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Edwards, Richard; Hopewell, M.; Ashley, William; Barry, James G.; Belt and Priest; Casey, John; Hall, W.; Labaum, Louis A.; Leduc, Mary Philip; Lisa, Manuel; O'Fallon, Benjamin; Piernas; Port Folio; Risley, W.; Stoddard, Amos; Williams, Henry W.; Yore, John E. Edwards's Great West and Her Commercial Metropolis, Embracing a General View of the West, and a Complete History of St. Louis, from the Landing of Ligueste, in 1764, to the Present Time; with Portraits and Biographies of Some of the Old Settlers, and Many of the Most Prominent Buisiness Men . St. Louis: Office of Edwards's Monthly, A Journal of Progress, 1860. [format: book], [genre: biography; history; letter; narrative]. Permission: St. Louis Mercantile Library
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Chapter VIII.

Incorporation of Boatmen's Saving Institution. — Celebration of the Anniversary of the Founding of St. Louis. — The great procession. — Pierre Chouteau. — The address delivered by Wilson Primm, Esq. — The dinner at the Planters' House. — The great illumination of the city in honor of General Taylor's victories. — An eagle loosed from its cage. — Great famine in Scotland and Ireland. — Meeting of the inhabitants of St. Louis to afford relief to those countries. — The magnetic telegraph. — Interest in railroads. — Ohio and Mississippi railroad. — Complimentary dinner to General Shields. — General Taylor a favorite with the people of St. Louis. — They determined to run him for the Presidency. — News of the outbreak in Paris. — Meeting of the citizens. — Louis Napoleon. — Lamartine. — Death of Edward Charless. — General Kearney. — Cholera appears. — Purchase of Belle Fontaine Cemetery. — Great fire — Twenty-three steamboats consumed. — Whole blocks of houses destroyed. — Three millions of property consumed. — Death of T. B. Targee. — Building again commenced. — Main street widened. — Reappearance of the cholera. — Its mortality. — Disagreement of the doctors. — City Council forbid the sale of vegetables. — Revoke the act. — Fatality of the disease among the emigrants. — Quarantine established. — The effect of the fire and cholera upon St. Louis. — The resumption of business on a more extensive scale. — Prosperous indications. — National Pacific Railroad convention. — St. Louis Medical College built. — Tragedy at the City Hotel. — Two French noblemen arrested. — Their trial and acquittal.

1847. — In the early part of this year an act was passed for the incorporation of the Boatmen's Saving Institution, which has become so popular with all classes of citizens, and which has by the proper use of its capital given increased vitality to the business of the city, and swelled and extended its limits. The gentlemen mentioned in the act as the corporators, and to whom principally belongs the credit of the new enterprise, were George W. Sparhauk, Sullivan Blood, Edward Dobbins, Luther M. Kennett, Daniel D. Page, B. W. Alexander, Adam S. Mills, Amade Valle, George K. Budd, Thomas Andrews, Henry D. Bacon, Laurason Biggs, Samuel C. Davis, James G. Barry and John M. Wimer.

It was in this year that there was a celebration of the "anniversary of the founding of St. Louis," and there was universal enthusiasm felt by the community on the occasion, and extensive preparations were made for the event, which took place on February 15th. The military and fire companies turned out on this interesting occasion, schools, societies and swelled the procession — all having waving banners, significant of the sphere in which they moved, and appropriate for the occasion. Dramn in an open carriage was Pierre Chouteau, the companion of Pierre Laclede Liguest, the founder of St. Louis. He was accompanied by his three sons one of whom was named Pierre Liguest. On the carriage the eyes of the immense multitude were bent with eagerness. That old man, with hoary locks, then upwards of ninety years was the last relic of those hardy pioneers who knew St. Louis the first year of its existence, and he was the pioneer trader of the savages inhabiting the wild solitudes of the Missouri.

In miniature was carried in the procession, the model of the first

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steamboat, the General Pike, that touched the levee in July, 1817. Even the model, true to its original, had a quaint and awkward appearance; and to show the march of improvement, and to give to it still more the impress of antiquity, another model of a modern steamer with all of its graceful and palatial finish, was carried in its wake. The General Pike was a creation of the past — was uncomely and clumsy in its structure, but when it first touched the wharf it looked to the voyayeurs, the Indians, and the raftsmen, the complete embodiment, and finest of all that creative genius could accomplish. They had been accustomed to look upon the Mackinaw boat, the raft, and the keel-boat, and the General Pike, to them, was like a fairy creation.

It was a beautiful sight to witness the innocent transport of the youth, formed in separate companies and coming from the public and private schools of the city. Most of them had their banners and their badges, and their presence gave an April freshness to the occasion. Conspicuous among the number were the pupils of Mr. Wyman's high-school.

The part of the procession made up of the Freemasons and the Independent order of Odd Fellows, was most imposing. They had on this occasion on parade, all of the devices and emblems peculiar to their orders, and on their banners were mottoes of Christian precept, and significant of the goodness and usefulness of these worthy institutions. The printers, firemen, coopers, trunk, saddle and harness makers, were all there, with appropriate devices indicating their presence in the procession.

Conspicuous in the line of march were immense casks, indicating the advent and the reign of that extensive and blessed institution — lagerbier. One cask was from the brewery of Adam Lemp, another from the brewery of McHose and English, another from the brewery of G. Snyder, and one from the Union Brewery, owned by Julius Winkelmair. The most rotund, jolly, rubicund and roystering set of Germans were chosen to accompany the beer casks.

Some idea may be formed of the length of the procession, when it reached from Spruce to Pine street. After perambulating through the great thoroughfares of the city, it at length halted in the locality of the court-house, from the steps of which the address was to be delivered by Honorable Wilson Primm, a member of the St. Louis bar, who was born in St. Louis, and whose ancestors were at the founding of the city, in 1764. This address was published in a pamphlet form, and is a lucid and succinct relation of the early settlement of the town. Its style is chaste, profuse in rhetorical beauty, and classical; and was delivered with that burning and fervid eloquence for which its author is so remarkable. After the address, the officers of the procession and a number of citizens and distinguished strangers proceeded to the Planters' House, to partake of the sumptuous dinner prepared for the occasion. The Honorable John F. Darby presided, and the following gentlemen were the appointed vice-presidents, H. Von Phul, F. R. Conway, Dr. B. G. Farrar, Edward Bates, Asa Wilgus, Dr. Robert Simpson, Colonel John O'Fallon, W. King and Colonel J. B. Brant. On the right of the president was seated the venerable Pierre Chouteau. The dinner was truly a convivial one; there were hunger and thirst sufficient to do justice to the choice wine and viands supplied in prodigal profusion; and the intellect kindled and the spirits

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warmed and danced, under the happy influence of the festive scene. Complimentary toasts were drunk and responded to, and if some mind too aspiring for its capacity, would fail in its rhetorical flights, or would play sad havoc with facts and dates of history, the effusion was hailed as the essence of historical knowledge, and poetical beauty. The time was dedicated to the festal hour, and nothing was suffered to mar its influence.

If space permitted, we would like to give some of the fine toasts, radiations of cultivated intellects glowing with the fires of true inspiration, but it cannot be — we must hasten to other events which in the progress of time have been teeming into birth, and require a record to preserve them as memorials.

Festive occasions are called into existence by the genial sunshine of prosperity, and the celebration of "The Anniversary of the Founding of St. Louis," was followed by a general illumination of the city. As yet, gas had not been introduced, but at a meeting of the citizens, it was determined that the Mexican victories should be celebrated by a general illumination. Nearly all of the grounds in the vicinity of Lucas market were then vacant, and cannons were planted on them, and also fire rockets; and the sending up of these last, was a signal for the illumination, which, commencing simultaneously in every part of the city, was attended with the most striking and brilliant effect. In a moment, St. Louis, as it were, was bathed in a flood of light. Many of the boats on the levee were beautifully lit up on the occasion, and bonfires streamed forth from every part of the city. One of the markets was lit up in a very brilliant manner by the command of the stockholders, and during the day, from the office of the Reveille, a caged eagle was loosed, bearing on one of its legs, a brass plate, with the impress "Buena Vista." The noble bird, though he had been some time a prisoner, soared easily and gracefully from the earth, toward the setting sun, watched by thousands of citizens, as he cleaved his way through the regions of space, to soar through which, strong pinions had been given by the beneficent God of Nature.

While the people of St. Louis were enjoying the festive hour, and celebrating, with illumination, the triumph of American arms, from across the Atlantic were heard the doleful sounds of distress proceeding from starving thousands. Ireland and Scotland, from an almost total failure of crops, were visited by the ghastly terrors of famine. From hunger, hundreds died, and unless instant relief were sent, thousands more would meet the same torturing doom. By the suffering in those countries, an appeal was their countrymen in the United States — nor was it made in vain. From every city of note in the Union, contributions in money, food, and apparel were forwarded to the suffering countries. In St. Louis, the friends of Ireland called a meeting, at which Colonel John O'Fallon presided, and Christopher Garvey was appointed secretary. The meeting was for the relief of the sufferers of Ireland; and to carry out its object, the following named gentlemen were chosen as committee: — Col. J. O'Falon, Colonel Joshua B. Brant, George Collier, Judge Bryan Mullanphy, Captain John Simonds, Edwards Walsh, John Finney, Colonel Robert Campbell, Eugene Kelley, Wm. Lindsay, Colonel T. Grimsley, H. Von Phul, R. M. Rennick, A. Elliott, George Buchanan, George K. McGunnegle, A. Vinton, J. E. Yeatman, A. Piggott, P. Slevin, and Captain Wm. Rowe.

