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Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe.. History of the Indian Tribes of the United States: Their Present Condition and Prospects, and a Sketch of Their Ancient Status. Volume 6. . Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo and Co, 1857. [format: book; image], [genre: government document; report]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
Persistent link to this document: http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/file.php?file=schoolcraft6.html


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Notes

Note from page xiv: 1. Vols. IV. and V.

Note from page 27: 2. Ethnological Researches, respecting the Red man of America, Vol. I., 1851; Vol. II., 1852; Vol. III., 1853; Vol. IV., 1854; Vol. V., 1855.

Note from page 28: 3. Isaiah, chap. lx., 12.

Note from page 28: 4. Gareilleso de la Vega.

Note from page 29: 5. The Algonquin verb "To Be."

Note from page 31: 6. ALGONQUIN. For an Essay on this language, see Vol. II., p. 351; History, Vol. II., p. 135. Their dialects are given in full vocabularies, in Vol. I., p. 288; Vol. II., pp. 458, 470, &c. Their power of numeration appears in Vol. II., p. 204. Their pictography, Vol. II., p. 222. Their craniological developments, Vol. II., p. 335. The names of the several tribes, their numbers, and industrial means, Vol. I., p. 454; Vol. II., p. 538, &c. Intellectual capacity and character, Vol. I., p. 316; Vol. II., p. 204; Vol. III., p. 316; Vol. IV., p. 254; Vol. V., p. 243. Sac and Fox tribes, Vol. III., p. 260. Pontiac confederacy, in 1703, Vol. II., p. 240. Chippewa language, Vol. V., p. 297. Alleghans, Vol. V., p. 133. Kenistenos, Vol. V., p. 164. Massachusetts, Vol. I., p. 284. Algonquin biography, Vol. V., p. 510; Nomenclature, Vol. V., p. 535.

Note from page 32: 7. Syms' History of South Carolina, p. 96.

Note from page 32: 8. Vide Hawkins' Sketch, of the Creeks, or Muscogees.

Note from page 32: 9. APPALACHIAN. General History, Vol. VI. Muscogees and Alabamas, Vol. I., p. 265; Vol. V., pp. 251, 691. Chickasaws, Vol I., p. 309. Creek antiquities, Vol. V., p. 660. Cranial volume, Vol. II., p. 335. Physical type, Vol. II., p. 316. Origin of the Muscogees, Vol. V., p. 259.

Note from page 32: 10. The Mobilicans of Du Pratz.

Note from page 32: 11. Vide Map, Vol. V., p. 252.

Note from page 33: 12. IROQUOIS. History of their confederacy, Vol. III., p. 181; Vol. IV., p. 244. Iroquois cosmogeny and mythology, Vol. I., p. 316; Vol. II., p. 235; Vol. III., p. 314. Iroquois pictography, Vol. I., p. 429. Languages, Vol. II., p. 482. Biography, Vol. IV., p. 614; Vol. V., p. 509. The Cherokees (Mr. Gallatin's 46th language and Vlth family) have distant affinities with this group. Their vernacular name is Tsallakee; they are manifestly the Tallageewi of Delaware tradition.

Note from page 33: 13. Charlevoix.

Note from page 34: 14. Nawdowissnees of early writers. This is a mere nickame of the Algonquin, meaning our enemies.

Note from page 36: 15. Vol. II., p. 209.

Note from page 36: 16. The English language, which has laid the world under contributions for its enrichment, has derived three words from the Carib, namely, canoe, an Indian boat; picannini, a half-cast child; and picayune, a small piece of money.

Note from page 38: 17. Vide Dr. Pitcher's article "Medicine," Vol. IV., p. 502.

Note from page 38: 18. Alcedo's Geographical Dictionary, Vol. II., p. 103.

Note from page 38: 19. Robinson's History of America.

Note from page 38: 20. Alcedo, Vol. II., p. 104.

Note from page 39: 21. Ethnological Researches, Vol. III., p. 27.

Note from page 39: 22. Vol. III., p. 25.

Note from page 39: 23. Vol. III., p. 26.

Note from page 39: 24. Vide Plate 1., Vol. III.

Note from page 39: 25. Harcras, Vol. II., p. 26, Note.

Note from page 40: 26. This fact must be remembered by naturalists in investigating the history and spread of quadrupeds, and other species, stated to inhabit Florida in 1600.

Note from page 40: 27. New York Historical Collections, Vol. I., p. 23. Forster is greatly out, in supposing this place to have been in "New Jersey, or Staten Island, or Long Island." — Forster's Voyages, p. 434.

Note from page 42: 28. New York Historical Collections.

Note from page 42: 29. Forster says, "The three great empires of those times, Spain, England, and France, made, each of them, use of an Italian to conduct the voyages of discovery set on foot by them. Spain employed Christopher Colon, a Genoese; England, Sebastian Cabot, a Venetian; and France, John de Verrazani, a Florentine." — History of Northern Voyages and Discoveries, p. 436.

Note from page 42: 30. Voyages, Vol. III., p. 95, folio edition, 1600.

Note from page 42: 31. Hackluyt, p. 300.

Note from page 42: 32. Verrazani's letter to Francis I.

Note from page 43: 33. The leagues of the early voyagers must be computed at two miles.

Note from page 44: 34. Alcedo.

Note from page 44: 35. Ethnological Researches, Vol. III., page 28.

Note from page 45: 36. Ethnological Researches, Vol. III., p. 31.

Note from page 46: 37. Narvaez had 400 men. A loss of forty is acknowledged, but there are eighty-nine unaccounted for, who may be supposed to have been killed or captured by the Indians, to have died in swamps, or perished by starvation.

Note from page 47: 38. The term Floridians was vaguely applied to these tribes; Florida, itself, being a changing, vacillating, and contracting term. Mobilian is, likewise, a word relating particularly to the Choctaws and Chickasaws. Muscogee refers only to the Creeks. The term Utchees is quite local. Of the broader term, Chicorean, it appears to refer exclusively to tribes who lived on the sea coasts of Carolina and Georgia, and who preceded the coming of the Creeks, Choctaws, and Chickasaws, from the west. The Natchez were also a prior and distinct element. So were the Cherokees, who would appear, by some things, to be the Alleghewi of the Lenni Lenapees.

Note from page 50: 39. I Italicise the word "hotter," to denote the prevalent theory. They were searching for China, or the East Indies.

Note from page 52: 40. "Napew" means man, in the Sheshatapoosh, or Labrador. "Naba" is a male, in the Algonquin. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that these were a party of Sheshatapoosh Indians, whose language proves them to be kindred with the great Algonquin family.

Note from page 53: 41. Koshee and Bahkon. These are not the terms used to designate a hatchet and a knife, neither in the Micmac, in the old Algonquin, nor in the Wyandot.

Note from page 54: 42. Hackluyt.

Note from page 60: 43. Vol. III., Plate XXXV., p. 39.

Note from page 61: 44. Vol. III., p. 44.

Note from page 62: 45. Vol. III., p. 45.

Note from page 62: 46. Ibid, p. 47.

Note from page 63: 47. Vol. III., Plate XLIV.

Note from page 63: 48. Vol. III., p. 38.

Note from page 64: 49. Ethnological Researches, Vol. III., p. 39.

Note from page 64: 50. Florida Indians of the Era of De Soto.

Note from page 66: 51. This was the most northerly point he attained. The speculations of Mr. Noah Webster, published in Carey's American Museum, for 1790, attributing the mounds and fortifications of the Ohio valley to De Soto's army are the vaguest possible, and scarcely require refutation. He was never within 500 miles of them.

Note from page 66: 52. A highly picturesque mineral region, which I first brought to the notice of naturalists, in 1818, in my "View of the Lead Mines of Missouri."

Note from page 66: 53. The writer, having visited this valley in 1818, observed some remains of smelting apparatus below the Buffalo shoals, and at a point a little lower down, some white, limey remains, apparently the residuum of bones. "Vide Scenes and Adventures in the Ozark Mountains, in 1818 and 1819. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1 vol., 8vo., 1854."

Note from page 67: 54. Ethnological Researches, Vol. IV.

Note from page 68: 55. In 1818-19. the writer traversed the country west of the Mississippi, visited by De Soto. For sketches of this tour, vide Vol. IV., p. 278.

Note from page 70: 56. For particular accounts of these ruins, see Ethnological Researches, Vol. IV., p. 297 to 603.

Note from page 70: 57. Vol. III., p. 302.

Note from page 71: 58. Vol. IV., Plate III., p. 39.

Note from page 73: 59. This name is derived from allusion to Charles IX., of France, and not Charles II., of England — a mistake in a recent Life of Ribault. Vide Sparks' American Biography, Vol. III., new series, p. 28.

Note from page 74: 60. The artist was Le Moyne, to whom we are indebted for the first attempts to delineate the ancient Indians of this part of America.

Note from page 75: 61. Drawings of this fort, by Le Moyne, are engraved in De Bry.

Note from page 78: 62. Sparks, Vol. VII., p. 42.

Note from page 78: 63. Ibid., p. 119.

Note from page 83: 64. Plate I., Vol. II., p. 22.

Note from page 83: 65. Stith considers this another name for Ocracsok. — History of Virginia, p. 9.

Note from page 83: 66. For the etymology of this word, vide Historical Magazine, Vol. I., No. 6, p. 188.

Note from page 83: 67. This word appears, from a short vocabulary, to be the name of a valued sea-shell.

Note from page 84: 68. Stith's History of Virginia, p. 11.

Note from page 85: 69. Gray.

Note from page 86: 70. It is affirmed by Stith, page 23, that the name of this tribe was bestowed on the Chesapeake Bay.

Note from page 86: 71. Chowanock is, however, an Algonquin name.

Note from page 86: 72. Stith, p. 15.

Note from page 86: 73. Ibid., p. 16.

Note from page 87: 74. Stith, p. 17.

Note from page 88: 75. Stith's History of Virginia, p. 21.

Note from page 88: 76. We would say to those who, with Adair, are prone to refer Indian customs to an oriental source, that there is not in the Hebrew scriptures the slightest reference to the nicotiana, or to the practice of smoking. The friends of Job (whose history is deemed, by theologians, the oldest part of the record) do not offer him this social consolation.

Note from page 90: 77. The name, Chesapeake Bay, is stated by Stith, to be derived from this tribe. Others have asserted that, in the Indian language, it meant, "The Mother of Waters." The word is Algonquin, and appears to be a combination of the term, cheeg, ashore, and abeeg, waters; which compound is, at this day, familiarly used by these tribes to signify along shore; but the evident meaning of which, in its collateral relation to the bay, was manifestly intended to convey the idea of long, or long stretching, or magnificent bay. If so, the tribe of the Chesapeakes received their name from their position at the foot of the bay.

Note from page 90: 78. Mr. Jefferson classifies these Indians with the Iroquois. The name is Algonquin, however, and denotes that (contrary to Cusic, Vol. V., p. 682,) the Iroquois had immigrated from the South. The meaning is nearly the same as Chowans (southerners), a well-known Algonquin tribe, natives of the south.

Note from page 94: 79. The lost colony of Virginia may, perhaps, be referred to by Cusic (Vol. V., p. 631); or, perhaps, the tradition reveals, in a symbolic form, traces of the alleged colony of Madoc.

Note from page 96: 80. Stith.

Note from page 98: 81. An Iroquois, the last husband of "the white woman."

Note from page 101: 82. Vol. II., Plate II., facing this page.

Note from page 101: 83. Coll. N. Y. Hist. Soc., Vol. I., p. 141.

Note from page 101: 84. Ibid, p. 146.

Note from page 101: 85. Plate II., Vol. II., p. 26.

Note from page 101: 86. This scene of intoxication is erroneously placed, by the late Mr. Heckewelder, on Manhattan Island, and the island itself is stated to have been named, from the circumstance, "the place where we all got drunk." Doubtless, some old Indian had imposed on his credulity in this, as in other cases named in his historical account of the Delaware tribes. Stone has been misled by this.

Note from page 102: 87. Coll. N. Y. Hist. Soe., Vol. I., p. 540.

Note from page 102: 88. Van der Donck and De Vries.

Note from page 103: 89. Drake, p. 13.

Note from page 103: 90. Plate III., Vol. II., p. 26, to face this page.

Note from page 103: 91. List of such words, Vol. V., p. 535.

Note from page 104: 92. Smith, Vol. II., p. 177. Accomac was the name of a location in Northampton County, Virginia, probably meaning precisely the same thing; namely, the line where the wilderness meets an eligible and cultivated country.

Note from page 105: 93. Stith.

Note from page 105: 94. Ibid.

Note from page 106: 95. Life of Eliot: London, 1690: p. 80.

Note from page 107: 96. Cotton Mather.

Note from page 107: 97. Ezekiel, xxxvii. 9.

Note from page 109: 98. Cotton Mather.

Note from page 109: 99. The nicotiana was smoked, and offered as incense to the Great Spirit, by all the northern tribes.

Note from page 110: 100. Vol. I., Plate XXXVI., XXXVII.; Vol. II., Plates XL., XLI., XLII.; Vol. III., Plates XVIII., XLI., XLII.; Vol. IV., Plates XVII., XVIII., p. 173 ; Vol. V., Plate XV., p. 513, &c.

Note from page 111: 101. Sparks' American Biography, Vol. III., new series, p. 343.

Note from page 111: 102. Hoyt's Antiquarian Researches.

Note from page 114: 103. Vide Ethnological Researches, Vol. I., p. 108.

