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Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe.. History of the Indian Tribes of the United States: Their Present Condition and Prospects, and a Sketch of Their Ancient Status. Volume 6. . Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo and Co, 1857. [format: book; image], [genre: government document; report]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
Persistent link to this document: http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/file.php?file=schoolcraft6.html


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Chapter I. — Census of the Indian Tribes of the United States.

IN 1736 the French undertook to make an enumeration of the Indian tribes, and reported the number of warriors, or fighting-men, to be 16,403, which, at the usual ratio of computation, represented a population of 82,015 souls. 893 Subsequent to the conquest of Canada, and after returning from his western campaign, Colonel Henry Bouquet estimated their numbers at 56,500 warriors, 894 or 283,000 persons. In 1768, Thomas Hutchins, Esq., Surveyor-General of the British colonies, rated their military force more accurately, at 19,830 warriors, indicating an aggregate population of 99,150 souls. 895

The latter two of these estimates comprise the aboriginal residents of the territory included in the original thirteen British colonies. The French estimate was manifestly confined to the great valleys of the St. Lawrence and of the Mississippi, extending to the base of the Rocky mountains, and including all the region west of the Alleghanies and north of New Orleans. At the era of the origination of the American Revolution, the number of Indian warriors to be encountered, as reported to Congress, then located at Philadelphia, was 12,000, being the multiplicand of 60,000.

Variations, contradictions, and gross incertitudes, have marked the enumerations made at all periods. The present census comprehends the Indian population resident within the geographical area of the United States, as now organized, and presents a condensed view of the statistics of all the tribes, as reported to the Bureau of Indian Affairs, within a period of ten years.

-- 686 --

TABLE I.
CENSUS OF THE INDIAN TRIBES OF THE UNITED STATES. 1857.
This Table includes all the Tribes with whom the Government is in communication by Local, or General Agents.
No.
Names.
1847.
1848.
1849.
1850.
1851.
1852.
1853.
1854.
1855.
1856.
1857. Deduced standard of the decade.
Remarks.
1. ABSAROKAS 5,300       4,000         4,650 4,650 Alpine bands of Rocky mountains. Called Crows by the traders and frontiersmen.
2. ACOMA 350                   350 A band of reclaimed Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. Table XI.
3. ADEES 250                   250 Numbered 27 in 1825. Not estimated among Texas Indians.
4. ALABAMAS                       The ancient Alabamas are merged into the Creeks.
5. ALGONQUINS 17,197[ERROR: no link 896:896]                     Noticed under their respective tribal names.
6. ANADAKAS 450                     Texas. This tribe is noticed under Ionees and Caddoes.
7. APACHES 11,000 897     6,000           8,500 8,500 Including Jacarillas and Southern Utahs. Governor Bent's report.
8. APALACHICOLAS 265 897                   265  
9. ARAPAHOES       3,500 2,500       3,000   3,000 Table XXII. On the Upper Arkansas and Kansas. Robbers and plunderers.
10. ARICKAREES 1,800     1,500 1,200       3,000 1,550 1,990 Tables XI. and XXII. Allied to Pawnees. Wild and treacherous.
11. ASSINABOINES 15,000 898     7,000 6,500         7,100 8,900 Stone Sioux. Extending from the Missouri into the Hudson Bay territory.
12. BEDIES     25 to 100               62 899  
13. BLACKFEET 6,480       13,000       9,171 900 9,470 9,530 Nebraska.
14. BLOODS   500     1,500       2,450 2,000 1,612 Sasitka family. Upper Missouri. Mitchell's report. This is a band of the Blackfeet tribe — Prairie Minnetarees, Pagans, and Gros Ventres.
15. BONACKS — PONACKS     1,000               1,000 Table XIII. The Rocky mountain bands are included in the Utahs. Others in California and Oregon.
16. BROTHERTONS 600                     The Brothertons have assumed civilization, and are to be sought in the census of Wisconsin.
17. CADDOES — CADRONS 1,500   1,450   1,200         1,550 1,425 Including Madahas of Texas.
18. CALIFORNIA INDIANS                     22,300 Table XXXVI. Not inserted under tribal names.
19. CALAPELINS       1,200 1,250           1,225 Table XVIII. Pacific coast of Oregon, &c.
20. CALIPOAS       60             60 Table XVIII. Pacific coast of Oregon, &c.
21. CATAWBAS       250           200 200 Table XXII. South Carolina.
22. CAYUSE       800 901     100 902       450 Table XVI. Oregon.
23. CHEROKEES 18,000       26,000   17,367 903     21,709 904 21,709
Indian colony west.
24. CHEHALIS       300             300 Table XVIII. Oregon. Lane.
25. CHEYENNES 2,536     2,500   2,000         2,345 Table XII. Matlock. Rovers and plunderers.
26. CHICKASAWS 6,500     5,715       4,715   3,322 5,822 Table II.
Indian colony west.
27. CHINOOKS       100       300     300 Table XX. Including upper and lower band, and Queniolts. Washington Territory. Declining rapidly.
28. CHIPPEWAS 15,000             10,000 905     12,500 Living in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota.
29. CHOCTAWS 16,000     12,760       15,767   22,707 22,707 Table II.
Indian colony west.
30. CLACKAMAS       60 60         60 60 Table XVIII. Oregon.
31. CLATACAMIN       200 300           250 Table XVIII. Oregon.
32. CLATSOP       50 50           50 Table XVIII. Oregon.
33. COMANCHES 14,500   20,000 15,000 12,000           15,375 Tables. Vol. I. and II. Niunas. Texas. Of Shoshonee stock.
34. COWLITZ         120     154     137 Table XX. Washington Territory Indians. Stevens' report.
35. CREEKS 22,207 906     25,000           27,757 907 27,757 Muscogees, Muscogulges.
Indian colony west. Including 882 slaves.
36. CREES                 800   800 Tables XI. and XXII. A name for Kelistenos. Kenistenos. Upper Missouri.
37. CROWS OF THE YELLOW STONE VALLEY           4,000     3,360   3,780 Tables XI. and XXII. "Rascals," report of 1852. Called Absarokas.
38. DAKOTAHS                       Same as Sioux. Noticed under their tribal names. Minnesota.
39. DE CHUTES     300               300 Table XVIII. Oregon.
  Total                     179,961  

-- 687 --

TABLE I. [CONTINUED.]
No.
Names.
1847.
1848.
1849.
1850.
1851.
1852.
1853.
1854.
1855.
1856.
1857. Deduced standard of the decade.
Remarks.
40. DELAWARES       1,500         902   1,201 Table XV. Vol. I. Lenno Lenapi of early history. Mahingans and Loups of the French.
41. EEL RIVER INDIANS                       Included in Miamies.
42. EL PASO PUEBLO                     150 Estimate from Table XXVIII. A Pueblo band. New Mexico.
43. ERIES                       Extinct. A few persons supposed to be incorporated with the Catawbas.
44. EUQUATOPS       2,000               Texas. Included in Apaches.
45. FLAT-HEADS, EAST             350       350 Table XVII. In Rocky mountains, and heads of Missouri, Oregon, and Washington.
46. FLATHEADS, WEST   320   500             410 Table XVIII. Salish family. Oregon.
47. FOLLE AVOINES                       A name for Menomonees. Wisconsin.
48. FOXES AND SACS 1,850     2,400           2,000 2,089 Transferred to Kanzas.
49. FRESNOS OF CALIFORNIA               1,337     1,337 Vol. IV., p. 608.
50. GROS VENTRES 1,350     3,000   800 908         1,212 Same as Minatarees of Upper Missouri.
51. GROS VENTRES OF THE PRAIRIES       2,500             2,500 Table XI.
52. HOKAMISH       500             500 Homanish, Tuanoh, &c. Oregon.
53. IROQUOIS 3,753 909                     Table IV. Inserted under tribal heads.
54. IONEES     450               450 Table XXVII. includes Caddoes. Texas.
55. IOWAS       744       438     616 Table XXII.
56. ISLETTA PUEBLOS         751           751 Table XXVIII.
57. JENIES 365       365           365 Table XXVIII.
58. JICARILLAS                       Included in Apaches. New Mexico.
59. KANZAS       1,600         1,375   1,457 Table XXII., Vols. I. and II.
60. KASKASKIAS       200             200 Transferred to Kanzas.
61. KEECHIES       300             300 Texas. Mixed with Wacoes and Towccarros.
62. KICKAPOOS       600             600 Vol. I., p. 523.
63. KILLAMUCK       200             200 Table XVII. Oregon.
64. KIOWAS     1,500 2,000   2,800     1,375   1,918 Table XXII. Vols. I., III. and IV. Rovers on the sources of Red river and Kanzas Territory.
65. KOOLSATICARA                       Estimated in Comanches.
66. KONIC AND KATHLAMET                       Spokans.
67. LAGUNA PUEBLOS 150       749           749 Table XXVIII. Pueblos of New Mexico.
68. LENNI LENAPEES                       Delawares.
69. LENTIS PUEBLOS 50       210           210 Table XXVIII. Pueblos of New Mexico.
70. LIPANS 200   500               350 Table XXVIII., Vol. I., p. 518. Apache stock.
71. MAKAW INDIANS     1,000               1,000 Table XVIII. Washington Territory. Lane.
72. MANDANS 1,500 360   300             330 Reduced by the small-pox in 1838.
73. MARIPOSA INDIANS               3,407     3,407 Vol. IV., p. 608.
74. MENOMONIES       2,500         1,930   2,215 Table XXII. Tables, Vol. I.
75. MENDAWAKANTONS                       Included in Sioux.
76. MERCEDE INDIANS               280     280 Vol. IV., Letter N, p. 608.
77. MIAMIES       500         353   417 Table XXII.
78. MINNATAREES       2,500               Inserted under Gros Ventres. Upper Missouri.
79. MISSOURIAS   600   500             550 Table XXII.
80. MOHAWKS 3                   3 New York census of 1845. Fled to Canada on the close of the Revolutionary War. Iroquois.
81. MOHAVES                       Colorado river. Number unknown.
82. MOHICANS                       Returned by their tribal names of Stockbridges, &c.
83. MOQUES                     2,450 New Mexico. Vol. I., p. 245.
84. MUNSEES       200               Included in Delawares and Stockbridges.
85. MUSCALEROS       1,500         500   1,000 Tables XXII. and XXVIII. Texas. Apaches.
86. NADOWASIE                       A synonym for Sioux. Inserted under the name Sioux and Dakotahs. An old term disused.
87. NAMBE         111           111 Table XXVIII. Vol. IIII., p. 633. New Mexico. Pueblo.
88. NARRAGANSETTS                     420 Returned at 420 in 1825. Vol. III., p. 533.
89. NAVAJOES                     7,000 Vol. I., p. 245.
90. NEOSHO SENECAS, AND SHAWNEES               320     320 Vol. IV., Letter H, p. 590.
91. NEW MEXICAN INDIANS                     7,500 Not inserted by their separate names, both hunter and Pueblo tribes.
  Total                     44,909  

