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Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe.. History of the Indian Tribes of the United States: Their Present Condition and Prospects, and a Sketch of Their Ancient Status. Volume 6. . Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo and Co, 1857. [format: book; image], [genre: government document; report]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
Persistent link to this document: http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/file.php?file=schoolcraft6.html


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Chapter II. — Fiscal Statistics.

THE policy of the American government respecting the Indians, is in nothing more marked than in the just and elevated tone of its financial transactions with them. Other nations, who preceded the present government, in their dealings with the Indians satisfied their sense of justice and benevolence by periodical presents and gratuities. Spain, France, and Great Britain acted upon this principle. The Revolution of 1776 put this matter on a different footing. The tribes were assembled in councils by their chiefs and principal warriors, and treated with as foreign nations. These treaties were laid before the Senate for its ratification. When so ratified they were proclaimed, as other treaties, and published to the world, with the records of our national diplomacy. Such has been the practice down to the present day. This record forms one of the most noble evidences of the national justice to the poor, ignorant, and feeble hunter tribes of America. The awards thus made to them for their lands have rapidly increased with the growth and prosperity of the States; and the system is destined to go on, in an accelerated ratio, while civilization requires lands, which the Indians can supply.

In 1820, the total sum required to meet the payment of Indian annuities was $152,575. 938 Nothing better evidences the increased demand for, and value of, the Indian lands, as also the progress of the intercourse with the tribes, than the rapid multiplication of the annuities paid to them. In 1851, the sum required to be paid in fulfilment of treaty stipulations was $868,833.04; in 1852, $1,001,201.74; in 1853, $1,472,605.58; and in 1854, $905,171.23. During the same period the aggregate of salaries and cost of management, rose from $147,033.43 to $195,550.68.

In the year 1855, the appropriation to meet the requirements of treaties was $1,505,762.76; and in 1856, $1,804,332.52. The entire appropriation, for all objects, during the XXXIst, XXXIId, and XXXIIId Congresses, was respectively, $5,556,850.36, $4,782,093.24, and $5,989,375.48. 939

The distribution of these sums amongst the different tribes, and the amounts vested in public stocks for their benefit, by the Treasury Department, are set forth in the subjoined tables, numbered I., II., III., IV., V., VI.

-- 720 --

TABLE I.
INTEREST PAID INDIANS ON STOCKS HELD BY THEM IN 1847.
Names of Tribes.
Amount provided by treaty for investment.
Rate per cent.
Amount of interest annually appropriated.
Authority by which made.
Delawares $46,080 5 $2,304 Treaty, September 29, 1829.
Chippewas and Ottowas 200,000 6 12,000 Resol'n, Senate, May 27, 1836.
Sioux of Mississippi 300,000 5 15,000 Treaty, September 29, 1837.
Sacs and Foxes of Missouri 175,400 5 8,770 Treaty, October 21, 1837.
Sacs and Foxes of Mississippi 1,000,000 5 50,000 Treaties, October 21, 1837, and October 11, 1842.
Winnebagoes 1,100,000 5 55,000 Treaty, November 1, 1837.
Iowas 157,500 5 7,875 Resol'n, Senate, Jan. 19, 1838.
Osages 69,120 5 3,456 Resol'n, Senate, Jan. 19, 1838.
Creeks 350,000 5 17,500 Treaty, November 23, 1838.
Senecas of New York 75,000 5 3,750 Treaty, May 20, 1842.
Choctaws 43,600 5 2,180 Treaty, September 27, 1830.
Total $3,516,700   $177,835  
TABLE II.
INTEREST PAID INDIANS IN 1851. 940
Names of Tribes.
Amount provided by treat for investment.
Rate per cent.
Amount of interest annually appropriated.
Authority by which it is made.
Delawares $46,080 5 $2,304 Treaty, September 29, 1829.
Chippewas and Ottawas 200,000 6 12,000 Resolution of the Senate, May 27, 1836.
Sioux, Mississippi 300,000 5 15,000 Treaty, September 29, 1837.
Sacs and Foxes, Missouri 175,400 5 8,770 Treaty, October 21, 1837.
Winnebagoes 1,185,000 5 59,250 Treaties, November 1, 1837, and October 13, 1846.
Sacs and Foxes, Mississippi 1,000,000 5 50,000 Treaties, October 21, 1837, and October 11, 1842.
Iowas 157,500 5 7,875 Resolution of the Senate, January 19, 1838.
Osages 69,120 5 3,456 Resolution of the Senate, January 19, 1838.
Creeks 350,000 5 17,500 Treaty, November 23, 1838.
Senecas, New York 75,000 5 3,750 Treaty, May 20, 1842, and law of Congress, June 27, 1846.
Kanzas 200,000 5 10,000 Treaty, January 14, 1846.
Pottawattamies 643,000 5 32,150 Treaty, June 5, 1846.
Choctaws 872,000 5 43,600 Treaty, September 27, 1830, and laws of 1842 and 1845.
Total $5,273,100   $265,655  