Note from page 114: 104. Pequot. This name is nearly the same as the modern Algonquin Pequd, a wooden arrow.

Note from page 117: 105. Sparks, Vol. III., p. 359.

Note from page 121: 106. Sparks, vol. III., p. 379.

Note from page 121: 107. Colden's Hist. Five Nations.

Note from page 123: 108. Colden.

Note from page 124: 109. Vide Appendix Papers, and Illustrative Documents.

Note from page 127: 110. Trumbull's History of Connecticut, Mass. Hist. Collections, Vol. III., 3d series.

Note from page 129: 111. Life of Leonard Calvert, Sparks, Vol. IX., p. 70.

Note from page 130: 112. Life of Leonard Calvert, p. 75, Sparks.

Note from page 131: 113. Vide Vol. V., p. 36, Note.

Note from page 131: 114. Gallatin's Synopsis, p. 52.

Note from page 131: 115. Charles Thompson.

Note from page 132: 116. Gallatin's Synopsis, p. 52.

Note from page 132: 117. These were different names for bands of the same people.

Note from page 132: 118. Colonial History of New York, Vol. VII., p. 253.

Note from page 132: 119. N. Y. Col. Doc., Vol. VII., p. 244.

Note from page 132: 120. Spelt "Tiaogo." Col. Doc., Vol. VII., p. 249.

Note from page 133: 121. New York Hist. Doc., Vol. VII., p. 250.

Note from page 133: 122. This settles the final withdrawal of the Mohickanders from the Hudson after 1748.

Note from page 133: 123. New York Col. Doc., Vol. VII., p. 250.

Note from page 134: 124. Jefferson's Notes on Virginia.

Note from page 136: 125. Great-grandfather of General George Washington.

Note from page 136: 126. Analysis.

Note from page 137: 127. Andastoe, Rel., 1672; Andastogue, Rel, 1659-60; Grandastogue, Rel., 1671-2; Conestogoe, Colden, &c.; Natio perticarum, Du Creux; Andastaka (?), Proud; Atrakwer (?), Jour. Jes. ; Minqua, Campanius; Susquehannocks (?), Captain Smith.

Note from page 137: 128. Rel. Huron, 1635, 1639, 1647, 1672.

Note from page 137: 129. Breve Rel., French edition.

Note from page 137: 130. Rel., 1662-3.

Note from page 137: 131. Rel., 1647-8.

Note from page 137: 132. Vol. II., p. 294.

Note from page 138: 133. Penn. Hist. Soc. Mem., Vol. III., p. 158. It may be seen, with other dialects, in Shea's History of the Iroquois.

Note from page 138: 134. Ibid., Vol. III., Part II., p. 167.

Note from page 138: 135. Campanius, Acrelius, &c.

Note from page 138: 136. Authority cited by Hazard. — Annals, p. 77.

Note from page 138: 137. Mem. Penn. Hist. Soc., Vol. III. p. 157.

Note from page 138: 138. Tradition cited in Rel., 1659-60, p. 28.

Note from page 138: 139. Camp. 158.

Note from page 138: 140. De Vries.

Note from page 138: 141. Hazard's Annals, p. 48.

Note from page 138: 142. Cold., II., 99.

Note from page 139: 143. Rel., 1647-8, p. 50.

Note from page 139: 144. See MS. ad Ann. 1652, July.

Note from page 139: 145. Rel., 1657-8, ch. IV., V.

Note from page 139: 146. Hazard, 1660-1.

Note from page 139: 147. Rel., 1660-1, last chap.

Note from page 139: 148. Rel., 1662-3, ch. IV.

Note from page 139: 149. Rel., 1663-4, ch. VIII; Charlev., II., 134.

Note from page 139: 150. Haz. Annals, 346.

Note from page 139: 151. Rel., 1667-8, ch. V., mentions the removal as having occurred two years previous.

Note from page 140: 152. Rel., 1668-70.

Note from page 140: 153. Rel., 1669-70.

Note from page 140: 154. Rel., 1671-2, p. 81.

Note from page 140: 155. Rel., 1672-3, MS.

Note from page 140: 156. Etat present des Missions, MS.

Note from page 140: 157. Colden, 126.

Note from page 140: 158. Keith so stated in 1720. See O'Callahan, Doc. Hist. N. Y., Vol. I.

Note from page 140: 159. It will be seen that the term Susquehannas is used as if it were a synonyme of Conestogue. Smith, (p. 182), speaks of the Susquehannocks as using a different language from the Virginian, that is, from the Algonquin, tribes. Unfortunately, no trace of their language remains, as Gallatin assures us, unless, indeed, the grammar, dictionary, and catechism of the Jesuit Father White, one of the first settlers of Maryland, prove to be in that language. They are preserved at Rome, and the writer hopes soon to possess copies of them.

Note from page 140: 160. Treaty, Penn. Hist. Mem., Vol. III., p. 169.

Note from page 140: 161. Penn. Hist. Mem., Vol. III., p. 200.

Note from page 141: 162. Colden, II., 58. The name Tiorhaasery is that borne by the celebrated missionary Lamberville,and means "Dawning of the day."

Note from page 141: 163. Parkman, Conspiracy of Pontiac.

Note from page 141: 164. MSS. of John G. Shea, Esq., nobis.

Note from page 142: 165. Relation de ce qui s'est passees annees, 1659-60, p. 28.

Note from page 142: 166. Bozman.

Note from page 142: 167. N. Y. Hist. Soc. Coll., Vol. II., i., p. 428.

Note from page 142: 168. Voyages of De Vries (Lennox edition).

Note from page 142: 169. N. Y. Hist. Soc. Coll., Vol. II., i., p. 412.

Note from page 142: 170. Ibid. 424.

Note from page 143: 171. Memoirs of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Vol. III., p. 157.

Note from page 143: 172. Plowden's New Albion. See, also, Bozman's Maryland, Vol. II., p. 273.

Note from page 143: 173. N. Y. Hist. Soc. Coll., Vol. II., i., p. 412.

Note from page 143: 174. M'Sherry's History of Maryland, pp. 53-9. Bozman's History of Maryland, Vol. II., pp. 214-260.

Note from page 144: 175. Bozman, Vol. II., p. 394.

Note from page 144: 176. See treaty in Bozman, Vol. II., p. 682. M'Sherry, p. 71.

Note from page 144: 177. Manuscript Relation, 1672-3, p. 49.

Note from page 144: 178. Bancroft's History of the United States, Vol. II., 215. M'Sherry's History of Maryland, p. 90. History of Virginia.

Note from page 145: 179. See Colden's History of the Five Nations, Vol. II., p. 126. (Edition of 1747.)

Note from page 146: 180. Bancroft. O'Callaghan's History of New Netherlands.

Note from page 146: 181. Brodhead's History of New York. This word appears to mean, the first stream after reaching still water.

Note from page 146: 182. Vide Munsell's Annals of Albany.

Note from page 147: 183. Vide Eth. Res., Vol. III.

Note from page 147: 184. Manly men, from lenno, a man, inape, a male.

Note from page 147: 185. A compound, from sewan, wampum shell, and aukie, land.

Note from page 147: 186. Vide Eth. Res., Vol. V.

Note from page 148: 187. Notes on the Iroquois, p. 117.

Note from page 148: 188. Eth. Res., Vol. V, p. 631.

Note from page 148: 189. History of the Five Nations.

Note from page 148: 190. Colden's History.

Note from page 148: 191. Eth. Res., Vol. III., p. 181.

Note from page 149: 192. Evans.

Note from page 149: 193. Eth. Res., Vol. III., p. 293.

Note from page 150: 194. This group appears to have consisted principally of the Pawtuckets, Neponsetts, Nonantums, Wichagashas, Nashoways, Nantuckets, Puncapaugs, Nipmucks, Nocanticks, and Wampanoags, or Pokanokets, the latter being the reigning tribe. The Pokanokets had been very numerous, but their population had been diminished by the general sickness, prior to the year 1620.

Note from page 151: 195. Drake's Book of the Indians, p. 14.

Note from page 152: 196. Hoyt's Antiquarian Researches, p. 87.

Note from page 157: 197. Hoyt, p. 96.

Note from page 163: 198. This reveals the object of pits and ditches inside of our antiquarian remains of fortifications in the West.

Note from page 166: 199. Scandinavian tradition. Vide Antiq. Amer.

Note from page 166: 200. Vide Inscription, Eth. Res., Vol. I., Plate XXXVI., p. 114; also Vol. IV., Plate XIV., p. 120.

Note from page 169: 201. Hoyt, p. 129.

Note from page 171: 202. Tobacco pouch and medicine sack.

Note from page 172: 203. This chief was the uncle of Philip, and, when captured, surrendered his warlike paints, scarlet blanket, and broad wampum belts. See Drake.

Note from page 172: 204. Mass. Col., Vol. I., p. 200.

Note from page 174: 205. A name for the White Mountains. — Allen's Biography.

Note from page 174: 206. C. R. Potter's sketch, Vol. V., p. 217.

Note from page 174: 207. From wabun, the east, or place of daylight, and ackee, earth, or land.

Note from page 174: 208. Wood's New England Prospect.

Note from page 174: 209. Colden.

Note from page 176: 210. Am. Historical Trans., Vol. I.

Note from page 176: 211. Vide Eth. Res., Vol. V., p. 181.

Note from page 176: 212. Notes on the Iroquois.

Note from page 177: 213. The philologist, however, will perceive the analogy which exists between the term any and the inflections anock and hannock, meaning river, in the compound words, Susquehannock and Rappahannock. If, therefore, part of the Allegans crossed to the waters of the Chesapeake, and were driven thence towards the south by the Lenno Lenapi and Iroquois, these words, originally in the tribal list, would seem to belong, as a point of Indian history, of suggestive importance, to the Susquehannocks, and to the Powhatanic family, both offshoots from the mother Algonquin.

Note from page 177: 214. Tacitus. The Germanic tribes called themselves Ala-mana, or "all men."

Note from page 177: 215. Campanius; Hist. Soc. Pennsylvania, Vol. III., part I., p. 70.

Note from page 179: 216. Carroll's South Carolina Hist. Coll., Vol. I., p. 188. Note.

Note from page 179: 217. Historical Collections of South Carolina, by E. R. Carroll, 2 vols., 8vo.: New York, 1836.

Note from page 180: 218. Historical Account of the Rise and Progress of the Colonies of South Carolina and Georgia: London, 1776. Carroll's South Carolina Collections, 1836.

Note from page 182: 219. Eth. Res., Vol. IV., p. 155.

Note from page 182: 220. Vol. III., p. 293.

Note from page 182: 221. Williamson's History of North Carolina.

Note from page 182: 222. Eth. Res., Vol. V., p. 631.

Note from page 183: 223. Detroit was established as a post by the French, in 1701: Vincennes in 1710.

Note from page 183: 224. A cooking-pot.

Note from page 185: 225. Colden. Vide Historical Sketches of Michigan.

Note from page 185: 226. Law's Historical Discourse.

Note from page 185: 227. Cusic. Vide Eth. Res., Vol. V., p. 631.

Note from page 186: 228. Colden's History of the Five Nations.

Note from page 186: 229. Bartram.

Note from page 187: 230. Genesis iii. 19.

Note from page 188: 231. Eth. Res., Vol. V., p. 636.

Note from page 188: 232. Colden's History of the Five Nations.

Note from page 188: 233. Charlevoix's Letters.

Note from page 188: 234. Colden's History of the Five Nations.

Note from page 189: 235. In these distant localities, we still hear of such names as Hance, Riley, Truax, Ten Eyck, Graverod, Fisher, Wamp, Yon, and Wiser.

Note from page 190: 236. Colden, p. 202.

Note from page 190: 237. Discourse before Hist., Literary, and Philos. Society, N. Y.

Note from page 190: 238. Journal.

Note from page 193: 239. Medicine-men.

Note from page 193: 240. For the whole of this noble speech, vide Historical Sketches of Michigan, p. 106: Detroit, 1834.

Note from page 193: 241. Vide Oneota, p. 400.

Note from page 194: 242. The period of the formation of this confederacy is uncertain.

Note from page 194: 243. Colden's History of the Five Nations.

Note from page 194: 244. Discourse delivered before the New York Literary and Philosophical Society.

Note from page 197: 246. Oneota, p. 406.

Note from page 197: 247. Arehae Americana, Vol. II.

Note from page 198: 247. Eth. Res., Vol. III., p. 553.

Note from page 198: 248. Historical and Scientific Sketches of Michigan.

Note from page 198: 249. Irving's Life of Washington.

Note from page 200: 250. The modern Saganaws are renegades and refugees from the Chippewa stock, who fled to, and re-occupied the original town, abandoned by the Sauks.

Note from page 200: 251. Eth. Res., Vol. I. p. 306.

Note from page 201: 252. See Letters of Le Jeune.

Note from page 201: 253. Colden.

Note from page 203: 254. Memoirs of Thirty Years.

Note from page 204: 255. Manuscript Notes on Indian History and Antiquities, Vol. II., nobis.

Note from page 204: 256. Eth. Res., Vol. III., p. 555

Note from page 206: 257. It may, perhaps, be thought that Osages is a term derivative from Wasasas; if so, little stress can be laid on the supposed recognition.

Note from page 206: 258. Eth. Res., Vol. I., p. 319.

Note from page 206: 259. Ibid., Vol. V., p. 191.

Note from page 207: 260. A. D. 1608 to 1749.

Note from page 209: 261. Notes on the Iroquois.

Note from page 212: 262. Irving's Life of Washington, p. 35.

