New Orleans on his expedition against Florida, he left Piernas with the powers of governor-general of Louisiana. — GAYARE'S LOUISIANA.

Note from page 262: 31. Private Land Claims of Missouri, page 371.

Note from page 263: 32. In the Archives he signs himself "Antonio Gilberto de Maxent, colonel of the royal armies, and lieutenant-governor in respect to the Indians of this province." This document was signed at New Orleans, and was relative to the disposal of some property which was owned by Liguest, then deceased.

Besides his large landed estate, there were due to Liguest notes payable in peltry to nearly forty thousand dollars. We arrive at this fact by seeing a discharge given by Maxent to Auguste Chouteau, who acted as his attorney in Upper Louisiana. There was evidently existing at one time, an inventory of the personal property of the deceased, but it was never recorded in the Archives and the original paper has been abstracted from the office.

Note from page 263: 33. This description was furnished us by Madam Elizabeth Ortes, the only inhabitant now living in Missouri who recollects having seen the founder of St. Louis.

Note from page 263: 34. He was buried on the south bank of the Arkansas River.

Note from page 264: 35. A Frenchman by the name of Quenelle was also with the savages.

Note from page 265: 36. See in Hunt's Minutes, filed in the United States Recorder's office, a statement made by John Baptiste Rivière, relative to some property, in which he gives an account of his capture by the Indians when they attacked St. Louis.

Note from page 266: 37. We here append the statements of several authors, regarding this attack: — "While the Spaniards were aiming at the possession of West Florida, the English endeavored to divert their attention to another quarter. The commandant of Michilimackinac in 1780, assembled about fifteen hundred Indians, and one hundred and forty English, and attempted the reduction of St. Louis, the capital of Upper Louisiana. During the short time they were before that town, sixty of the inhabitants were killed, and thirty taken prisoners. Fortunately for them, general Clark was on the opposite side of the Mississippi with a considerable force. On his appearance at St. Louis with a strong detachment, the Indians were amazed. They had no disposition to quarrel with any other than the Louisianians, and charged the English with deception. In fine, as the jealousy of the Indians was excited, the English trembled for their safety, and therefore secretly abandoned their auxiliaries, and made the best of their way into Canada. The Indians then retired to their homes in peace. This expedition, as appears, was not sanctioned by the English court, and the private property of the commandant was seized to pay the expenses of it; most likely because it proved unfortunate." — STODDARD'S LOUISIANA.

"In 1780, on the 6th May, as I discover by the papers of the late Colonel Auguste Chouteau, intrusted to me by the family (though some writers assign the year 1778), St Louis was attacked by a party of Indians and British, who had been ordered to take possession of the town on the west side of the Mississippi, in consequence of the part which Spain had taken in favor of the independence of the United States. The French, who had preserved a good understanding with all the Indian nations, very little expected this blow, and were not prepared to resist it. The garrison consisted of only fifty to sixty men, commanded by a certain Captain Lebas, (a Spaniard, and not a Frenchman, as his name might lead one to suppose). But, whatsoever his origin, he deserves nothing but public contempt. This Lebas, during the first three years that the Spaniards occupied the country, had commanded a small fort somewhere toward the mouth of the Missouri — perhaps at Belle Fontaine — and afterward received the command of St. Louis, as a successor to Cruzat, who himself had succeeded Piernaz. The only means of defence for the place, at that time, was a stone tower erected near the village on the bank of the Mississippi, and some weak palisades. There were not more than one hundred and fifty males in the place, of whom not more than seventy could be relied upon as efficient to repel an enemy numbering, according to the best authorities, nine hundred combatants; though, by some, their number is represented to have been from one thousand four hundred to one thousand live hundred. It would have been useless to propose a capitulation, the conditions of winch the Indians (as has been unfortunately too often experienced), either from ignorance or treachery, never fulfil; and the inhabitants knew too well the character of those with whom they had to deal, to expect salvation in any thing but a courage resistance. The women and children, who could not take part in the defence, took shelter in the house of Auguste Chouteau; whilst all those, both men and women, who were within the palisades, commenced so vigorous a resistance, that the enemy was forced to retreat. But these, with characteristic ferocity, threw themselves upon those of the inhabitants who, engaged in the cultivation of their fields, had not had time to reach the palisades; and it is said that sixty were killed, and thirteen made prisoners." — Nicolet's Reports.

Note from page 272: 38. Hunt's Minutes.

Note from page 276: 39. One of these grants was to Colonel Auguste Chouteau, who built the first distillery in St. Louis.

Note from page 278: 40. There had been a ferry which had been established by Captain Piggot, but which, at the time of transfer, had stopped.