-- 688 --

TABLE I. [CONTINUED.]
No.
Names.
1847.
1848.
1849.
1850.
1851.
1852.
1853.
1854.
1855.
1856.
1857. Deduced standard of the decade.
Remarks.
92. NEZ PERCES     1,500       1,700       1,600 Oregon. Tables XVII. and XVIII. Stevens. Lane.
93. NlUNAS                       Inserted under the name of Comanches.
94. NORTH CAROLINA CHEROKEES       710       710 910     710 Vol. IV., Letter M, p 607.
95. NOTTOWAS 47 911                   47 Remains of Virginia tribes.
96. OGELLALAS       1,500           450 875 Tables XI. and XXXIII. Upper Missouri. Of the Sioux stock.
97. OKINAGANS     700       550       635 Tables XVII. and XVIII. Washington Territory.
98. OMAHAWS 1,000     2,000             1,500 Table XXII.
99. ONEIDAS OF NEW YORK 157               249   249 Table XXII.
100. ONEIDAS OF GREEN BAT 722               978   978 Table XXII.
101. ONONDAGAS 368           472   349   407 Table XXXIV.
102. OREGON INDIANS     23,078               11,539 Table XVIII. Inserted, chiefly, under tribal names.
103. OSAGES 6,000     4,561       4,941     4,500 Vol. IV., Letter H, 590. Vernacular name, Washbasha.
104. OTOES   600 900 500             750 Table IX.
105. OTTOWAS 1,500     2,242         1,260   1,667  
106. PASSAMAQUODDIES                     379 Reported in 1825. Vol. I., p. 583.
107. PAWNEES 17.000               4,000 912   4,000 Nebraska Territory.
108. PEJODQUE PUEBLO         48           48 Table XXVIII. New Mexico Pueblos.
109. PENOBSCOTS 297                   297 Reported in 1825. Vol. III., p. 583.
110. PENOITIKARA                       Included in Comanches.
111. PEORIAS       150         74   112 Table XXII.
112. PIANKASHAWS       200         70   135 Table XXII.
113. PICARIS 250                   236 Table XXVIII. New Mexico Pueblos.
114. PIEGANS 30,000 913                     Included under Blackfeet.
115. PONCAS 1,000   800 700             800 Table XI.
116. POTTAWATTAMIES 3,000     3,200         3,871   3,383 Table XXII. Vols. I and III.
117. PUEBLO INDIANS OF NEW MEXICO       7,867               Table XXVIII. The reclaimed bands consist of twenty-two Pueblos, who are inserted under their respective names. Vol. III., p. 633.
118. QUALLIAMISH       560             560 Includes Picanipalish and Sinnamish. Oregon and Washington.
119. QUAPPAS       400       314     357 Vol. IV., Letter H, p. 590.
120. REYNARDS                       French term for Fox tribe, which see.
121. RICAREES; REES 1,800                     Table XII. Inserted as Arickarees.
122. SACRAMENTO VALLEY INDIANS           1,190         1,190 Table XXIX.
123. SALISH     320               320 Table XVIII. Flatheads.
124. SAN JUAN       275 915 568           508 Table XXVIII.
125. SANTA CLARA       350 915 279           279 Table XXVIII.
126. SAN ILDEFONSO       250 915 139           139 Table XXVIII.
127. SANDIA       400 915 241           241 Table XXVIII.
128. SANTA ANA       300 915 399           399 Table XXVIII.
129. SAN FELIPE       275 915 411           411 Table XXVIII.
130. SANTA DOMINGA       750 915 666           666 Table XXVIII.
131. SASITKA                       A generic for Flatheads. Oregon.
132. SEMINOLES                 2,500   2,500 Table XXII. Vol. I., p. 524. Of the Creek family.
133. SENECAS OF ALLEGHANY 811     766     757       778 Table XXXIV. Vol. I., p. 441.
134. SENECAS OF BUFFALO 30                   30 Table XXXIV.
135. SENECAS OF CATTARAGUS 1,261           1,173       1,173 Table XXXIV.
136. SENECAS OF TONAWANDA 576           651       561 Table XXXIV.
137. SENPOILS       500             500 Table XVIII. Oregon Territory, in 1850. Vol. I., p. 521.
138. SHAWNEES       1,600         850   1,225 Table XXII. Shawnoes, Oshawanoes. Old estimate. Vol. I., p. 524.
139. SHINECOCKS 260 916               160   1 Table IV. New York census of 1855. Suffolk Co., Long Island, N. Y.
140. SHOSHONEES     2,000 1,700             1,850 Table XIII. Excluding Bonacks. This is the generic family of the Rocky mountains. Vol. I., p. 521.
141. SKAGETS       500             500 Table XVIII.
142. SKEYWHAMISH     350               450 Table XVIII.
143. SIOUX 21,600 917     15,560         27,663   21,615 Table XXII. Dakotah stock. Vide also Vol. I. p. 498.
144. SlNNAMISH       350             350 Table IV.
145. SISSITONS                       Included in Sioux.
  Total                     71,667  

-- 689 --

TABLE I. [CONTINUED.]
No.
Names.
1847.
1848.
1849.
1850.
1851.
1852.
1853.
1854.
1855.
1856.
1857. Reduced standard of the decade.
Remarks.
146. SOCCORRO       120             120 Not included in general Pueblos.
147. SOURIQUOIS       300             300 Estimate of 1825. Vol. I.
148. SOWANS                       Vol. I., p. 521. Inserted in Cheyenne.
149. SNAKES 450                   450  
150. SNOQUAMISH       500             500 Table XVIII. Estimate. Vol. I., p. 521.
151. SNOQUALAMICK       350             350 Table XVIII. Estimate. Vol. I., p. 521.
152. STOCKBRIDGES       400             400 Wisconsin, or of Mohigan stock.
153. ST. REGIS TRIBE       450             413 Table IV. Vol., p. 441. Iroquois stock.
154. SUALTINE       60             60 Table XVIII. Governor Lane. Vol. I., p. 521.
155. SUCHAMIER       15             15 Table XVIII. Governor Lane. Vol. I., p. 521.
156. SUSSETONWAH                       A synonym for Sissetons, which see. The native term. Vide Vol. III.
157. SWAN CREEK AND BLACK R. CHIPPEWAS.       200             200  
158. TAOS         360           360 Table XXVIII. New Mexico Pueblos. Vol. III., p. 633, pop. 119.
159. TAWACARROS       400 361           380 Included in Pueblos of New Mexico. Vol. III., p. 633, pop. 168.
160. TESUQUE         119           119 Table XXVIII.
161. TETONS       3,000               Included in Sioux. Vol. I., p. 524. Dakotah stock.
162. TILHUALWITS       200             200 Table XVIII. Governor Lane. Vol. I., p. 521.
163. TONAWANDAS                     602 Table IV. Senecas; separately enumerated.
164. TONCAHIRAS       650         602   650 Table XXVIII. Texas.
165. TOTONIC BANDS       1,260             1,260 Table XIX. Oregon coast.
166. TUCANOH         700           700 Table XVIII. Oregon.
167. TUSCARORAS       285             285 Table IV. Iroquois, N. Y.
168. UTCHEES       12         290   12 In Florida. The tribe of ancient Utchees is incorporated with Creeks.
169. UMPQUAS       200             200 Table XVIII.
170. UTAHS       7,000             7,000 Table XXII. Of Shoshonee or Apachee stock. Salt Lake valley.
171. WACOS       300             300 Table XXVI. Texas. Neighbors.
172. WAHKPATONS                       Included in Sioux.
173. WAHKPACOOTA                       Dakotah designation for same band.
174. WASHBASHAWS 4,94l                     Osages, which see.
175. WASHINGTON INDIANS, E. OF CASCADE.             6,500       6,500 Table XX. Stevens' report. For details see Table.
176. WASHINGTON INDIANS, W. OF CASCADE.             7,553       7,553 details, see Table.
177. WASHINGTON TERRITORY INDIANS 5,895                     Included above. Sterling's report. Vol. IV., p. 598. Superseded by Governor Stevens' report.
178. WEAS                       Miamies.
179. WINNEBAGOES                   1,754 1,754 Table XXI.
180. WITCHETAWS             300       300  
181. WYANDOTS                 554   554 Table XXII.
182. YACAWS       1,500             1,500 Pacific coast.
183. YAM HILL INDIANS     90               90 Table XVIII.
184. YAMPATICARA                       Of Comanche family. Texas. Vol. I., p. 522.
185. YANCTONS     2,500 1,763               Included in Sioux.
186. YANCTONAS; YANCTONWAS       6,000               Same as Yanctons.
187. YUTAS, GRANDE UNITA RIVER                     3,000 New Mexico.
188. YUTAS, SOUTHERN                     1,400 New Mexico. Vol. I., p. 245. Governor Bent.
189. ZUNIS       1,500             1,500 New Mexico. One of the seven Pueblos of ancient Cibola. Vol. III., p. 633.
  Total                     39,027 .
RECAPITULATION.
Table I., page 686 157,661
Table I., page 687 44,909
Table I., page 688 71,667
Table I., page 689 39,027
Total 313,264

To this result may be added, for tribes who are not reported by the agents, who have been solicited for desiderata, or who have vaguely reported, and for tribes who occupy unexplored parts of the interior of Texas, New Mexico, California, Oregon, Washington, Nebraska, and Kanzas, 66,000.

-- 690 --

TABLE II.
APPALACHIAN TRIBES, 1857.
Names.
Men.
Women.
Children.
Aggregate.
Increase in the Decade, 2 1/2 per cent.
Total.
Remarks.
Choctaws 3,816 4,172 7,779 15,767 3,940 19,707  
Chickasaws 1,122 1,117 2,470 4,715 1,107 5,822  
Cherokees       17,367 4,340 21,707 Number of Women and Children not given.
Creeks 10,513 10,249   22,664 918 5,550 28,214  
Seminoles       1,500 370 1,870 Number of Families and Children not given.
Total       62,013   77,320  
TABLE III.
CENSUS OF CREEKS.
Towns.
Heads of Families.
Males.
Females.
Slaves.
Total.
Remarks.
Forty-five Towns 3,915 6,555 7,142 445 14,142 B. S. Parsons, Vol. IV., p. 577.
Thirty-nine Towns 3,448 3,958 3,107 457 8,522 T. J. Abbott, Vol. IV., p. 581.
  7,363 10,513 10,249 902 22,664  
TABLE IV.
POPULATION OF THE IROQUOIS AND ALGONQUIN'S OF NEW YORK, IN 1845 AND 1855. 919
Reservations. Where Located. Total. Sex. Marriages year previous. Births year previous.
Males. Females.
1845. 1855. 1845. 1855. 1845. 1855. 1845. 1855. 1845. 1855.
Alleghany South Valley, Cold Spring, Bucktooth, Great Valley and Carrolton, Cattaraugus Co. 783 754 390 376 393 378 6   19 20
Buffalo Lancaster, Erie Co. 446   200   246   3   10  
Cattaraugus Perrysburgh, Cattaraugus Co., Collins, Erie Co., and Hanover, Chautauque Co. 922 1,179 449 575 473 604 12   33 21
Oneida Lenox, Madison Co., and Vernon, Oneida Co. 157 161 71 88 86 73     13 6
Onondaga Fayette and Onondaga, Onondaga Co. 368 349 173 173 195 176 5   16 10
St. Regis Bombay, Franklin Co. 260 413 126 206 134 207     7 17
Shinecock Southampton, Suffolk Co.   160   89   71        
Tonawanda Pembroke and Alabama, Genesee Co., Newstead, Erie Co., and Royalton, Niagara Co. 505 602 224 290 281 312 4 7 13 10
Tuscarora Lewiston, Niagara Co. 312 316 148 150 164 166 6 6 10 16
Total   3,753 3,934 1,781 1,947 1,972 1,987 36 13 121 100

-- 691 --

TABLE V.
WINNEBAGOES, 1847.
[J. E. FLETCHER. 920]
Tribal strength 2400
Number of regular hunters 300
Semi-agriculturalists 2100
Number of bands having chiefs 22
Number of half-breeds 75
Total number of mixed and pure 2475

Some of the Indians have this year cultivated their corn with the plough. The result has been such as will probably induce the general adoption of this mode of cultivation. Most of the bands have applied to be furnished with harness, wagons, and ploughs, which articles have been furnished them as far as practicable. Two wagons, ten sets of harness, ten sets of gears for ploughing, and ten ploughs, have been loaned to them. The Indians have, in all cases, furnished their own horses to use in the plough and wagon. They have this year cultivated 365 acres of land: of this, they have ploughed eighty acres themselves; 255 acres have been ploughed for them; and it is estimated that they have cultivated 30 acres without ploughing. Three additional fields have been ploughed and fenced this season for the bands who moved from the Mississippi and Root rivers, and are now located on the Iowa. They raise corn, oats, potatoes, beans, turnips, squashes, and other vegetables; they all, however, depend, in part, on hunting and
fishing for a living. The half-breeds depend partly on themselves, and in part on the Indians, for a support.