Note from page 213: 263. Irving's Life of Washington, p. 57.

Note from page 216: 264. Johnson returned to New York, and began to act under his new commission in May, 1855. — Documents N. Y. Colonial History: Albany, 1856, Vol. VII., p. 21.

Note from page 217: 265. Mengwe is the Delaware for Iroquois. The English pronounced it Mingo, the Dutch, Maqua. — Lit. and Hist. Com., Phil. Hist. Soc., Vol. I., p. 29.

Note from page 217: 266. Doc. New York Colonial History, Vol. VII., p. 24.

Note from page 218: 267. Sargent's History of Braddock's Exp., p. 223: Phila., 1855.

Note from page 218: 268. Ibid.

Note from page 219: 269. Colden. This tribe, and this war, must not be confounded with that waged against the Eries, which occurred in 1655.

Note from page 220: 270. Notes on the Iroquois, p. 413.

Note from page 221: 271. This ancient name for Champlain, may be found in the New York Historical Documents.

Note from page 221: 272. New York Col. Doc., Vol. VII.

Note from page 222: 273. Carver, p. 211.

Note from page 222: 274. N. Y. Col. Doc.: Albany, 1856, Vol. VII., p. 274.

Note from page 223: 275. N. Y. Hist. Doc., Vol. VII., p. 19. Colonial Documents, Albany, 1856, Vol. VII.

Note from page 223: 276. One of the Jesuit priests remarks — that "the French did not convert the Indians, but turned Indians themselves." — Halket.

Note from page 224: 277. Had it not been for the jealousy of General Shirley, and his counteracting counsels with the Six Nations, the force in this battle would have been much greater. — N. Y. Hist. Col. Doc., Vol. VII. p. 21.

Note from page 224: 278. New York Hist. Col. Doc., Vol. VII., p. 276.

Note from page 227: 279. The elements of this word are the Iroquois exclamation, oh, and io, a substantive termination of the exclamation for the beautiful in scenery. It is the same term heard in the Wyandot word, Ontar-io.

Note from page 228: 280. New York Hist. Doc., Vol. VII.

Note from page 232: 281. The very antiquities of the country were forgotten in two centuries; and we are indebted to a very erudite writer in the Smithsonian Transactions, for telling us that these rude arts, and vestiges of mounds, are the remains of ancient civilization.

Note from page 232: 282. N. Y. Hist. Doc., Vol. VII.

Note from page 233: 283. New York Hist. Coll. Doc., Vols. I., II., III., IV., V., VI., IX.

Note from page 233: 284. Now Binghampton, N. Y.

Note from page 233: 285. New York Hist. Coll. Doc., Vol. VII.

Note from page 235: 286. N. Y. Coll. Hist. Doc., Vol. I., p. 269.

Note from page 235: 287. New York Colonial History, Vol. VII.

Note from page 236: 288. The waters of the St. Lawrence, at ebb tide, run swiftly against part of the rocky shore.

Note from page 237: 289. New York Hist. Colonial Doc., Vol. VII.

Note from page 239: 290. Mante's History of the Late War in North America, p. 289: London, 1772.

Note from page 241: 291. Mante's War, p. 347.

Note from page 242: 292. Mante's War, p. 479-481.

Note from page 243: 293. British Annual Register for 1773. Vide Rodger's Narration.

Note from page 243: 294. Cass; Hist. and Lit. Sketches of Michigan, p. 24.

Note from page 243: 295. Henry's Travels, 1763 and 1809.

Note from page 244: 296. Eth. Res., Vol. II., p. 242.

Note from page 244: 297. Cass' Discourse.

Note from page 244: 298. Pontiac MS., Vol. II., p. 240.

Note from page 244: 299. Ibid.

Note from page 244: 300. Young men, with the Indians, is an equivalent phrase for warriors, when speaking on such topics.

Note from page 244: 301. Cass' Discourse before the Michigan Historical Society: Detroit, 1828, p. 32.

Note from page 246: 302. Hist. and Scientific Sketches of Michigan, p. 37.

Note from page 247: 303. Michigan Sketches, p. 37.

Note from page 249: 304. Michigan Sketches, p. 27.

Note from page 251: 305. Mante, p. 500.

Note from page 251: 306. Ibid., p. 501.

Note from page 252: 307. Mante, p. 502.

Note from page 253: 308. In a manuscript journal of this expedition, written by John M'Kenny, an orderly in the 44th, or Royal Scots, and in our possession, this bay is called Onosodus, which appears to be the aboriginal term.

Note from page 253: 309. Mante, p. 509.

Note from page 253: 310. Travels of Alexander Henry, p. 160.

Note from page 254: 311. It appears from Parkman's Conspiracy of Pontiac; that this duty was ill performed.

Note from page 255: 312. Mante, p. 526. The warriors present, and their numerical force were as follows: —
Ottowas 220  
Chippewas 300  
Saukics 50  
Hurons 80  
    650
Saganaws, including those of St. Joseph.
Chippewas 150  
Pottawattamies 450  
    600
Of Sandusky.
Hurons 200  
Miamies 250  
Weas 230  
    680
Total   1930

Note from page 256: 313. Mante, p. 516.

Note from page 256: 314. It was originally made by the Griffin, under La Salle, in 1678.

Note from page 256: 315. The entire river, from Huron to Erie, was called Detroit by the early French writers.

Note from page 256: 316. Personal Memoirs, p. 445.

Note from page 257: 317. After their removal to the island, his bones were interred in the Catholic churchyard; but a question of title, originating many years subsequently, caused them to be again disturbed, after which they were re-interred at Point La Crosse, Lake Michigan.

Note from page 257: 318. Henry's Travels.

Note from page 257: 319. Personal Memoirs of Thirty Years' Residence, p. 445.

Note from page 257: 320. Ibid.

Note from page 257: 321. Ibid., p. 446.

Note from page 259: 322. Mante, p. 508.

Note from page 259: 323. Ibid, p. 526.

Note from page 261: 324. Vol. IV., p. 605.

Note from page 264: 325. This Indian (Delaware) name is a derivative from weel, a human head, and ing, a place; there being a tradition that the Indians had fixed a human head on a pole at this place.

Note from page 264: 326. Vol. VI., p. 614.

Note from page 264: 327. Logan had married a Shawnee wife, spoke that language, lived with the tribe, and was frequently regarded as a Shawnee.

Note from page 264: 328. Vol. IV. p. 616.

Note from page 264: 329. De Hass., p. 149.

Note from page 264: 330. Vide Bunsen's Philosophy of Universal History, p. 111. Vol. II.: London, 1854.

Note from page 265: 331. Vol. IV., p. 623.

Note from page 265: 332. Brantz Mayer, before the Maryland Historical Society.

Note from page 265: 333. De Hass., p. 149.

Note from page 265: 334. Vol. IV., p. 627-29.

Note from page 266: 335. The Iroquois of the Ohio were thus named.

Note from page 266: 336. Sippi is the Shawnee name for a creek.

Note from page 266: 337. American archives, 4th Series, Vol. I., p. 1170.

Note from page 266: 338. Vol. IV., p. 615.

Note from page 267: 339. Doc. Col. History, Vol. VII.

Note from page 267: 340. Vide Croghan's Reports, Vol. VII., N. Y. Col. Doc.

Note from page 268: 341. N. Y. Col. Hist. Doc., Vol. VII.

Note from page 268: 342. Henry's Travels.

Note from page 268: 343. Hist, and Scientific Sketches of Michigan.

Note from page 268: 344. Ibid.

Note from page 269: 345. Henry's Travels, p. 404.

Note from page 269: 346. Carver's Travels.

Note from page 269: 347. Mackenzie.

Note from page 269: 348. Vol. IV.

Note from page 270: 349. Documentary History of the State of New York, Vol. I., p. 26: Albany, 1850.

Note from page 272: 350. Table of comparisons between Bouquet and Sir William Johnson.
 
BOUQUET.
JOHNSON.
    Warriors. Men, &c.
Nipising 400 300 1500
Algonquins 300
Wyandots 300 300 1500
Chippewas 5000 1000 5000
Ottawas 900 900 4500
Mississagies 2000 400 2000
Pottawattamies 350 men. 350 1750
Puans 750 150 750
Mascoudins 500 100 500
Sauks 400 150 750
Miamies 350 men. 350 1750
Delawares 600 men. 600 3000
Shawnees 500 men. 500 2500
Kickapoos 300 men. 300 1500
Weas 400 400 2000
Piankashaws 250 250 1250
Kaskaskias 600 120 600
Catabas 150 100 500
Cherokees 2500 souls. 500 2500
Chickasaws 750 men. 750 3750
Natchez 150 men. 100 500
Choctaws 4500 souls. 900 4500

Note from page 273: 351. Vol. III., p. 559.

Note from page 275: 352. Vol. III., p. 560.

Note from page 277: 353. Vol. III., p. 561.

Note from page 277: 354. Ibid.

Note from page 277: 355. Lancaster Conference of 1744: vide Colden.

Note from page 277: 356. Oneota, p. 105.

Note from page 278: 357. Mr. Heckewelder informs us that this term is derived from Mengwe, the Delaware name for the Six Nations, and that the Dutch term Maaqua is derived from the same source. — Phil. Trans., Vol. I., Hist. Ind.

Note from page 278: 358. Henry's Travels.

Note from page 278: 359. N. Y. Hist. Doc., Vol. VII.

Note from page 279: 360. Vol. III., p. 561.

Note from page 280: 361. New York Hist. Doc., Vol. VII.

Note from page 280: 362. Ibid.

Note from page 280: 363. War cry.

Note from page 280: 364. For a sketch of this man's life, see Vol. V., p. 509.

Note from page 281: 365. Schoolcraft's Lecture before the New York Hist. Soc. on the Siege of Fort Stanwix.

Note from page 281: 366. William Stone: Life of Brant, Vol. I.

Note from page 281: 367. Louis Morgan's League of the Iroquois, p. 83.

Note from page 282: 368. Campbell's Annals of Tryon county.

Note from page 283: 369. Stone's Life of Brant, Vol. I., p. 88.

Note from page 285: 370. Lecture on the Siege of Fort Stanwix. — N. Y. Hist. Soc., 1846.

Note from page 286: 371. Lecture on the Siege of Fort Stanwix.

Note from page 287: 372. The Cherokees captured Fort Loudon, in Virginia, in 1787; but, violating the terms of the capitulation, they massacred the prisoners after they had marched a distance of thirty miles from the fort. There are instances in which the Indians have acted without allies. In 1755, at the battle of Lake George, the Mohawks fought bravely and fearlessly under King Hendrick, in the engagement which resulted in the defeat of Deiskau; but they had, however, a contiguous force of regular troops as a nucleus.

In 1763, Pontiac completely defeated Captain Dalzell, at the battle of Bloody Bridge; killing him, and driving his strong detachment into the fort. Harmer and St. Clair were disastrously defeated by them in 1791 and 1792.

Note from page 289: 373. Verbal account of the late Colonel Lawrence Sehoolcraft, one of this number.

Note from page 289: 374. Governeur Morris, before the New York Historical Society. Campbell's Annals of Tryon County. Stone's Life of Brant.

Note from page 289: 375. Stone, p. 244

Note from page 291: 376. Oneida County, New York.

Note from page 292: 377. Vol. II., Plate X., p. 60.

Note from page 292: 378. Lord North.

Note from page 293: 379. 1777.

Note from page 296: 380. Then the scat of Government.

Note from page 296: 381. Journal of Congress.

Note from page 297: 382. 1778.

Note from page 298: 383. Vide Asher Tyler's statement, Vol. IV., p. 345.

Note from page 298: 384. Vide Gertrude of Wyoming.

Note from page 298: 385. Stone's Life of Brant, Vol. I., p. 418-420.

Note from page 298: 386. The Indian term for the Six Nations.

Note from page 298: 387. New York Hist. Doc., Vol. VII.

Note from page 299: 388. The surrender of these prisoners forms the most remarkable instance of the kind on record, both on account of the number of persons liberated, and the affecting circumstances attending it.

Note from page 299: 389. Vol. V., p. 680.

Note from page 299: 390. History of Braddock's Expedition: Phil., 1855.

Note from page 300: 391. De Hass' History of Western Virginia, 1851, p. 208.

Note from page 300: 392. Doddridge, Withers, De Hass.

Note from page 301: 393. Le Jeune.

Note from page 303: 394. Discourse before the Hist. Soc. of Indiana, at Vincennes.

Note from page 303: 395. Stone, Vol. I., p. 399.

Note from page 303: 396. Treaties between the United States and the Indians, p. 1: Washington, 1837.

Note from page 303: 397. Ibid, p. 6.

Note from page 305: 398. De Hass' History of Western Virginia, p. 208: Wheeling, 1851. Chronicles of Border Warfare: Clarksburg, Virginia, 1831. It appears from this author that not less than fifteen persons in Western Virginia, of the name of Schoolcraft (connections of the writer), were killed, or carried into captivity, by the Shawnees, during this period.

Note from page 307: 399. Gertrude of Wyoming.

Note from page 308: 400. Vol. II., Plate X., p. 60.

Note from page 308: 401. Letter to Congress, January 12th, 1779.

Note from page 309: 402. Gates had been, at first, proposed.

Note from page 310: 403. Ontario county, New York.

Note from page 311: 404. Stone, Vol. II., p. 31.

Note from page 312: 405. Stone, Vol. II., p. 50.

Note from page 313: 406. Stone, Vol. II., p. 8.

Note from page 313: 407. Ibid., Vols. I. and II.