-- 721 --

TABLE III.
PER CAPITA PAYMENTS MADE TO INDIAN TRIBES IN 1854.
No.
Names of Tribes.
Total number of Indians.
Payment per capita.
Total amount paid.
1. Menomonies 1,930 $9.75 $18,817.00
2. Sioux of Mississippi, viz.:      
  Seseetoan and Wahpaytoan band 4,004 9.00 36,043.51
  Medawakantoan and Wahpakootah 2,379 23.50 55,916.17
  Winnebasgoes 2,561 15.00 38,415.00
3. Chippewas of Lake Superior:      
  Three bands 606 3.89 2,362.94
  Twenty bands 2,479 2.14 5,323.21
4. Chippewas of Mississippi 2,206 4.25 9,375.50
5. Pottawattamies 3,440 18.50 63,862.50
6. Sacs and Foxes of Mississippi 1,626 24.50 40,000.00
7. Chippewas and Ottawas, viz.:      
  Sixteen bands 1,590 6.38 10,147.78
  Six bands 755 6.75 5,101.22
  Ten bands 1,061 9.85 10,457.44
  Twelve bands 1,746 8.75 15,293.56
8. Ottowas, fourteen bands 1,212 1.40 1,700.00
9. Chippewas, Ottowas, and Pottawattamies 236 6.72 1,587.50
10. Pottawattamies of Huron 45 8.88 400.00
11. Chippewas of Swan creek and Black river 138 2.17 300.00
12. Chippewas of Saginaw 1,340 1.64 2,200.00
13. Delawares 902 42.50 38,335.00
14. Wyandots 554 36.00 19,944.00
15. Shawnees 851 67.50 54,067.50
16. Stockbridges in the Territory of Kanzas 13 4.60 59.80
17. Christian Indians 44 9.00 402.80
18. Kaskaskias, Peorias, Weas, and Piankashaws 220 38.00 8,360.00
19. Miamies west 207 206.00 42,642.00
20. Miamies in Indiana 276 154.92 42,758.98
21. Miamies of Eel river 12 183.00 2,196.00
22. Senecas 180 6.50 1,250.00
23. Senecas and Shawnees 271 4.00 1,940.37
24. Osages 4,098 2.50 10,245.00
25. Chickasaws 4,787 10.00 47,870.00
26. Sacs and Foxes of Missouri 180 83.00 15,000.00
27. Iowas 433 57.00 24,681.00
28. Kickapoos 344 72.50 25,000.00
29. Omahas 800 25.00 20,000.00
30. Senecas of New York 683 2.14 1,461.62
    2,146 3.48 7,468.08
  Total 46,349   $680,985.48