The farms have this season undergone considerable repairs. It was found necessary to repair all the fences. Some 8885 rails and stakes have been made and used on the farm at the agency. To this farm an addition of 100 acres has been made this season; this was done with very little additional fence, forty acres of the ground added having been formerly cultivated. There has been an average force of about ten hands constantly at work on the farms since the middle of last March. The number of acres cultivated by the hands employed, exclusive of the land ploughed for the Indians, as stated above, is 237 — 48 acres in wheat, 19 acres in oats, 2 1/2 acres in peas, 80 acres in corn, 10 acres in potatoes, 77 1/2 acres in beans and turnips. The land cultivated in beans and turnips was intended for corn, but the spring was late and the ground wet, and could not be ploughed in season. Our wheat and oats were good, and were harvested in good condition; corn and potatoes promise a fine crop.

TABLE VI.
MENOMONIES, 1847.
[A. G. ELLIS. 921]
Tribal strength 2500
Without cattle and farms 300
Live by
fishing and hunting
2200
Number of good log houses 62

The Menomonies are a brave and patient people, the firm friends of the government, and rely with abiding confidence on its justice and magnanimity. The greater share of them are hunters, living

-- 692 --

exclusively by the chase and the fisheries; for the last they resort to Green Bay, and the rivers falling into it, where they take at all seasons of the year, but especially in winter, large quantities (beyond their own consumption) of trout and sturgeon. When the Menomonies shall leave the shores of Green Bay, the sturgeon fisheries will cease — none but the Indians being able to endure the cold and fatigue of taking them.

Some three hundred of the Menomonies are Christians and farmers: the number is increasing, and the tribe will eve long become civilized, and abandon the chase. On a late visit to their village, I counted sixty-two log houses, erected by themselves, most of them comfortably finished and occupied. They have cleared up from the heavy timbered lands small fields, which are well fenced, and fine crops of corn and potatoes occupy every foot of ground: they will raise enough at lake Pah-way-hi-kun this year for their subsistence. The teams, farming utensils, &c., supplied them by the government, are in good order and highly prized: the quantity, annually, should be increased.

TABLE VII.
INDIANS OF MICHIGAN, 1853.
[H. C. GILBERT.]
I. — CHIPPEWAS OF LAKE SUPERIOR.
Interior Indians 1,759
Lake Indians 1,659
Bois Forte bands 482
Mixed Bloods 1,040
Total 4,940
II. — MICHIGAN INDIANS.
Ottawas and Chippewas 5,152
Chippewas and Saginaw 1,340
Chippewas of Swan creek and Black river 138
Pottawatamies 236
Pottawatamies of Huron 45
Total 6,911
Residing in Michigan 7,583
Residing in Wisconsin 3,210
Residing in Minnesota 1,058
Total in the agency 11,851

-- 693 --

TABLE VIII.
INDIANS IN THE OSAGE AGENCY, IN 1846-47.
[ALFRED J. VAUGHN. 922]
Pottawatamies of the Prairie 496
Do. of the Wabash 735
Do. of the Saint Joseph 710
Pottawatamies, total 1941
Ottowas 284
Chippewas 27
Piankeshaws 101
Weas 147
Peorias and Kaskaskias, estimated at 130
Total 2630 souls.
TABLE IX.
OTTOES, OMAHAS, AND PAWNEES, 1849.
[J. E. BURROWS. 923]
1. Ottoes 900
2. Omahas 1200
3. Pawnees 4500
  6500

The Pawnees, since their great loss by cholera in 1828, number about 4500.

The Ottoes seem to gradually decrease, while the Omahas increase.

The Omahas arrived about the 10th ultimo from their summer hunts, having secured a sufficiency of meat and skins to do them until the approaching winter. On their return home they encountered a war party of Indians, supposed to be composed of Sioux and Poncas, with which they had an engagement of about four hours. The Omahas, having a large quantity of meat, besides being apprised of their enemy's intentions the day before, succeeded in throwing up such breastworks with it as made them amply secure before attacked by their enemies. After the loss of four or five men, together with some forty horses, they drove the enemy back, and became the victors of the field.

The Sioux and Poncas, it is supposed, had eight or nine men killed, and some ten or twelve wounded. Had the Omahas been met on the open prairie without any notice of the approach of the enemy, and without the means of fortifying themselves, they would, from the superior number of their opponents, have been almost entirely annihilated.

They have made a very good hunt; but, owing to the fearful ravages of the cholera, will make no corn.

-- 694 --

TABLE X.
NEW YORK INDIANS, 1847 AND 1849.
[W. P. ANGEL. 924]
1847. Tuscaroras, residing in Niagara county 280
1847. Oneidas, residing in Oneida county 159
1847. Cayugas, residing with the Senecas in western New York 88
1847. Onondagas, residing in Onondaga county 375
1847. Onondagas, residing on the Alleghany reservation, in Cattaraugus county 88
1847. Onondagas, residing on the Cattaraugus reservation, in Erie county 25
1847. Onondagas, residing on the Tonawanda reservation, in Genesee county 7
1847. Onondagas, residing with the Tusearoras 22
1847. Senecas, residing on the Alleghany reservation 811
1847. Do. do. Cattaraugus reservation 1261
1847. Do. do. Tonawanda reservation 576
1847. Do. do. Buffalo 30
1847. Oneidas, Onondagas, and Buffalo Senecas, residing at Tonawanda 79
Whole number 3751
1849. Senecas 2712
1849. St. Regis 452
1849. Onondagas 126
1849. Tuscaroras 312
1849. Oneidas 235
1849. Onondagas residing with the Senecas 140
1849. Cayugas residing with the Senecas 125
1849. Oneidas do. do. do. 30
Whole number 4132 925

-- 695 --

TABLE XI.
UPPER MISSOURI TRIBES, 1852.
[D. D. MITCHELL. 926]
Tribes.
Lodges.
Men.
Souls.
Remarks.
Poncas 80 250 800 Living on the south side of Missouri, at the mouth of 1'Eau que Court.
Yanctons 250 750 2,500 Lower band of Sioux, living near Vermilion river.
Tetons 320 950 3,000 Lower band of Sioux, on the south of Missouri.
Ogellalas 150 500 1,500 Sioux — dialect a little different — same region.
Sowans 1,150 4,000 12,000 Sioux on the Cheyenne river, and Platte.
Yanctonas 600 1,800 6,000 Upper band of Sioux, near Mandans.
Mandans 30 120 300 Live in dirt lodges, on the Missouri.*
Arickarees 150 450 1,200 Occupy the same village with the Mandans.*
Gros Ventres 75 300 800 Live in dirt villages, eight miles above Mandans.*
Assinaboines 800 2,500 7,000 Wandering tribe between Missouri and Red river of the north.
Crees 100 300 800 Language same as Chippewas — country, Assinaboine.
Crows 500 1,200 4,000 Rascals — on the head waters of Yellowstone.
Cheyennes 250 500 2,000 Wandering tribe on the Platte — language very remarkable.
Blackfeet 1,500 4,500 13,000 Wandering — near Falls of Missouri; both sides of the river.
Arapahoes 300 650 2,500 Prairie tribe, between the Platte and Arkansas.
Gros Ventres (Prairie) 400 900 2,500 Wanderers between the Missouri and Sascatchewayne.
Snake 200 450 1,000 Poor tribe, in the Rocky mountains.
Flatheads 80 250 800 In the mountain — trade mostly on Columbia.*
Total 6,925 20,370 61,700  

-- 696 --

TABLE XII. 927
TRIBES OF THE UPPER MISSOURI, 1847.
[G. C. MATLOCK.]
No.
Tribes.
Lodges.
Population.
1. The various bands of Sioux 2520 19,660
2. Arickarees 240 1,800
3. Gros Ventres 150 1,350
4. Mandans 40 360
5. Poncas 200 1,600
6. Cheyennes 317 2,536
7. Crows 530 5,300
8. Blackfeet 810 6,480
9. Assinaboines 980 6,860
  Total 5787 45,946

Total number of lodges 5787, which would be a fraction over eight souls to the lodge.

The Indians have been extravagantly estimated by my predecessors in office — they having estimated the Sioux alone at 50,000 souls; and I am at a loss to know from what source they derived their information, as they could not have obtained it from the Indians themselves. There are nine tribes in the agency.

The Arickarees are situated on the Missouri river, between the Gros Ventres and Sioux, and are much better Indians than they have character for being. They are inclined to treachery, are thievish and great libertines, yet they are better Indians than the Blackfeet and Assinaboines, yet not so good as the Gros Ventres, Poncas, and others above mentioned.

The Crows, Blackfeet, and Assinaboines have made no improvement whatever, tenaciously adhering to all the ferocious customs and miserable expedients of savage life.

These Indians are excessively fond of ardent spirits (with the exception of the Crows, who have never been known to drink, or use strong liquors); are also thievish, treacherous, and are only to be kept under through fear; for they still continue to despise and hate the white man, and every effort made to gain their love and friendship has been made in vain.

-- 697 --

TABLE XIII.
SHOSHONIES, UTAHS, BONACKS; 1847.
[J. WILSON. 928]
Names of Bands.
Lodges.
No. to the Lodge.
Gross Population.
SHOSHONIES 1000 4 4000
BONACS      
UTAHS, viz.:      
1. Taos 300 4 1200
2. Yampapas 500 4 2000
3. Ewinte 50 4 200
4. Tenpenny Utahs 50 4 200
5. Parant Utahs     Unestimated.
6. Sampiches    
7. Pahmetes    
Total 1900   7600

Among the Shoshonies there are only two bands, properly speaking. The principal or better portion are called Shoshonies, or Snakes, who are rich enough to own horses; the others, the Shoshocoes, cannot or do not own horses. The principal chiefs of the Shoshonies are Momo, about forty-five years old, so called from a wound in his face or cheek, from a ball, that disfigures him; and Wiskin, Cut-hair.

Both bands number, probably, over 100 lodges, of four persons each; of the relative portion of each band no definite account can be given. Their language, with the exception of some Patois differences, is said to be that of the Comanche tribe. Their claim of boundary is, to the east, from the Red Buttes, on the North Fork of the Platte, to its head in the Park, Decayaque, or Buffalo Bull-pen, in the Rocky mountains; to the south, across the mountains, over to the Yanpapa, till it enters Green, or Colorado river, and then across to the backbone or ridge of mountains called the Bear River mountains, running nearly due west towards the Salt Lake, so as to take in most of the Salt Lake, and thence on to the Sinks of Harry's, or Humboldt's river; thence north to the fisheries, on the Snake river, in Oregon; and thence south (their northern boundary), to the Red Buttes, including the source of Green river — a territory probably 300 miles square, most of which has too high an elevation ever to be useful for cultivation of any sort. In most of these mountains and valleys it freezes every night in the year, and is, in summer, quite warm at noon, and to half-past three o'clock, P. M. Nothing whatever will grow, of grain or vegetables, but the most luxuriant and nutritious grasses grow in the greatest abundance, and the valleys are the richest of meadows.