Note from page 314: 408. While these devastations were still progressing, Lawrence Schoolcraft, a young minute-man in the fort, having a fine horse in a neighboring field, went out to look after him. He observed an Indian, mounted on the animal, riding towards him. Grouching behind a clump of bushes, he fired at the savage, who fell from horse, which the young man then rode back to the fort in triumph.

Note from page 314: 409. Stone, Vol. II., p. 111.

Note from page 316: 410. De Hass' History of the Early Settlement and Indian Wars of Western Virginia: Philadelphia and Wheeling, 1 vol. 8vo., p. 416. 1851.

Note from page 317: 411. Heckewelder's Moravian Missions.

Note from page 317: 412. Personal Memoirs of Thirty Years' Residence in the West: Philadelphia, Lippincott & Co., 1852, 1 vol. 8vo.

Note from page 318: 413. Heckewelder's Narrative of the Moravian Missions.

Note from page 319: 414. Life of General Thomas Posey, p. 381. Sparks' Biography, Vol. XIX.

Note from page 321: 415. Vol. IV., Statistics, p. 669.

Note from page 321: 416. Vol. III., p. 560.

Note from page 321: 417. Vol. III., p. 559.

Note from page 323: 418. U. S. Treaties, p. 20.

Note from page 323: 419. Cusic, Vol. V., p. 636.

Note from page 323: 420. A term exactly coincident with the geographical area of the United States.

Note from page 324: 421. U. S. Treaties, p. 40.

Note from page 324: 422. Ibid., p. 41.

Note from page 324: 423. Ibid., p. 44.

Note from page 324: 424. Vide Vol. V., Biography, p. 518.

Note from page 324: 425. U. S. Treaties, p. 47.

Note from page 325: 426. U. S. Treaties, p. 48.

Note from page 326: 427. Timothy Pickering, Esq.

Note from page 326: 428. The word Seneka, or Seneca, has been a puzzle to inquirers. How a Roman proper name should have become the distinctive cognomen for a tribe of American Indians, it is not easy to say. The French, who first encountered them in western New York, termed them, agreeably to their system of bestowing nicknames, Tsonontowans; that is, Rattlesnakes. Being one of the members of the Five Nations, they, like all the others, bore the generic name of Iroquois. The Dutch, who recognised them in the trade established on the site of Albany, as early as 1614, appear to have introduced the term, as the catch-word of trade, from which the word is derived. This numerous and warlike tribe appears to have had a partiality for the use of vermillion, as a war paint. This article is called, by the Dutch, cinnabar (vide Niew Zak Woorden Boek: Dortrecht, 1831). From some notices of the early times, we learn that the pronunciation of the letter b, in this word, was changed to that of k or g, from which, it may be inferred, they were named Sin-ne-kars. In one of the oldest maps, published at Amsterdam, the word is written Sen-ne-caas. The double a in this language assumes the sound of a in make, and ai in aim; which is precisely the sound still retained. All the early New England writers consulted, adopted this sound, with little variation.

In "Lawson's Travels in the Carolinas in 1700," he calls them "Sin-ne-gars," and sometimes "Janifos," and identifies them as a tribe of the Iroquois. The Senecas call themselves NUNDOWA, or "People of the Hill," from an eminence at the head of Canandaigua Lake, which is the locality of a popular allegory, related by Mr. Bradford in Vol. III., p. 382.

Note from page 326: 429. U. S. Treaties; Six Nations, p. 48.

Note from page 327: 430. U. S. Indian Treaties, A. D. 1837, p. 4.

Note from page 328: 431. U. S. Treaties, p. 8.

Note from page 328: 432. Ibid., p. 12.

Note from page 328: 433. Ibid., p. 15.

Note from page 328: 434. Ibid., p. 18.

Note from page 329: 435. Meaning treaties, or graphic papers.

Note from page 330: 436. U. S. Treaties, p. 28.

Note from page 330: 437. Ibid., p. 23.

Note from page 330: 438. American Pioneer, Vol. I., p. 28

Note from page 331: 439. Metcalf s Collection, of Narratives of Indian Warfare in the West: Lexington, Kentucky, 1821, 1 vol. 8vo., p. 109.

Note from page 332: 440. United States Indian Treaties, p. 29.

Note from page 332: 441. These refugees in the Indian territories, furnished the nucleus of slavery among the Creeks, Seminoles, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Cherokees. The Africans were not adopted as members of the tribes, but held as persons in servitude; and, by performing the field-labor, enabled these tribes to pursue agriculture without being themselves compelled to engage in manual labor; thus producing the relation, continued to this day, of master and slave. For a census of the Creek slaves, see Vol. II., Statistics, p. 575, et seq.

Note from page 333: 442. Vol. V., p. 253.

Note from page 333: 443. For this report, by Major Caleb Swan, and its accompaniments, vide Vol. I., Topical History, p. 251.

Note from page 333: 444. Vol. V., p. 262.

Note from page 333: 445. Bartram, p. 281, &c., A.D. 1773.

Note from page 333: 446. Hawkins.

Note from page 333: 447. Vol. I., Tribal Organization, p. 266.

Note from page 333: 448. Vol. IV., Language, p. 416.

Note from page 334: 449. Stone's Brant, Vol. II.

Note from page 335: 450. Genesis ix. 27.

Note from page 335: 451. Metcalf's Wars, p. 115.

Note from page 335: 452. A Narrative of a Campaign against the Indians, under the command of Major-General St. Clair: Philadelphia, 1812, p. 1.

Note from page 335: 453. Ibid, p. 5-25.

Note from page 335: 454. Ibid., p. 39.

Note from page 336: 455. Narrative of St. Clair's Campaign, p. 4.

Note from page 336: 456. This man had attended the general peace convention, and submitted to the British, under General Bradstreet, in 1764. Vide Mante.

Note from page 336: 457. Metcalf, p. 138.

Note from page 336: 458. Narrative, p. 51.

Note from page 336: 459. Ibid., p. 50-51.

Note from page 337: 460. The sun rises in this latitude at 32 minutes past 6.

Note from page 337: 461. Metcalf's Wars, p. 137.

Note from page 340: 462. Colonel Hugh Brady.

Note from page 340: 463. Schoolcraft's Travels in the Central Portions of the Mississippi Valley, p. 49.

Note from page 340: 464. Ibid., p. 50.

Note from page 342: 465. Schoolcraft's Travels in the Central Portions of the Mississippi Valley, p. 51: New York, Collins and Hannay, 1825, 1 vol. 8vo., pp. 459.

Note from page 343: 466. A public arena, in which prisoners are burnt at the stake, and
war-dances held.

Note from page 344: 467. U. S. Treaties, p. 54.

Note from page 344: 468. Ibid, p. 57.

Note from page 344: 469. General Hugh Brady.

Note from page 347: 470. Jefferson's Notes on Virginia, p. 162.

Note from page 349: 471. Information, Vol. III., pp. 570, 571.

Note from page 349: 472. Lewis and Clark, Vol. II., p. 462.

Note from page 349: 473. Ibid., pp. 435-470.

Note from page 350: 474. Information, Vol. III., pp. 560-69.

Note from page 351: 475. Vide Bartram, p. 481-82.

Note from page 354: 476. This Shawnee name terminates with the Greek βητα; but the popular pronunciation cannot now be disturbed.

Note from page 355: 477. Narrative of Adam Walker, a musician in the 4th regiment.

Note from page 355: 478. Walker.

Note from page 355: 479. This officer was elected President of the United States in 1841.

Note from page 356: 480. Tecumseh's Speech of 1813: U. S. Official Treaties, p. 240.

Note from page 356: 481. Hull's Proclamation.

Note from page 357: 482. Battle of the Thames.

Note from page 357: 483. Branan's Official, Military, and Naval Letters, p. 240.

Note from page 358: 484. Journal of Congress, June 3d, 1812.

Note from page 358: 485. Official, Military, and Naval Letters, p. 240.

Note from page 358: 486. Ibid.

Note from page 358: 487. Agreeably to Lieutenant Hanks, there were but 46 regular British trroops, with 360 Canadian militia, and 715 Indians. — Official Letters, p. 36.

Note from page 359: 488. Official Letters, p. 36.

Note from page 359: 489. Ibid, p. 38.

Note from page 359: 490. 1060 men. Ibid, p. 59.

Note from page 359: 491. Ibid, p. 48.

Note from page 359: 492. Ibid, p. 42.

Note from page 359: 493. Ibid, p. 59.

Note from page 359: 494. Ibid, p. 84.

Note from page 359: 495. Thirty-seven years afterwards, this officer was elected President of the United States.

Note from page 359: 496. Official Letters, p. 61.

Note from page 360: 497. Official Letters, pp. 104-109.

Note from page 361: 498. Official Letters, p. 240.

Note from page 362: 499. Official Letters, p. 122.

Note from page 362: 500. Ibid., p. 297.

Note from page 362: 501. Ibid., p. 203.

Note from page 363: 502. Commodore Barclay.

Note from page 364: 503. Official Letters, p. 246.

Note from page 365: 504. Hawkins.

Note from page 366: 505. Bartram, p. 74.

Note from page 366: 506. Ibid., p. 47.

Note from page 367: 507. Coffee. — Official Letters, p. 256.

Note from page 367: 508. Branan, p. 256.

Note from page 367: 509. Ibid., p. 265.

Note from page 367: 510. Official Letters, p. 281.

Note from page 368: 511. Official Letters, p. 284.

Note from page 368: 512. Branan, p. 285.

Note from page 368: 513. Ibid., p. 295.

Note from page 368: 514. General A. Hall. — Official Letters, p. 289.

Note from page 369: 515. Vol. III., p. 28.

Note from page 369: 516. Vol. II., p. 20.

Note from page 369: 517. Vol. V., p. 262.

Note from page 370: 518. Bartram, p. 485.

Note from page 370: 519. B. Hawkins

Note from page 370: 520. Vide letter of January 28, 1814 — Official Letters, p. 297.

Note from page 371: 521. Official Letters, p. 299.

Note from page 371: 522. For the etymology of this compound word, see Caleb Swan, Vol. V., p. 262.

Note from page 373: 523. Official Letters, p. 323.

Note from page 373: 524. Ibid., p. 319.

Note from page 375: 525. Branan, p. 314.

Note from page 376: 526. Official Letters, p. 433.

Note from page 376: 527. Ibid, p. 435.

Note from page 376: 528. This term is used in a figurative sense, to denote the southern hostile Indians.

Note from page 376: 529. Branan, p. 453.

Note from page 379: 530. Dr. Williamson, Vol. I., p. 247. Dr. Pitcher, Vol. IV., p. 502.

Note from page 380: 531. U. S. Treaties, p. 173.

Note from page 382: 532. Oneota, p. 406.

Note from page 382: 533. M. Cadillac arrived at this spot on the 24th July, 1701, and immediately commenced clearing the ground, and preparing to fortify it. — Oneota, p. 408.

Note from page 383: 534. U. S. Treaties, p. 216.

Note from page 384: 535. Schoolcraft's Narrative Journal of an Expedition to the
sources of the Mississippi; 1 vol. 8vo., with a map and plates: Albany, 1821.

Note from page 384: 536. Hydrographical Memoir of the Mississippi river; J. J. Nicollet, 1842.

Note from page 384: 537. Plate IX.; Vol IV., Plate XXVII., p. 192.

Note from page 385: 538. Schoolcraft's Expedition to the Sources of the Mississippi, second edition: Philadelphia, 1855, p. 430.

Note from page 385: 539. Plate XV.

Note from page 385: 540. Plate XI.

Note from page 386: 541. U. S. Treaties, p. 280.

Note from page 386: 542. Ibid., p. 281.

Note from page 386: 543. Ibid., p. 280.

Note from page 387: 544. Vol. II., p. 135.

Note from page 391: 545. Schoolcraft's Exploration of the
Sources of the Mississippi, in 1820, p. 151.

Note from page 392: 546. Schoolcraft's Exploration of the
Sources of the Mississippi, in 1820, p. 430.

Note from page 394: 547. Schoolcraft's Travels in the Central Portions of the Mississippi valley: New York, Collins and Hanney, 1 vol. 8vo. p. 459. Vide Proceedings of Treaties, Chap. 16, p. 337.

Note from page 394: 548. U. S. Treaties, p. 253.

Note from page 394: 549. Travels, pp. 341, 342.

Note from page 395: 550. Travels, p. 344.

Note from page 395: 551. Ibid., p. 351.

Note from page 395: 552. U. S. Treaties, p. 297.

Note from page 398: 553. Travels and Adventures of Alexander Henry: Albany, 1809.

Note from page 401: 554. U. S. Treaties, p. 199.

Note from page 402: 555. The factory system was not abolished by Congress till 1822.

Note from page 402: 556. U. S. Official Treaties, p. 210.

Note from page 402: 557. Andrew Jackson, Joseph M'Minn, and D. Meriwether.

Note from page 402: 558. U. S. Treaties, p. 209.

Note from page 402: 559. Ibid., p. 265.

Note from page 402: 560. The writer passed through that tract in 1818, and found the country occupied by white hunters and trappers, who were bitterly opposed to the coming of the Cherokees.

Note from page 402: 561. U. S. Treaties, p. 159.

Note from page 403: 562. U. S. Treaties, p. 232.

Note from page 403: 563. Ibid., p. 293.

Note from page 403: 564. Vol. I., p. 309.

Note from page 403: 565. Vol. I., Tribal Organization, p. 311.