-- 722 --

TABLE IV.
INDIAN TRUST FUNDS IF 1855.
[PREPARED BY THE INDIAN BUREAU.]
Tribes, and Dates of Act, Treaties, and Conventions.
U. States Loan, 1842, 6 per cent.
U. States Loan, 1847, 6 per cent.
Virginia, 6 per cent.
Maryland, 6 per cent.
Maryland, 5 per cent.
Kentucky, 5 per cent.
Tennessee, 5 per cent.
Missouri, 6 per cent.
Missouri, 5 1/2 per cent.
Indiana, 5 per cent.
Michigan, 6 per cent.
Totals.
Creek Orphans, second article of treaty, 1832 $49,900.84   $73,800.00     $1,000.00 $20,000.00 $28,041.76 $28,000.00     $200,742.60
Menomonee Treaty, 1836 26,114.88 $21,321.10       77,000.00 19,000.00 9,967.60       153,403.58
Ottawas and Chippewas, fourth article, treaty, 1836 4,588.97 2,274.47 3,000.00       1,000.00 10,062.30       20,925.74
Chippewas of Swan creek, treaty, 1836               5,587.42       5 587.42
Ottawas of Roche Boeuf, treaty, 1831               1,571.13       1,571.13
Ottawas of Blanchard's Fork, treaty, 1831               8,473.22       8,473.22
Chippewas, Ottawas, and Pottawattamies, mills and education, third article of treaty, 1833 7,478.64 8,317.37   $130,850.43       150.00   $68,000.00   214,796.44
Senecas and Shawnees, acts, June 14, 1836, and January 9, 1837           6,000.00   3,466.10 7,000.00     16,466.10
Kanzas schools, treaty, 1825 4,444.66 1,540.06           2,570.28 18,000.00     26,555.00
Choctaws, under convention with Chickasaws, February 17, 1837 1,734.71   450,000.00         2,000.00       453,734.71
Delaware, education, treaty, 1829 7,806.28                     7,806.28
Osages, education, treaty, 1825 24,679.56             7,044.46       31,724.02
Stockbridges and Munsees, treaty, 1840 5,204.16                     5,204.16
Choctaws, education, treaty, 1830 60,893.62 18,026.97           19,471.20       98,391.79
Wyandots, Senate amendment to treaty, April 1, 1850             105,000.00 1,594.53       106,594.53
Cherokee Schools, 1819 10,000.00 5,800.00     $41,138.00             56,938.00
Cherokee treaty of 1835, and Supplement of 1836     270,000.00 761.39   94,000.00 250,000.00       $64,000.00 678,761.29
Senecas, acts, June 14, 1836; and January 9, 1837           5,000.00           5,000.00
Total                       $2,092,676.11

-- 723 --

TABLE V.
ANNUITIES PAID TO INDIANS IN 1856.
[PREPARED BY THE INDIAN BUREAU.]
To which Tribe paid.
In Money.
In Goods.
In Provisions.
To the Chippewas of Saginaw, Swan creek, and Black river $10,300.00    
To the Ottawas and Chippewas 28,300.00    
To the Pottawatamies (Chippewas, Ottawas, and Pottawatamies in Michigan) 1,587.50    
To the Pottawatamies of Huron 400.00    
To the Menomonies 20,000.00   $3,000.00
To the Six Nations of New York, viz:      
Stockbridges, Green Bay $214      
Stockbridges, West 56      
Oneidas, Green Bay 882      
  1,152.00    
To the Six Nations of New York Indians   $3,694.50  
To the Chippewas of Lake Superior, treaties 1837, 1842, and 1854 19,666.67 24,077.17 2,666.67
To the Chippewas of Mississippi, treaties of 1837, 1842, and 1855 27,333.33 9,853.75 1,500.00
To the Pillager and Lake Winnebigoshish band of Chippewa Indians 10,666.66 7,933.75  
To the Delawares 41,850.00    
To the Pottawatamies 61,412.50    
To the Sacs and Foxes of Mississippi 80,862.50    
To the Ottawas, west 2,600.00    
To the Miamies, west 36,674.49    
To the Kaskaskias and Peorias, and Weas and Piankashaws 9,000.00    
To the Sacs and Foxes of Missouri 15,000.00    
To the Omahas 37,700.00    
To the Ottoes and Missourias 15,750.00    
To the Shawnee Indians 90,000.00    
To the Wyandots 126,666.67    
To the Kickapoos 20,000.00    
To the Kanzas 8,000.00    
To the Comanches, Kiowas, and Apaches   18,117.07  
To the Blackfeet Indians, in goods, provisions, &c.   25,905.50  
To the Winnebagoes 92,899.24 19,386.20 10,000.00
To the Sioux of Mississippi 90,078.59 21,671.11 13,000.00
To the Choctaws 3,600.00    
To the Creeks 24,500.00 2,000.00  
To the Chickasaws 3,000.00    
To the Osages 12,000.00 8,000.00  
To the Senecas 1,000.00    
To the Senecas and Shawnees 1,000.00    
To the Senecas of New York 11,902.50    
To the Florida Indians, or Seminoles 3,000.00 2,000.00  
For tribes, parties to treaties at Fort Laramie   48,253.78  
Total 907,902.65 190,892.83 30,166.67