The part of the Salt Lake valleys included in this boundary, the Cache valley, fifty by one hundred miles, and part of the valley near and beyond Fort Hall, down Snake river, can be cultivated, and with good results; but this forms a very small part of this country. How these people are to live, or even exist, for any length of time, I cannot by any means determine. Their support has, heretofore, been mostly game and certain roots, which, in their native state, are rank poison, called Tobacco root; but when put in a hole in the ground, and a large fire burned over them, become wholesome diet. The Mormon settlement in the Salt Lake valley has not only greatly diminished their formerly very great resource of obtaining fish out of the Utah lake and its sources, which, to them, was an important resource, but their settlement, with the great emigration there, and to California, has already nearly driven away all the game, and will unquestionably soon deprive them almost entirely of the only chances they have for food. This will, in a few years, produce a result not only disastrous to them, but must

-- 698 --

inevitably engage the sympathies of the nation. How this is to be avoided is a question of much difficulty; but it is, nevertheless, the more imperative on the Government, not only to discuss, but to put in practice, some mode of relief for these unfortunate people — the outside barriers, or inclosing mountains, of whose whole country are not only covered, in constant sight, with perpetual snow, but in whose lodges, every night in the year, ice is made over the water left in a basin, of near seven-eighths of an inch in thickness, except in three small places already named as exceptions; and two of these, the Salt Lake valley and the Snake river, are already taken from them by the whites, and there is little doubt but that the Cache valley will soon be so occupied.

The Utahs' claim of boundaries are all south of that of the Shoshonies, embracing the waters of the Colorado, going most probably to the Gulf of California. This is a much more fortunate location, and large portions of it are rich and fertile lands, and with a good climate. Their language is essentially Comanche, and although not technically, yet it is supposed to be substantially the same as that of the Shoshonies; for, although on first meeting they do not fully understand each other, yet, I am informed, four or five days' association enables them to converse freely together.

TABLE XIV.
SASITKAS, VIZ: BLOODS, BLACKFEET, PIEGANS, GROS VENTRES, 1855.
[GOV. ISAAC I. STEVENS.]
Sasitkas, or Blackfeet nation.
Tribes and Bands.
Lodges.
Population.
Warriors.
1. Bloods 350 2450 875
2. Blackfeet 250 1750 625
3. Piegans 350 2450 875
4. Gros Ventres 360 2520 900
Total   1310 9170 3275

THE BLACKFEET NATION.

The general locality of the Blackfeet is understood to mean the country in which they reside or hunt, and is bounded as follows: — By a line beginning on the north, where the 50th parallel crosses the Rocky mountains; thence east on said parallel to the 106th meridian; thence south to the headwaters of Milk river, down said river to the Missouri; up the Missouri to the mouth of the Judith; thence up the Judith to its source; thence to the Rocky mountains, and north along their base to the place of beginning.

The country between the Missouri and the headwaters of the Yellowstone is unoccupied. It is the great road of the Blackfeet war-parties to and from the Crows, Flatheads, and Snakes. It is also the hunting-ground of the Flatheads and the Indian tribes generally of Washington Territory east of the Cascades, who resort hither at all seasons of the year to hunt buffalo.

The Blackfeet nation is divided into four distinct tribes or bands, names, numbers, and localities.

The above numbers of the four tribes of the Blackfeet nation are taken from Mr. Doty's enumeration. It is less than that of Mr. Stanley, who visited the Piegans in September last, and whose estimate of the Piegans, Bloods, and Blackfeet, was 1330 lodges, and 13,300 souls; and it is likewise less than my enumeration, derived from consulting all reliable sources of information in the Upper Missouri, and which made the four tribes of the Gros Ventres, Bloods, Piegans, and Blackfeet, amount to 14,400, or

-- 699 --

5230 more than the estimate of Mr. Doty. Mr. Doty has, however, had the opportunity of making an actual count of more than half these Indians.

The Bloods and the Blackfeet occupy the country upon the source of Marias and Milk rivers, and north to the 50th parallel of latitude.

The Piegans occupy the country between Milk and Marias rivers, upon Marias river and the Teton, and between the Teton and the Missouri.

The Gros Ventres occupy the country bordering upon Milk river from its mouth to the Territory of the Piegans. These Gros Ventres, although incorporated with, and now considered a part of, the Blackfoot nation, are clearly a band of Arrapahoes, who seceded from their nation some forty years since, passed over to the Crow Indians, and were plundered and killed by that nation, losing many of their women, and nearly all their horses and guns. They wandered over this country several years, plundered the forts at the north, were driven away by the Kootenais, and finally, in a destitute and most miserable condition, settled some thirty years since in the country they now occupy. The Blackfoot nation in a manner adopted them — i. e., made a lasting peace, and gave them many horses. The traders supplied them with guns and ammunition; their horses increased; they made many robes, and soon became wealthy; and are now more independent, saucy, and more unfriendly to the whites, than any other band of the Blackfeet.

The Bloods, Piegans, and Blackfeet, speak the same language, peculiar to the Blackfoot nation.

The Gros Ventres speak the Arrapahoe language, which is not understood by any white man or Indian, not of their tribe, in this country. Most of the Gros Ventres, however, speak the Blackfoot sufficiently for purposes of trade.

Their character is warlike. They are warriors and horse-thieves by profession and practice, and are always at war with some, or all, of the neighbouring nations.

TABLE XV.
TEXAS INDIANS OF SOUTHERN ORIGIN, 1851.
[JESSE STEM.]
No.
Names.
Tribal strength.
Total.
Warriors.
1. Towaccarros 141 293 90
2. Wacoes 114
3. Keechies 38
4. Caddoes 161 476 161
5. Andaicos 202
6. Ionies 113
7. Delawares   63 31
8. Shawnees   70 35
Total     902 317

There has been, and still is, a great want of certain information as to the numbers and condition of the various tribes in Texas. While among these Indians I endeavoured to ascertain their exact numbers, and with this view induced the chiefs to go among their people and count them. Having no system of numbers, they enumerated only with their fingers, or by means of bundles of sticks. They brought me a bundle of sticks for each tribe.

The above is the enumeration furnished me, which I consider very accurate.

-- 700 --

TABLE XVI.
OFFICIAL LOCAL ESTIMATE OF NORTH OREGON IN 1851.
[DR. DART.]
Names of Tribes.
Men.
Women.
Children.
Total.
Walla- walla 52 40 38 130
Des Chutes 95 115 90 300
Dalles 129 206 147 482
Pelouse 60 62 59 181
Klikatat 297 195   492
Yakama (estimate)       1000
Rock Island       300
Okonagan       250
Colville       320
Sinhumanish (Spokane)       232
Cosur d'Alenes       200
Lower Pend d'Oreilles       520
Upper Pend d'Oreilles       480
Mission       210
Nez Perces 698 1182   1880
Cayuse 38 48 40 126
929Total population       7103
TABLE XVII.
EASTERN WASHINGTON AND OREGON IN 1853.
[GOV. I. I. STEVENS. 930]
No.
Names of Tribes.
Lodges.
Population.
1. Flatheads 60 350
2. Cootenays and Flatbows   400
3. Pend d'Oreilles of Upper Lake 40 280
4. Pend d'Oreilles of Lower Lake 60 420
5. Coeur d'Alenes 70 500
6. Spokanes   600
7. Nez Perces   1700
8. Pelouses 100 500
9. Cayuses   120
10. Walla-wallas   300
11. Dalles bands   200
12. Cascades   36
13. Klikatats   300
14. Yakamas   600
15. Pisquouse and Okinakanes   550
16. Schwo-Yelpi, or Colville   500
Total   330 7350

Undoubtedly a large majority of the Nez Perces are in Washington Territory; but the major part of the Cayuses, Walla-wallas, and the Dalles Indians, are in Oregon.

-- 701 --

TABLE XVIII.
INDIANS IN OREGON IN 1849. — [GOV. JOSEPH LANE.]
1. Shoshonies — one tribe 700 — total 2,000
2. Ponishta Bonacks, Snake river 550
3. Coutenay 400
4. Flatheads, or Salish 320
5. Colespelin 1,200
6. Ponderas, Squeailips 1,200
7. Colville, or Little Flathead Indians 800
8. Coeur d'Alene 400
9. Spokane 1,000
10. Oukinagans 700
11. Sempoiles 500
12. Nez Perces 1,500
13. Paloos 300
14. Cayuse 800
15. Walla-walla 1,000
16. Des Chutes 300
17. Wascopan 200
18. Cascades 100
19. Clackamas 60
20. Willamette 20
21. Clickatais 85
22. Calipoa 60
23. Sualtine 60
24. Yam Hill 90
25. Sackanoir 15
26. Umpqua 200
27. Hilleamuck 200
28. Clatsaconin 300
29. Clatsop 50
30. Catelamet 58
31. Calooit 200
Total 14,168
NORTH OF THE COLUMBIA (NOW WASHINGTON). — MR. THORNTON.]
1. Makaw, Cape Flattery 1,000
2. Nooselalum Dunginass 1,400
3. Snoquamish 500
4. Homamish 500
5. Twanoh, Wood's canal 200
6. Squallymish, &c., of Nisqually 550
7. Sinamish of Whidley's Island 350
8. Snoqualamick 350
9. Skeywhomish 450
10. Skagots 500
11. Nookluolamic 220
12. Cowlitz 120
13. Chinooks 120
14. Chehalis 300
15. Kathlamit 150
16. Telhuemit 200
17. Wyampam 130
18. Yacamas 1,500
19. Piscahoos 350
Total 8,910

-- 702 --

Gov. Lane concludes:

"Surrounded, as many of the tribes and bands now are by the whites, whose arts of civilization, by destroying the resources of the Indians, doom them to poverty, want and crime, the extinguishment of their title by purchase, and the locating them in a district removed from the settlements, is a measure of the most vital importance to them. Indeed, the cause of humanity calls loudly for their removal, from causes and influences so fatal to their existence. This measure is one of equal interest to our own people."

TABLE XIX.
TOTONIC TRIBES OF SOUTHERN OREGON, 1850.
[PORT ORFORD AGENCY.]
Names of Bands.
No. of Men.
No. of Women.
Male Children.
Female Children.
Total.
No. of Villages.
Chiefs.
Location.
NASOMAH 18 20 10 11 59 1 Clemma (John) Coquille River.
CHOCKRELETAN. 30 40 18 17 95 1 Chettakos Coquille Forks.
QUAHTOMAH 53 45 22 23 133 3 Hahulteah Flores Creek.
SAQUAACHA 50       50     Elk River.
COSULHENTAN 9 9 6 3 27 1 Chatalhakeah Port Orford.
YUQUACHE 24 41 18 19 102 1 Ahchessee Yuqua Creek.
YAH SHUTES 39 45 24 12 120 2 Calwawesit Rogue River.
CHETLESSENTAN 16 15 11 9 51 1 Enetus Pistol River.
WHISTANATIN 18 20 12 10 60 1 Nelyetahneska Whale's Head.
CHEATTEE 117 18 22 19 176 1 Tohushaqueos Chet Ko.
TOTOTEN 39 47 22 12 120 1 Talmanetesa Six miles above the mouth of Rogue R.
SISTICOOSTA 53 61 23 16 153 1 Yachamsee Above the big bend of Rogue River.
MAQUELNOTEN 32 58 17 17 124 1 Tallialtus Fourteen miles above mouth of Rogue R.
Total         1290      

On the settlement of Oregon, the most considerable of the Indian tribes, spread over that portion of the country, were those stretching north of Klamath river, of California, and the northern boundary line of this State, up the Pacific coast. They consisted of thirteen bands, bearing separate names, the most considerable and prominent of which were the four bands clustering about the confluence of the river, which, from their bad faith in trade, had been called by the early French traders, Coquille, or Rogue river Indians. These four bands bore the names Nassoma, Okreletan, Yah Shutes, and Tototens; and, as the whole group of these seacoast tribes speak dialects of the same language, they may be grouped together under the name of TOTONIC. About the year 1850, they were united in a league for defensive purposes, at the head of which there was a chief of some note called Chal Nah, and the combination of tribes, it is affirmed, bore the name of Tutoten.

The principal wars have been with these Totones, who have suffered a rapid declension of their numbers, partly owing to internal discords, and partly through hostilities with the settlers. The names and numbers of the bands, with their principal chiefs and residence, is embraced in the above table.