Note from page 405: 566. Vide Vol. I., Intellectual Capacity, p. 319; Vol. IV., Intellectual Capacity, p. 259.

Note from page 409: 567. Vol. III., Statistics and Population, p. 573.

Note from page 414: 568. Letter of Thomas L. M'Kenney, January, 10th, 1825.

Note from page 416: 569. U. S. Treaties, p. 287.

Note from page 418: 570. U. S. Treaties, p. 391.

Note from page 419: 571. U. S. Treaties, p. 392.

Note from page 419: 572. Ibid., p. 391.

Note from page 419: 573. Vide Public Documents of the Senate of the United States, Vols. I., II., III., and IV.: Washington, Blair and Rives, 1840.

Note from page 420: 574. Legends of Hiawatha. Bokwewa, p. 269.

Note from page 421: 575. Morse's Report to the Secretary of War, 1 vol. 8vo., 400 pp.: New Haven, S. Converse, 1822.

Note from page 422: 576. U. S. Treaties, p. 371.

Note from page 422: 577. Ibid., p. 396.

Note from page 422: 578. Ibid., p. 412.

Note from page 423: 579. Treaties of Prairie du Chien, 1825, Fond du Lac, 1826, and Butte des Morts, 1827.

Note from page 425: 580. MSS. Letters and Speech Book of the Superintendency. Vol. A., p. 103, nobis.

Note from page 427: 581. Indian Congressional Documents, Vol. IV. Document No. 91, p. 7.

Note from page 427: 582. Ibid., p. 2.

Note from page 430: 583. Indian Congressional Documents, Vol. IV. Doc. 1., p. 15.

Note from page 431: 584. AN ACT to provide for an exchange of lands with the Indians residing in any of the States or Territories, and for their removal west of the river Mississippi.

SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That it shall and may be lawful for the President of the United States to cause so much of any Territory belonging to the United States, west of the river Mississippi, not included in any State or organized Territory, and to which the Indian title has been extinguished, as he may judge necessary, to be divided into a suitable number of districts, for the reception of such tribes or nations of Indians as may choose to exchange the lands where they now reside, and remove there; and to cause each of said districts to be so described by natural or artificial marks, as to be easily distinguished from every other.

SEC. 2. And be it further enacted, That it shall and may be lawful for the President to exchange any or all of such districts, so as to be laid off and described, with any tribe or nation of Indians now residing within the limits of any of the States or Territories, and with which the United States have existing treaties, for the whole or any part or portion of the Territory claimed and occupied by such tribe or nation, within the bounds of any one or more of the States or Territories, where the laud claimed and occupied by the Indians, is owned by the United States, or the United States are bound to the State within which it lies to extinguish the Indian claim thereto.

SEC. 3. And be it further enacted, That in the making of any such exchange or exchanges, it shall and may be lawful for the President solemnly to assure the tribe or nation with which the exchange is made, that the United States will forever secure and guaranty to them, and their heirs or successors, the country so exchanged with them; and if they prefer it, that the United States will cause a patent or grant to be made and executed to them for the same: Provided always, That such lands shall revert to the United States, if the Indians become extinct, or abandon the same.

SEC. 4. And be it further enacted, That if, upon any of the lands now occupied by the Indians, and to be exchanged for, there should be such improvements as add value to the land claimed by any individual or individuals of such tribes or nations, it shall and may be lawful for the President to cause such value to be ascertained by appraisement or otherwise, and to cause such ascertained value to be paid to the person or persons rightfully claiming such improvements. And upon the payment of such valuation, the improvements so valued and paid for, shall pass to the United States, and possession shall not afterwards be permitted to any of the same tribe.

SEC. 5. And be it further enacted, That upon the making of any such exchange as is contemplated by this act, it shall and may be lawful for the President to cause such aid and assistance to be furnished to the emigrants as may be necessary and proper to enable them to remove to, and settle in, the country for which they may have exchanged; and also, to give them such aid and assistance as may be necessary for their support and subsistence for the first year after their removal.

SEC. 6. And be it further enacted, That it shall and maybe lawful for the President to cause such tribe or nation to be protected, at their new residence, against all interruption or disturbance from any other tribe or nation of Indians, or from any other person or persons whatever.

SEC. 7. And be it further enacted, That it shall and may be lawful for the President to have the same superintendence and care over any tribe or nation in the country to which they may remove, as contemplated by this act, that he is now authorized to have over them at their present places of residence: Provided, That nothing in this act contained shall be construed as authorizing or directing the violation of any existing treaty between the United States and any of the Indian tribes.

SEC. 8. And be it further enacted, That for the purpose of giving effect to the provisions of this act, the sum of $500,000 is hereby appropriated, to be paid out of any money in the Treasury, not otherwise appropriated.

APPROVED, May 28, 1830.

Note from page 433: 585. This question will be examined in the sequel.

Note from page 435: 586. Indian Congressional Documents, Vol. V., Doc. 1., p. 19.

Note from page 435: 587. Message, 6th December, 1831.

Note from page 436: 588. Indian Congressional Documents, Vol. VI. Doc. 2., p. 11.

Note from page 437: 589. Indian Congressional Documents, Vol. VI. Doc. 2., p. 27.

Note from page 445: 590. U. S. Treaties, p. 497.

Note from page 445: 591. Ibid., p. 500.

Note from page 445: 592. Ibid., p. 512.

Note from page 445: 593. Ibid., p. 513.

Note from page 445: 594. Ibid., p. 532.

Note from page 445: 595. Ibid., p. 539.

Note from page 445: 596. Ibid., p. 547.

Note from page 445: 597. Ibid., p. 556.

Note from page 445: 598. Ibid., p. 558.

Note from page 447: 599. Life of
Black Hawk, 1 vol. 18 mo, 155 pp.: Boston, 1834.

Note from page 448: 600. These visits to the distant northern tribes were the immediate occasion of the discovery of the remote source of the Mississippi: a description of which has been previously given. The depth of water on the vast and elevated summits being favorable, the occasion was embraced to trace the Mississippi to its actual source; which was ascertained to be a considerable body of water, called
Itasca Lake. — Vide Discovery of the Sources of the Mississippi, 1 vol.: New York, 1834.

Note from page 448: 601. U. S. Treaties, p. 109.

Note from page 449: 602. Life of
Black Hawk; Boston, 1834.

Note from page 449: 603. Vol V. Literature of the Indian Languages, p. 533.

Note from page 450: 604. Life of
Black Hawk; Boston, 1834, p. 2.

Note from page 450: 605. Schoolcraft's expedition to Itason lake. Harper & Brothers, New York. 1834, p. 11.

Note from page 451: 606. Life of
Black Hawk, p. 119.

Note from page 451: 607. Expedition to
Itasca Lake: Harper & Brothers, New York, 1834, p. 5.

Note from page 452: 608. Expedition to
Itasca Lake: Harper & Brothers, New York. 1834.

Note from page 452: 609. Ibid.

Note from page 455: 610. U. S. Treaties, p. 561.

Note from page 455: 611. Ibid., p. 565.

Note from page 455: 612. Ibid., p. 573.

Note from page 456: 613. U. S. Treaties, p. 575.

Note from page 456: 614. Ibid., p. 578.

Note from page 456: 615. Ibid., p. 582.

Note from page 459: 616. U. S. Treaties, p. 604.

Note from page 459: 617. Ibid., p. 369.

Note from page 459: 618. Documents, No. 274: House of Representatives, 23d session, p. 76.

Note from page 460: 619. U. S. Treaties, p. 607.

Note from page 461: 620. U. S. Treaties, p. 633.

Note from page 461: 621. Ibid., p. 621.

Note from page 461: 622. Ibid., p. 626.

Note from page 464: 623. Some of their descendants by Irish progenitors have evinced respectable tastes, and considerable mental powers in the walks of literature. John Johnson, Esq., a gentleman from the north of Ireland, intermarried in this tribe, and his female children having received their education in Ireland, there acquired highly polished manners and fine literary tastes.

Note from page 464: 624. The interchange of the Chippewa d and p for t, of b for p, and the substitution of broad ô for u, in the Ottowa dialect, is a characteristic trait.

Note from page 464: 625. U. S. Treaties, p. 650.

Note from page 465: 626. Official Report: Detroit, A. S. Bagg, 8vo., pamphlet, 28 pp.

Note from page 465: 627. Ibid., p. 6.

Note from page 466: 628. Addresses and Messages of the Presidents of the United States, p. 306, 1 vol. 8vo., 732 pages: Edward Walker, New York, 1841.

Note from page 467: 629. U. S. Treaties, p. 633.

Note from page 468: 630. The name Seminole designates their assumption of tribal independence, and was intended to be derogatory, in its first application by the Creeks. It may, as more or less censure is intended, be rendered "separatists, refractory men, rebels, or refugees." The period of the separation is uncertain. They withdrew from the parent tribe either while residing on the Altamaha, or at an earlier period, before the Creeks had reached the eastern terminus of their migration. When the Seminoles left the upland valleys of Alabama and Georgia, they withdrew to the intricate recesses of the interior lakes, lagoons, hammocks, and everglades of Florida.

Note from page 468: 631. Niles' Register, Vol. XLIX., p. 437.

Note from page 469: 632. The Adjutant General states the force at 535. On the 31st of December it included two field and twenty-four company officers. — Niles' Register, Vol. XLIX., p. 438.

Note from page 469: 633. Niles' Register, Vol. XLIX., p. 51.

Note from page 469: 634. The force was estimated, at the time, at "800 or 1000:" vide Niles' Register, Vol. XLIX., p. 368.

Note from page 469: 635. Niles' Register, Vol. XLIX. p. 367.

Note from page 470: 636. Niles' Register, Vol. XLIX., p. 367.

Note from page 470: 637. Pr. John Thomas and Ransom Clark.

Note from page 470: 638. Niles' Register, Vol. XLIX.; p. 367.

Note from page 470: 639. Ibid., p. 366.

Note from page 470: 640. Ibid., p. 368.

Note from page 471: 641. Niles' Register, Vol. XLIX., p. 369.

Note from page 471: 642. Ibid., p. 368.

Note from page 472: 643. Niles' Register, Vol. XLIX., p. 440.

Note from page 472: 644. Bartram's Travels.

Note from page 473: 645. Niles' Register, Vol. XLIX., p. 372.

Note from page 475: 646. Niles' Register, Vol. XLIX., p. 374.

Note from page 475: 647. Ibid.

Note from page 475: 648. Ibid., p. 375.

Note from page 477: 649. 6th December, 1836.

Note from page 478: 650. Presidents' Messages: New York, 1841, p. 579.

Note from page 479: 651. Documents accompanying the President's Message of September 2d, to the 24th Congress. Annual Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs.

Note from page 479: 652. Annual Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1836, p. 14.

Note from page 480: 653. Documents accompanying the President's Message of September 2d, to the 24th Congress. Annual Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1836, p. 14.

Note from page 480: 654. December 1st, 1836.

Note from page 480: 655. Documents accompanying the President's Message of September 2d, to the 24th Congress. Annual Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1836, p. 14.

Note from page 480: 656. Ibid., p. 15

Note from page 481: 657. Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1836, p. 16.

Note from page 481: 658. Ibid., p. 30.

Note from page 482: 659. Presidents' Messages, p. 642.

Note from page 483: 660. This term has been Anglicized by the term Chippewa; the native pronunciation appertaining to the most remote tribes. The original term, I have been informed, refers to the power of virility.

Note from page 484: 661. U. S. Treaties, p. 697.

Note from page 484: 662. Notes on the Iroquois, p. 50.

Note from page 486: 663. Vide Colonel Mitchell's letter, Vol. III., p. 254. In 1836 this tribe was reported to the Indian Office as having a population of 3200: Vol. III., p. 249. In 1852, the number returned was 385: Vol. III., p. 254. Mr. Catlin was mistaken, when he reported the extinction of this tribe.

Note from page 492: 664. Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for 1838, p. 22, 23.

Note from page 492: 665. Ibid., p. 27.

Note from page 493: 666. Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for 1838, p. 29.

Note from page 494: 667. "The whole number found here the last summer; most of whom had long been domesticated with the Cherokees, and with whom many of their warriors fought by our side at the battle of the Horse-Shoe."

Note from page 497: 668. Annual Report of Comm. of Indian Affairs. 1838, p. 31.

Note from page 497: 669. Ibid., p. 30.

Note from page 497: 670. Ibid., p. 32.

Note from page 498: 671. Page 45.

Note from page 499: 672. Vol. III., p. 555.

Note from page 499: 673. Ibid., p. 559.

Note from page 499: 674. Vol. I, p. 523.

Note from page 499: 675. Vol. II., p. 569.

Note from page 501: 676. Statement of Stand-Water. — Congressional Documents, Vol. XXVI.

Note from page 502: 677. Congressional Documents, No. 347, p. 9.

Note from page 503: 678. Vide Anderson's Life, Boston.

Note from page 504: 679. Mohcan-ituc.

Note from page 504: 680. Vol. IV., p. 509.

Note from page 504: 681. Annual Indian Report, 1840, p. 3.

Note from page 506: 682. Annual Indian Report, 1840, p. 29.

Note from page 506: 683. Ibid., p. 51.

Note from page 510: 684. Johnson's Works, Vol. II., p. 336: Harper & Brothers, New York.

Note from page 516: 685. Vide Moral Statistics.

Note from page 518: 686. Vol. V., p. 480.

Note from page 518: 687. Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for 1836, p. 41.

Note from page 518: 688. Ibid., p. 43.

Note from page 518: 689. Vol. V., p. 498.