-- 724 --

TABLE VI.
FUNDS APPROPRIATED FOR INDIAN ACCOUNT, ANNUALLY DURING SIX YEARS; 1851, '52, '53, '54, '55, '56.
[PREPARED BY THE INDIAN BUREAU.]
Appropriations and Estimates of each Congress, from 1851 to 1856, Amounts of Unestimated Appropriations, and Amouuts Drawn.
For fulfilling Treaties, &c.
For Salaries, &c.
General Expenses and Miscellaneous Payments.
Total.
THIRTY-FIRST CONGRESS.        
Appropriated at 1st session $868,833.04 $147,033.43 $1,913,951.31 $2,929,817.78
Appropriated at 2d session 1,001,201.74 154,666.66 1,471,164.18 2,627,032.58
Estimated to 1st session 856,833.04 147,033.43 458,926.22 1,462,792.69
Estimated to 2d session 1,001,201.74 154,666.66 1,453,963.97 2,609,832.37
Amounts appropriated, and not estimated 12,000.00   1,237,303.61 1,249,303.61
Drawn during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1851 1,025,740.34 117,433.16 1,585,044.36 2,728,217.86
Drawn during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1852 676,488.91 161,282.55 1,720,886.96 2,558,658.42
THIRTY-SECOND CONGRESS.        
Appropriated at 1st session 1,472,605.58 172,968.68 1,513,301.42 3,158,875.68
Appropriated at 2d session 905,171.23 195,550.00 522,496.33 1,623,217.56
Estimated to 1st session 1,472,605.58 172,968.68 1,499,087.60 3,144,661.86
Estimated to 2nd session 905,171.23 195,550.00 202,099.00 1,302,820.23
Amounts appropriated, and not estimated     304,167.50 304,167.50
Drawn during the fiscal year, ending June 30, 1853 1,529,644.44 200,967.98 1,990,816.18 3,721,428.60
Drawn during the fiscal year, ending June 30, 1854 861,646.33 169,067.37 312,800.24 1,343,513.94
THIRTY-THIRD CONGRESS.        
Appropriated at 1st session 1,505,762.76 189,500.00 1,384,547.59 3,079,810.35
Appropriated at 2nd session 1,804,332.52 211,041.79 894,190.82 2,909,565.13
Estimated to 1st session 1,505,762.76 189,500.00 1,267,400.66 2,962,663.42
Estimated to 2nd session 1,804,332.52 206,041.79 666,340.13 2,676,714.44
Amounts appropriated and not estimated   5,000.00 304,397.62 309,397.62
Drawn during the fiscal year, ending June 30, 1855 1,405,112.72 178,724.46 1,138,523.13 2,722,360.31
Drawn during the fiscal year, ending June 30, 1856 1,816,716.11 157,579.56 707,120.07 2,681,414.74