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There were many other citizen of St. Louis, who took an active part in forwarding the philanthropic undertaking.

There were various meetings held also of citizen Scotchmen, and those of Scotch descent, to relieve the destitution of that country, so endeared to patriotic hearts, by the memories of Bruce and Wallace. Taking the lead for the relief of Scotland, was Kenneth Mackenzie, ably seconded by Colonel A. D. Stuart, H. Ogden, T. M. Taylor, T. S. Rutherford, Thomas Webster, John S. Thompson, W. B. Barber, James Moffat, Thomas Primrose, N. E. Janney, Wm. Strachan, Judge Ferguson, and D. A. Marshall. The citizens of St. Louis contributed most liberally to those worthy appeals to their benevolence, and we regret that we cannot afford more space to the recording of the names of others who nobly came forward on that occasion, and responded liberally to the appeal made upon their bounty.

On December 20th, of this year, the great wonder of the day — the culminating glory of the human intellect — the magnetic telegraph commenced operations on the Illinois side opposite St. Louis, and transmitted messages on the "lightning wing" to the principal cities of the east. For a little while, this grand creation, more grand than any former conception of the human intellect, and evincing the spirituality of the intellect, and the intimate connection with the Deity from its power, was the theme of universal conversation and general interest, and then, losing the polished attraction of novelty, other events more newly born became for a season the pets of popular favor.

Every city, at this time, wished to become a link in the great chain of railroads, which were fast extending themselves through the different sections of the Union, and placed distant cities in close proximity. Some years before, there had been an Internal Improvement Convention held in St. Louis, which we have already noticed, but after a meteoric display of enthusiasm, the subject died away, and there was no indication left of its existence. The railways were then very distant, but now the whistle of the engine was approaching from the east, and Cincinnati could boast of a railroad connection with all of the principal eastern cities. It was a darling project too of her enterprising business men, to have a railway connection with the Mississippi river, at St. Louis. What would be the best route through Indianapolis or Vincennes? Each of these routes had its friends, and could advance, respectively, arguments in favor of each locality for the proposed road. The citizens of Vincennes became very active in having the projected road to pass through their city, and meetings were held, and the capitalists of the place were ready to subscribe liberally to the stock, if the "Ohio and Mississippi Railroad" would pass the Wabash at that location. That route was at length determined upon, after a communication with the citizens of St. Louis.

The citizens of Vincennes are entitled to much credit for their enterprising exertions in getting the route fixed upon through their city. Judges John Law and Abner T. Ellis were untiring in their efforts on that occasion, and visited St. Louis several times to confer with our prominent citizens. They were likewise efficiently assisted, by Messrs. Samuel Judah, David S. Bonner, Wm. Birtch, John Wise, Cyrus M. Allen, John Ross, Wm. B. McCord, and Benjamin S. Thomas. Many of the citizens of St. Louis took an active part in creating this great highway

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of travel, running through the heart of the great American bottom — the Goshen of the Union.

On December 28th, there was a meeting of the citizens of St. Louis, called to take into consideration the propriety of taking measures to authorize the city of St. Louis to subscribe five hundred thousand dollars toward the construction of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad; George Collier presided at the meeting, and John F. Darby was appointed secretary. The following resolution was then offered by T. B. Hudson, and adopted:

Resolved, That a committee of seven be appointed by the chairman of this meeting, whose duty it shall be to petition the legislature o the passage of a law authorizing the city of St. Louis to subscribe for five hundred thousand dollars of stock in the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad, and that said committee be instructed to use all proper exertions to secure the passage of such law.

Agreeably to this resolution, the following-named gentlemen were appointed by the chair as such committee: T. B. Hudson, A. Gamble, L. M. Kennett, J. F. Darby, A. Kayser, James E. Yeatman, and George Collier.

The efforts of the committee were successful in procuring the passage of an ordinance, granting St. Louis the privilege of the contemplated subscription, provided it should meet with the approbation of the people. The people did vote for the measure, and accordingly the stock was subscribed to.

We here remark that Prof. Mitchel, he whose fame is associated with the stars, by his devotion to astronomy, and his success in bringing within the scope of human vision, more of the sublime mysteries of that ennobling science, was untiring in his efforts to bring about the railroad connection between Cincinnati and St. Louis; and to the influence of the addresses which he delivered in these cities, and the cities on the contemplated line, is, in a great measure, to be attributed, at so early a period, this direct connection between this great metropolis of the western country.

Let it suffice for the present, that the citizens of Vincennes, whom we have mentioned, took a most prominent part in the incipiency of this great measure, and procured a charter from the Indiana legislature. We will again recur to this subject.

1848. — The character of the inhabitants of a city is reflected by their actions, and whoever attentively peruses the history of St. Louis, will find how seriously alive the citizens are on all occasions to the claims of merit, and anxious to reward and cherish it by some public demonstration. This year there were meetings held, and resolutions complimentary were passed to the volunteer companies who returned from Mexico. Many of the officers of the United States army, on their return from Mexico, stopped en route, to Washington, at St. Louis, and must have been gratified with their reception. A complimentary dinner was offered to General Shields and accepted; and to Colonel Kearney and Colonel Doniphan, the same honor was tendered, which, from the pressure of their business, they were compelled to decline.

As has been before observed, St. Louis had always manifested strong political proclivities, and the "Rough and Ready" fever which raged at

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one time throughout the whole Union, with such maddening excitement, may be said to have commenced in St. Louis. Ward and mass meetings were held, and long before the hero of Palo Alto, Monterey, Buena Vista, and other battles, ever dreamed of aspiration to civic honors, it had been determined on in St. Louis, the next in that measure to New Orleans, that the chief magistracy of the Union should reward his military exploits.

The martial excitement produced by the victorious news from Mexico was increased by the reports which announced the breaking out of the revolution in Paris and Germany. In St. Louis there was a large meeting held on April 19th; Judge John M. Krum was chosen president, and Alexander Kayser, David Chambers, Judge Bryan Mullanphy, and John F. Darby, vice-presidents. The following gentlemen were chosen secretaries, C. E. Lebaume, Lewis Cortambert, and Alexander J. P. Garesche. This meeting was largely attended, but it was only preliminary to a general mass meeting that was in contemplation. For this mass meeting a committee was appointed to prepare an address and suitable resolutions. The following-named gentlemen received the appointment: R. S. Blannerhassett, James Lemen, Daniel H. Donovan, John F. Darby, Wilson Primm, James G. Barry, Colonel L. V. Bogy, Captain Deegan, D. A. Magehan, Lewis Bach, Robert Cathcart, J. S. Hall, Reuben B. Austin, P. G. Camden, Judge Schaumburg, Judge Mullanphy, and William Weber. The address prepared by the committee, and which was read at the mass meeting by Pierce C. Grace, was a very able one, and the people of Paris, who had hurled the monarch from the throne and compelled him to flee, were lauded with the most enthusiastic cheers. Lamartine was the Spartan hero, who thus successfully headed the popular outbreak which destroyed the Bourbon dynasty, and his name became familiar to every fireside. He forsook his studies for the great occasion; and through his exertions there was a promise, for a brief period, that France would be a republic. She became one, but not to remain one. A revolution had before afforded an avenue to the ambition of Napoleon; and when again kingly power became extinct by revolutionary movements, a Bonaparte again, with the marvellous power of genius and greatness, took the dynasty of the great nation in his hands; and that, too, with the consent of the people who had, a few months before, risen in mass against monarchical arbitrament. He has become the idol of the people — not forced upon them by any hereditary prerogative, but their chosen one; and it may be truly said, the darling object of his great mind is, to heap glory upon France and make her "proudly eminent" among the nations of the earth. Lamartine, the gentle enthusiast, the scholar, the hero, unskilled in diplomatic finesse, and whose theory of government had been woven in the closet, and was of too gossamer a texture for strength and durability, went into exile and became a literary devotee, for which nature had designed him, and his sentimental creations, so dream-like, so spiritual in their nature, have gone abroad to the world, and have given him a fame far more wide than his efforts in a sterner sphere.

The French citizens in St. Louis were enthusiastic at the success of the outbreak in Paris, and the dawn of a republican government. They called a meeting, at which Dr. John Rivereau presided, and of which Wilson Primm was appointed secretary. The Marseillaise Hymn was sung,

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and eloquent dresses were delivered. On the same evening there was a large gathering of the Germans, produced by the exciting news from the faderland, and the revolutionary indication from every part, produced by republican tendencies. At all of these meetings resolutions were passed for the preparation of patriotic addresses, to be sent to France and Germany, expressive of sympathy and encouragement.

On June 22d the death of Edward Charless was announced. From the fact that the deceased came to this country with his father, Joseph Charless, at a very early period, when it was Louisiana Territory together with his extensive acquaintance and estimable qualities, his death became a matter of public concern. He died in the fiftieth year of his age universally regretted. A few months after the decease of Edward Charless, the country was called upon to mourn the death of General Stephen W. Kearney, who died of chronic diarrhoea, a disease contracted while he was in Mexico, and which proved more fatal to our gallant officers and soldiers than the arms of the enemies. General Kearney was a native of New Jersey, and when in the eighteenth year of his age, and when a student of Nassau Hall, Princeton, at the breaking out of the war in 1812 with Great Britain, he obtained a commission of first-lieutenant. He was taken prisoner during the war, and after being exchanged, served with honor during the campaign; and when the army was reduced to a peace establishment, he acquired the rank of captain. Having thus early entered upon the profession of arms, he cleaved to what appeared his ruling passion, and remained in the active service of his country until he was cut off by death, in the fifty-fifth year of his age.