Note from page 518: 690. Vol. V., p. 495.

Note from page 519: 691. Plate XXIV., Vol. IV., p. 180.

Note from page 519: 692. Long's Expedition to the Rocky Mountains.

Note from page 519: 693. Report of Fremont's Exploring Expedition in 1843-44: Washington, 1845, p. 174.

Note from page 520: 694. Scenes and Adventures in the Ozark Mountains in 1819, p. 109: Philadelphia edition.

Note from page 522: 695. Vol. III., p. 586.

Note from page 523: 696. Fixed at this time at 93,702.

Note from page 525: 697. Correspondence of the New York Observer, May 25th, 1857.

Note from page 525: 698. For this alphabet, and examples of its use, see Vol. II., p. 228, Plates A and B.

Note from page 525: 699. Life of Catherine Brown.

Note from page 525: 700. Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1836, pp. 41, 43.

Note from page 535: 701. Annual Reports of Indian Affairs, 1841, 1842, and 1843.

Note from page 536: 702. Vol. V., Table V., p. 495.

Note from page 537: 703. Notes on the Iroquois.

Note from page 540: 704. Annual Indian Report, 1842, p. 90.

Note from page 551: 705. Annual Report of the Indian Bureau, 1853, p. 10.

Note from page 552: 706. Vol. III., pp. 401-2.

Note from page 552: 707. The word Koossa, in the Algonquin, is the indicative, present, of the verb "to hunt." To render it a substantive, the inflection win is added.

Note from page 554: 708. This was written previous to the admission of Iowa.

Note from page 554: 709. This has been done. The Pottawattamie territory has been annexed to Missouri, and this tribe provided with a location west.

Note from page 556: 710. The whole are wanderers except those marked with an asterisk (*).

Note from page 557: 711. It has passed this limit to California, Oregon, and Washington.

Note from page 557: 712. Annual Report of the Indian Bureau, 1842, p. 55.

Note from page 565: 713. Doc. 117, House of Rep., Second Sess., XXth Congress.

Note from page 566: 714. Life of Catherine Brown: Boston, 1825, p. 150.

Note from page 568: 715. John Reinhold Forster's Northern Voyages, p. 2.

Note from page 568: 716. Vide Vol. I., p. 17.

Note from page 568: 717. Vide Vol. IV., p. 89.

Note from page 569: 718. Journal of a Voyage to North America, Vol. I.: London, reprinted 1761.

Note from page 569: 719. Morton, Vol. II., p. 316.

Note from page 570: 720. Remarks on the Condition, Character, and Languages of the North American Indians: Boston, 1826, Cummings, Hilliafd & Co. This pamphlet has been ascribed to the pen of the Hon. Lewis Cass.

Note from page 571: 721. Genesis i.; 1.

Note from page 573: 722. This term is singular, and requires the usual inflex in ug, or ung, to render it plural. Among the more northerly Algonquin tribes, the letter n is interchangeable with l, and the pronunciation is Ineni.

Note from page 573: 723. Colden.

Note from page 573: 724. Morton's Crania Americana, Vol. II., p. 328. "Every attempt to classify the tribes," he remarks, "must continue to be arbitrary, until the test of generic groups of languages be applied."

Note from page 574: 725. Crania Americana.

Note from page 574: 726. Vol. II., pp. 315 to 331.

Note from page 574: 727. Ibid., pp. 331 to 335.

Note from page 574: 728. Ibid., p. 332.

Note from page 574: 729. Ibid., Plate LXII., p. 324.

Note from page 574: 730. Ibid., p. 325.

Note from page 574: 731. Ibid., Plates LIX., LX., LXL.

Note from page 574: 732. Crania Americana.

Note from page 575: 733. Vol. II., pp. 315, 331. Vol. III., p. 317. Vol. IV., p. 354. Vol. V., p. 389.

Note from page 577: 734. See Folsom's Translation of the Cartas de Cortéz, and Keating's and Lockhart's translations of Diaz.

Note from page 577: 735. Gama's "Descripcion Historica y Cronologica de las dos piedras," &c., &c., &c.: Mexico, 1832. Humboldt's and Lord Kingsborough's publications on Mexican Antiquities are, in fact, only collections, or what the French call " memoires pour servir," &c., &c., &c.

Note from page 578: 736. The quest of specimens of antiquities by travellers in Mexico, has formed a class of ingenious imitators among the natives; so that the smaller objects, especially those of pottery, are so cleverly counterfeited, that it requires skill to detect the imposture. Many of these "modern antiques" have been imported into our country by persons who collected during the war; and it is proper to caution the possessors of cabinets before they enrich them with these shams.

Note from page 583: 737. See Mexico; Aztec, Spanish, and Republican, Vol. 2, p. 279, for a full description of these ruins at Teotihuacan.

Note from page 585: 738. See my essay on "Mexican History, Archaeology, Zapotec Architecture, &c., at Mitla," in the Smithsonian publications, page 27, note, in Vol. IX. of contributions.

Note from page 586: 739. Mexico; Aztec, &c., &c., Vol. I., 110, by B. M.

Note from page 593: 740. Charlevoix.

Note from page 595: 741. Bartram.

Note from page 596: 742. Vide Vol. V., p. 96.

Note from page 596: 743. Ibid., p. 97.

Note from page 596: 744. Jefferson's Notes.

Note from page 597: 745. Transactions of the American Ethnological Society, Vol. I., p. 376.

Note from page 598: 746. Vol. I., Plate XXI., Figs. 2, 3, p. 84.

Note from page 598: 747. Ibid., Plate XXV., Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, p. 105: Vol. II., Plate XLVI., p. 90.

Note from page 598: 748. Vol. I., Plate XXXV., Figs. Pyrula perversa, and Pyrula spirata, p. 95.

Note from page 598: 749. Ibid., Plate XXX., Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4: Am. Eth. Res., Vol. I, Plate II., p. 400.

Note from page 598: 750. Vol. I., Plates XVII., XVIII., pp. 81, 82.

Note from page 598: 751. Ibid., Plates XXII., XXXIV., pp. 85, 94: Vol. III., Plate XLV.

Note from page 598: 752. Am. Eth. Trans., Vol. I., Plate I., p. 400: Vol. I., Plate XXIV., Figs. 17-24.

Note from page 598: 753. Vol. I., Plate XXIV., Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Note from page 598: 754. Oneota.

Note from page 598: 755. Notes on the Iroquois.

Note from page 598: 756. Vol. I., Plate XXXI., p. 92.

Note from page 598: 757. Ibid., Plate XXI., Figs. 2, 3, p. 84.

Note from page 598: 758. Ibid., Plate XXIV., Figs. 1, 2 ,3, 4, 5, p. 88.

Note from page 598: 759. Ibid., Plate XXVIII., Figs. 2, 3, p. 89.

Note from page 598: 760. Ibid., Plate XXVIII., Fig. 1, p. 89.

Note from page 598: 761. Ibid., Plate XXVII., Figs. 6, 7, 8, p. 88.

Note from page 598: 762. Ibid., Plate XXIII., Figs. 3, 4, A, B, p. 86.

Note from page 598: 763. Ibid., Plate XL, Figs. 3, 4: Plate XIV., Figs. 1, 2, 3: Plate XVI., Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Note from page 598: 764. Ibid., Plate XL, Figs. 1, 2.

Note from page 598: 765. Ibid., Plate VIII., Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5: Plate X., Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

Note from page 598: 766. Ibid., Plate VIII., Figs, b, c, d: Plate IX., Figs. 2, 4.

Note from page 598: 767. Ibid. Plate XXVI.

Note from page 598: 768. Ibid., Plate XXIX.

Note from page 598: 769. Vol. II., Plate XXXVIII., Fig. 1.

Note from page 598: 770. Ibid., Plate XLIX.

Note from page 598: 771. Ibid., Plate LXXVI.

Note from page 599: 772. Vol. II., Plate LXXIV.

Note from page 599: 773. Ibid., Plate LXXII.

Note from page 599: 774. Ibid., Plate LXXV.

Note from page 599: 775. Ibid., Plate XLVI.

Note from page 599: 776. Ibid., Plates XLIII., LXIX.

Note from page 599: 777. Ibid., Plate LXXI.

Note from page 599: 778. Vol. I., Plates XXIX., XXIII.

Note from page 599: 779. Ibid., Plates VI. and VII., p. 55.

Note from page 600: 780. Vol. V., p. 97.

Note from page 600: 781. Vol. V., p. 660.

Note from page 600: 782. American Ethnological Transactions, Vol. I., p. 380.

Note from page 600: 783. Vol. IV., p. 133.

Note from page 600: 784. Vol. IV., p. 135.

Note from page 600: 785. Vol. V., p. 631.

Note from page 601: 786. Vol. I., Plate IV., Figs. 1 to 11, p. 48.

Note from page 603: 787. Vol. I, Plate IV., p. 48.

Note from page 603: 788. Vide Vol. II., Plate LII., p. 91.

Note from page 604: 789. Vol. I, p. 20, Plates I. and II.

Note from page 605: 790. Transactions of the Am. Eth. Society, Vol. I, p. 305: New York, Bartlett & Welford, 1845.

Note from page 605: 791. Mr. B. Perley Poore, the historical agent of Massachusetts, found Indian
pictographs, of an early date, represented in the Marine Department of France.

Note from page 605: 792. Vol. I., p. 334. A synopsis of this inscription is given in Plate XXXVII., Vol. I.

Note from page 605: 793. Vide Plates LVIII., and LIX., Vol. I., pp. 408, 409.

Note from page 605: 794. Vide Vol. I., Plate XXXVI., p. 114, of 1790; corrected by a Daguerreotype copy in Vol. IV., Plate XIV., p. 120.

Note from page 605: 795. Plates XVII. and XVIII., pp. 172, 173, Vol. IV., (to face p. 423).

Note from page 606: 796. Plate XLL, Vol. III., p. 85, (to face p. 423).

Note from page 606: 797. Plate L., Vol. I., p. 356.

Note from page 606: 798. Plates XLIX. and LIII., Vol. I., p. 382.

Note from page 606: 799. Plates XLIX. and LXI., Vol. I.

Note from page 606: 800. Plates LXX., LXXI., and LXXII., Vol. I.

Note from page 606: 801. Plate LIV., Vol. I.

Note from page 606: 802. Plate LVII., Vol. I., p. 406.

Note from page 606: 803. Plates XLIX. and LV., Vol. I., B.

Note from page 606: 804. Plates LIV. and LVI., Vol. II., pp. 222, 226.

Note from page 606: 805. Plates LI. and LII. Meda and
Wabena songs. Vol. I., pp. 360, 372.

Note from page 607: 806. Plate XLII., Vol. III., from the Rocky mountains. Plates XXXI., XXXII., XXXIII., XXXIV., Vol. IV. Plates XV., XIX., XXXI., Vol. V.

Note from page 608: 807. Antiquates Americanae.

Note from page 608: 808. Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Tenth meeting. Albany, 1856: Cambridge, 1857, p. 214.

Note from page 609: 809. Transactions of the American Ethnological Society, Vol. I., p. 11: New York, 1845.

Note from page 609: 810. Vol. I., p. 108: Philadelphia, 1851.

Note from page 609: 811. Vol. I., p. 108, where the inscription is analyzed and described in full.

Note from page 609: 812. Vol. IV., Plate XIV., p. 120.

Note from page 609: 813. Notes on the Iroquois, p. 324: Albany, 1847.

Note from page 609: 814. Vol. V., Plate VIII.

Note from page 609: 815. Jefferson's Notes on Virginia, p. 156.

Note from page 610: 816. Vol. I., Plate XXX., p. 122.

Note from page 610: 817. Vol. IV., Plato XXXIX., p. 438.

Note from page 610: 818. Vol. IV., p. 441.

Note from page 610: 819. Vol. IV., Plates XXXVI. and XXXVII.

Note from page 610: 820. Vol. IV., p. 164.

Note from page 611: 821. Vol. III., Plate XXVIII., p. 228.

Note from page 611: 822. Vol. I, p. 95. Vol. IV., p. 143. Vol. V., p. 85.

Note from page 611: 823. In connection with the archaeology of the country, in its intrusive features, and not as resulting from Indian art, the annexed
antique inscription, in the old Phoenician letters, from Asia Minor, is presented. Several of these letters are identical with those found in 1838, on the small ovate inscriptive stone disinterred on opening the
large tumulus at Grave creek, in Virginia. [
Plate XXXVIII., Vol. I. p. 122.] The Asiatic inscription was copied by Edward Daniel Clarke, from a tomb, cut in the rock, near the ruins of the ancient city of Macri, on the Bay of Glaucus, Caria. (Clarke's Travels, Vol. II., p. 254.) Ethnographists tell us that the Phoenician alphabet is the parent of all the Western forms of letters, which were employed, with modifications, prior to the spread of the Roman alphabet. M. Jomard detects the Lybian elements in this Virginia relic.

Note from page 612: 824. Vide Vol. V., p. 594.

Note from page 613: 825. Annual Indian Report, 1854, p. 232.

Note from page 614: 826. Charlevoix.

Note from page 615: 827. In Vol. I., Mental Type, 29 to 42. Tribal Traits, 193 to 309. Mythology and Traditions, 316 to 329. Pictography, 333 to 421.

In Vol. II., Generic View, 44 to 47. Constitution of the Indian Family, 48 to 50. Forest Teachings, 50 to 62. Art of Hunting, 53 to 55. Sugar-Making, 55. War and its Incidents, 55, 58. The Wigwam, 53, 64. Births and their incidents, 65. Death and its Incidents, 67, 71. Games, 71. Hunter's Grounds, 74 to 79.