-- 725 --

TABLE VI. [CONTINUED.]
RECAPITULATION.
Aggregates. 31st Congress. 32d Congress. 33d Congress.
Appropriations.
Estimates.
Appropriations.
Estimates.
Appropriations.
Estimates.
Aggregates of Appropriations and Estimates for each Congress, for fulfilling Treaties $1,870,034.78 $1,858,034.78 $2,377,776.81 $2,377,770.81 $3,310,095.28 $3,310,095.28
Aggregates of Appropriations and Estimates for each Congress, for Salaries, &c. 301,700.09 301,700.09 368,518.68 368,518.68 400,541.79 395,541.79
Aggregates of Appropriations and Estimates for each Congress, for General Expenses, Miscellaneous Payments, &c. 3,385,115.49 1,912,890.19 2,035,797.75 1,701,186.60 2,278,738.41 1,933,740.79
Total 5,556,850.36 4,072,625.06 4,782,093.24 4,447,482.09 5,989,375.48 5,639,377.86
RECAPITULATION OF AMOUNTS DRAWN.
Purpose of Appropriation.
During fiscal year, ending June 30, 1851.
During fiscal year, ending June 30, 1852.
During fiscal year, ending June 30, 1853.
During fiscal year, ending June 30, 1854.
During fiscal year, ending June 30, 1855.
During fiscal year, ending June 30, 1856.
For fulfilling Treaties, &c. $1,025,740.34 $676,488.91 $1,529,644.44 $861,646.33 $1,405,112.72 $1,816,715.11
For Salaries, &c. 117,433.10 161,282.55 200,967.98 169,067.37 178,724.46 157,579.56
For General Expenses, and Miscellaneous Payments, &c. 1,585,044.36 1,720,886.96 1,990,816.18 312,800.24 1,138,523.13 707,120.07
Total 2,728,217.86 2,558,658.42 3,721,428.60 1,343,513.94 2,722,360.31 2,681,414.74

NOTE. — The appropriations for the Indian service at the 1st session of the 34th Congress amount to $2,831,013.78, which would be distributed on the basis of the above table, as follows:

For fulfilling Treaties, &c. $1,874,860.92
For Salaries, &c. 107,500.00
For general Expenses, &c. 849,252.86
Total 2,831,613.78

-- 726 --

CHAPTER III.
STATISTICS OF THE FUR TRADE.
TABLE I.
PUBLIC SALE OF UNITED STATES FURS AT THE COMMERCIAL SALE ROOMS, MINCING LANE, LONDON.
Description of Furs from the United States. 941
DATES OF SALES. NAME OF SKINS AND FURS RECOGNISED IN THE TRADE.
Bear. Beaver. Black Musquash. Cat, Common. Cross Fox. Deer Skins. Deer Skins in the hair, and shaved. Elk. Fawn. Fisher. Grey Fox. Kitt Fox. Lynx.
1854, January 19   459                      
1854, March 10, 13, 14, and 15 915 183 1,032 2,844 192         954 4,223   66
1854, March 20             3,621            
1854, July 20             18,720 16 2,607        
1854, August 31, September 4 and 5 430 2,014 38,587 2,088 316         1,200 3,788   304
1854, November 15             6,097   347        
1855, January 18   2,382                      
1855, March 9, 12, 13, and 14 492 354 27,503 3,878 235         881 5,554 5,086 27
1855, April 17           5,696              
1855, August 14             10,444   839        
1855, September 3, 4 and 5 1,882 8,442 40,548 3,111 496         2,009 10,272   491
1856, January 17   1,614                      
1856, February 15             15,250   1 276        
1856, February 29, March 3 and 4 1,014 244 3,271 3,752 411         1,034 9,148   342
Total 4,733 11,492 110,941 15,673 1,650 5,696 54,132 16 5,069 6,078 32,985 5,086 1,230

-- 727 --

TABLE I. [CONTINUED.]
PUBLIC SALE OF UNITED STATES FURS AT THE COMMERCIAL SALE ROOMS, MINCING LANE, LONDON.
Description of Furs from the United States. 942
DATES OF SALES. NAME OF SKINS AND FURS RECOGNISED IN THE TRADE.
Martin. Mink. Musquash. Opossum. Otter. Rabbit. Raccoon. Red Fox. Russian Sable. Silver Fox. Silver Grey Rabbit. Sea Otter.
1854, January 19     423,421                  
1854, March 10, 13, 14, and 15 3,037 72,464 118,088   508   258,991 15,739   45   41
1854, March 20                        
1854, July 20                        
1854, August 31, September 4 and 5 2,022 73,440 367,788   2,238   214,000 16,806   51   35
1854, November 15                        
1855, January 18     589,224                  
1855, March 9, 12, 13, and 14 3,043 61,266 166,052   2,494   264,595 14,612   56   100
1855, April 17                        
1855, August 14                        
1855, September 3, 4 and 5 7,861 67,558 398,978 12,745 1,558   217,487 21,093   48 2,095 52
1856, January 17     362,865                  
1856, February 15                        
1856, February 29, March 3 and 4 5,559 31,358 45,965 52,584 1,898   179,228 6,833 320 133   134
Total 21,522 306,086 2,472,381 65,329 8,696   1,134,301 75,083 320 333 2,095 362