-- 703 --

TABLE XX.
INDIAN TRIBES OF WASHINGTON TERRITORY, EAST OF THE CASCADE MOUNTAINS. 1854.
[GOV. ISAAC I. STEVENS.]
No.
Names of tribes and bands.
Where located.
Men.
Women.
Total bands.
Total tribes.
Remarks.
1. Upper Chinooks, five bands, not including Cascade band. Columbia river, above the Cowlitz.       200 Estimate. The upper of these bands are mixed with the Klikatats; the lower with the Cowlitz-
2. Lower Chinooks — Chinook band Columbia river, below the Cowlitz. 32 34 66 116 One of these is intermarried with the Cowlitz; the rest with Chihalis.
3. Four others (estimate) Shoal water bay     50
4. Chihalis Gray's harbor, and Lower Chihalis river.     100 300 Estimate.
5. Chihalis Northern Forks, Chihalis river     200
6. Cowlitz and Upper Chihalis. On Cowlitz river, and the Chihalis, above the Satsop.       165 The two have become altogether intermarried.
7. Taitinapan Base of mountains on Cowlitz, &c.       75 Estimate.
8. Quinaitle, &c. Coast from Gray's harbor, northward.       500 Estimate.
9. Makáhs Cape Flattery and vicinity       150 Estimate.
10. S'Klallams Straits of Fuca          
11. Kahtai Port Townsend 67 88 155 850  
12. Kaquaith Port Discovery 24 26 50  
13. Stehllum New Dungeness False 79 91 170  
14. All others Dungeness, &c., westward     475 Estimate.
15. Chimakum Port Townsend       70  
16. Toánhooch Hood's canal 123 109 265 465 Some of the women omitted in the count; but estimated.
17. Shokomish Hood's canal, upper end     200 Shokomish, estimated.
18. Quáks'namish Case's inlet, &c. 19 21 40 170  
19. S'Hotlemamish Carr's inlet, &c. 14 13 27  
20. Sahéhwamish Hammersly's inlet, &c. 11 12 23  
21. Sawámish Totten's inlet, &c. 2 1 3  
22. Squaiaitl Eld's inlet, &c. 22 23 45  
23. Stéhchasámish Budd's inlet, &c.     20 Estimate.
24. Noosechatl South bay     12 Estimate.
25. Squalliahmish, 6 bands Nisqually river and vicinity 84 100 184 209  
26. Steilacoomamish Steilacoom creek and vicinity     25  
27. Puyallupamish Mouth of Puyallup river, &c.     50 100 Estimate.
28. T'quaquamish Heads of Puyallup river, &c.     50
29. Suquamish Peninsula between Hood's canal and Admiralty inlet. 215 270 485 518  
30. S'Homámi sh Vashon's island 16 15 33  
31. Dwamish Lake Fork, Dwamish river 89 73 162 351  
32. Samamish Dwamish lake, &c. 71 30 101  
33. S'ketéhlmish
34. Smelkámish Head of White river     8  
35. Skopeáhurish Head of Green river     50  
36. Stkámish Main White river     30  
37. Sinahomish South end of Whitby's island, Sinahomish river. 161 138 350 845 Part of the women omitted; but included in the total.
38. N'quutlmamish Upper branches, north side, Sinahomish river.     300 Estimate.
39. Skywhamish  
40. Sktahlejum  
41. Snoqualmook South fork, Sinahomish river     195  
42. Stoluchwámish Stoluchwámish river, &c.     200 275  
43. Kikiallis Kikiallis R., and Whitby's Island.     75  
44. Skagit Skagit river, and Penn's cove     300 600 Estimate.
45. N'quachamish Branches of Skagit river     300  
46. Smaléhhu  
47. Miskaiwhu  
48. Sakuméhu  
49. Squinamish North end Whitby's island, canoe passage and Sinamish river.       300 Estimate.
50. Swodámish
51. Sinaahmish
52. Samish Samish R., and Bellingham bay.       150 Estimate.
53. Nooksáak South fork, Lummi river       450 Estimate.
54. Lummi Lummi river, and peninsula       450 Estimate.
55. Shimiahmoo Between Lummi Point and Frazer's river.       250 Estimate.
  Total         7559  

-- 704 --

TABLE XXI.
WINNEBAGOES IN 1856.
[J. E. FLETCHER.]
 
Tribal strength in 1856.
Increase.
Total.
Winnebago Bands 1715 39 1754

At a census recently taken, there were seventeen hundred and fifty-four members of the tribe present, being an increase of thirty-nine over the number reported last year.

The improvements made have fallen far short of our intentions. We have only nine hundred and forty-three acres of land ploughed, in forty-two fields of different sizes, all of which are not yet enclosed. We have five thousand six hundred and forty rods of fence. Two hundred acres have been cultivated in wheat, fifty acres in oats, two hundred and thirteen acres in corn, one hundred and seventy-three acres in potatoes, one hundred and nine acres in ruta baga and white turnips, and six acres in peas, beans, and buckwheat. The Indians cultivated three hundred and eighty-seven acres of the aforesaid land after it was ploughed for them, and also cultivated numerous gardens, which they dug up with the hoe. Our crops, with the exception of a part of the corn, will be a fair average with the crops raised in the adjacent counties. The Indians used the scythes furnished them as a part of their annuity goods, and have made about one hundred and fifty tons of hay, and two hundred and seventy tons have been made by employées. A blacksmith shop, with two forges, a carpenter shop, a warehouse, fourteen dwelling-houses, a school-house, and a few stables, are the principal buildings erected. The loss of the dam at the saw-mill was a serious drawback on our means for building. The mill is now in operation; we have lumber seasoning, and the Indians will be assisted in building houses this fall.

This tribe, at their last two annuity payments, received per capita an unusually large amount of money. I was directed to observe and report the effect produced. Some few have learned to use their money with economy, but with the majority the result has been to encourage idleness and dissipation. The policy of paying annuity to Indians in money is objectionable. Necessity must be relied on mainly in effecting their civilization. They are indolent from inclination and habit, and will not work so long as they have any other dependence for a living.

TABLE XXII.
INDIAN TRIBES IN THE UNITED STATES WITH WHOM INTERCOURSE WAS KEPT UP BY AGENTS, IN 1855. 931
No.
Name of Tribe.
No. of Souls.
Place of Residence.
Source of Information.
1. APACHES 7,000 New Mexico Terr'ty Report of the Governor of New Mexico, 1855.
2. APACHES   Texas See "Mescaleros."
3. APACHES 320 Arkansas river Estimated by Agent Whitfield, 1854.
4. ASSINABOINES 3,360 Upper Missouri R. Report of Agent Vaughan, 1855.
5. ARICKAREES 800 Upper Missouri R. Report of Agent Vaughan, 1855.
6. ARRAPAHOES 3,000 Arkansas & Platte R. Estimated by Agent Whitfield, 1854.
7. ANADAHKOES, CADDOES, AND IONIES 500 Texas Report of Agent Hill, 1854.
8. BLACKFEET 7,500 Upper Missouri R. Report of Agent Vaughan, 1855.
9. CHEROKEES 17,530 West of Arkansas Report of Agent Butler, 1852.
10. CHEROKEES 2,200 N. Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama Report of special agents, 1851, 1855.
11. CHOCTAWS 16,000 West of Arkansas Statement made by the office, 1853.
12. CHOCTAWS 1,000 Mississippi Statement made by the office, 1853.
13. CHICKASAWS 4,787 West of Arkansas Annuity pay roll, 1854.
14. CREEKS 25,000 West of Arkansas Statement made by the office, 1853.
15. CREEKS 100 Alabama Statement made by the office, 1853.
16. CHIPPEWAS OF LAKE SUPERIOR 4,940 Michigan Annual report of Agent Gilbert, 1855.
17. CHIPPEWAS OF LAKE SUPERIOR Wisconsin
18. CHIPPEWAS OF LAKE SUPERIOR Minnesota Territory
19. CHIPPEWAS OF THE MISSISSIPPI 2,206 Minnesota Territory Annuity pay rolls, 1854.
  Carried forward 96,183    

-- 705 --

XXII. [CONTINUED.]
No.
Name of Tribe.
No. of Souls.
Place of Residence.
Source of Information.
  Brought forward 96,183    
20. CHIPPEWAS AND OTTAWAS 5,152 Michigan Report of Agent Gilbert, 1855.
21. CHIPPEWAS OF SAGINAW 1,340 Michigan Report of Agent Gilbert, 1855.
22. CHIPPEWAS OF SWAN CREEK, &c. 138 Michigan Report of Agent Gilbert, 1855.
23. CHIPPEWAS OF SWAN CREEK, &c. 33 Kansas Territory Report of Agent Chenault, 1851.
24. CAYUGAS 143 New York Report of Agent Johnson, 1855.
25. CATAWBAS 200 N. and S. Carolina Statement made by the office, 1853.
26. CHRISTIANS, OR MUNSEES 44 Kansas Territory Annuity pay roll, 1854.
27. CROWS 3,360 Upper Missouri R. Report of Agent Vaughan, 1855.
28. CREES 800 Upper Missouri R. Report of Superintendent Mitchell, 1842.
29. CADDOES   Texas See "Anadahkoes," &c.
30. COMANCHES AND KIOWAYS 20,000 Texas Report of Agent Howard, 1852.
31. COMANCHES   New Mexico Terr'ty Number not reported. See "Wandering Indians"
32. COMANCHES 3,600 Arkansas river Report of Agent Whitfield, 1854.
33. CHEYENNES 2,800 Arkansas & Platte R. Estimated by Agent Whitfield, 1854.
34. CALIFORNIA TRIBES 33,539 932 California Census report of Secretary of State of California, 1853.
35. DELAWARES 902 Kansas Territory Annuity pay roll, 1854.
36. GROS VENTRES 750 Upper Missouri R. Report of Agent Vaughan, 1855.
37. IONIES   Texas See "Anadahkoes," &c.
38. IOWAS 433 Kansas Territory Annuity pay roll, 1854.
39. KICKAPOOS 344 Kansas Territory Annuity pay roll, 1854.
40. KICKAPOOS   Texas border Number not reported; supposed to be but few.
41. KIOWAYS   Texas See "Comanches and Kioways."
42. KIOWAYS 2,800 Arkansas river Report of Agent Whitfield, 1854.
43. KANSAS 1,375 Kansas Territory Statement made by the office, 1853.
44. KEECHIES, WACOES, AND TOWACARROS 300 Texas Report of Agent Hill, 1853.
45. KASKASKIAS   Kansas Territory See "Peorias," &c.
46. LIPANS 560 Texas Report of Agent Howard, 1853.
47. MIAMIES 207 Kansas Territory Annuity pay roll, 1854.
48. MIAMIES 353 Indiana Statement made by office, 1853.
49. MANDANS 250 Upper Missouri R. Report of Agent Vaughan, 1855.
50. MINATAREES 2,500 Upper Missouri R. History of Indian tribes, 1850
51. MENOMONEES 1,930 Wisconsin Annuity pay roll, 1854.
52. MISSOURIAS   Nebraska Territory See "Ottoes and Missourias."
53. MUNSEES   Kansas Territory See "Christians, or Munsees."
54. MUSCALEROS, OR APACHES 400 Texas Report of Agent Howard, 1853.
55. NAVAJOES 7,500 New Mexico Terr'ty Report of the Governor of New Mexico, 1855.
56. ONEIDAS 249 New York Report of Agent Johnson, 1855.
57. ONEIDAS 978 Wisconsin Report of Agent Hunkins, 1855.
58. ONONDAGOES 470 New York Report of Agent Johnson, 1855.
59. OTTAWAS   Michigan See "Chippewas and Ottawas."
60. OTTAWAS 249 Kansas Territory Statement made by office, 1853.
61. OMAHAS 800 Nebraska Territory Annuity pay roll, 1854.
62. OTTOES AND MISSOURIAS 600 Nebraska Territory Report of Agent Hepner, 1855.
63. OSAGES 4,098 Michigan Annuity pay roll, 1854.
64. OREGON TERRITORY TRIBES 13,000 Oregon Territory Report of Governor Lane, 1851.
65. PONCAS 700 Nebraska Territory History of Indian Tribes, 1850.
66. POTTAWATTAMIES 236 Michigan Report of Agent Gilbert, 1855.
67. POTTAWATTAMIES OF HURON 45 Michigan Report of Agent Gilbert, 1855.
68. POTTAWATTAMIES 3,440 Kansas Territory Annuity pay roll, 1854.
69. PAWNEES 4,000 Nebraska Territory Report of Agent Hepner, 1855.
70. PIANKESHAWS, WEAS, PEORIAS, AND KASKASKIAS 220 Kansas Territory Annuity pay roll, 1854.
71. PUEBLO INDIANS 10,000 New Mexico Terr'ty Report of the Governor of New Mexico, 1855.
72. QUAPAWS 314 West of Arkansas Statement made by office, 1853.
73. STOCKBRIDGES 13 Kansas Territory Annuity pay roll, 1854.
74. STOCKBRIDGES 240 Wisconsin Estimated by the office, 1855.
75. SIOUX OF THE MISSISSIPPI 6,383 Minnesota Territory Annuity pay roll, 1854.
76. SIOUX OF THE MISSOURI 15,440 Upper Missouri R. Report of Agent Vaughan, 1855.
77. SIOUX OF THE PLAINS 5,600 Platte & Arkansas R. Report of Agent Whitfield, 1854.
78. ST. REGIS INDIANS 450 New York Report of Sub-agent Mead, 1849.
79. SENECAS 2,557 New York Report of Agent Jobnson, 1855.
80. SENECAS (SANDUSKY) 180 West of Arkansas Annuity pay roll, 1854.
81. SENECAS AND SHAWNEES (LEWISTOWN) 271 West of Arkansas Annuity pay roll, 1854.
82. SHAWNEES 851 Kansas Territory Annuity pay roll, 1854.
83. SACS AND FOXES OF THE MISSISSIPPI 1,626 Kansas Territory Annuity pay roll, 1854.
84. SACS AND FOXES OF THE MISSOURI 180 Kansas Territory Annuity pay roll, 1854.
85. SEMINOLES 2,500 West of Arkansas Statement made by office, 1853.
86. SEMINOLES 500 Florida Statement made by office, 1853.
87. TUSCARORAS 280 New York Report of Agent Johnson, 1855.
88. TOWACARROS   Texas See "Keechies," &c.
89. TONKAWAS 400 Texas Report of Agent Howard, 1853.
90. UTAH TERRITORY TRIBES 12,000 Utah Territory History of Indian Tribes, Part IV., 1855.
91. UTAHS 2,500 New Mexico Terr'ty Report of the Governor of New Mexico, 1855.
92. WACOES   Texas See "Keechies," &c.
93. WICHITAS 950 Texas Report of Agent Hill, 1854.
94. WEAS   Kansas Territory See "Piankeshaws," &c.
95. WINNEBAGOES 2,546 Minnesota Territory Annuity pay roll, 1854.
96. WINNEBAGOES 208 Kansas Territory Report of Agent Vanderslice, 1853.
97. WYANDOTS 554 Kansas Territory Annuity pay roll, 1854.
98. WASHINGTON TERRITORY TRIBES 14,000 Washington Terr'ty Report of Governor Stevens, 1854.
99. WANDERING INDIANS OF COMANCHES CHEYENNE, AND OTHER TRIBES 17,000 New Mexico Terr'ty Report of the Governor of New Mexico, 1855.
  Total number 314,622    

-- 706 --

TABLE XXIII.
IROQUOIS OF NEW YORK, 1851.
[C. P. WASHBURN.]
Senecas at Alleghany 819  
Senecas at Cattaraugus 1218  
Senecas at Tonawanda 642  
Total Senecas in New York   2679
Tuscaroras   290
Cayugas   139
Onondagas at Onondaga 315  
Onondagas at Alleghany 88  
Onondagas at Cattaraugus 25  
Onondagas at Tuscarora 22  
Onondagas at Tonawanda 7  
Total Onondagas in New York   457
Oneidas at Oneida 171  
Oneidas at Onondaga 37  
Oneidas at Cattaraugus 5  
Total Oneidas in New York   213
Total in New York sub-agency   3778
TABLE XXIV.
OTTOES, MISSOURIAS, AND OMAHAS, 1847.
[JOHN MILLER. 933]
  Loss by war. Blacksmith work.
Axes. Tomahawks. Hoes. Tin kettles. Cups. Shovels.
Ottoes and Missourias 1200 180 300 100 45 29 49 25
Omahas 1000

Although these three tribes have been living contiguous to, and had intercourse with the whites, they unfortunately appear only to have learned their vices. The Omahas, as I have been informed by their interpreter, have given, in the last twelve months, some 30 horses for whiskey, not getting more for a pony than from two to four gallons, and that well watered. This trade has been carried on by the Pottawatamie half-breeds, on the opposite side of the river. The river was frozen over for the most part of last winter, which gave them great facilities in crossing for the article. It appears almost impossible to prevent them from getting it. I am sorry to state that there are men who live on or near the State line of Missouri, who keep whiskey, as I am told, to sell to these half-breeds and Indians. These unfortunate creatures, when spoken to about the impropriety of drinking, frequently reply, the white man makes it and sells it to us. Nothing short of divine or supernatural power will reform or cure their thirst for whiskey. I am in great hopes that the late amendment to the law in regard to making an Indian a competent witness, will have a salutary influence in the Indian country; and could it reach those base men who keep it along the line, for the purpose of selling to the Indians, it would, in a great degree, effect the desired object.

The Omahas were once a considerable tribe, but, from the ravages of cholera, smallpox, and wars, they are reduced to but little more than one thousand. At present there are a great many children among them.

-- 707 --

TABLE XXV.
INDIANS OF NORTHERN SUPERINTENDENT IN 1856.
[F. HUEBSCHMANN. 934]
1. Menominees 1,930
2. Oneidas 978
3. Stockbridges and Munsees 407
4. Winnebagoes 2,546
5. Chippewas of Mississippi 2,206
6. Pillagers of Leech lake, &c. 2,031
7. Menduwakanton and Wapakotah Sioux 2,379
8. Suiaton and Wapaton Sioux 4,004
9. Chippewas, Boisfort, and Red Lake 1,600
10. Yankton, Teton, and Cheyenne Sioux 4,000
11. Chippewas of Lake Superior, Minnesota, and Wisconsin 4,268
12. Strolling Pottawatamies 600
  26,949
TABLE XXVI.
INDIAN POPULATION OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK IN 1837, AS EXHIBITED AT THE TREATY OF JANUARY 15, 1838.
[R. GILLETT, ESQ.]
Senecas 2309
Onondagas 194
Cayugas 130
Onondagas at Onondaga 300
Tuscaroras 273
St. Regis, in New York 350
Oneidas, at Green Bay 600
Oneidas in New York 620
Stockbridges 217
Munsees 182
Brothertons 360
Total 5485
Less Wisconsin Oneidas 600
Total 4885

-- 708 --

TABLE XXVII.
TEXAS INDIANS IN 1849.
[R. S. NEIGHBORS. 935]
Names.
No. of Souls.
No. of Warriors.
Comanches 20,000 4,000
Kiowas 1,500 300
Lipans 500 100
Caddoes Associates 1,400 280
Ionies
Anadahkas
Keechies 300 60
Wichitas Associates 1,000 200
Wacos
Tahwaccarros
Tonkahiras 650 130
Delawares Associates 650 130
Shawnees
Creeks 50 10
Cherokees 25 5
Euquatops Apache bands 2,000 400
Muscaleros 1,500 300
Total supposed number 29,575 5,915

This estimate is made from the best information that could be obtained from the Indians by frequent inquiry on the subject.

These Indians range promiscuously across our frontier, from Red river to the Rio Grande, during the greater portion of the year, and seek shelter during the winter in the upper cross timbers of Texas, between the head waters of the Colorado river and the Wichita mountains. They have, for the last two years, shown a disposition to establish friendly relations with the government and citizens of the United States.

With several of the bands our intercourse has been extremely limited, for the want of proper means, and a sufficient number of agents, or men, calculated to cultivate friendly intercourse. This has been particularly the case with the Kiowas, the Apaches, and the upper bands of Comanches.

The only serious misunderstanding that exists with any of the tribes is that growing out of the attacks on the Wichitas and Lipans last summer. All intercourse with them has ceased for some months past; and it will be impossible to adjust those differences satisfactorily, without money or presents to give them as indemnity, they claiming to be the aggrieved party.

Most of the tribes are disposed to cultivate the soil; and, by proper encouragement could be induced, in a short period, to settle down and turn their attention to farming. By the laws of this State, the right of soil is denied the Indians; consequently they have made but small progress in farming. The advance of the white settlements, since the annexation of Texas, has been so rapid, that the Indians were led to believe they would ultimately be driven out of the country.

-- 709 --

TABLE XXVIII.
PUEBLO INDIANS OF NEW MEXICO IN 1851.
[GOV. J. S. CALHOUN.]
From a note addressed to Governor Munroe by O. H. Merritt, marshal, I learn that the aggregate of the population of New Mexico amounts to 61,574, including, as I have reason to suppose, soldiers, Government teamsters, and Pueblo Indians. There are not, in my opinion, 300 American citizens in this Territory unconnected with the army, and many of these remain upon compulsion. The population of the Territory has suffered considerable diminution during the past year. The causes I have already placed before you, and the same causes are yet in full force.
The marshal's return of the census to the department will show, as I am informed by the assistant marshals, the population of the Pueblos named below to be as follows:
Taos 361
Picaris 222
San Juan 568
Santa Clara 279
San Ildefonso 139
Pojodque 48
Tesuque 119
Nambe 111
Zuni 1500
Laguna 749
Acoma 350
Lentis 210
Isletta 751
Sandia 241
Cia 124
Santana 399
Jenies 365
San Felipe 411
Santa Domingo 666
Cochiti 254
Total 7867

This, you will remember, does not include the two Pueblos below El Paso, nor the seven Moque Pueblos.

Aggregate of census return 61,574
Pueblo Indians 7,867
Total 53,707

Americans, Mexicans, and all others, 53,707.

-- 710 --

TABLE XXIX.
INDIAN TRIBES, OR BANDS, OF THE SACRAMENTO VALLEY, CALIFORNIA.
[A. JOHNSON.]
No.
Name of Tribe, or Band.
Gross Population.
Location.
1. HOCKS 80 Sutter's Land.
2. YUBAS 180 Yuba river.
3. OLIPPAS 90 Feather river.
4. BOGAS 70 Feather river.
5. HOLILEPAS   Feather City.
6. ERSKINES 80 Butter creek.
7. WACHUCKNAS 90 Potter's Ranche.
8. CUSHNAS 600 South Yuba.
9. TAGAS 936   Butter creek.
10. NIMSUS 936   Suma region.
  Total 1190  

The Indians of the Valley of the Sacramento are not a warlike people. They possess no war clubs, scalping-knife, or tomahawks, so universally used by the Indians east of the Sierra Nevada. They are mostly indolent, docile, and tractable, but many of them are thievish; they are fond of dress of almost any kind, and readily learn the more simple arts of agriculture.

The construction of their huts and villages is much the same. They are constructed by excavating the earth, the size of the room or lodge they desire, some five feet deep. This is covered over with a dome-like top several feet above the surface of the earth. In the centre of the roof, or dome, there is generally an aperture or opening, which serves the double purpose of admitting light, and letting the smoke escape. This is the only opening in the lodge, except the entrance, which is in the side, and barely large enough to admit a human body. Through this they enter, feet foremost, on their hands and knees. When once inside these lodges they are not uncomfortable. The thickness of the earth over them prevents the sun from penetrating them in the hot season, while in the colder season, they protect them from the winds.