Note from page 282: 41. Major Stoddard, in his invaluable History of Louisiana, thus speaks of the lead mines of the province of Louisiana at an early period, and the manner in which they were worked: —

"Such indeed is the quantity of mineral lead, that very little care is taken in the manufacture of it. It is the opinion of many, that regular machinery for the purpose is useless, and that the quantity of lead saved by it would never defray the expenses of it. They usually place the mineral on a confused heap of burning logs, and other wood, and in this way smelt it. The lead is precipitated among the ashes and dirt, where no small proportion of it is lost. Notwithstanding this singular and awkward process, the manufacturers are satisfied with the profits it yields them, and consider machinery as an injury rather than a benefit.

"This inattention to the regular manufacture of lead arises in part from the poverty of the manufacturers, who are not able to pursue an expensive process, but much more from the great quantity of mineral, the little labor required to obtain it, and the prolific nature of it. On account of the water, the mineral is usually taken from the ground between the first of August and the last of November; and during this period a great number of laborers, sometimes as many as three hundred, resort to the mines in the neighborhood of St. Genevieve. They dig and dispose of the mineral, and receive in payment goods and other articles for the support of their families. Some of them have been known to earn thirty dollars per day for several successive weeks; but such occurrences are rare, and never happen, unless the laborers are so lucky as to find veins of mineral of considerable size and extent; though the profits of procuring that article are undoubtedly great.

"The dealers in lead, who were also in most instances the manufacturers of it, generally adopt two methods to obtain the mineral; they either purchase it, or hire laborers to dig it for them. The details of this pursuit were furnished the author of these sketches in 1808, by the owner of a mine in the district of St. Genevieve, and they stand thus: Were he to hire twenty-five men to dig mineral during the four months already mentioned, they would furnish about two hundred thousand weight; and as it yields seventy per centum, the produce of the whole would be one hundred and forty thousand pounds for the market. The wages and food of twenty-five laborers for the above time, and the expenses of transporting the lead from the mines to New Orleans, would amount to three thousand six hundred and fifty dollars; and were it to sell in market for nine dollars per hundred, the proceeds would amount to twelve thousand six hundred dollars; so that, after deducting the expenses, the sum of eight thousand nine hundred and fifty dollars would be left for the proprietor or dealer, which may be considered as the net profits. These, however, wholly depend on the price in market, which varies according as commerce fluctuates, or as war or peace prevails in Europe. In time of peace, lead seldom sells for more than six dollars per hundred; daring a European war it sometimes rises to twelve dollars, though the average price in market may be stated at nine dollars. These dealers in lead, who receive mineral in exchange for goods, are supposed to make the greatest profits. They fix themselves about the mines, and purchase the mineral of the laborers at two dollars per hundred, and make their payments in merchandise at an enormous advance. They smelt the mineral, and carry the lead to market; and as they are not obliged to deal on credit, the profits of this barter trade are very considerable.

"The proprietor to whom we have just alluded, planted himself among the lead mines in 1797, and obtained from the Spanish government a grant of a league square of land, most of which is impregnated with mineral. He is the owner of the only regular machinery in the country for making lead. He manufactures bar and sheet lead, as also great quantities of ball and shot. But it is doubted by some whether the more simple and awkward mode of manufacturing lead as practised by the itinerant pursuers of this metal is not equally profitable; especially as they smelt the mineral on the ground where they obtain it, and are not at the trouble and expense of removing it to a distance for this operation.

"The richest mineral known in the country is procured from two mines situated on the west bank of the Mississippi, nearly five hundred miles above the mouth of the Missouri, which were opened some years ago by a Frenchman: one of them yields eighty-four, and the other ninety-two pounds of pure lead to each hundred weight of mineral; though, from the manner of smelting, no more than seventy-five are actually realized. The owner covered these, as well as other mines, in 1796, by a complete grant from the Spanish government, embracing a tract of one hundred and sixty-nine thousand three hundred and forty-four arpents, now recognized as valid by the laws of the United States. The mineral is found here, as in other places, in veins, but these generally descend at an angle of about thirty-four degrees. Two of them have been pursued nearly two hundred and fifty feet beneath the base of a steep hill. At their extremity, in summer, the air moves with such rapidity, that a candle cannot be kept lighted, and is at the same time so cold, as to prove uncomfortable to the workmen; but in winter a considerable degree of heat prevails, and a small portion of air only is found to be in circulation."

Note from page 292: 42. The first postmaster was named Rufus Easton.

Note from page 294: 43. He was proceeding to Louisville.

Note from page 295: 44. This market, so small in its dimensions, was the only market of the village for many years. A new and larger market was then built, which remained until a little time before the erection of the Merchants' Exchange.

Note from page 307: 45. In the neighborhood of Florissant and Cote Saus Dessein there were many murders committed by the savages, but it is not the province of this work to enter into any detail of events outside of the precincts of St. Louis.

Note from page 326: 46. The jail lot at the corner of South and Chesnut streets was donated to the county by the Honorable John B. C. Lucas. The court-house square was the gift, conjointly, of Colonel Auguste Chouteau and Judge Lucas.

Note from page 327: 47. These old fortifications commenced on the south at the corner of Second and Sycamore streets, where one stood until very recently; the second one of them, a block-house made of cedar wood, was at the corner of Fifth and Lombard; another one, a tower, corner of Fifth and Gratiot; another was the Old Tower, the Spanish fort, and the oldest fortification in the place, corner of Fourth and Walnut; another where the custom-house now stands, at the corner of Third and Olive; another, called the Bastion, on Third street, between Washington avenue and Morgan street; and the last one, that completed the half-circle of fortifications, was the Demilune, that stood on the bank of the Mississippi, on a rocky elevation near the foot of Cherry street. With the exception of the Tower, on Fourth and Walnut, they were all built during the administration of Cruzat. Beck, in his Gazetteer of Illinois and Missouri, states that a portion of them was erected in 1797, but there is no evidence to support this conclusion.

Note from page 329: 48. This church was never fully completed, though worship was held in it. It was used at one time for a court-house, and on its site was afterward built the National Hotel.

Note from page 329: 49. This was an old wooden building where Episcopal service was held, but was no church.

Note from page 329: 50. This was the first row of brick buildings erected in St. Louis. They were of one story.

Note from page 338: 51. The Mansion House was at that time the élite hotel, and was situated on the north-east corner of Third and Market streets.

Note from page 339: 52. From 1809 to this time, all the streets running west, with the exception of Market street, were known by letters. Market street was the standing line between north and south, and the next streets on either side were termed North A and South A, and then the successive streets according to alphabetical enumeration were named.

Previous to 1809, all the streets of the town went by their primitive French appellations. A reference to a map attached to this work will give all necessary information on this point.

Note from page 339: 53. There had been a society formed before, as early as 1818, for the same purpose, but it died almost cotemporaneously with its organization.

Note from page 342: 54. Elected.

Note from page 342: 55. Elected.

Note from page 353: 56. Newspaper writers then, as now, were not very particular about the proper application of metaphors, and in their blundering hurry would frequently invest the female with the terrible attributes of the rougher gender.

Note from page 355: 57. Mr. Darby was elected mayor in the spring of this year (1835.)

Note from page 357: 58. The place where the negro was burned is what is now known as Tenth and Market streets. It was then a common of gutters.

Note from page 357: 59. The theatre was called the St. Louis Theatre, and was finely finished in all its details. It was reared at a cost of $60,000, and built after a design by L. M. Clarke.

The lot on which it stood, 60 feet front and 160 deep, was purchased in 1837 for the trifling sum of $3,000. This price was then considered enormous. It was reared through the exertions of N. M. Ludlow, E. H. Beebe, H. S. Cox, Jos. E. Laveille, C. Keemle, and L. M. Clarke. These gentlemen used the most untiring exertions to get the requisite amount of stock taken for its erection.

The expense of keeping such a theatre in a style corresponding to its first debut, proved too much for the limited number of inhabitants at that time, and directly the novelty wore off for want of proper support, drew out a languishing existence until purchased by the government. It was rather in advance of the ability and taste of the city.

Note from page 359: 60. This was not the "Old Chouteau Mansion," but a house owned by Pierre Chouteau.

Note from page 359: 61. An act of Congress provides that government should make its deposits only in state banks, unless none should be in the state; in that contingency, it could deposit in another moneyed institution.

Note from page 364: 62. The first proposition that was made for a Medical organization in St. Louis, was made by Drs. J. W. Hall and Joseph McDowell, to Bishop Kemper.

Note from page 370: 63. The National Hotel was situated on the corner of Third and Market streets.

Note from page 371: 64. The fatal termination of the difference, was the result of accident; there was no death anticipated or desired. All of the parties, at one time were friendly; and had it not been or the disturbing influences of political feeling, would in all probability have preserved the most amicable relations.

Note from page 379: 65. McLean, one of the supposed murderers, was tried three times, and finally acquitted.

Note from page 392: 66. Colonel Easton, after returning to St. Louis with the Legion, went across the plains to Mexico, and remained in active service during the whole campaign.

Note from page 393: 67. There was a youth attached to this company by the name James W. Robinson, who, on his return from Mexico, having evinced so strong a predilection for military life, joined with a high sense of honor, that interest was created in his behalf and, through the Hon. James S. Green, he was admitted to the academy at West Point, and went through the rigid course of education required at that institution. He is now one of the lieutenants of the 1st regiment of artillery, and one of its most efficient officers.