-- 728 --

TABLE II.
PUBLIC SALE OF FURS OF THE HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY, AT THEIR HOUSE IN FENCHURCH STREET, LONDON.
Description of Furs of the Hudson's Bay Company. 943
DATE OF SALES. NAMES OF SKINS AND FURS RECOGNISED IN THE TRADE.
American Rabbit. Bear. Black Bear. Brown, Grey, and White Bear. Badger. Beaver. Beaver Coat, lbs. Cat. Cross Fox. Deer.
1854, January 18 82,470         499,000 47      
1854, March 7, 8 and 9     3,155 597 867       976  
1854, August 29 and 30   2,464       10,249   130   981
1855, January 17 82,734         45,950 42      
1855, March 6, 7 and 8     3,423 610 884       1,402  
1855, August 29 and 30   4,928       16,402   374   490
1856, January 16           56,033 66      
1856, February 26, 27 and 28     3,123 826 892       1,519  
Total 165,204 7,392 9,701 2,033 2,643 627,634 155 504 3,897 1,471

-- 729 --

TABLE II. [CONTINUED.]
PUBLIC SALE OF FURS OF THE HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY, AT THEIR HOUSE IN FENCHUECH STREET, LONDON.
Description of Furs of the Hudson's Bay Company. 944
DATES OF SALES. NAMES OF SKINS AND FURS RECOGNISED IN THE TRADE.
Fisher. Fox. Hair Seal. Kitt Fox. Lynx. Martin. Mink. Musquash. Otter. Raccoon.
1854, January 18               506,452    
1854, March 7, 8 and 9 4,576     5,565 3,939 73,575 29,934   11,242  
1854, August 29 and 30 327 291 1,959   603 18,031 12,305 5,828 806 792
1855, January 17               302,634    
1855, March 6, 7 and 8 3,833     4,646 4,245 109,578 37,493   10,331  
1855, August 29 and 30 1,028 1,357 2,880   1,388 26,935 13,227 30,635 763 1,416
1856, January 16               240,620    
1856, February 26, 27 and 28 4,281     3,370 8,970 149,533 46,030   9,027  
Total 14,045 1,648 4,339 13,581 19,145 377,652 138,989 1,086,169 32,169 2,208

-- 730 --

``
TABLE II. [CONTINUED.]
PUBLIC SALE OF FURS OF THE HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY, AT THEIR HOUSE IN FENCHURCH STREET, LONDON.
Description of Furs of the Hudson's Bay Company. 945
DATES OF SALES. NAMES OF SKINS AND FURS RECOGNISED IN THE TRADE.
Red Fox. Sea Otter. Sea Otter, Pups, tails, and pieces. Skunk. Silver Fox. Swan. White and Blue Fox. Wolf. Wolverine. White Fox.
1854, January 18                    
1854, March 7, 8 and 9 3,015     4,467 308 1,281   6,586 758 4,062
1854, August 29 and 30   208 242         105 289  
1855, January 17                    
1855, March 6, 7 and 8 7,319     5,945 371 1,211   13,754 706 1,846
1855, August 29 and 30   288 253         1,638 418  
1856, January 16                    
1856, February 26, 27 and 28 6,567     11,300 491 1,032 10,366 6,822 630  
Total 16,901 496 495 21,712 1,170 3,524 10,366 28,905 2,801 5,908

-- 731 --

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Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe.. History of the Indian Tribes of the United States: Their Present Condition and Prospects, and a Sketch of Their Ancient Status. Volume 6. . Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo and Co, 1857. [format: book; image], [genre: government document; report]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
Persistent link to this document: http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/file.php?file=schoolcraft6.html
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