In Vol. III., Traits of Thinking, 54. Orientalism, 59. The Chase, 62. Costume, 65. Arms, 69. Tribal Traits, 181 to 306. Oral Fictions, 313 to 329. Art, 465. Magic, 483 to 493.

In Vol. IV., Manners in the Forest, 48 to 51. Traits of the Winnebagoes, 51 to 55. Morals, 56. Costume, 58. Customs of Dakotahs, 59 to 72. Of Navajoes, 72 to 88. Buffalo Hunting, 92 to 110. Tribal traits, 197 to 244. Pictography, 251, 253, with illustrations. Art, 435. Daemonology, 489. Medical Skill 523 Religion, 635.

In Vol. V., Resumé of Observations, 49, 81. Tribal Traits, 129 to 217. Synopsis of Art, 391. Religion and Mythology, 401. Magic and Witchcraft, 415. Information of sundry Latitudes, 631.

Note from page 616: 828. Vol. IV., p. 22.

Note from page 616: 829. Ibid., p. 20.

Note from page 617: 830. Stanley's picture.

Note from page 617: 831. Morgan's Iroquois League.

Note from page 617: 832. Vol. II., Plate XVI., p. 70.

Note from page 618: 833. Vol. I. Plates 8, 9, 10, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 19, 24, 25, 38, 35.

Note from page 618: 834. Personal Memoirs.

Note from page 618: 835. Oneota, p. 400.

Note from page 619: 836. Scenes and Adventures in the Ozark Mountains, p. 243.

Note from page 619: 837. Stanley's Picture, Plate XVII.

Note from page 623: 838. The mummy referred to was afterwards sent to San Francisco by Mr. Russell, near whose house it was found.

Note from page 626: 839. Charlevoix, Vol. II., p. 259.

Note from page 627: 840. Vol. V., p. 169.

Note from page 627: 841. Section XX., Chapter V.

Note from page 627: 842. A name bestowed by De Pratz on the Choctaws.

Note from page 628: 843. Charlevoix.

Note from page 629: 844. Mackenzie's Voyages.

Note from page 629: 845. Ontwa.

Note from page 629: 846. Vol. III., p. 168.

Note from page 629: 847. Vol. III., Plate XXVII., p. 227.

Note from page 629: 848. Vol. I., Plate I., Figs. 9, 17; Plate LII., Fig. 15; Plate LVIII., Figs. 18, 98.

Note from page 629: 849. Vol. I., Plate XXXVI., Fig. 13.

Note from page 629: 850. Vol. I.

Note from page 630: 851. Vol. IV., p. 489.

Note from page 630: 852. Ibid. p. 493.

Note from page 630: 853. Vol. III., p. 486.

Note from page 631: 854. Vide. Vol. V., Plate 6, p. 77.

Note from page 631: 855. Vol. V., p. 267.

Note from page 632: 856. Vol. V., Plate 32, p. 415.

Note from page 632: 857. Vol. IV., p. 501, 516.

Note from page 632: 858. Vol. I., p. 247.

Note from page 632: 859. Vol. III., p. 497.

Note from page 632: 860. Vol. V., p. 266.

Note from page 632: 861. Charlevoix, Vol. II., p. 268.

Note from page 632: 862. Ibid., p. 270.

Note from page 632: 863. Vol. V., p. 651.

Note from page 635: 864. James G. Swan, Esq.

Note from page 636: 865. These topics have been discussed in Vol. III., page 483; Vol. IV., page 489; Vol. V., p. 401.

Note from page 637: 866. Gallatin; Trans. Am. Eth. Soc., Vol. I., p. 169.

Note from page 637: 867. The inflection tl appended to this word, changing it to Teotl, is merely one of the common formative particles of the Aztec language.

Note from page 637: 868. Vide Oneota, page 449.

Note from page 637: 869. Comments on Mexican Mythology, by Captain J. P. M'Cown, U. S. A.

Note from page 638: 870. Vide Hackluyt for a pictograph of this figure.

Note from page 640: 871. The northern tribes ascribed the gift of music to heaven, as an aid in the ceremonies of medical knowledge.

Note from page 640: 872. Vol. III., p. 314.

Note from page 641: 873. The Mexican year had twenty months, of thirteen days each.

Note from page 644: 874. M'Cown'a MSS. Comments.

Note from page 646: 875. Transactions of the American Ethnological Society: New York, 1845, Vol. I., p. 351.

Note from page 647: 876. Logan.

Note from page 647: 877.
Red Jacket.

Note from page 647: 878. Brant.

Note from page 655: 879. The suffering patient.

Note from page 657: 880. Vol. IV., p. 642.

Note from page 657: 881. Vide Algic Researches; also, The Myth of Hiawatha: Philadelphia, Lippincott & Co.

Note from page 659: 882. New York Theological Review.

Note from page 665: 883. Vol. V., Plate II.

Note from page 668: 884. Vol. I., page 316.

Note from page 668: 885. Ibid., page 317. These are the symbolical principles of Good and Evil.

Note from page 670: 886. Supposed by the Indians to form the lofty range of the Rocky Mountains.

Note from page 670: 887. The Oneidas, so long as they were Pagans, used to show the precise spot of ground, a small hollow, where they said their ancestors came up.

Note from page 676: 888. The oi here is a diphthong.

Note from page 677: 889. For "he speaks."

Note from page 681: 890. This is the generic form of the verb "to be," with a prefixed expression, made up of the first person, and the word ow, signifying body, or person.

Note from page 681: 891. I am a spirit, or personate a spirit.

Note from page 682: 892. Vol. IV., pp. 297-388.

Note from page 685: 893. Vol. III., p. 557.

Note from page 685: 894. Ibid., p. 559.

Note from page 685: 895. Topographical Description, &c.: London, 1708.

Note from page 686: 896. Vol. I., p. 573.

Note from page 686: 897. Vol. III., p. 610.

Note from page 686: 898. Vol. III., p. 311.

Note from page 686: 899. Catlett's Report, 1849.

Note from page 686: 900. Stevens' Report, including Piegans.

Note from page 686: 901. Stevens' Report.

Note from page 686: 902. Reduced by a war with Oregon.

Note from page 686: 903. Vol. IV., p. 588.

Note from page 686: 904. Table II.

Note from page 686: 905. Vol. IV., p. 609.

Note from page 686: 906. Vol. IV., p. 575.

Note from page 686: 907. Table II.

Note from page 687: 908. Table XI.

Note from page 687: 909. Notes on the Iroquois, p. 32.

Note from page 688: 910. Census of North Carolina.

Note from page 688: 911. In 1825. Vol. III., p. 583.

Note from page 688: 912. Table XXII.

Note from page 688: 913. Vol. I., p. 519. Vol. III., p. 633.

Note from page 688: 914. This is so manifest an excess as to be excluded from the estimate.

Note from page 688: 915. Vol. I.

Note from page 688: 916. Old estimate.

Note from page 688: 917. Vol. III., p. 611.

Note from page 690: 918. Table III.

Note from page 690: 919. Taken under the authority of New York, at the decennial census in 1855, and communicated by Mr. Headley.

Note from page 691: 920. Ann. Rep., 1847, p. 351.

Note from page 691: 921. Ann. Rep., 1847, p. 41.

Note from page 693: 922. Ann. Rep., 1847, p. 93.

Note from page 693: 923. Ann. Rep., 1839.

Note from page 694: 924. Ann. Rep., 1847, p. 94.

Note from page 694: 925. S. P. Mead.

Note from page 695: 926. The whole are wanderers except those marked with an asterisk (*).

Note from page 696: 927. Annual Indian Report, 1848, p. 116.

Note from page 697: 928. Annual Indian Report, 1829.

Note from page 700: 929. The Pisquouse and Koutaines are omitted, and the band of Upper Chinooks at the Dalles included with the Walla-wallas.

Note from page 700: 930. Ann. Rep., 1854, p. 252.

Note from page 704: 931. Annual Report of Indian Bureau, 1855.

Note from page 705: 932. Obtained from a report of the Secretary of State of California, on the Census of 1852, in which they are designated as "domesticated Indians." Superintendent Beale, in November, 1852, estimated the Indian population of California at from 75,000 to 100,000; Commissioners Barbour and Wozencraft, in March, 1851, 200,000 to 300,000; though their colleague, Redick M'Kee, Esq., at the same time stated that he had information which would greatly reduce that number. And the Spanish missionary authorities reported it to be, in 1802, 32,231. The census of the State of California is believed to be the most reliable.

Note from page 706: 933. Ann. Rep., 1848, p. 137.

Note from page 707: 934. Ann. Rep., 1846, p. 44. This report is in mass, and very vague in the last four items.

Note from page 708: 935. Ann. Rep., 1849, p. 26.

Note from page 710: 936. Number unknown.

Note from page 718: 937. Annual Report of Indian Bureau, 1853, p. 38.

Note from page 719: 938. Table II., p. 690.

Note from page 719: 939. Annual Report of the Indian Bureau, 1856, p. 268.

Note from page 720: 940. Ann. Rep., 1851.

Note from page 726: 941. Original Catalogues of sales furnished by Ramsay Crooks, Esq., New York.

Note from page 727: 942. Original Catalogues of sales furnished by Ramsay Crooks, Esq., New York.

Note from page 728: 943. Original Catalogues of sales furnished by Ramsay Crooks, Esq., New York.

Note from page 729: 944. Original Catalogues of sales furnished by Ramsay Crooks, Esq., New York.

Note from page 730: 945. Original Catalogues of sales furnished by Ramsay Crooks, Esq., New York.

Note from page 731: 946. Vol. V., Table XI.

Note from page 734: 947. Of the permanent missions to the North American Indians, those of the SPANISH FRANCISCANS were the earliest. Next, were those of the FRENCH missionaries in New France, of whom the greater part and the most distinguished were JESUITS, though some were Recollects (or Reformed Franciscans) and a few, Capuchins. Between the systems pursued by the Spanish and French priests there were marked differences. While the missions of the former were independent of, and separated by vast extents of territory from each other, those of the latter grew the one out of the other, as, from its first footing upon the soil of Acadia, one steady conquest spread slowly over the whole empire of the North and West. While the former sought jointly to evangelize, to civilize, and to subjugate, its pioneers being composed of Spanish soldiers and artizans, together with the priests and, when practicable, Christian Indians; the latter identified its laborers with the tribes to whom they were sent, if by any means they might win some. Of the latter, should ever be preserved and honored the names of Brebeuf, Jogues, Lallemand, Allouez, Marquette, Gravier, Marest and Rasle. During the colonial period Quebec was, under authority from Rome, the base of all the missionary operations of the Jesuits save those of Louisiana. These latter depended upon a Superior at New Orleans.

Note from page 734: 948. The Abenaquis migrations of 1703 and 1724 were from Maine to Canada East.

Note from page 734: 949. The Western Hurons migrated in 1702 from Upper to Lower Michigan; in 1751 to Ohio.

Note from page 734: 950. The Ottawas of Lake Superior migrated in 1671 to Mackinaw.

Note from page 734: 951. This mission of the ENGLISH ROMAN CATHOLICS to the Potomac Indians owed its existence to the exertions of Lord Baltimore.

Note from page 734: 952. The missions more or less fostered in their early days by the SOCIETY FOR THE PROPAGATION OF THE GOSPEL IN NEW ENGLAND had their several bases entirely within that territory, and were established rather by individuals than by the Society, of which the former were rather beneficiaries in part than appointees.

Note from page 734: 953. The remarkable mission to the Indians of Martha's Vinyard and Nantucket was, during a period of 160 years, handed down from the son, through the father and grandson, to the fifth generation inclusive from Thomas Mayhew, sr., first Governor of the former island. Of the many Christian Indians who assisted the Mayhews in the ministry, the name of Hiacoomes at least should be remembered.

Note from page 734: 954. The labors of the "apostolic Eliot" were chiefly bestowed upon the Natick Indians of Massachusetts Colony — the gospel having been first preached to them where the town of Newton now stands. Of this tribe few, if any, remain at the present day.

Note from page 734: 955. Plymouth Colony was the field of these devoted missionaries — to whom should be added some mention of the Rev. Mr. Fitch, who, about this time, first preached the gospel to the Mohicans of Connecticut.

Note from page 734: 956. The mission to the Hoosatunnuk or Stockbridgo Indians as they are now generally called, has not been abandoned; but after the removal of Edwards was continued by the descendants of their first missionary, Sergeant, in New Stockbridge, N. Y. until about 1828, when the tribe emigrated to the neighborhood of Lake Winnebago, in Wisconsin. Here, until 1848, they received attention from the American Board. They are now under the care of the Methodists.

Note from page 734: 957. The SOCIETY FOR THE PROPAGATION OF THE GOSPEL IN FOREIGN PARTS has, both in the last century and in late years, paid more attention to English colonists than to native missions; and what has been done for the Indians under its auspices, has rarely been distinguished in the reports of the Society from the results of colonial missions. Still there has been something attempted. Indian wars alone cut short a mission to the Yemassees of South Carolina, which was appointed in 1702; an Indian school, containing at one time seventy-three scholars, was established from 1710-1718, in Virginia; and a systematic effort was made by a succession of missionaries from 1704 to the War of the Revolution, to evangelize the Mohawks, to which tribe the attention of this Society is now directed in Canada West.

Note from page 734: 958. The HON. SOCIETY IN SCOTLAND FOR THE PROPAGATION OF CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE, like the last mentioned but one, did more, through its Commissioners in the colonies, to aid, than to establish missions to the Indians.

Note from page 734: 959. The brief labors of Brainerd, first at Kaunaumeek near Albany, and then in New Jersey and Pennsylvania near the Forks of the Delaware and on the Susquehanna, were full of result, though their history is barren of statistics. They were, after his death, continued by his brother, John Brainerd and by Wm. Tennent.

Note from page 734: 960. The system of Dr. Wheelock was to educate Indian and white youths together, and to send them off in pairs, one of each, to establish schools and to preach among the tribes of New York and Pennsylvania. The school at Lebanon was, therefore a normal institution, rather than a mission in itself; and such "Moor's Charity School," as established in connection with Dartmouth College, was, and, in theory, still is. Among Dr. Wheelock's pupils at Lebanon were Dr. Samuel Kirkland and Samson Occum, the first Indian who ever preached in England. The celebrated Brant was also of the number.

Note from page 734: 961. Dr. Kirkland was recognised as a missionary of the present society until the year 1797, from which time to his death he represented the Boston "Society for the Propagation of the Gospel among the Indians of North America," q. v.

Note from page 734: 962. "The CHURCH OF THE UNITED BRETHREN, commonly called Moravian, has been a missionary Church since 1732; the direction of its missionary operations being in the hands of Count Zinzendorf, until his death in 1760. The general directory of the Church, or Unity's Elders' Conference (Berthelsdorf, near Hernnhut, Saxony), is divided into several departments, of one of which, the Mission Department, the Provincial Elders' (Helpers') Conferences at Salem, N. C., and Bethlehem, Pa., act as agents for North America; the funds for these North American missions being provided principally by the ‘Society of the United Brethren for Propagating the Gospel among the Heathen,’ Bethlehem, Pa., instituted 1787.

"The mission of this Church among the North American Indians has ever been a singularly migrating one (owing to the disturbances of wars, and to the encroachments of the whites), as will appear from the Chronological Table. The missionaries usually accompanied their migrating congregations." — Communication from the Secretary.

Note from page 735: 963. An attempt even earlier, 1566-70, was made by the Spanish Jesuits.

Note from page 735: 964. In 1601, the Carmelites attempted a Mission here. The present, the Franciscan Mission, grew out of a Jesuit Mission, in Lower California, established in 1642, though not formally recognized till 1679.

Note from page 735: 965. Soon after removing from Nova Scotia to Maine, this Mission divided between the Penobscot and Passamaquoddy Indians and the Abenaquis on the Kennebec; from these latter chiefly, by three partial migrations, the St. Francis Mission in Canada East arose.

Note from page 735: 966. Occupying the peninsula between Lakes Huron and Erie, until almost destroyed by the Iroquois, a remnant colonized, under their Missionaries, near Quebec.

Note from page 735: 967. Another remnant migrating from Mackinaw to Detroit, and thence to Sandusky, Ohio.

Note from page 735: 968. Total adults baptized, 1668-78, 2221.

Note from page 735: 969. This Mission was at Bay Quintè.

Note from page 735: 970. This Mission, composed chiefly of Oneida and Mohawk emigrants, was at St. Francis Xavier des prés near Montreal, and at Caughnawaga.

Note from page 735: 971. First established at La Pointe on Lake Superior; but migrated, in 1671, to Mackinaw and adjacent isles.

Note from page 735: 972. Occupying the shores of Green Bay and Lake Winnebago, and penetrating to the interior of Wisconsin.

Note from page 735: 973. Arbre Croche being the chief station; also on Grand River; and, till 1838, on St. Joseph's River.

Note from page 735: 974. First visited by Marquette, in 1673, in his expedition for discovery and descent of the Mississippi.

Note from page 735: 975. These tribes have all returned, of late years, to the care of the Jesuits in the Indian Territory.

Note from page 735: 976. The Eastern portion from Missouri; the Western nearly simultaneously from Canada.

N. B. Of the above, tbe statistics of the existing Abenaquis. Huron and Iroquois Missions, are drawn only from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; no modern returns having been procured. The Ottawa missions in these centuries engaged 30 missionaries: the statistics given are from the Metrop. Catholic Almanac. 1857.

Note from page 735: 977. Father White. Baltimore became, in late years, a centre of Western Indian Missions.

Note from page 736: 978. Generally more: these are minimum statements, collated from Mayhew's Indian Converts.

Note from page 736: 979. Number in 1652; in 1657, "many hundred." — Indian Converts, pp. 290, 291.

Note from page 736: 980. Indian Converts, p. 289.

Note from page 736: 981. Including assistance of John Cotton from 1664-7. Ind. Con., p. 299.

Note from page 736: 982. Four in Martha's Vinyard, and one (John Gibs) in Nantucket. Life of Eliot, p. 110.

Note from page 736: 983. In 1676. Life of Eliot, p. 112.

Note from page 736: 984. Indian Converts, p. 299.

Note from page 736: 985. Encyclopaedia Religious Knowledge, p. 788.

Note from page 736: 986. According to Smith & Choules. I., p. 29. Some authorities give 1806.

Note from page 736: 987. Report of Boston Society for Prop. Gospel in N. America, p. 10.

Note from page 736: 988. Smith & Choules, I., p. 28.

Note from page 736: 989. Life of Eliot, p. 113.

Note from page 736: 990. Life of Eliot, p. 90.

Note from page 736: 991. Mather's Magnalia, II., p. 382.

Note from page 736: 992. Aliens Biog. Dict.

Note from page 736: 993. 1693. Mather's Mag., II., p. 380.

N. B. — Increase Mather, Boston, 1687, gives as total for "N. England" 24 Indian preachers. Life of Eliot, p. 92.

Cotton Mather, Boston, 1698, gives as total for "this province" 30 Indian assemblies, and over 3000 converts. Indian Conv., p. 306.

About the same time, Rev. Mr. Fitch conducted a most interesting Mission among the Mohicans of Connecticut Colony.

Note from page 736: 994. These are the statistics of the two Missions of Grand River and Walpole's Island (the former under date of 1854, the latter of 1856), the only instances where Indian statistics can be eliminated from those of white colonists, and the only Missions distinguished in the reports as purely Indian. See note to Chronological Chart.

Note from page 736: 995. Loskiel's Hist. Moravian Missions, p. 114.

Note from page 736: 996. Life of Brainerd, pp. 86, 151, 191.

Note from page 736: 997. The two sets of figures refer, the first, to Lebanon itself; and the second, to the distant stations.

Note from page 736: 998. Brief Narrative, &c., p. 4.

Note from page 736: 999. Continuation, 2d, &c., p. 8.

Note from page 736: 1000. Idem., pp. 12, 13, 15, 25.

Note from page 736: 1001. These statistics were verified, and, to a great extent, prepared by the Secretary from the records of the Society.

The numbers under these heads indicate the aggregate numbers engaged during the continuance of the several Missions.

Note from page 736: 1002. These statistics were verified, and, to a great extent, prepared by the Secretary from the records of the Society.

The number of native assistants cannot always be ascertained: the practice was always to have such.

Note from page 736: 1003. These statistics were verified, and, to a great extent, prepared by the Secretary from the records of the Society.

The clerical Missionaries usually added to their clerical labors the conduct of schools.

Note from page 736: 1004. These statistics were verified, and, to a great extent, prepared by the Secretary from the records of the Society.

Total number of baptisms, to 1772, was 720.

The aggregate number of converts baptized, to the present time, probably exceeds 2500.

In 1856, the Mission field embraced, in Canada West, Kansas and the West of Arkansas, 4 stations. 9 missionaries, and 514 converts.

Note from page 737: 1005. The Missionaries of this Society are of all denominations of Protestant Christians; and, until lately, it has paid more attention to Domestic, than to Indian Missions. It frequently assists those in a given field, as well as sends Missionaries to new; as in the case of the Sergeants at Stockbridge and of Z. Mayhew at Martha's Vinyard. The Society also educates Indian youths at Lawrence University, Wisconsin; Wesleyan Seminary, Albion, Michigan; and Twinsburg Seminary, Ohio.

Note from page 737: 1006. S. Kirkland, from his disconnection from the Scotch Society to his death.

Note from page 737: 1007. The Episcopal Mission during its disconnection from that Church.

Special Authorities. — Historical Report of 1855 and communication from the Secretary.

Note from page 737: 1008. These Missions are, to a large extent, educational and civilizational; much attention being given to elevating the character and sphere of woman. The three North-eastern Yearly Meetings have acted independently (save when they united to protect the Senecas from dispoliation of their land under Government treaty): the other three have united in maintaining the Shawnee Mission, the Yearly Meeting of Indiana being the executive.

Note from page 737: 1009. The number of scholars in 1843.

Special Authorities. — Minutes of Philadelphia Yearly Meeting and communication from Clerk of Baltimore Yearly Meeting.

Note from page 737: 1010. The Indian Missions of this Church are exclusively Diocesan; its General Missionary Board at New York having no supervision of them.

Special Authorities. — The Spirit of Missions, letters from Missionaries and information from the Secretary of the Board.

Note from page 738: 1011. Though this Board is not denominational, it is practically the organ of the Congregational and N. S. Presbyterian Churches and also, until thic year (1857), of the Dutch Reformed.

Note from page 738: 1012. The Ottowa, Osage, Ojibwa (at Sault Ste. Marie) Seneca and Tuscarora Missions were, in 1826, transferred from the "United Foreign Missionary Society."

Note from page 738: 1013. The Chickasaw Mission was, in 1827, transferred from the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia.

Note from page 738: 1014. The Stockbridge Mission was, probably, handed down unbroken, through the Boston S. P. G. I. N. A., from Sergeant, Edwards and their successors. They have no Mission now.

Special Authorities. — The statistics of the Missionary corps are taken from the report of 1857; the columns of converts and scholars chiefly from a late communication from the Secretary.

Note from page 738: 1015. The organ of the Baptist Churches of the Northern States for foreign Missions, to which class those to the Indians were generally regarded as belonging; though, of late years, while this Society retains those already organized, new Missions to the Indians have been opened by the Home Missionary Society — q. v.

Special Authorities. — The report for 1857 and a communication from the Secretary.

Note from page 738: 1016. Until 1844, the organ of the whole Methodist Church of the United States; at which time a division took place between the Churches of the Northern and Southern States and since which it has continued the organ only of the former.

Note from page 738: 1017. Strictly speaking, those three Missions were in the care ot the Canadian Conference from 1828 to 1833, when they were transferred to the Wesleyan Missionary Society, as shown more clearly on the Chronological Chart.

Note from page 738: 1018. See Note on next page.

Note from page 739: 1019. Of the six Missions (which, on the division, fell within the hounds of the Methodist Church South), those to the Creeks, the Kickapoos and the Wyandots were transferred in 1844; those to the Choctaws and the Cherokees, in 1846; and that to the Shawnees and Kansas, partly in 1844 and partly in 1846. Subsequently, new Missions to the Wyandots. the Shawnees and the Cherokees were organized by the present Society. See the Chronological Chart.

The statistics are chiefly from the report for 1857; from which, as they are summed up by Conferences, it is almost impossible to eliminate the statistics of the several tribes. The dates here furnished are, it is believed, correct; but inconsistencies between the general and the annual reports of the Society create some uncertainty.

Note from page 739: 1020. The various stations of this Mission are along Red River between Lakes Winnepeg and Minnesota, and on Moose Lake.

Special Authority. — Report of 1856.

Note from page 739: 1021. For the origin of these three Missions, see Miss. Society Methodist Epis. Church.

Note from page 739: 1022. The labors of this Mission extend over the territory between Hudson's Bay, Lake Superior and Lake Winnepeg, and even further to the North-west.

The statistics are, through Newcomb's Cyclopaedia, from report of 1853.

[In addition to the above, the Canadian Conference reports, this year (1857), 1374 Indian members of its communion.]

Note from page 739: 1023. The Western Foreign Missionary Society was the germ of this Board, which is the organ of the Presbyterian Church (O. S.).

Statistics and data from report of 1857 and communications from Secretary.

Note from page 740: 1024. The first of these Societies, established in 1843, was one of four which were united as the American Missionary Society; which latter is the organ of Churches conducting Missions on the basis of opposition to slavery. Report of 1857.

Note from page 740: 1025. The organ of the Baptist Churches of the South-west: in 1855, merged into the Domestic Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention, to which all its then existing Missions were transferred.

Note from page 740: 1026. Although the Mission to the Weas, Piankashaws, &c., has this year been abandoned, its statistics are embraced in the total for 1857.

Special Authorities. — Report of 1857; and a table prepared by the Secretary from the records of the two societies.

Note from page 740: 1027. This Society resulted from the division of the Methodist Church in 1844, from which all its Missions were transferred in 1844 and 1846.

The statistics are chiefly from the report of 1857 (though the columns of stations, converts and scholars are the same as in that of 1856, while the report shows numerous changes and increases): those of the native and female assistants, which are deduced from the reports of 1855-6-7, are as complete as can be obtained. It is not thought that the totals are reliable.

Note from page 740: 1028. The organ of the Baptist Churches of the Northern States for Home Missions, to which class those to the Indians, though formerly conducted as foreign Missions by the Missionary Union (q. v.), are now regarded as belonging.

Statistics furnished by the Secretary.

Previous section


Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe.. History of the Indian Tribes of the United States: Their Present Condition and Prospects, and a Sketch of Their Ancient Status. Volume 6. . Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo and Co, 1857. [format: book; image], [genre: government document; report]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
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