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Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe.. History of the Indian Tribes of the United States: Their Present Condition and Prospects, and a Sketch of Their Ancient Status. Volume 6. . Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo and Co, 1857. [format: book; image], [genre: government document; report]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
No man, living during the reign of Elizabeth, acquired greater celebrity for military exploits, naval skill, enthusiastic pursuit of trans-Atlantic discoveries, and the furtherance of colonization, than did Sir Walter Raleigh. He was equally renowned for his wit, learning, eloquence, and accomplishments. Descended from a noble family in Devonshire, he was educated at Oxford, and, after serving with distinguished credit in France, under Coligni and Conde; in the Netherlands, under the Prince of Orange; and in Ireland, against the rebels; he was received at Elizabeth's court with marked favor. The world is indebted to Raleigh for the discovery of Virginia. His plans for promoting colonization on the Atlantic coast were early developed, and he was, beyond all others, the zealous, as well as steadfast, advocate of the policy of extending the power and civilization of England to the wild, but beauteous shores of America. He commanded an expedition which explored Guiana, in South America, and ascended the Orinoco to the distance of 400 miles from its mouth. Subsequently, he wrote an account of the countries visited by him, which is celebrated for its truthful, glowing, and graphic descriptions. Having been one of the originators of the expedition of Sir Humphrey Gilbert (his half-brother), to Newfoundland, when that attempt to found a colony failed, he obtained letters patent from Elizabeth, authorizing him to renew the effort in a more southerly latitude, on the Atlantic. These letters were dated on the 25th of March, 1584, nearly six years after the failure of Gilbert's attempt. The authority to make discoveries, and found a colony, was plenary, but the government did not undertake to defray any part of the cost. It was, strictly
speaking, a private, or associate adventure, the crown conferring upon the projectors the proprietorship of the country discovered, merely stipulating for the usual acknowledgment of sovereignty, by the surrender of one-fifth of the proceeds of all mines. Some grants of licenses on wines, and other emoluments, were at the same period bestowed upon Raleigh, to enable him to liquidate the charges of his equipment; in addition to which he associated with him other persons possessing means and influence, among whom were included blood relations. Two vessels were provided, and placed under the respective commands of Philip Amidas, and Arthur Barlow, the latter of whom had served under Raleigh in Ireland, as an officer of the land forces. On the 2d of April the ships sailed out of the Thames, and, following the usual circuitous route, via the Canaries and the West Indies, arrived off the coast of Florida on the 2d of July. The Virginia coasts were occupied by clans of Algonquins, of the Powhatanic type. Each clan obeyed the authority of its own chief, but all were associated in a general confederacy, which was ruled by Powhatan, whose council fire and residence were located on the James river. Those who lived on the coasts relied on fish as one of the means of their subsistence. The hunting-grounds extended west to the general line of the falls of the Virginia rivers, where a diverse stock, as well as language, supervened, extending to the Alleghanies. Whatever occurrence of moment happened on the borders, as the appearance of enemies, or strangers, was immediately communicated to the central administration. In this way a sort of inchoate republic was governed.
Amidas and Barlow approached a low shore, covered with trees, fringed with an outer line of islands and islets.  Having cast anchor, Barlow landed in his yawl at the island of Wococon,  where he admired the handsome trees, indigenous fruits, and vigorous vegetation.  But no Indians appeared until the third day, when, three of the natives approaching in a canoe, a friendly intercourse ensued. The following day, the ships were visited by several canoes, in one of which was Granganameo, Powhatan's brother. At this interview, friendly salutations and presents were exchanged. The Indians are described as "a proper well-proportioned people, very civil in their manners and behaviour." After this interview, reciprocal confidence being established, a traffic was commenced.
Amidas then proceeded to enter Pamlico Sound, and the following day, at evening, anchored near the island of Roanoke,  which he estimated to be seven leagues distant from Occoquon, the first place of landing.
At Roanoke the English found a small village comprising nine houses, one of which was occupied by the family of Granganameo, the chief being absent. His wife received Amidas with courtesy and hospitality. She was an energetic woman, and ordered
their boats to be drawn ashore, and the oars to be carried up to the village, to guard them from thieves. The feet of the English having been washed in warm water, she then invited them to partake of hominy, boiled venison, and roasted fish, with a dessert of "melons and other vegetables." 