In the same corps, the first sergeant, C. H. Merritt, was appointed by General Taylor, marshal of New Mexico, on its organization.

Note from page 405: 68. Mayor Barry conceived and commenced the first wharf improvements, which were afterward so efficiently carried out by his successor.

Note from page 407: 69. Mayor Barry had before gone to the island, and attentively examining its position, recommended it to the committee as most suitable for a quarantine.

Note from page 408: 70. This report was made by T. T. Gantt, L. M. Kennett, and Trusten Polk.

The following gentlemen were appointed by the city council and mayor the Committee of Public Health during the existence of the cholera: — R. S. Blennerhasset, James Clemens, Jr., Trusten Polk, G. Thomas, A. B. Chambers, Isaac A. Hedges, J. M. Field, L. M. Kennett, Lewis Bach, William G. Clark, T. T. Gantt, and George Collier. Messrs. Clemens and Collier being unwell, H. L. Patterson and Thomas Dennis were appointed in their stead.

Note from page 411: 71. This well known medical organization sprang into existence in 1841, principally through the exertions of J. W. Hall of North Carolina, Dr. James V. Prather of Kentucky, and Dr. A. Prout of Alabama, Joseph, G. Norwood of Indiana, and M. L. Linton of Kentucky, came to assist their professional labors, and made part of the first faculty. The building was erected through the continued exertions of Drs. Hall and Prather, and these gentlemen, from their private purse, purchased many of the outfits essential to the Medical College, so that, it could go at once into successful operation.

Note from page 411: 72. The gentlemen who went on the bond, were James Lucas, Colonel John O'Fallon, Louis A. Benoist, and William L. Ewing.

Note from page 412: 73. The elder Montesquieu, on his return to France, became a confirmed maniac, and was confined in an Insane Asylum.

Note from page 533: 74. See deposition of Jean Baptiste de Rivière dit Baccané, as recorded in Hunt's Minutes, in the United States Recorder's office.

Note from page 534: 75. See Archives.

Note from page 534: 76. When it was in contemplation to tear this old house down, it gave birth to the following beautiful poetical effusion from the New Orleans Picayune:


Touch not a stone! An early pioneer
Of Christian sway founded his dwelling here,
Almost alone.
Touch not a stone! Let the Great West command
A hoary relic of the early land;
That after generations may not say,
"All went for gold in our forefather's day,
And of our infancy we nothing own.
"Touch not a stone!

Touch not a stone! Let the old pile decay,
A relic of the time now pass'd away.
Ye heirs, who own
Lordly endowment of the ancient hall,
Till the last rafter crumbles from the wall,
And each old tree around the dwelling rots.
Yield not your heritage for "building-lots."
Hold the old ruin for itself alone;
Touch not a stone!

Built by a foremost Western pioneer,
It stood upon Saint Louis bluff, to cheer
New settlers on.
Now o'er it tow'r majestic spire and dome,
And lowly seems the forest trader's home;
All out of fashion, like a time-struck man,
Last of his age, his kindred and his clan,
Lingering still, a stranger and alone; —
Touch not a stone!

Spare the old house! The ancient mansion spare,
For ages still to front the market square; —
That may be shown,
How those old walls of good St. Louis rock,
In native strength, shall bear against the shock
Of centuries! There shall the curious see,
When like a fable shall our story be,
How the Star City of the West has grown!
Touch not a stone!

Note from page 537: 77. In one of these journeys M. Chouteau was accompanied by two interpreters, Noal Montgrain and Paul Loisé. They started from St. Louis in the month of December, and in a few days they were overtaken by a severe snow-storm. The weather was exceedingly severe, and at night the travellers would lie down in the snow, with their blankets and bear-skins. The horses were tethered or hobbled, and could fare well on the branches of cotton-wood trees, of which they are very fond.

Note from page 604: 78. In 1833, Dr. Samuel Merry was elected mayor, but he being at that time receiver of public money, the Board of Aldermen refused to recognize the election. (See page 347.)

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Edwards, Richard; Hopewell, M.; Ashley, William; Barry, James G.; Belt and Priest; Casey, John; Hall, W.; Labaum, Louis A.; Leduc, Mary Philip; Lisa, Manuel; O'Fallon, Benjamin; Piernas; Port Folio; Risley, W.; Stoddard, Amos; Williams, Henry W.; Yore, John E. Edwards's Great West and Her Commercial Metropolis, Embracing a General View of the West, and a Complete History of St. Louis, from the Landing of Ligueste, in 1764, to the Present Time; with Portraits and Biographies of Some of the Old Settlers, and Many of the Most Prominent Buisiness Men . St. Louis: Office of Edwards's Monthly, A Journal of Progress, 1860. [format: book], [genre: biography; history; letter; narrative]. Permission: St. Louis Mercantile Library
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