The men and children are, in general, naked. Some of them have obtained a few articles of clothing from the whites, such as shirts, handkerchiefs, &c., of which they seem quite proud. The females are also without any covering, except what they call the "Du-ceh." This is nothing more than a bunch of grass or rushes, about one foot in length, suspended from a belt or girdle around the waist, in front and in the rear.

I could discover no distinction in their customs, habits of life, or their general language, which could induce me to think they were not originally the same people. Indeed, their customs and manner of living are in many respects almost identical. Their huts, or lodges, are constructed in the same manner. They do not scalp those whom they kill, but universally throw the dead body into water. They all burn the dead.

They all subsist on roots and grass-seed from the earth, acorns and pine seeds from the trees, and fish from the streams. Acorns, nuts, and shell-fish are gathered in great quantities, and stored in magazines prepared for the purpose. Within the short period since the occupancy of this country by the whites, the red man has been fast fading away. Many have died with disease, and others fled to the mountains, to enjoy, for a brief period, their primeval sports of hunting and
fishing. Almost the entire tribes of the Costanoes, or Coast Indians, have passed away. Of the numerous tribes which but a few years ago inhabited the country bordering on the Bay of San Francisco, scarcely an individual is left.

-- 711 --

TABLE XXX.
CALIFORNIA COAST TRIBES NORTH OF SAN FRANCISCO, 1851.
[K. M'KEE.]
1. In the valleys of Sonora and Russian river there may be in all, say 1200
2. On Clear Lake and mountains adjacent 1000
3. In the two first valleys of south fork of Eel river, with language and customs similar to the above, and who should be colonized with them, from 1000 to 1100, say 1100
4. On the coast from the old Russian settlement at Fort Ross, down to San Francisco, and around the bay, by St. Raphael, Pelatoma, &c. 500
5. On the mountains and valleys of Eel river, South, Middle, and Vanderson's forks, and about its mouth 500
6. From the mouth of Eel river south, on — river, Cape Mendocino, and to Fort Ross, say 400
7. On Humboldt bay, and north to Mad river, a mile or so above the head of the bay 300
Total 5000

In California I have found the Indian population almost universally overrated as to numbers, and underrated as to intelligence and capacity for improvement. From information at Benicia, Sonoma, &c., I was led to expect that I should find some 2000 or 3000 Indians on Russian river, at least 3000 on Clear Lake, and 2500 or 3000 on Eel river. After passing through their country, and counting every soul in some half a dozen rancheros, to test the accuracy of their own estimates as well as those of the whites, I make the actual number less than one-half, generally about two-fifths of the number usually estimated by the settlers below.

Having as yet visited but one or two rancheros on the coast, I do not offer the above estimate with much confidence, though I think it approximates the truth, while it is only about one-third or one-fourth of the number generally estimated by the old settlers. For many years past the Indian population has been rapidly diminishing by diseases introduced by the whites, internal dissensions, and, in some cases, by want of food. At Humboldt bay, and at other places on the coast, where they depend almost wholly on fish and crabs, many sicken and die every winter; and if the benevolent designs of our Government for their preservation and improvement are not speedily set in operation, and vigorously prosecuted, the Indians, now wearing out a miserable existence along the coast, will all die off.

Back on the rivers and mountains, the Indians are generally a hale, healthy, vigorous-looking people, though of small stature. They are all docile in their habits, and evince a, great desire to learn our language and the arts of agriculture; with proper instructions, and assistance for a few years, I have entire confidence in their reclamation from ignorance, idleness, and heathenism, and their ability to maintain themselves and families.

INTERIOR TRIBES NORTH OF SAN FRANCISCO.
Tribes and principal Chiefs.
Men.
Women.
Children.
Total.
NALOH, Carlotsapo 30 26 19 75
CHOWECHAK, Chedochog 25 25 27 77
CHOITEU, Misalah 34 42 13 89
BACOWA, Tuwanah 23 29 28 80
SAMINDA, Cachenah 15 25 19 59
Total       380

-- 712 --

TABLE XXXI.
VITAL STATISTICS OF OSAGES IN 1850.
[H. HARVEY.]
Total population 4561
Births during the year 150
Deaths during the year 73
Deaths namely, Men 17
Deaths namely, Women 25
Deaths namely, Children 81
Aged and helpless males 18
Aged and helpless females 15
Cripples, entirely helpless 25
Total, requiring to be taken care of 75

The great and little Osages number, according to the "pay-roll" I have made out with much care, and which is believed to be correct, 4561 souls. They have no farms, except those belonging to the half-breeds, the head chief George Whitehair, and a few others. The half-breeds manage their farms well; but, owing to the drought the past summer, the corn was all ruined. Most of the Indians who had no ground enclosed, planted lots of corn along the water-courses, where they could dig the ground with hoes, and thus cultivate the corn, and that, at so great a distance from their villages, as to be out of danger from being destroyed by their horses, and what little other stock they have. These lots of corn their women cultivated, until all went on their "summer hunt," but on their return, recently, they found no corn, but all entirely ruined. I think I may safely say, that there were not (including the missionaries and half-breeds, who tended their crops well), 100 bushels of corn raised within the limits of the Osage nation this season. This is a sad affair for these Indians, and leaves them in a very destitute condition; as much so as they were in a few years since, when the flood swept their corn off. That subject then claimed the favourable attention of government, which I hope will now be the case, in this equally calamitous dispensation of Divine Providence.

The Osages have been remarkably healthy the present year, which will appear from the number of deaths, which have been ascertained and will be seen in this report.

They have drunk very little liquor in the nation, as may readily be inferred from the fact that but one murder has been committed the past year within the nation, and that was done when the parties were stupefied with whiskey.

-- 713 --

TABLE XXXII.
UPPER PLATTE AGENCY IN 1856.
[THOMAS S. TWISS.]
Tribes.
Lodges.
Average to the Lodges.
Warriors to the Lodges.
Total Warriors.
Total Indians.
1. Ogellalas 450 5 1/2 2 2225 2475
2. Brulé Sioux 250 5 1/2 2 500 1375
3. Arapahoes 160 5 1/2 2 300 580
4. Cheyennes 140 5 1/2 2 280 770
Total 1000     3305 5200

In reference to the population of the Indian tribes within the range of this agency, I would observe that, from a careful enumeration of the Sioux bands, denominated the Ogellala and Brulé bands of the Upper Platte, by counting the lodges when they came to receive the annuity goods due under treaty stipulations, and also of the Arapahoe band of this agency, I find accurately, that the

Ogellala band has 450 lodges,
Brulé band has 250 lodges,
Arapahoe band has 160 lodges,
Cheyenne band has 140 lodges,
Total 1000 lodges.

The enumeration of the Cheyenne band was made one year ago. As to the number of persons for each lodge, I am of the opinion that a fair average will not exceed five and a half (5 1/2), making a total of 5500 souls, men, women, and children, for 1000 lodges. The number of warriors, or those capable of using the bow and arrow against their enemies, I should estimate at two for each lodge, making 2000 warriors for 1000 lodges. The population is only about one person to twenty-five square miles, which is a sparse population even for an Indian country. The white population is limited to the Indian traders and their employées, in all not exceeding 100 persons, and to the garrisons of the military posts at Fort Laramie, and the bridge crossing of the North Platte, which will average not far from 400 men. Total whites, 500.

In truth and in fact, there are no actual settlers nor settlements within the agency. The right of soil still remains with the Indian tribes.

-- 714 --

TABLE XXXIII.
A LIST
Of the different Nations and Tribes of Indians in the Northern Districts of North America, with the number of their Fighting-men, &c., &c. — BY THOMAS HUTCHINS. — Topographical Description, &c.: London, 1778.
No.
Names.
No. of each.
Their Dwelling-grounds.
Their Hunting-grounds.
1. MOHOCKS 160 Mohock river. Between Mohock river and Lake George.
2. ONEIDAS 300 East side of Oneida Lake, and on the head waters of the East branch of Susquehanna. In the country where they live.
3. TUSCARORAS 200 Between the Oneidas and Onondagas. Between Oneida Lake and Lake Ontario.
4. ONONDAGOES 260 Near the Onondaga Lake. Between the Onondago Lake and the mouth of the Seneca river, near Oswego.
5. CAYUGAS 200 On two small lakes called the Cayugas, near the North branch of Susquehanna. Near the north branch of Susquehanna.
6. SENECAS 1,000 Seneca country, on the waters of Susquehanna, the waters of Lake Ontario, and on the heads of Ohio river. Their chief hunting county, where they live.
7. AUGHQUAGAS 150 East branch of Susquehanna river, and on Aughquaga. On the East branch of Susquehanna, and on Aughquaqga.
8. NANTICOKES 100 Utfonango, Chaghnet, Oswego, and on the East branch of Susquehanna. Where they respectively reside.
9. MOHICKONS 100
10. CONOYS 30
11. MUNSAYS 150 At Diahago and other villages up the North branch of Susquehanna. Where they respectively reside.
12. SAPOONES 30
13. DELAWARES 150
14. DELAWARES 600 Between the Ohio and Lake Erie, and on the branches of Beaver creek, Muskingum, and Gugehago. Between the Ohio river and Lake Erie.
15. SHAWANOES 300 On Sioto and a branch of Muskingum. Between the Ohio river and Lake Erie.
16. WAYONDOTTS 300 In villages near Sandusky. On the head branches of Sioto.
17. MONHICKONS
18. 18. COGHNAWAGAS
19. TWIGHTWEES 250 Miami river near Fort Miami. On the ground where they reside.
20. KICKAPOOS 1,000 On the Wabash and its branches. Between the mouth of the Wabash and the Miami rivers.
21. PYANKESHAWS
22. MUSQUITONS
23. KASKASKIAS 300 Near the settlements in the Illinois country. In the Illinois country.
24. PIORIAS
25. MITCHIGAMAS
26. WIYONDOTTS 250 Near Fort Detroit. About Lake Erie.
27. OTTAWAS 400
28. PUTAWATIMES 150
29. CHEPAWAS AND 200 On Saginaw bay, a part of Lake Huron. On Saginaw bay and Lake Huron.
30. OTTAWAS
31. KICKAPOOS 400 Near the entrance of Lake Superior, and not far from St. Mary's. About Lake Superior.
32. CHEPAWAS 550 Near Bay Puan, a part of Lake Michigan. About Bay Puan and Lake Michigan.
33. MYNOMANIES
34. SAUKEYS
35. PUTAWATIMES 200 Near Fort St. Joseph's. The country between Lake Michigan and the Miami fort.
36. OTTAWAS 150
37. KICKAPOOSES 4,000 On Lake Michigan, and between it and the Mississippi. Where they respectively reside.
38. OUTTAGOMIES
39. MUSQUATON S
40. MUSCOTINS
41. OUTTAMACKS
42. MUSQUAKEYS
43. OSWEGATCHES 100 At Swagatchey in Canada, and on the river St. Lawrence. Near where they live.
44. CONNEFEDAGOES 300 Near Montreal. Near where they live.
45. COGNAWAGOES
46. ORONDOCKS 100 Near Trois river. Near where they live.
47. ABONAKIES 150
48. ALAGONKINS 100
49. LA SUE 10,000 Westward of Lake Superior and the Mississippi. In the country where they reside.
50. OTTAWAS 200 On the east side of Lake Michigan, twenty-one miles from Michilimackinac. In the country between Lakes Michigan and Huron.
51. CHEPAWAS 1,000 On Lake Superior, and the islands in that lake. Round Lake Superior.
  Total 23,830    

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TABLE XXXIV.
CENSUS OF CAYUGAS, 1855.
Residence.
Heads of Families.
Men.
Women.
Children.
Total.
In the State of New York 48 29 37 77 143 201
West of Mississippi river 10       58
TABLE XXXV.
CALIFORNIA INDIANS.
[THOMAS J. HENLY.]
The number of Indians now collected and residing upon reservations is —
At Klamath 2500
At Nome Lacke 2000
At Mendocino 500
At Fresno 900
At Tejon 700
At Nome Cult valley (attached to Nome Lacke) 3000
At King's river (attached to Fresno) 400

Making in all ten thousand.

The number of Indians not connected with the reserves cannot be correctly estimated.

The following statement is made up from the most reliable information I have been able to obtain:

On and attached to the reservation as above 10,000
In San Diego and San Bernardino counties 8,000
In Los Angelos, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Monterey, Santa Clara, and Santa Cruz counties 2,000
In Tulare and Mariposa counties 2,500
In Tuolumne, Calaveras, San Joaquin, Alameda, and Contra Costa counties 4,100
In Sacramento, Eldorado, and Placer counties 3,500
In Sutter, Yuba, Nevada, and Sierra counties 3,500
In Butte, Shasta, and Siskiyou counties 5,500
In Klamath, Humboldt, and Trinity counties 6,500
In Mendocino, Colusi, Yolo, Napa, Sonoma, and Marin counties 15,000

Making the total number of Indians within this superintendence 61,600.

At the date of my assuming the duties of superintendent of Indian affairs for this State, the system of colonizing and subsisting Indians upon reservations selected for that purpose, and instructing them in the arts of agricultural labour, &c., had been commenced, and a reservation selected at the Tejon Pass, in the northern part of the State.

This reservation is in a prosperous condition. The number of Indians who reside here is 700. The quantity of land in cultivation this year is about seven hundred acres, five hundred of which are in wheat and barley, and the remainder in corn and vegetables; most of the latter being the exclusive property of the Indians, cultivated entirely by them, and in their own way. The Indians work cheerfully, and perform all the labour upon the farm, white men being only employed as overseers and mechanics. Owing to the extraordinary drought of the past season, in that portion of the State, the product of the farm is much less than it should have been; enough, however, has been produced for the consumption of the place.

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There are on the reserve eight adobe buildings — the first of which is one hundred feet in length by twenty-four feet in breadth, two stories high; it is used as a granary and storehouse. The second is the residence of the agent, and is sixty feet in length by twenty feet in breadth. The remainder are residences of the Indian chiefs, and are about forty feet in length by twenty feet in breadth. All the labour of building these houses was performed by Indians, except the mechanical part of it. The mill is in complete order, and by it all the grain produced upon the place is manufactured into unbolted flour before it is issued to the Indians. The property used in conducting the farm is twenty-six horses, thirty-eight mules, seven oxen, eight wagons, and fourteen ploughs.

FRESNO AND KING'S RIVER FARMS. — Owing to the difficulty of procuring a suitable location for a reservation in the central portion of the State, no permanent selection has yet been made; but, in order to provide for the Indians according to the intentions of the government, land has been rented at Fresno and King's river, and the Indians collected and subsisted at these points in the same manner as upon permanent reservations. The crops consist of 700 acres of wheat and barley, and 100 acres of corn. Owing to the drought, the wheat and barley crop was an entire failure. The corn, having been irrigated, will be an ordinary crop. This failure of the crops will be a source of serious difficulty to the superintendency. There are about three thousand Indians in the vicinity of these farms, all of whom could have been provided with food had the crops been successful. The drought having been general in this region, grain can only be purchased at exorbitant rates, such as would not be justifiable except to prevent starvation. Every precaution, however, has been taken to avoid the consequences of this misfortune. The agents have been instructed to turn the attention of the Indians to their mode of living before the care of the government had been extended over them; and parties have been sent to the mountains, in various directions, to collect acorns, berries, seeds, and such other food as they were formerly accustomed to subsist upon; and, as if to demonstrate the fact that Providence never leaves any portion of the human family entirely unprovided with the means to sustain life, the phenomenon exists that the salmon, which for several years have failed to make their appearance in the San Joaquin river in any numbers worth mentioning, are this year abundant in that stream, and the prospect seems to be that the threatened famine will be in a great degree averted by this providential supply of fish from the ocean, though it is distant from the coast, by the meandering of the stream, some three hundred miles. A portion of the Indians from the farms have been removed to and encamped upon the river, and every facility furnished them for catching and curing fish, which, should the supply continue, will enable them to provide a sufficient quantity for a great portion of the winter. Another source, which is now looked upon as of great importance, is the Tule lake, lying about fifty miles northwest of the San Joaquin river, which abounds with fish of excellent quality, and is, during the winter season, the resort of an unlimited number of wild geese and ducks, from which the Indians have heretofore, when undisturbed by the whites, obtained a comfortable subsistence. Agents Lewis and Ridley are now examining the lake country for a suitable location, to which, if found, it is intended to remove some ten or fifteen hundred of the Indians for support during the winter. Although the prospect for these Indians seems to be gloomy, yet I have great confidence that, by industry, energy, and judicious management, we shall be enabled to provide for them in such a way as to prevent starvation, and preserve the peace of the country.

Passing from the Fresno, we have a much more cheering prospect at Nome Lacke reservation, at which place there are collected about two thousand Indians. Land in cultivation, one thousand acres; estimated product of wheat, fifteen thousand bushels; corn, pumpkins, melons, turnips, and other vegetables in great abundance. Nothing in the pursuits of industry could have been more satisfactory or interesting than the harvesting of the wheat crop; it was cut entirely with small German reaping-hooks, which were used by the Indians with extraordinary dexterity. About two hundred men, furnished with these sickles, cut the wheat and threw it into bunches, and were followed by a sufficient number of women and boys to bind it into sheaves and put it into stacks ready for threshing. In this way, and at their leisure, in about ten days, taking it as it ripened, the entire harvesting was completed, all the labour having been performed by the Indians, only three or four white men being engaged as overseers. It was estimated by the white men in charge of the work, that one hundred of these Indians could be selected, who would cut and take care of as much grain as any fifty white men not regularly

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accustomed to this description of labour. Considering the fact that these Indians eighteen months ago were entirely wild, and totally ignorant of everything connected with industrial habits, the labour they have performed, and the skill and dexterity with which they perform their work, is alone a sufficient answer to the question so often asked, "Can Indians be made to perform labour sufficient to provide for their support?" It is a fact, too, worthy of particular remark, that all this labour has been most cheerfully performed, no coercion or chastisement having been necessary. Attached to Nome Lacke a farm has recently been established at Nome Cult valley. This valley is located in the coast range of mountains, about forty miles east of Cape Mendocino, and there are in the vicinity about three thousand Indians. The farm is placed in charge of three of the employees from Nome Lacke. The Indians are now engaged, under the direction of the persons in charge of them, in collecting acorns, manzanito berries, and other wild food for their winter supply, of which there will be plenty for their subsistence until crops can be produced for their support. There are on the Nome Lacke reserve three adobe houses, one flouring mill, and fourteen frame houses. In addition to these improvements, there is in the course of erection an adobe building intended for a fortification. It is to be one hundred feet square, with a thick adobe wall ten feet high. In the centre will be erected a two-story substantial adobe building, which will be used as a guard-house and prison. The property used in conducting this farm are twenty-five horses, eight mules, seventy-seven oxen, twenty-one ploughs, and five wagons.

Klamath reservation is located on the river of that name, which discharges its waters into the Pacific ocean twenty miles south of Crescent city.

The Indians at this place number about two thousand. They are proud and somewhat insolent, and not inclined to labour, alleging that, as they have always heretofore lived upon the fish of the river, and the roots, berries, and seeds of their native hills, they can continue to do so if left unmolested by the whites, whose encroachments upon what they call their country they are disposed to resist. Their prejudices upon these points are fast giving way before the policy of the government, and no serious difficulty will be encountered in initiating the system of labour among them. The land on this river is peculiarly adapted to the growth of vegetables, and it is expected that potatoes and other vegetable food, which can be produced in any abundance, together with the salmon and other fish which abound plentifully in the Klamath river, shall constitute the principal food for these Indians. It is confidently expected in this way to avoid the purchase of beef, which forms so expensive an item at those places where there is no substitute for it. The establishment of the Klamath reserve has undoubtedly prevented the spread of the Indian wars of Oregon down into northern California. There are on this reserve five log houses, seven board houses, four slab houses, one smoke-house, one poultry-house, and thirty Indian huts. The property used in conducting the farming operations is two mules, thirteen oxen, and six ploughs.

Mendocino reservation is located fifty miles south of Cape Mendocino, on the Pacific coast. This reserve has been but recently established. The number of Indians at present collected there is about five hundred. They subsist almost entirely upon fish and muscles. They are furnished with boats, seines, and all the necessary tackle for
fishing. A smoke-house has been erected, and the agent has a large number of Indians engaged in catching and curing fish for the winter supply of food. There are several rivers discharging into the ocean through this reserve, in which, at all seasons of the year, an abundant supply of fish can be taken. The coast at this point is somewhat shoaly, and the beach is covered with muscles, over which the tide ebbs and flows, and they are covered with an inexhaustible quantity of muscles, but little inferior in flavour and richness to oysters. These two articles will always, in case of a failure of crops upon the reserve, afford sustenance to the Indians without any other food. The land on this reserve, like that of the Klamath, will produce corn, wheat, oats, &c., but is peculiarly adapted to the production of vegetables. The quantity of land of this description amounts to several thousand acres, the products of which, with the fish and muscles of the rivers and coast in plentiful abundance, will afford support for a very large number of Indians; which I consider safe to estimate at not less than ten thousand. Indeed, I know of no location, either in California or elsewhere, so well adapted to the purposes of an Indian reservation as Mendocino. There are on this reserve eight houses. The property used to establish and carry on operations at this place is five horses, two mules, twenty-four oxen, one cart, and two ploughs.

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In regard to the system of colonizing and subsisting Indians on reservations, I have only to say that it has so far succeeded entirely beyond my expectations, and is, in my judgment, the only system that can be of any real benefit to the Indians. It enables the government to withdraw them from the contaminating influences of an unrestrained intercourse with the whites, and gives an opportunity to provide for them just such, and no more, assistance than their wants from time to time may actually require.

Indians should be treated as wards, and the government should act as their guardian, judging for them at all times of their real wants, and providing for them accordingly. This has been the policy pursued in the California superintendency, and I have so far found no difficulty in its application.

TABLE XXXVI.
IROQUOIS OF NEW YORK, 1853.
[M. H. JOHNSON. 937]
Names of Tribes and Location.
Men.
Women.
Children.
Aggregate number of Men, Women and Children.
Total Population of each tribe.
Senecas at Cattaraugus 297 324 552 1173 2581
Senecas at Alleghany 184 201 372 757
Senecas at Townawanda 176 195 280 651
Total 657 720 1204    
Senecas at Cattaraugus by adoption, but not entitled to annuities: Susan Kinjockety's family 1 3 8    
Onondagas at Onondaga Castle 80 98 144 322 472
Onondagas with Senecas at Cattaraugus 9 6 17 32
Onondagas with Senecas at Alleghany 19 14 54 87
Onondagas with Senecas at Tonawanda   1 3 4
Onondagas with Tuscaroras at Tusearora 2 5 20 27
Total 110 124 238    
Cayugas with Senecas 39 31 73 143 143
Tuscaroras at Tusearora 68 63 151 282 282
Oneidas at Oneida Castle 43 44 89 176 255
Oneidas with Senecas at Cattaraugus 4 1 1 6
Oneidas with Onondagas at Onondaga Castle 19 24 29 72
Oneidas with Senecas at Tonawanda   1   1
Total 66 70 119    
Add Susan Kinjockety's family, who are not entitled to goods annuity         12
Total number of Six Nations of New York Indians.         3745

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Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe.. History of the Indian Tribes of the United States: Their Present Condition and Prospects, and a Sketch of Their Ancient Status. Volume 6. . Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo and Co, 1857. [format: book; image], [genre: government document; report]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
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