Fearing treachery, Amidas embarked in his boat at evening, and, pushing it out into the sound, anchored off the village, intending thus to pass the night. The wife of Granganameo, divining the reason for this precaution, and evidently regretting his mistrust, sent down the evening's meal, in pots, to the shore. She also ordered mats to be carried to the boat, to shelter the English from the night dews, and directed several men, and thirty women, to remain there all night, as a guard.
This constituted the extreme limit of their discoveries. Returning to their anchorage, the explorers spent two months and a half on the coast, when, having finished their traffic, they set sail for England, about the middle of September, carrying with them two natives, called Manteo and Wasechoe. The safe return of the ships, and the narration of the discoveries made, created a strong sensation, and Elizabeth was so much pleased with the description of the country, and the prospect of extending her sovereignty which it presented, that she named it Virginia, in allusion to her own state of single-blessedness.
Chapter II. The Powhatanic Tribes of Virginia, as they are Reported on the Second Voyage.
THE desire to found colonies was effectually aroused in England, by the results of this discovery, which was the germ of the British colonial establishments. It needed not the prophetic bard to pen the exclamation, "Visions of glory, spare my aching sight!"  nor the voice of the Indian sage, Opechan, to bid his countrymen fear, and fly before the footsteps of a people, who brought in their train the subtle genii of labour, letters, and Christianity.
The pioneer ships had scarcely returned from Virginia, when a second voyage was resolved on. Sir Richard Grenville, who had been one of the promoters of the first effort, originated this second adventure, and determined to lead it. For this enterprize, seven ships were equipped in the harbor of Plymouth, and fully provided with all necessary supplies. Raleigh was deeply interested in this new effort, and to render it successful, nothing was omitted, which, at that era, was deemed essential. The presence of Manteo, and his companion, had excited a lively interest in the public mind respecting the aborigines, and, in order to acquire correct ideas of their features, manners, and customs, Raleigh sent out Mr. With, or Wyth, a skilful writer. A gentleman of his household, Thomas Harriot, a noted mathematician and scholar, also accompanied the expedition, for the purpose of describing their character. Manteo returned to Virginia as guide and interpreter.
The ships sailed from Plymouth on the 9th of April, and, after crossing the Atlantic, on the 26th of May anchored off the island of Occoquon, having made the passage in forty-seven days. At this time the principal local ruler on the coast was Wingina, who resided on the island of Roanoke. To him a deputation was immediately despatched, under the guidance of Manteo, who is uniformly praised for his fidelity.
Other parties were sent off in different directions, to acquire a knowledge of the geography, and make inquiry concerning the productions, of the country. Sir Richard, himself, crossed to the main land, and explored the villages on the Chowan river, where he involved himself and attendants in hostilities with the natives. The manner
in which this difficulty arose was as follows: The Indians had stolen a silver cup from his mess furniture, in revenge for which, after his return to the island of Occoquon, he burned their village and destroyed their corn. After perpetrating this impolitic and cruel outrage, he suddenly determined to return to England. He left a colony of 180 persons on the island of Occoquon, over whom he appointed Mr. Ralph Lane, governor. On his route home he visited the West Indies, with the expectation of encountering Spanish vessels; and, having captured a large ship, returned with his prize to Plymouth, which he reached on the 18th of September, after an absence of a little more than six months.
Lane and his companions immediately located the colony on the island of Roanoke. Under his directions they continued the reconnoissance of the country, exploring the coasts to the southward, as far as an Indian village called Secotan, near the mouth of Neus river, and northward as far as the village of the Chesapeake Indians, who resided on Elizabeth river.  To the northwest, they ascended the Chowan river 130 miles, to the territory occupied by a nation called Chowanocks, a branch of the Iroquois stock.  At Cape Hatteras, whither they went, by water, under the guidance of the friendly Manteo, they had an interview with Granganameo, which is the last mention we have of this chief, in Virginia history.
Richard Grenville's exploratory trip, and his severity toward the Indians, seconded as it was by the aggressive policy pursued by his successors, had the effect of keeping the settlers in a state of confusion, and continual dread of the aborigines.  The colonists soon found that they were regarded by the Indians with suspicion and mistrust. Finesse was retaliated by finesse, deception by deception. In one of their numerous broils with the natives, the colonists killed Wingina. About the same time, Granganameo, their best friend, died, and his death was followed by that of his aged father, Ensenore. A general state of unfriendly feeling at this time existed towards the English. The colonists planted nothing, and, with great reluctance, the Indians partially supplied them with corn, game, and fish, which, at length, they withheld altogether. The result of this non-intercourse policy was, that parties of the colonists were necessitated to forage for supplies on the islands, and some on the main land. Finally, they were compelled to subsist on roots and shell-fish. A party of twenty men, while thus employed at Croatan, on the southern part of Cape Lookout, descried a squadron of twenty-three ships, standing in. This fleet proved to be that of Sir Francis Drake, returning from an expedition against the Spaniards. They had taken, and plundered, Carthagena and Hispaniola, and burned the towns of St. Anthony and St. Helena, on the Florida coast.
Drake had orders from Queen Elizabeth to visit and succor the Virginia colony. 
He furnished them with a ship of seventy tons burthen, 100 men, and four months' provisions, but the vessel was driven off the coast by a tempest. He then supplied them with another vessel of 120 tons burthen, manned and provisioned, but it was found to be impossible to get her over the bar at the entrance to the sound. Then the colonists at Roanoke, considering that they had already suffered "much misery and danger,"  and had not received the expected supplies, promised by Grenville, solicited permission to return to England in the fleet of Drake. To this request Sir Francis gave his ready assent, and they were all safely landed at Portsmouth, about the close of July, 1586. On this trip, Governor Lane first carried the tobacco plant from Virginia to England.
Of the customs, rites, creed, and opinions of the Indians, Mr. Herriot gives the following account: "They believe in one God, who is self-existent and eternal, and the creator of the world. After this he created an order of inferior gods, to carry out his government. That then the sun, moon, and stars, were created as instruments of the secondary gods. The waters were then made, becoming the vital principle of all creatures. He next created a woman, who, by the congress of one of the gods, brought forth children, and thence mankind had their beginnings. They thought the gods were all of human shape, and worshipped them, by their images, dancing, singing, and praying, with offerings. They believed in the immortality of the soul, which was destined to future happiness, or to inhabit Popagussa, a pit, or place of torment, where the sun sets; and this doctrine they based on the assertion of persons who had returned after death." These doctrines are said to have had much weight with the common Indians, but to have made but little impression on their Weroances, or rulers, and priests. How accurately they were reported, and how much they were colored by Christian predilections, may be judged of by the known repugnance of the native sages to give information on such points; by their soon being on ill terms, or at open war, with the English; and by the probability that some of the more striking characteristics of this alleged Indian creed had been derived from traditions, related by Manteo and Granganameo the first a baptised convert, and the latter a politic friend of the English, and an admirer of their manners.
Wingina, himself, would often be at prayers with the English, it having been their practice to read the service publicly in the presence of the Indians. But it was evident that they deemed the English great necromancers, possessing almost unlimited influence with the gods; firmly believing that they could inflict diseases, ensure death, and impart vigor to the growth of, or destroy, their corn crops. The Bible, which was read by the English, and regarded as the exponent of the purest doctrines, the Indians considered to be a talisman, whose virtues resided in the material of the book, and not in its spiritual teachings. They deemed it a favor to handle, hug, and kiss it, passing it over their faces, and rubbing it over their breasts.
Mr. Herriot observed that they had great esteem and veneration for a plant a spontaneous growth of the country which they called Uppowoc, but which was even then better known by the name of tobacco.  The leaves of this, cured and dried, they smoked in earthen tubes, drawing up the smoke by inhalation. The fumes of this plant were offered to their gods with ceremonial rites, and extravagant genefluxions. They threw its dust on nets to consecrate them for use, and into the air as a thanksgiving for dangers past. But its most sacred use was casting it into fires kindled for sacrifice, to produce a kind of incense to heaven. This eminent mathematician, and pious scholar, as he is termed, has been severely criticised for defending those rites; nor has Sir Walter Raleigh escaped the charge of infidelity, for the interest with which he received, and his example in introducing the use of tobacco into gay and fashionable society. The great value which the North American Indians place upon tobacco, is one of the most universal and well known of their traits. There is nothing in more esteem in their social, ceremonial, and religious circles, every solemnity being opened with its use. In their religious rites it is the most highly venerated thing on their altars. In social life it is the first requisite inquired for, and (as I have frequently noticed in travelling through the Indian territories) it is valued above food. Were there nothing else to identify the present race with the inhabitants of the Virginia coasts in 1586, the general use of, and the value attached to tobacco, would supply irrefragable evidence of their propinquity. The lapse of nine generations has not, in the least, diminished their extraordinary attachment to this narcotic production. 
Chapter III. Perturbed State of the Virginia Indians During the Voyages Subsequently Made to that Coast, in the Sixteenth Century.
THE early intercourse of the English with the Virginia tribes partook of an entirely friendly character. The interests of both parties were subserved. The Indians were delighted to exchange their commodities for European fabrics, of which they stood more in need; while this new branch of commerce promised to be very remunerative to the adventurers. The friendship of Powhattan's brother, Granganameo, who resided on the island of Roanoke, was secured by the first voyagers, and, through the means of Manteo and Wasechoe, who accompanied the first ships on their return to England, considerable advance was made in the study of the habits and tribal relations of the Indians, and of the geography of their country. The first event which disturbed these friendly relations, was the extraordinary course taken by Sir Richard Grenville, in retaliation for the theft of a silver cup from his mess furniture. Manteo, having made some progress in English, returned from England with the colonists, and was of great service to them as an interpreter, guide, and adviser. So great was the sense Sir Walter Raleigh entertained of the merits and morals of Manteo, that he directed him, when baptised, to be given the title of "Lord of Roanoke." Granganameo, who had welcomed Amidas, continued to be friendly, but this friendship was incited by a motive which did not at first appear. He expected the English to aid him against Wingina, his elder brother, or half-brother a powerful and ambitious party sachem, who, unfortunately for the English, appears not to have yielded to the sway of Powhattan, and against whom he was, consequently, at war. This hope, and policy of Granganameo, was gratified. In a short time the colonists began to regard Wingina with great suspicion. They watched his motions, and, in the end accused him of concocting a plot to exterminate them. Amidas had been abundantly supplied by Granganameo, with venison, herring and other fish; and he had been received by his wife at Roanoke, during the absence of the chief, with great attention and hospitality; but it appeared that he did not consider the island to be a safe permanent residence, for, on a subsequent voyage, Sir Richard Grenville found him located at Cape Hatteras. One of the first acts of Sir Richard, on reaching
Occoquon, was to send to the island of Roanoke, and announce his arrival to Wingina, who is styled "the King." Manteo kept up friendly relations with both chieftains. He accompanied an agent to visit the tribes on the main land, and proved himself a very trustworthy person. Sir Richard was so much pleased with this reconnoissance, that, accompanied by a select body of men, he repeated the visit to the main land, and discovered several Indian towns. During this excursion the loss of the silver cup occurred, in revenge for which he burned an Indian town, and destroyed the corn-fields of its inhabitants.
After committing this imprudent action, he, with some precipitancy, returned to England, consigning the government of the colony to Mr. Ralph Lane, and the charge of the ships to Captain Amidas. Mr. Thomas Harriot was directed to continue his observations on the manners and customs of the Indians. Lane immediately removed the colony to Roanoke, at the entrance to Albemarle Sound, and, employing persons to make a thorough survey of the coast, thus made himself acquainted with the geography and resources of the country. These researches extended southwardly eighty leagues, to the Neus river, and northwardly to the territory of the Chesapeakes, an Indian tribe located on a stream, named by the English, Elizabeth river. 
These explorations were extended towards the northwest, up the Albemarle Sound and Chowan river, a distance of 130 miles. Lane personally directed the exploring party, and was accompanied by Manteo. The Chowan is formed by the junction of the Meherrin and Nottaway. At this point Lane entered the country of the Chowanocks. 
The ruling chief, a lame man, named Menatonon, possessing an excellent understanding, told Mr. Lane a notable story of a copper mine, and a pearl fishery, the latter of which he located on the coast. He intermingled his narrative with a strange tale, that the head of the Maratuc, now called Roanoke river, sprang out of a rock which was so close to the sea, that, when high winds prevailed, the "foam from the waves was driven over into the spring." Presuming this sea to be an arm of the Gulf of Mexico, or the South Sea (Pacific), Lane undertook a very chimerical voyage to find it. Every hardship was endured while prosecuting this hazardous undertaking, with the hope of making golden discoveries. At last the explorers were compelled to subsist on a pint of corn per day, and, when this was exhausted, they boiled two mastiff dogs, with sassafras leaves. After some days spent in a fruitless search, the adventurers were glad to return to their quarters at Roanoke.
At this time Granganameo died. He had been the tried friend of the English, and was at all times seconded in his good offices by his father, Ensenore. Their joint influence had been sufficient to restrain Wingina's malice and perfidy. But after Granganameo's death, being afforded a free scope for the pursuit of his machinations, he at once changed his name from Wingina to Pemissapan, and became the inveterate enemy of the Virginia colonists. By his representations he had been instrumental in entailing much suffering and hardship upon Mr. Lane, in his explorations of the Chowan river; but when the governor returned, bringing with him the son of Chowanock as a prisoner, and Manteo, and others, related the bravery and power of endurance of Lane's company, his haughty aspect was changed, and the bravado speeches made during their absence, were heard no more. These reports of the capacity of the colonists to sustain themselves, were confirmed by a present of pearl sent to Mr. Lane from Menatonon, the king of the Chowanocks, and another present from Okisco, the chief of Weopemcoka, a powerful coast tribe. These friendly demonstrations had such an effect upon Wingina, that he directed weirs to be constructed, for the supply of the colonists with fish, and caused them to be taught how to plant their fields of corn. But this friendship was speedily interrupted by the death of the venerable and wise chief, Ensenore. The two best political friends of the English being now dead, Wingina, under pretence of celebrating his father's funeral, invited a large number of Indians to assemble, with the intention of annihilating the colony at one blow. The plot was revealed by Skico, the son of Menatonon, who had been taken prisoner by the expedition to the head of the Chowan river.
The colonists immediately seized all the Indian canoes on the island, thinking thus to entangle the Indians in their own toils. But the latter took the alarm, and, after a skirmish, in which five or six of their number were slain, the remainder made good their escape to the forest. Both parties now maintained the closest watch over each other's movements; but, after much manoeuvring, Wingina was at length entrapped and slain, together with eight of his principal warriors.
Chapter IV. Hostilities with the Dessamopeak, Sicopan, and Aquoscojos Tribes. Successive Abandonment of the Roanoke and Hatteras Colonies.
ALTHOUGH the death of Wingina seemed to have prepared the way for a more peaceful occupation of the country, yet, a general scarcity of food, combined with a most singular concurrence of untoward events, finally led to the abandonment of the island. The stringent position of affairs at Roanoke had, despite the efforts of industrious individuals, been increased by the withdrawal and hostility of the Indians, who had been chiefly relied upon for supplies of food. To relieve the colony, Captain Stafford, a prominent and energetic man, was despatched, with nineteen men, to the friendly Indian village of Croatan, on Cape Lookout, with the twofold purpose of enabling them to provide their own subsistence, and of keeping a watch for ships expected with relief from England. They had not been there more than seven days, when twenty-three sail of ships made their appearance. This fleet was commanded by Sir Francis Drake, who was returning from an expedition against the Spaniards in the West Indies, and on the Spanish main. He had taken Carthagena, plundered the capitol of Hispaniola, and burnt the towns of St. Anthony and St. Helena, on the Florida coast. Having received orders to succor the Virginia colony, he offered them a ship of seventy tons burthen, 100 men, and four months' provisions, as well as four smaller vessels. But these vessels were all driven to sea in a storm. Drake then tendered them a ship of 120 tons, but, unfortunately, it could not be navigated into the harbor of Roanoke. Under these circumstances, and in view of their having suffered much misery, and their dangerous position, the colonists, after some discussion, determined to solicit Sir Francis to convey them to England in his fleet. This favor was granted, and they arrived at Portsmouth in July, 1586. Drake was not more than a few days' sail from Roanoke on his homeward passage, when a ship of 100 tons burthen arrived from England with the expected supplies. The commander having made search for the colonists in vain, returned home with his vessel. About a fortnight after the departure of the latter ship, Sir Richard Grenville arrived with three ships, and ample supplies. Receiving no intelligence of the colony, he landed fifty men on the island of Roanoke, furnished them with provisions for two years, and then returned. To these successive arrivals and departures, the Indians
remained silent spectators; but they could not fail to be impressed with the idea, that a nation which could furnish such resources, was not only affluent, but also in earnest.
During the month of July, of the following year (1587), three ships arrived, which had been sent out under the command of Governor John White, with the design of reinforcing and permanently establishing the colony. