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Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe.. History of the Indian Tribes of the United States: Their Present Condition and Prospects, and a Sketch of Their Ancient Status. Volume 6. . Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo and Co, 1857. [format: book; image], [genre: government document; report]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
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Chapter V. — Statistics of History.


A. D. 387. According to Alva, the Toltecs reach Huehuetlalpallan, in Mexico.

498. They found Tula.

510. They begin their monarchy.

870. The Färoe Islands are known and visited about this time by the Northmen, and by the Celts from the coasts of Iceland and the British group.

875. The natives of Iceland discovered by Naddod, of Norway, who, in an attempt to reach the Färoe Islands, is driven on the coast by storms.

953. The Toltec monarchy ends in Mexico.

963. The Chichemecs and Acolhuans, or Tezcocans, occupy the Valley of Mexico; and Xolotl, their first king, begins his reign.

983. Greenland is first settled by the Northmen, under Ingolf; having been seen by their bold navigators, and recognised, a century before.

986. Leif Erickson descries parts of the North American coast, being driven this year from off the Greenland coast towards the south; but he does not land.

1000. Scandinavian America is discovered by Lief, the son of Eric the Red, in a voyage from Greenland. He lands on some part along the coast, between Nova Scotia and Massachusetts, and reaches to about latitude 41° 30' North. The country is named Vinland.

1002. The Esquimaux are about this time supposed to occupy the Vinland coasts. They are called Skroellings, or Dwarfs, but are described as fierce and courageous.

1120. Eric Upsi undertakes a Christian mission from Greenland to Vinland. Huitramannaland (Virginia,) is, at this period, reported to have a Celtic element of population.

1160. The Aztecs leave Aztalan.

1200. Welch tradition affirms that a colony of Britons, led by Prince Madoc, sailed west to America.

1216. The Toltecs arrive in the Valley of Mexico.

1324. The foundation of the Indian city of Mexico, or Tenuchtitlan, is laid.

1375. Acamapichtei elected king 1st King.
1396. Huitzilihuitl succeeds 2d King.
1417. Chimalpopoca 3d King.
1427. Ytcoatl 4th King.
1440. Montezuma I. 5th King.
1469. Acayacatl 6th King.
1482. Tizoc 7th King.
1486. Ahuitzol 8th King.

Between the rise of the Toltec and Aztec monarchies, and the discovery of America, the Mississippi valley is supposed to have been occupied by numerous active, warlike tribes, who carried on destructive wars against each other.

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A.D. 1492. St. Domingo, or Hayti, the Caribs, and the Caribbean Islands, are discovered by Columbus (October 12th, O. S.), after having confidently predicted the existence of land in this quarter, from the study of the geography and hydrography of the globe.

1497. Cabot discovers the Algonquin families of the North American coast, from Lat. 56° to 36°, and thus lays the claim of England to the country. He landed at Newfoundland, named it, and had an interview with the Indians.

Atotarho is supposed to rule the Iroquois at this period.

1502. Montezuma II. succeeds to the head of the Mexican Indian empire.

1512. Ponce de Leon lands in Florida, and bestows this name on all North America, north of the Gulf of Mexico.

1517. Cordova discovers Yucatan and the Yucatanese.

1518. Grizalba lands on the Mexican coasts.

About this period, Vasquez D'Allyon lands on the Atlantic coast of Chicora, now South Carolina, with the commission of Atalantado — traffics with the Chicora Indians, at the mouth of the Combahee river, who, in return for former treacheries in carrying off the natives to St. Domingo, massacre his crew, and he is driven, mortally wounded, on board his vessels.

1519. Mexico is invaded by Cortez, who defeats the natives in every encounter, and enters the city of Mexico, whence he is eventually expelled, after desperate fighting, and hastens back to the seacoast, where Narvaez is sent from Cuba with an army to arrest him.

1520. Cortez defeats Narvaez, founds Vera Cruz, and re-appears before the city of Mexico, which he enters by razing the buildings as he advances.

1520. Montezuma is killed by a dart, and the city falls.

1524. Verrazani visits the harbor of New York, and is visited by Algonquins.

1528. Pamphilio de Narvaez lands in Florida with an army, where he is fiercely resisted by the Appalachians, and suffers from want of provisions. He constructs boats at the mouth of the Apalachicola, and proceeds west along the Gulf coasts, whence he is driven to sea, and lost.

The mother of Hirrahagua is torn to pieces, in Florida, by Spanish bloodhounds.

1534. Cartier discovers the St. Lawrence, where he holds interviews with the Algonquins, and afterwards, on ascending the river, with the Wyandot, or Huron tribe of the Iroquois.

1535. Cartier discovers Hochelaga, or Montreal, and Canada.

1537. Caba de Vaca, who had escaped with three men from the wreck of the boats of Narvaez, after nine years' wanderings among the Indian tribes, reaches Compostella, on the Colorado coast.

1538. Ferdinand de Soto, who had distinguished himself in the wars of the conquest of Peru, lands, with a well-appointed army, in Florida. With extraordinary fortitude, he traverses the vast area which comprises the present States of Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi, being opposed, with courage, by the Choctaws and their confederates, who attack, and well nigh defeat him, at Mauvilla.

1539. Tuscaloosa perishes in the conflagration of Mauvilla.

1540. Francesco Vasquez Coronado is placed by Mendoza in command of an army, for the discovery and conquest of the country since called New Mexico, by which our knowledge of the Indian tribes in that quarter is much extended.

De Soto discovers the Mississippi River, on its left banks, in the country of the Chickasaws, within the present boundaries of the State of Tennessee.

1541. De Soto dies at the mouth of the Arkansas River, and his body, entombed in a tree, is sunk in the Mississippi.

1542. The expedition of Coronado, and his compeers, returns, and abandons the country.

The expedition of De Soto terminates, having suffered by hardship, disease, and death; the commander himself having fallen a victim to his intrepidity; the survivors descend the Mississippi in boats, and reach Tampico.

1562. Ribault enters the St. John's River, in Florida; then sails to, and enters Port Royal, and builds Fort Charles, at or near Beaufort, South Carolina.

1564. Laudonniere visits the River St. John's, Florida, and erects Fort Caroline. St. Augustine founded.

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A.D. 1565. Admiral Coligny resumes the settlement of Florida by Protestants. Second voyage of Ribault; his capture by Melendez, under a false guise, and the treacherous massacre of Ribault and his men.

1567. Gourgues revenges the outrages perpetrated by Melendez.

1583. Indians are kidnapped on the New England coasts.

1584. Virginia is discovered, and named. The coast is occupied by Algonquin tribes, under the rule of Powhatan.

1607. The colony of Virginia is founded in the midst of the Powhatanic tribes.

1609. Hudson enters the Bay of New York, where he holds intercourse with the Mohican family of the Algonquins. He discovers it to be the receptacle of a large river, which he ascends to the boundaries of the Iroquois at Albany.

1616. Pocahontas dies in England.

1618. Powhatan dies.

1620. English ships, freighted with emigrants fleeing from ecclesiastical tyranny, land in Massachusetts bay, and find the coasts occupied by Algonquin tribes, of the Mohican sub-type. They are under the rule of Massasoit.

1622. The Indians of Virginia, undgr Opechanganough, rise, by preconcert, against the colonists, and commit an appalling massacre.

1627. The Maine and New Hampshire coasts are visited, and found to be occupied by Algonquins.

1630. Tammany, or Tamenund, is supposed to rule the Lenno Lenapees, from the Delaware River to Manhattan Island.

1631. Maryland is colonized in the territorial dominions of the Susquehannocks and Nanticokes.

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Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe.. History of the Indian Tribes of the United States: Their Present Condition and Prospects, and a Sketch of Their Ancient Status. Volume 6. . Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo and Co, 1857. [format: book; image], [genre: government document; report]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
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