Colonel Kearney was early identified with the western country. He was sent to protect the frontier parts of the western country, which for many years were visited with all the horrors of savage warfare. He was engaged in the campaign in the south against the Camanches, and for many years was stationed at Fort Leavenworth on the Missouri, and by his knowledge of the Indian character, and by his conciliatory and decided conduct, he kept the frontier settlements free from those terrible atrocities which form the record of most of the pioneer settlements of our land. He married Miss Radford, step-daughter of Gov. William Clark, in St. Louis; and during the Mexican war, with the rank of brigadier general, by order of the government he went across "the plains" to take possession of Mexico and California. History has recorded his success in accomplishing the responsible mission confided to him. The city of St. Louis was his home; and he was buried with military honors. The funeral obsequies were in keeping with the official position and wealth of the illustrious deceased; an impressive sermon was delivered on the Rev. Bishop Hawks, and the procession extended a mile in length on its passage to the cemetery. Then, when the body was deposited in the vault, the artillery boomed, and three rounds were fired by then the process on started for the city, and the remains the lamented Kearney were left in the cemetery.

About the closing of the year, the inhabitants of St. Louis became much the existence of Asiatic cholera in New Orleans, and now and then a death occurred near the city with all the symptoms of that dreaded pestilence. For more than a year previous the dreaded malady had appeared in Europe, then in Canada, and its course through the United

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States had been predicted by many eminent physicians. The warnings had been heralded abroad by the journals throughout the Union, and in St. Louis they had again and again suggested the necessity of anticipating the pestilence, by commencing the most effective sanitary precautions. The weakness of humanity is generally to procrastinate; and what could have been done in 1848 in the way of sanitary precautions, was postponed, which, though it might not have precluded the appearance of the direful disease, would have disarmed it of half of its deadly power. It was not until now and then a scattering case showed clearly that the disease was within the portals, that any efficient efforts were taken to remove the filth everywhere abounding, and to commence the process of purification. However, after a few days, the alarm subsided, for, no fresh cases occurring, and the news that the malady was on the decline in New Orleans, the inhabitants thought no more of the dread enemy, which they supposed had finally departed, and the city authorities bent their efforts to accomplish things occupying more of public interest than cleaning the streets.

1849. — It was in April that the trustees purchased what is now known as the Belle Fontaine Cemetery. The act of corporation styled the cemetery the "Rural Cemetery," but it being on the Belle Fontaine road, it was very properly changed to the name it now bears. It was bought of Luther M. Kennett, and was known as the "Hempstead Farm." The names of the trustees mentioned in the act are John F. Darby, Henry Kayser, Wayman Crow, James E. Yeatman, James Harrison. Charles S. Rannells, Gerard B. Allen, Philander Salisbury, William Bennett, Augustus Brewster, and William M. M'Pherson. The charter is forfeited if the land is devoted to any other purpose than that of a cemetery. At the time of the purchase of the land, the road, which now runs along the skirt of the river which bounds the grounds on the east side, ran through them, directly up the hill, but was changed by the order of the County Court. It is one of the most beautiful positions for a cemetery that could have been chosen — nature appears to have adapted it to the purpose. It is the proper distance from the city, and has a retired, romantic situation. At the time of the purchase it was covered with a fine growth of young timber in a thrifty state, and a large portion of which still remains upon the grounds, imparting to it a grandeur which could not be derived from any foreign umbrageous importation. The main road in the grounds winds gently around the lofty elevation, and almost from every point on the east side can be seen the broad surface of the "Father of Waters," sublimely sweeping along in his course to southern latitudes.

There is, even now, though not more than a half-score years in existence, more grandeur about Belle Fontaine Cemetery than invests Greenwood, Laurel Hill, or Auburn, the renowned cemeteries of the old Atlantic cities, and when one tithe of the expense has been devoted to it which has been so prodigally expended upon them, the sublimity of our western cemetery, assisted by the tasteful embellishments of art, will give to it a striking superiority.

One of the finest features of the act of incorporation of this cemetery, and which lends to it the warm lustre of fraternal affection, is the provision that it must be free from all sectarian influences. The dead, with all the opposition of their different creeds hushed by the power of death,

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which levels all and silences all, here can repose side by side in Christian brotherhood, and who, beneath the same sod, can await the glorious resurrection promised by the one beneficent God, who looks more to the heart than the creed — more to genuine piety than to the rules of doctrinal observances.

1849 will ever be a marked era in the annals of St. Louis, and the succeeding pages will fully develop to the reader the striking causes which give to it a noted existence. It was early on Thursday evening of the 19th of May, that there were several alarms of fire, but they were either false alarms; or insignificant in their nature. At ten o' clock the fire-bells again rang, and in a few moments, blending with their sound, were the ringing of the steamboat bells, ominous that one or more of their number was in danger of fire. The import was truly significant, for a fire had broken out on the White Cloud, lying on the wharf between Vine and Cherry streets, and set at defiance any effort made to quench it. The flames were quickly communicated to four other boats that were contiguous, and the immense crowd which had gathered on the wharf were of opinion that these boats alone would be victims to the flames. Such, however, was not the case, and things commenced to assume a terrible aspect. By the action of the fire, the White Cloud had become loosed from her fastenings, and, drifting out in the current, floated down the stream. Directly it was discovered that the White Cloud was on fire, the fleet of boats at the wharf, to escape the conflagration, had cut their cables, and were carried out in the current, and among these, with no power to escape, for the steam was not in operation, the White Cloud drifted with its crackling timbers. By the philosophic laws which govern heat and cold, the flames wooed the sportive currents of air, which, rushing to the burning steamer, carried her with velocity down the stream, and into the midst of others, whose very measures of safety proved their destruction. Such often is the fallibility of reason, and we reason "but to err."

The flames from the White Cloud quickly communicated to the other steamers, and in a few moments the spectacle presented itself of twenty-three boats in flames. It was a sight too extensive in its range — too terrible in its sublimity for an artist to transfer to the canvas, even under the rapt influences of inspiration. The immense conflagration was a mile in its length. The light was painfully brilliant. It radiated all things in its vicinity. The eddying current of the Mississippi appeared as a Phlegethon rolling burning waves; the sound of the devouring flames licking the timbers of the vessels, could be distinctly heard; and the deep darkness of the forest lining the Illinois shore, seemed like the outlines of a gloomy Tratarus. It was a picture of ruin and desolation, produced by the most dangerous of the elements, which, blended with earth, air, and water, make the glorious face of nature; and there was a hush among the immense crowd which thronged the levee, which showed the deep intensity of their feelings.

The burning, at one time, of twenty-three boats would have made any conflagration famous, and would have insured a record on the pages of history; but this great conflagration had a wider range. The levee was covered by bales, barrels, and boxes of every description, and some of them containing the most combustible materials. The flames from the boats

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reached these, and the wind blowing from the north-east, they were finally communicated to a row of shanties on the river, situated between Vine and Locust streets. They then communicated to the adjoining square, south, and, favored by the wind, which appeared to blow most propitious for the work of destruction, many blocks of houses were in flames at one time, and the efforts of the devoted firemen were almost fruitless. The fire had extended over too great a surface, and, unfortunately, at an early stage the water had given out.

We will now follow the track of the fire in its ravages, which to many of the citizens of St. Louis may be a matter of interest and anxious inquiry. The little row of shanties on the south-east corner of Locust street, on Front, were first destroyed, and then communicated to the block of buildings on Front street, between Locust and Olive streets. The following entire blocks on Front street, embracing both sides of Commercial street, were entirely destroyed, saving the few exceptions which we will mention. The block between Locust and Olive streets was entirely destroyed, with the exception of one house, owned by George Collier, which was saved by the efforts of some persons who at the time were in the building. The next block on the south, between Olive and Pine streets, was entirely consumed, and also the entire block south of that, between Pine and Chesnut streets, and the west half of the next block on the south side, between Chesnut and Market streets, with the exception of one house. The Market-house, occupying the eastern portion of the next block, between Walnut and Chesnut, was saved with much difficulty. Nearly the whole of the portions of the blocks fronting on Main street, and situated between Locust and Chesnut streets, were destroyed. Half of the block located between Olive and Pine streets, fronting on Second street, was burnt, and the two entire blocks between Pine and Market streets, and fronting on Second street, were consumed, and a portion of the block on the south side of Market street, between Main and Second streets.

While this portion of the town was burning, a fire broke out in the south part of the city, on Elm street, south side, and nearly all of the block between Front and Main streets was destroyed, and the whole of the block between Main and Second streets. The block on the south side of Myrtle, between Second and Third streets, was also nearly consumed.

We have now indicated the locations ravaged by the fire, and the area of the burnt district would have been more extensive had not a resort to blowing up buildings with gunpowder been resorted to, to open chasms between the buildings where the flames might spread themselves. In one of the explosions, a worthy citizen was killed. Mr. T. B. Targee had been a large auctioneer in the city. At the time of his death he was the weigher of the city, and his business and social worth had endeared him to a large number of friends, and his life, thus lost by an unfortunate accident, and while assisting in stopping the course of the flames, was deeply lamented. There were several others seriously wounded by the explosion, among whom were Russel Prentiss and Wells Colton.

In this immense conflagration, there were twenty-three steamboats, three barges, and one canal-boat destroyed; the total value of the boats and cargoes was estimated at $439,000. The whole value of property destroyed by the conflagration exceeded three millions of dollars.

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Such a conflagration in most cities had staid the tide of prosperity, and so interrupted the business channels that it would have taken years to recover from it. The vital functions of St. Louis were, however, too full and extensive even to be weakened by the destruction of such an amount of property. The very loss proved, on the contrary, a benefit and a blessing, like the tree that gathers more vigor when cropped of its luxuriance. Immediately after the fire, the property-holders held a meeting, to take counsel what should be done in the emergency. The property holders on Main street determined to petition the city council to widen that great avenue of business, and as the city had not to purchase any of the land, their request was at once complied with, and in commencing to build up that street, the foundations were considerably withdrawn from the former bounds of the buildings, and Main street was widened to its present limits.

In understanding the limits of the burnt district, it will be perceived that Front street, from Locust to Market, was entirely destroyed by the flames, with the exception of two or three houses on the west side of Commercial street. Between Commercial street and the levee there was not one left. The block on Front street, extending to Vine, was likewise much injured. It was then a fine opportunity to extend the levee from Front to Commercial street, and from Vine to Market street. This would have been a levee suitable to the immense and constantly-increasing business of the great Metropolis of the West, and some of the most enterprising citizens suggested that the city authorities should buy the property, and in future years, as the city increased in size, and its multiplying wants demanded more space on the levee, it could gradually purchase, and in time St. Louis would have one of the noblest levees in the world — that would insure her against any accidental fire that might occur on the steamboats, and also from the damage arising from the great rise of waters which, at certain periods, are incidental to the Mississippi and its tributaries. Many of the citizens were, however, averse to this great measure, and with some show of reason. They contended that the city was already somewhat straitened in its resources by the calamity of the fire, and the purchase of four extensive blocks would be unwise at that juncture, as it was impossible that any additional financial weight could be supported.

There was another very forcible argument alleged against the enterprising measure, which would ultimately have insured the widening of the levee along its whole extent. It was contended that legislation should be the levee was widened only at the burnt district, its enlarged proportions and business facilities would have a tendency of making that quarter the nucleus of the great trade of St. Louis. There were many means proposed to the city council of widening the levee, and after much consideration, that body determined to make it wider by drawing somewhat on the wide domain of the Father of Waters. The wharf was filled in to low-water mark, which made considerable addition to the levee, but not sufficient to give it the extent which the business of the city requires. [68]

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The origin of the great fire will ever remain a mystery. That it was the work of an incendiary many supposed, and there existed some strong evidence of the fact. There were several arrests made, and testimony taken which strongly showed that some "fiend incarnate" had committed the diabolical act of firing the steamboat White Cloud, which gave birth to the conflagration. However, nothing could be legally proved against the suspected persons, and the steamer may have taken fire from some sparks communicated by the passing boats. If the fire were accidental, this is the only rational mode of accounting for it, as there was no fire on board the White Cloud, she having been some weeks undergoing repairs.

As we noticed before, the cholera had made its appearance in St. Louis at the close of the year 1848, and after a few deaths, the disease had wholly disappeared. Early in the spring of 1849, it again returned, deaths occurring each day, and increasing in numbers as the days lengthened and commenced to glow with the warm breath of approaching summer. It may be here remarked, that if there were any place on the Mississippi River which could furnish in abundance aliment for the cholera, St. Louis was that place. Most of the alleys were unpaved, and were used as repositories for all kinds of filth thrown from the dwellings, and which had become blended with the soil one or two feet below the surface. When the alleys were cleansed, the surface only was scraped, and the rest was left to exhale its poisonous particles. In many parts of the city, the cellars contained water, which, becoming stagnant, like so many Dead Seas, infected the atmosphere, offering all the elements of nutrition to a malignant pestilence like the cholera. There was not a sewer in the city, which could have corrected this last evil by draining the cellars.

In June, the disease assumed a malignity which set at naught the appliances of science, and carried consternation among the inhabitants. Then it was, at that hour, that the most efficient sanitary measures were taken. The streets were swept, alleys were cleansed, and all the train of disinfectant agencies were resorted to. It was all in vain — the enemy had gained possession of the citadel before proper measures had been taken to combat it.

When this terrific malady was raging in all of its virulence, and nothing could stay its progress, the columns of the daily journals were teeming with speculative theories on the cause of the disease, and the proper measures to effect its cure. A board of the most respectable physicians in the city, after careful consultation, gave it as their opinion that a vegetable diet was highly injurious, and a meat diet less liable to objections than any other. In accordance with the opinions of the board of physicians, the city council issued an ordinance prohibiting the sale of vegetables within the city limits; and a large class of horticulturists, who had depended upon St. Louis as their market, were compelled to let their vegetables remain ungathered upon the soil. The fiat of the city council was productive of golden times for the butchers, for the approval of meat as an article of diet was construed by some as a remedy for the disease, and meat was devoured in quantities unknown before in domestic annals.

In despite, however, of the meat diet, the cleansing and purifying of streets and alleys, and all the various applications of disinfectant agents,

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day by day the pestilence increased, and the mortality reached the number of one hundred and sixty deaths per diem. Then other theories began to be advanced, and other remedies prescribed for the disease by physicians, which were totally at variance with the regimen which other physicians had advocated. The meat diet being proved as no preventive to the disease, a crusade was entered against it, condemning its stimulating properties, and declaring that it put the system in a state which made it liable to receive the infection. The vegetable diet, which had received the unqualified condemnation of one set of physicians, was declared by others to be the natural food of man, and the most suitable diet during the existence of the infectious malady. It was truly a time for the disagreement of the doctors, and the city authorities, half converted by the eulogies that had been pronounced upon vegetables, and half convinced by the proof that man was naturally akin to ruminating animals, formally revoked their former ordinance, which had declared the prohibition of the sale of vegetables. Each one of the dietetic systems had its friends and advocates, and while they were doubtless injuring themselves by the practice of either exclusive theory, there was a small class of the citizens more wisely adopting no extremes, knowing that health depends upon a few simple laws, who pursued a dietetic course that would strengthen the system, keep in healthful play the vital functions, and who studiously avoided the enervating influence of strong mental excitement. This class of persons suffered but little from the cholera. The malady seldom attacked them, and if it did, so well fortified was the system that it successfully resisted it.

Throughout the spring and early part of summer, every boat coming from New Orleans was freighted with crowds of emigrants, and they, fatigued with a long voyage, and landing from crowded ships with their bodies in a debilitated state, were slaughtered in hecatombs by the dreadful pestilence. The city authorities determined to prevent the arrival of emigrants who were likely to bear about them the seeds of any disease, by subjecting the boats to quarantine regulations. Then again physicians opposed the measure, on the grounds of the non-contagious character of the cholera, but the citizens urged the adoption of the measure, having lost much faith in medicinal faith and practice At the recommendation of the Committee of Public Health, the city council adopted quarantine regulations, and issued an ordinance to that effect, empowering the mayor and Committee of Public Health to select the location, and to erect suitable tents and sheds for the accommodation of those who should be taken from boats with the infectious disorder, or those whom it should be adjudged proper should not proceed to the city, from the probability of bearing about them the seeds of disease. A committee was appointed to select a site for the quarantine, and A. B. Chambers and R. S. Blennerhassett, who, having called to their selection was at once adopted. [69] A committee was forthwith appointed to make the necessary preparations, and A. B. Chambers, Thomas Gray, Thomas Dennis, R. S. Blennerhassett, and Luther M. Kennett,

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were chosen for this responsible purpose, and Dr. Barrett was appointed physician-in-chief, and afterward to Dr. Carrow was entrusted the visiting of the boats up the river. The adoption of quarantine regulations, by giving to the emigrants airy and comfortable quarters, and skilful attendance, doubtless took from the pestilence one-half of its victims.

So long and fatal was this dreadful visitation, and so ineffectual all human remedies, that the Committee of Health appointed the second of July as a day of humiliation and prayer, that the Almighty Power might have compassion, and stop its ravages. It was not until late in the month of July that there was any diminution in the number of deaths, and then, while the citizens had commenced to enjoy the prospect of a daily diminution, and to feel that the tenure of life was less precarious, again there was a conflagration, produced by the burning of five steamboats, which, with their cargoes, were estimated to the value of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars.

About the middle of August the disease had nearly disappeared. The season of its greatest virulence was from the last of April to the first week in August, and the following table will show the extent of mortality during this period for each week:

For week ending Total deaths. Cholera. For week ending Total deaths. Cholera.
April 30. 131 41 June 25. 763 589
May 7. 135 78 July 2 903 619
" 14. 273 185 " 9 773 591
" 21. 192 127 " 16. 867 639
" 28. 186 115 " 23. 442 269
June 4 144 75 " 30. 225 93
" 11. 283 191 August 6. 152 34
" 18. 510 404      
        5,989 4,060

From June 25th to July 16th was the most fatal period of this dreadful scourge, which has left its impress upon the table of time, as a marked event that is not to be forgotten. The able report of the Committee of Health shows that the mortality was greatest in those districts where there were the greatest number of unpaved alleys and streets, in which filth of all kinds was deposited, and allowed to accumulate and fester, the localities being never visited by the scavenger carts to remove it. Moist and improperly ventilated apartments likewise offered encouragement to the disease. The report of the committee was sensible, logical, and truthful. [70] It must be evident, from the great number of deaths, that some of the best citizens would be among the number. Such was the fact. Drs. Hardage Lane and Thomas Barbour, both eminent physicians, Rev. Mr. Vancourt, a minister of the Episcopal church, William K. Titcomb, a member of the bar (and at a mooting of the brother members of the

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profession, called in consequence of his decease, complimentary resolutions were passed), and many others occupying high social and business positions. During the prevalence of the cholera, there died, but not of that malady, Rev. Whiting W. Griswold, rector of St. John's Church, a popular divine and exemplary Christian, Colonel McRee, of the United States army, and Sylvester Labadie, an amiable and worthy citizen, and a member of one of the ancient families of the city. At this time also died, from an attack of the cholera, Dr. Bernard G Farrar, the oldest American physician that came to St. Louis, after the transfer of the Province of Louisiana to the American government.

At length St. Louis was relieved from the lengthened tribulation to which it had been subjected, and business, which had been neglected, began to receive some attention. The city, indeed, presented a forlorn aspect. The heart of its business destroyed by fire, and almost a tithe of its inhabitants swept away by the scourge, for a little period it exhibited a picture ominous of an early death, and final ruin; yet the city founded by the French trader could not die — it was too full of vitality. As soon as the cholera disappeared, the burnt district was again the scene of business import. Many buildings which had been commenced before, and which had been staid by the prevalence of the cholera, were again resumed, with many more, and soon, like the fabled bird of classic lore, a new class of buildings sprung into existence from the ashes of the old. The new buildings gave all the indications of progressive life. They were far more capacious than the old, possessing greater business conveniencies, and were put up in a manner which would not ever again subject them to the same accident by fire — being made fire-proof.

Fortunate in such a calamity, the property destroyed was principally of those who could bear the loss, and had means to build again. Though some of the insurance offices of the city failed, and could only pay a small pro rata of the insurance, there were others who cancelled every farthing of their obligations; all of the foreign insurance was paid. Above two-thirds of the loss was covered by insurance, most of which was recovered.

This year, as if to second the efforts of the enterprising inhabitants, who had determined not to be laid prostrate by the blow, and were again "up and doing," a beneficent Providence had sent bountiful crops, and the fertile field of the great western country was loaded with a plenteous harvest. This commenced to flow from every quarter into the port of St. Louis, and large supplies of goods were purchased by country merchants to supply the wants of their thrifty customers. Ere many months had passed away, the exsiccated currents of business returned to their former channels, with their currents swelled and increased, and every tributary quickened into increased motion and vitality. The pestilence and the storms in nature, though carrying destruction in their course, and bringing ruin in special instances, yet resulted in the general good, and were productive of the most healthful influences. The widening of Main street, the improvement of the levee, the new and capacious buildings on the ruins of those consumed — all increased the business facilities of the city, and added to its embellishment. The pestilence was the worst calamity. It entered the sensitive sphere of the afflections, and there committed its ravages. It left the city in the sable

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weeds of mourning; but to avoid a like result in the future, straightway were adopted more sanitary regulations for the city, and the system of sewerage was commenced in an effectual manner, thereby securing the general health and adding to the general prosperity and happiness.

This year the Pacific Railroad occupied much of the attention of the citizens of St. Louis. Some years before a project had been before Congress to build a national railroad to the Pacific, known as the Whitney Scheme, which had very properly been rejected by that body, though it had many friends. Since that time, the possession of California, and the immense immigration which had flocked to its borders since the discovery of its rich gold mines, had rendered the project of a national railroad to the Pacific much more feasible. To connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, so that Asia might be brought into close approximation to the eastern states, and that the east and west of the Union should be united both by railroad and magnetic telegraph, became a favorite idea of the people of St. Louis, and to effect this favorite measure, after frequent meetings, it was resolved to call a great mass convention to consider the expediency of a Great National Pacific Railway. The 15th of October was fixed for the convention, and invitations and notices were sent to the most prominent citizens of the Union. On the 15th of October, the members chosen from the different states to represent their interest assembled in the court-house, and the meeting was called to order — Judge A. T. Ellis, of Indiana, being chosen to preside for the occasion. On the following day, the convention was organized, and the following gentlemen were elected to hold the offices of honor: — For president — Hon. Stephen A. Douglass of Illinois. For vice-presidents — W. L. Totten, of Pennsylvania; Samuel Forrer, of Ohio; Samuel Emison, of Indiana; Henry J. Eastin, of Kentucky; Hon. Joseph Williams, of Iowa; Charles Bracken, of Wisconsin; Henry S. Geyer, of Missouri; John Biddle, of Michigan; Amherst K. Williams, of New York; and Hon. W. B. Scates, of Illinois. For secretaries — A. B. Chambers, of Missouri; W. H. Wallace, of Iowa; A. S. Mitchell, of Kentucky; W. G. Minor, of Missouri; and T. A. Stuart, of Illinois.

The convention was attended by representatives from nearly every state in the Union, some of them sending a large delegation. After much consultation, it was resolved by the convention that there was a necessity for such a road, and that the general government should build it. A committee was chosen to prepare an address to the people of the Union, urging their co-operation in influencing Congress to take effective action in the matter, and comply with the general wish. The gentlemen selected as the committee were Thomas Allen, of Missouri; William S. Wait, of Illinois; Oliver H. Smith, of Indiana; J. G. Law, of Ohio; Charles Naylor, of Pennsylvania; C. C. Lathrop, of Louisiana; James Clark, of Iowa; A. K. Lawrence, of New York; John Biddle, of Michigan; M. F. Maury, of Virginia; W. F. Bouden, of Wisconsin; Basil Duke, of Kentucky; Robert Chambers, of New Jersey; and G. W. Lincoln, of Tennessee.

The address prepared by the committee was a very able one, covered the whole ground of the practicability and advantages of the road, and was given a wide circulation by the press. It had the effect of influencing the public mind in the right direction, and a great national highway to

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the Pacific ocean by railroad is still a favorite measure, and there is every indication that it will soon be effected. The people of St. Louis were the first to make an effective movement in this great measure, and the members of the different states composing the convention were the guests of the city.

This year the medical department of the St. Louis University, situated on the corner of Seventh and Myrtle streets, was built. [71] It is a magnificent structure, and owes its erection to the munificence of Colonel John O'Fallon. It is an ornament to the city, and is a splendid offering to the elevating purposes of progressive science.

This year Louis A. Lebaume was elected assistant treasurer of the United States, and the gentlemen who endorsed his bond, in their aggregate wealth, were worth more than five millions of dollars. We have alluded to this instance of individual fortune merely as evidence of the wealth of some of the citizens of St. Louis. [72]

City life is ever liable to excitement. There is always something transpiring outside of the ordinary course of events, which serves to keep the public mind in the whirlpool of unhealthful and dangerous agitation. We will relate an event of this kind, occurring in St. Louis at the date under which we write.

It was the close of the month of October when two gentlemen, with their hunting equipments and their dog, arrived at the City Hotel, corner of Third and Vine streets, then kept by Theron Barnum. They were dressed in hunting costume, and bore about them the unmistakable indications of foreigners. They applied to Mr. Kirby Barnurn, a nephew of the proprietor, for accommodations, and, after some objection on their parts to some apartments that were shown them, they were finally domiciled, and became guests of the hotel. Between them and Mr. Kirby Barnum there had been some disagreement, first regarding their rooms, and afterward concerning a favorite dog the travellers had with them. There was no open rupture, however, and it was proved upon the trial that the deportment of the strangers was exemplary, and that they kept aloof from the other guests of the hotel, and remained comparatively isolated. There was something strange, however, about their movements, which provoked attention and elicited inquiry. This preamble is only given as a necessary introduction to the tragical scene, which we will now relate.

On the evening of the 29th of October, Mr. Kirby Barnum retired to his room, in which was his room-mate, John McComber. He threw off his coat, and was in the act of winding up his watch, when he saw a

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man armed with a gun skulking along the piazza fronting his window. He hurriedly told the circumstance to his room-mate, who sprang from his bed, and made to the door, followed by Mr. Barnum, but the latter fell headlong in the hall as he reached the door-sill, from a shot fired by the assassin through the window, which he had broken with the point of his gun previous to firing. The noise of the report aroused Mr. Albert Jones, who was in a room on the same floor, who opened his door to ascertain the cause of the firing, when he was shot dead, and H. M. Henderson and Captain W. D. Hubbell, who were rooming with him, were both wounded, the former in the temple, and the latter in the hand. The whole house was almost instantly aroused; for the startling cry of murder was shrieked along the halls of the hotel, at the hour of midnight.

Mr. Barnum, though fatally wounded, was still conscious, and accused the smaller of the two Frenchmen — the strangers of whom we have before spoken — as being the person who fired the shot. There was an immediate search for the supposed assassins, and one of the Frenchmen was arrested in the crowd which had thronged the hotel, and the other in his room, after a futile effort to use his gun. The excitement on the occasion had led nearly to the most serious consequences, and the incensed crowd talked of resorting at once to summary punishment, but the officers promptly conducted the prisoners to the jail, from which they were removed to the arsenal, so as to be under the protection of the United States troops.

On the trial before the Criminal Court, some months afterward, the following facts were elicited: — The prisoners were both French noblemen, and being known as faithful adherents to the royal cause, at the outbreak in Paris some months previous, which overthrew the Bourbon dynasty, and compelled the king to flee for his life, to escape imprisonment and probably death if they remained, embarked for the United States, intending to remain until they could return to France in safety. Being passionately fond of hunting, they had come to the West, whose prairies at that time were most prolific in game, so as to indulge in that favorite amusement; and had reached St. Louis provided with all the accoutrements suitable for their purpose, each travelling in a buggy. It was proved also that the two Frenchmen were named Gonsalve and Raymond Montesquieu, and were scions of a noble family, and that the eldest of the two brothers, Gonsalve Montesquieu, by his own confession, fired the shots, alleging that "God made him do it!" It was also proved that insanity was hereditary in the family, his father having committed suicide, leaving a letter saying that he was involved in pecuniary difficulties, when his fortune left exceeded four millions of francs; that Gonsalve had also frequently exhibited indications of an unbalanced intellect, and that one of his brothers in France had been confined in a hospital for the insane.

In the first trial of the prisoners, the jury could not agree; at the second trial, Gonsalve was acquitted on the ground of insanity. [73] Raymond was shown to be innocent. There can be no doubt but that Gonsalve had borne within him the elements of that species of latent insanity that only develops itself under peculiar circumstances — when some potent agencies call into life and action the maddening power, which like a demon

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assumes the sway of unfortunate individuals, and drives them to the commission of acts for which they are neither morally nor legally responsible.

During the very year that the unfortunate catastrophe occurred at the City Hotel, the Bank of the State of Missouri lost from its vaults the enormous sum of one hundred and twenty thousand dollars. That it was stolen there was no doubt; but who the person or persons were who committed the larceny will ever be a matter of speculation. One of the bank officers, who had resigned his position a little time before the discovery of the fraud, was charged with the offence, arrested, tried, and, after a protracted trial, acquitted.


Since 1850, the population of St. Louis has almost trebled. Previous to that time, its march had been progressive; but then it took colossal strides, and its advance in wealth and population exceeded all business calculation, and the expectations of its most sanguine friends. The seven great railway stems, which make the great metropolis a terminus, have given new business facilities. They run, in their thousands of miles' course, through the richest section of country on the globe, and St. Louis is the natural recipient of their freights. It is owing principally to these roads that the wealth, population, and business of St. Louis have advanced with such unparalleled rapidity; and year by year, branches are being added to these main stems, which, like radicals, are extending into new regions, contracting new vigor, and increasing the elements of vitality.

St. Louis has a location which has been so bountifully fashioned by nature, that there is nothing left to wish for in the way of natural advantages. Situated almost midway on the course of the "Father of Waters," she has all the advantages of the northern and southern trade; the immense and rapidly-increasing commerce of the great Missouri falls naturally into her lap; and the Illinois, flowing through its rich prairies, flows onward to the favored city, and lands its rich freights upon her levee. She has still more advantages, which make more certain the brilliancy of the future. All of the immense regions now lying in their primitive wildness, and uninhabited, will gradually be cultivated and populated, and their trade must from gravitating causes tend to St. Louis, and for hundreds of years this immense country, exceeding the limits of the Union east of the Mississippi, must, will be most prolific in the elements of its advancement.

One more paragraph, and we have closed. Eighty-six miles from St. Louis are inexhaustible mines of iron, found in all the varieties of that mineral, suitable for every manufacture, and so abundant, that they are capable of supplying the whole globe for centuries. The lead mines are equally as numerous, prolific, and convenient, and inexhaustible coal-beds are in the immediate vicinity of the great city. These are the great elements of manufacture which exist about it, which are fast assuming a practical appearance, and which, in all the manufactures of which lead and iron are the principal constituents, must make St, Louis the greatest manufacturing city in the Union. With a rich back-country, with facilities of building to any extent, her natural advantages, her rivers her railroads, and manufactories, she can fear no rival, and must always be the emporium of trade and the metropolis of the Mississippi Valley.

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The following is a corrected list of delegates to the convention, which we have given, that there may be a record of their enterprise in this great measure:


Andrew — B. M. Atherton.

Benton — Jno. M. Staley, E. C. Henry, Peter Everett.

Boons — Dr. W. McClure, P. Crow, M. S. Matthews, R. L. Todd, Dr. H. M. Clarkson, W. F. Switzler, J. W. Harris, Dr. McCelland, G. S. Tuttle, J. K. McCabe, B. S. Grant, Dr. J. B. Thomas.

Butler — Dr. V. M. Capp.

Caloway — John Gibson, Robert Stevens, A. Masters.

Cape Girardeau — J. W. Russell, Jas. McLean, W. H. McLean, John Albert, J. H. Kimmel, Charles A. Davis.

Carroll — W. W. Compton (invited by committee.)

Chariton — Sterling Price, J. M. Davis, M. R. C. Pulliam, C. J. Terrill, Charles Derrickson.

Clay — Joel Turnham, Merit Tillery, Dr. Ball, John Ringo, David Crossdall, Henry Mail, Dr. Wood, Coleman Younger.

Clinton — James H. Birch, John T. Hughes.

Cole — Governor Austin, A. King, T. L. Price, W. G. Minor, G. C. Medley, P. G. Glover, A. P. Richardson, W. Vanover, George W. Hough, Charles R. Moller, James L. Minor, Walter King, Enos B. Cordell, Jno. W. Wells, H. C. Ewing, E. L. Ewing.

Cooper — F. W. G. Thomas, John Miller, Benjamin Tompkins, David Spharr, John H. Price, M. W. Mack, E. B. McPherson, John Porter, W. H. Trigg, S. B. Hocker, Lewis Bendell, Dr. A. Kukleham, Truman Hickox.

Crawford — J. B. Brinker, D. Singleton, B. Whittemburg, William James, Dr. W. C. Williams, Jas. Pease, B. Wishon.

Franklin — C. F. Jeffries, Charles Jones, C. B. Inge, E. Butler, John Q. Dickenson, George Hurst, C. R. Jeffries, Thomas Mitchell, W. Musick, Jonathan W. Jones, Fielding Sappington, B. Wetherford, Edward F. Brown, T. R. Lewis, J. M. Ming, John D. Stevenson, James Hallegaen, Pierce Butler, James R. Roberts, Green Terry, Martin Crow, Francis Baker, William North, Samuel Simons, Samuel Massey, George N. Nickols, Henry King, J. H. Jameson, F. J. North, J. W. Reynolds, W. R. Vanover, E. W. Murphy. E Arcullarius, Lewis Reyn, John F. Mentz, Andrew Cochrane, John R. Brown, David Robertson, C. B. Hinton, Bishop Sheldon, S. Rucker, W. C. Builey, J. B. Brown.

Gasconade — James Arrote. J. O. Sitton, F. Kempf, Christoph Moller, John B. Harrison, J. Lessell.

Greene — C. E. Fisher, P. R. Smith.

Howard — Thomas Jackson, J. B. Clark, A. J. Herndon, A. Cooper, W. D. Swainey, W. G. Chiles, J. M. Feagle, T. M. Davis, John W. Payne.

Jackson — Major Rickman, J. R. Palmer, William Singleton, M. Leonard, T. Slaughter, Captain J. W. Reid.

Jefferson — William S. Howe, Falkland H. Martin, J. Richardson, T. C. Fletcher, P. Pipkin.

Lafayette — John F. Ryland, T. M. Ewing, William Shields, W. S. Field, B. B. Wilson, M. W. Flournoy, W. J. Mackeshaw, George A. Rise, J. J. Burtis, T. F. Atkinson, George Young, Foster Smith, S. T. Tyree, Levi Blackwell, W. A. Harrison, R. M. Aull.

Lewis — H. F. Hughes.

Lincoln — Francis Parker, G. W. Huston, James H. Britton. Dr. Wilmot, John W. McKee, B. W. Hammock, Dr. Bell, R. B. Allen, W. Porter, H. A. Fisher, W. B. Allen.

Madison — J. C. Berryman, Samuel Calbert, T. L. Sullivan, D. Arnott, Caleb Case, S. R. Guigon, S. Caruthers, J. Ronald, B. R. Prewit, H. Preston, B. Nall, James Hickman, J. B. Grigsbey.

Marion — T. R. Selmers, C. H. Bower, R. W. Moss, John Fry, A. B. Webb, J. F. Buchanan, T. Miller, Thomas Van Swearinger, R. F. Richmond, Dr. Faulkner, B. E. Ely, Colonel B. Davis, Dr. A. F. Jeter, Dr. Cluff, Z. G. Draper, W. M. Cook, E. M. Moffett, J. P. Ament.

Mississippi — Hiram Pearson, Major Sayers.

Moniteau — L. L. Woods, P. H. Templeman, J. Parish, A. Lacey.

New Madrid — W. S. Mosely.

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Osage — Dr. B. Bruns, William Thermann.

Pike — J. S. Markley, Edwin Draper, G. B. Crane, E. C. Maury, M. Givens, B. F. Todd, J. C. Jackson, James O. Broadhead, Peter Carr, Dr. W. Gorin, John B. Henderson, James Alexander, John S. Markley, Robert Allison, Dr William C. Herdon, George Todd, James McCord, T. J. C. Fagg, Julien C. Jackson, A. J. Landrum, Dr. J. G. Flagg, W. Block.

Platte — John E. Pitt, M. Birney, John W. Vineyard, John Holladay, F. Cockerill, Robert Snell, John B. Dumay, John Doniphan, J. L. Thompson, James McKowen.

Polk — H. K. Acock, J. H. Lindsay, A. J. Hurnover.

Ralls — Richard Boyer, James Buford, W. H. Atclnson, James H. Lampton, E. W. Southworth.

Ray — John W. Martin, John Hendley, James B. Jener, E. A. Lewis, T. L. D. W. Shaw, Messrs Morrison, Gantt and Tibbs.

Reynolds — W. Edminson (invited by committee.)

St. Charles — R. B. Frazier, G. C. Libley, J. J. Johns, B. A. Alderson, Dr. W. P. McIlhenny, A. Le Faiore, J. Gallaher, jr., C. Rice. J. W. Redmon, C. M. Johnson, Robert Frayser, D. K. Pitman, Dr. J. Tally, C. F. Fant. Captain Campbell, W. C. Lindsay, R. F. Kenner, T. A. Barwise, I. A. Dick, W. D. Fielding, N. Bateman, W. M. Christy, F. Yosti, S. Keithly, C. Cole, A. T. Weidle, H. Bangs, H. Pitman, D. Griffith, A. Angert, Henry Hatcher, J. H. Pitts, L. Overall, L. Gill, Dr. Diffendaffer, C. F. Woodson, G. W. Whitney, A. Luckett.

St. Clair — R. D. McCullok, Mr. Beatman, Mr. Bullock, C. P. Bullock, W. Crow.

St. Francois — John Cobb, John S. Primm, Milton Poston, J. P. Smith, G. Wood, Dr. W. C. Ashburn, John J. Perry.

Saline — G. C. Bingham (invited by the committee).

Wayne — H. B. Barnhart, L. H. Flinn, T. C. Cattron.

Montgomery — J. Baker, B. Bishop, Rev. R. Bond, Benjamin Sharp.

Clark — W. Bishop, T. D. Ford, J. N. Lewis, J. M. Charles, F. Bartlett, J. T. Johnson, TV. Bosworth, A. Maxwell.

Cape Girardeau — Joseph W. Russell, Robert Brown, H. H. M. Williams, Isaiah Poe, R. A. Martin, William E. McGuire, Thomas B. English, J. S. Williams, G. F. Daugherty, William W. Horrell, H. S. McFarland, Charles A. Davis, George W. Ferguson, S. H. Kimmell, William A. McLane, Simeon English, Aaron Snider, George W. Snider, Wiley Stotler, E. West, Wm. R. Dawson, John Albert, James McLean.

Laclede. — M. C. Hawkins, B. B. Harrison, B. Hooker.

Washington — P. Cole, M. Frissel, William Bryant, John Tuttle, George Creswell, Mr. Trimble, J. D. Johnson, Israel McGreedy, F. Desloge, S. P. Springer, L. W. Harrison, John Evans, N. Aubuchon, J. G. Bryan, C. D. Ferryman, John Perry, M. Wingo.

Scott — W. P. Darnes, Dr. A. S. Henderson. Albion Crow, J. C. Myers Abram Hunter, Colonel F. G. Allen, John Moore, John W. Oaks, W. Ewing.

Warren — H. Griswold, F. Morsey, J. S. Jones, H. Pritchett, J. A. Pulliam, R. Pitzer, C. A. Kuntze, J. Prummons, T. Collum, J. M. McFaden, L. Eversmann, Dr. A. Powell, Dr. Anderson, T. J. Marshall, J. Preston, W. Smith, A. F. Grass, C. T. Archer, R. L. Allen, G. C. Barez, J. A. Lack, J. B. Davis, M. S. Pringle, R. Houston, G. W. Wright, J. S. Wyatt, Dr. H. Wright, N. P. Stephenson, A. Welch, W. H. Harrison, A. Wyatt.

St. Charles — N. Bateman, J. W. Redmon, W. S. Overall, J. A. Tally, B. R. Pittz, C. M. Johnson, James Green, James Galaher, William J. McIlhaney, F. Yosti, Samuel Keithly, James M. Campbell, J. J. Johnson, W. M. Christy, D. K. Pitman, Charles Fant, H. Pitman, J. A. Dick, Thomas Baruz, A. Angest, G. C. Sibley, P. Gill, Daniel Griffith, H. Bangs, M. N. Diffendaffer, B. A. Alderson, A. Lefevre, Robert Frasier, G. S. Whitney, H. Hatcher, W. D. Fielding, W. C. Lindsey, A. T. Widle, R. F. Kener, C. Cole, John Orrick.


First Ward — R. S. Blennerhassett, David B. Hill, Edward Haren, William R. Price, D. D. Mitchell.

Second Ward — George R. Taylor, Archibald Gamble, Wilson Primm, John G. Shelton, Mann Butler, jr.

Third Ward — Edward Bates, Henry S. Geyer, A. L. Mills, J. B. Crockett, Samuel Treat.

Fourth Ward — James H. Lucas, William Robb, John M. Krum, G. B. Allen, John Howe.

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Fifth Ward — Alexander Hamilton, Trusten Polk, John B. Gibson, Robert Catheart, Archibald Carr.

Sixth Ward — Henry Holmes, T. M. Post, J. T. Swearingen, Isaac H. Sturgeon, Calvin Case.

County — John K. Walker, James H. Castello, George M. Moore, Frederick Hyatt, William F. Berry, Henry Walton, James Sutton, James McDonald, Hamilton K. Gamble, Alton Long, Judge Higgins, Henry McCullough, John B. Bogert, Peregrine Tippett, Zeno Mackey, John Sappington, Peter D. Barada, William Milburn, H. M. Shreve, G. W. Goode, Dr. A. Prout, Hugh Garland, William M. McPherson, Miron Leslie, John Barnes, L. A. Lebaume, R. S. Elliott, Dr. Penn, F. M. Haight, M. Blair, L. M. Kennett, Thomas Allen, Thomas B. Hudson, M. Tarver, Henry Kayser, A. B. Chambers, R. Phillips, John O'Fallon, Edward Walsh, John F. Darby, J. H. Field, G. K. Budd, N. R. Germany, John Loughborough, Charles G. Ramsey, John B. Meyer, John Withnell, George L. Lackland, T. T. Gantt, Thomas D. Yeats, Samuel Gaty, O. D. Filley, A. Ohlhausen, V. Staley, James G. Barry.

St. Genevieve — Lewis V. Bogy, Auguste St. Gemme, Felix St. Gemme, F. Valle, Gustave St. James.


William J. Totten, N. B. Craig, George Darsie, George Ogden, J. K. Moorhead, T. W. Roberts, Charles Naylor, T. J. Bigham, G. E. Warren, James May, D. Wilmarth, James Wood, W. M. Lyon, W. M. Temple, W. McCandless, R, H. Kerr, William Phillips, J. H. Reed.


Hon. Amherst K. Williams, of St. Lawrence county.


Henry Stoddard, S. Forrer, J. C. Lowe, H. Van Tuyl, John W. Van Cleeve, D. W. Deshler, W. Whiteley, J. H. Sullivan.


Hon. A. T. Ellis, Samuel Emison, R. G. McClure, H. D. Wheeler, A. Simpson, W. Simpson, A. B. McKee, W. G. Foulks, Abram Smith, Pierre Richardville, John Emison, Samuel Wise, Charles C. Smith, L. L. Boyer, William Miller, William Patterson, Wm. T. Scott, L. L. Watson, Ben. P. Wheeler, James T. Alexander, and W. R. McCord, of Knox county.

Vigo County — Hon. R. W. Thompson, James T. Moffatt, T. J. Bourne, Charles Wood. W. N. Hamilton, W. B. Warren, W. W. Williams, Jacob H. Hagar, Charles Cruft, W. K. Edwards.

Dearborn County — Servetus Tufts.

Marion County — Hon. Oliver H. Smith.

Tippecanoe County — Hon. Albert S. White.

Sullivan County — John H. O'Boyle.

Franklin County — Rufus Raymond.

Greene County — R. H. Rousseau.


Paducah — L. M. Flournoy, Capt. J. F. Harris.

Henderson County — Henry J. Eastin.

Louisville — T. P. Shaffner, T. C. McClure.

Jersey City — G. Hulme.

Scott County — B. Duke, Capt. J. Harper.

Frankfort — A. S. Mitchell.


Cook County — S. A. Douglass, P. Maxwell, Thomas A. Stewart, H. A. Clark, S. A. Lowe, Thomas Hoyne, James Pollock, M. Wright, William M. Hall, John R. Livingston, Governor Wells, Dr. Eagan, Mr. Doyle.

Randolph — J. P. Owings, D. Reily, Jacob Feaman, S. S. Frain, Dr. J. S. Curie, R. E. Morrison, G. Morrison.

Morgan — J Gordon, W. Dean.

Schuyler — G. Terry.

Scott County — C. C. Perry, E. Bogardus, Thomas Hollowbush, James Williams.

Morgan County — Judge Dalton, Rev. F. Stevenson, W. Stevenson, W. N. Ross, D. Huey, John W. Evans.

Will County — W. E. Little, H. S. Higgins.

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Clark County — J. K. Greenough, Stephen Archer, A. Shaw, William Montgomery, H. P. H. Brownell James Welsh.

Pike County — J. S. Roberts, J. M. Parker, W. Ross, B. F. Spencer, J. J. Collard, P. N. O. Thompson, C. D. Higbee, R. E. Hicks, Alexis Mudd, D. B. Bush, John Shasted, A. Starrow, E. D. Whitney, G. C. Bushy, F. Jennings, Mont Blair, Thomas Digby, J. Klein, jr., M. Edwards, John Syster, Henry T. Mudd, John Tooley, M. Ross.

Richland County — John Allen, F. Bruce, A. H. Baird, G. F. Powers, Henry Barney, Samuel St. John, H. Barney, J. Tolliver, J. M. Rank, McIntyre Ryan C. Clubb, H. L. Carson, J. May, Perry Heaston, John Hunt, N. D. Jay, A. O. Burford, M. C. McClain, Andrew Lowry, James Starr, Albert Burdon, G. Hurtsell, John Bruer, J. Moore.

Fulton County — R. R. McDowell, A. C. Thompson, J. L. Sharpe, J. Kuykendall, Thomas Maples, S. H. Pitkin, J. G. Davidson, Amos Smith, Lyman Moore, Frank Foster, F. J. Porter, Thomas Risley, J. G. Davidson.

Madison County — Hon. L. Trumbull, Hon. N. Pope, Hon. R. Smith, Judge Bailhache, M. G. Atwood, J. E. Starr, B. F. Snyder, Dr. L. S. Metcalf, J. C. Ketcham, Charles Skillman, Dr. B. K. Hart, S. Y. McMasters, T. M. Hope, C. Stiggleman, E. Keating, C. W. Hunter, S. A. Buckmaster, J. R. Thomas, O. M. Adams, E. L. Dimmock, D. A. Spaulding, L. Kellenberger, James Semple, B. F. Long, A. Breath, H. W. Wood, C. A. Murray, H. Wood, R. Ferguson, John Ash. L. B. Parson, James Stine, William Martin, H. B. Bowman, George T. Brown, S. F. Choat, H. W. Billings, J. L. Pierce, J. W. Schweppe, O. Brown, N. Johnson, Dr. C. Smith, T. P. Woodridge, W. T. Miller, R. Flagg, I. Scarritt, C. E. Blood, Charles Trumbull, L. Wosonor, H. P. Hulbert, F. Giddings, John Quigley, A. Tuffts, S. B. Caats, P. Tuffts, J. G. Lamb, J. J. Mitchell, S. Wise, H. L. Baker, A. S. Barney, S. Wait, John Allison, N. D. Sweeney, Dr. G. T. Allen, A. Judd, C. Blakeman, J. Spies, A. L. Saunders, J. Wilson, B. C. Stanton, J. W. Coventry, J. Thornburgh, D. Morrell, S. Carlton, J. W. Jeffries, R. Parker, J. Wilson, J. Ferguson, S. H. Mudge, William McKean, A. G. Neal, W. B. Graham, N. Enos, H. Reimacks, L. B. Gorman, F. M. Lytle, George Churchill, John Bradey, John Wood, J. S. Dewey, J. R. Swain, Thomas Judy, J. A. Barnsback, Thomas Smith, James Brown, W. Jarviss, M. Jilton, J. Taylor, W. F. Provines, J. C. Edwards, A. C. Rondafett, J. Padon, Dr. J. Gates, J. K. McMahon, W. H. Smiley, Joseph Shaffer.

Allan, Madison County — C. H. Fox, L. J. Clawson, E. D. Topping.

Pike County — William P. Harpole, Alexis Mudd, John S. Ball.

Monroe County — J. B. Needles, W. C. Starkie, E. Omelvany, Thomas Quick, C. Crocker, H. Holcomb, J. Morrison, E. P. Rogers, J. A. Reid, T. Winstanly, T. Singleton, A. Durfee, C. Henckler, T. Henckler, J. A. Gilley, Bradley Rust, Lewis James, J. A. Talbott, C. H. Priesker, George Trick, J. Saurs, H. Null, P. Wehrheim, Henry Lower, Henry Prusher.

White County — William H. Wilson.

St. Clair County — P. K. Fleming, J. Winstanly, D. Hopkins, E. Abend, William Snyder, Julius Wright, M. Phelps, W. Singleton, J. Knoble, Samuel Thrift, Benjamin J. Smith, W. Wesfield, G. M. Bowles, L. D. Cabana, C. Alexander, J. M. Hughes George C. Hart.

Clay County — Arthur McCanly.

From the State at Large — J. P. Cooper, of Clarke; J. McDonald, Fayette; C. F. Keener, Scott; A. H. Grass, Lawrence; Z. Casey, Jefferson; R. Yates, Morgan; W. B. Warren, do.; H. T. Pace, Jefferson; W. B. Scates, do.; A. Eads, J. Davies.

Marion County — Uriel Mills, J. S. Martin, G. W. Haynie, William Green, G. W. Pace, T. B. Lester, H. F. Hamlin, B. F. Marshall, Thomas Easton, Emory Wooter.

BondCounty — Benjamin Johnson, N. Levertier, P. W. Lamkin, W. Watkins, G. Stevenson, William S. Wait, A. Berrie, J. M. Gilmore, John Leverton, F. Richey, J. Gilmore, A. Bowman, James McGehey, Isaac Roark, Lemuel Plant.

McDonoughy County — H. Agers, J. E. Jackson, A. N. Ford.

Jersey County — W. Casey, H. O. Goodrich, J. Duncan, Z. H. Adams, C. A. Knapp, Dr. Veitch, R. C. Baugh, Dr. J. O. Hamilton.

Cass County — H. E. Dammer, R. S. Thomas, E. R. Saunders, W. A. Turpin.

Lafayette County — A. Dikeman, William C. Greenup, E. Griffith, N. M. McCurdy, H. C. Waterman, R. A. Phillips.

Lawrence County — E. T. Ryan, S. H. Clubb, H. Seed, T. J. McDonell, E. D. Emmons, J. Thompson, C. H. Naff, C. Durkee, N. M. Keesemar, T. Spencer, E. C. Banks, N. Norton, A. J. Warner, Alfred Grass, jr., F. Coat, V. B. Buchanan.

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Cumberland County — A. J. Freeman, William Freeman, Reuben Stinson, John Shook, Stephen Waite.

Crawford County — G. W. Smith, A. Norsworthy, J. B. Trimble, William Barber, jr., A. G. Markley, J. W. Wilson, J. D. Smith.

Effingham County — H. L. Smith, — Henry, — Fisher.

Rock Island County — W. Brackett, P. A. Whittaker, J. K. Corker, A. K. Phileo, Jacob Norris.

Warren County — J. W. Davidson, John Brown.

Adams — J. P. Erskine, J. B. Young, C. A. Savage, J. W. Hallowbush, P. Cleveland, J. H. Luce, C. Howland, T. Redmond, J. B. Morgan, H. Asbury, J. C. Woodruff, Andrew Wood, S. P. Church, J. D. Moore, S. B. Hoffman, G. Holmes, J. H. Beasy, B. Collins.

Clinton — R. S. Bond, M. Stiles.

Coles — J. D. Van Deren.


Lee County — John A. Graham, Colonel Samuel R. Curtis, D. W. Kilbourne, General V. P. Van Antwerp, G. Wells, J. W. Rankin, W. G. Anderson, L. E. H. Houghton, Samuel Walker, H. H. Beldin, Robert Pope, G. Lewis, F. Wright, P. D. Foster, T. G. Williams, J. Webster, James H. Cowles.

Des Moines — H. W. Starr, J. G. Edwards, J. F. Fletcher, Dr. Graham, Isaac Baggs, T. S. Cordis, P. Mertz, W. B. Reemey, James Clark, Governor J. Clarke, W. Walker, H. Moore, B. C. Armstrong, S. S. Runson, J. E. Darst, J. H. Hughes, R. Pope.

Davis — J. B. Peach.

Madison — W. Compton.

Polk — J. Gilkey.

Henry — Hon. W. Thompson.

Wapello — J. Williams, H. B. Hendershot, T. J. Devin.

Jefferson — B. Henk, R. Erwin, Colonel W. H. Walner, W. H. Lyons.

Jones — Joseph A. Hunt, G. H. Walworth.

Van Buren — D. Smith, A. McDonald, S. Millington.

Dee — A.. Hamlin, L. E. Johnson, W. L. McGavie, J. W. Taylor, J. L. Curtiss, T. Fitzpatrick, L. R. Reeves, E. Kilbourne, Dr. McMurtry, C. Stewart.

Muscatine — Judge J. Williams, Pliny Fay, N. M. McCormack, Adam Ogilvie, Joseph A. Green, J. Butler, Stephen Nye, Legrand Morehouse.

Dubuque — H. C. Fellows, Peter Waples.

Johnson — H. D. Downy, G. D. Farmer, E. Morris, Dr. H. Murry.


Lafayette County — Edward Vaughn, William M. Boudoin, Charles Bracken.

Dane County — A. R. Murray.


Detroit — John Biddle.


New Orleans — C. C. Lathrop.


Shelby County — G. W. Lincoln, E. Hickman, S. Fance, J. C. Carroll.

Memphis — A. S. Caldwell, W. T. Avery.

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Edwards, Richard; Hopewell, M.; Ashley, William; Barry, James G.; Belt and Priest; Casey, John; Hall, W.; Labaum, Louis A.; Leduc, Mary Philip; Lisa, Manuel; O'Fallon, Benjamin; Piernas; Port Folio; Risley, W.; Stoddard, Amos; Williams, Henry W.; Yore, John E. Edwards's Great West and Her Commercial Metropolis, Embracing a General View of the West, and a Complete History of St. Louis, from the Landing of Ligueste, in 1764, to the Present Time; with Portraits and Biographies of Some of the Old Settlers, and Many of the Most Prominent Buisiness Men . St. Louis: Office of Edwards's Monthly, A Journal of Progress, 1860. [format: book], [genre: biography; history; letter; narrative]. Permission: St. Louis Mercantile Library
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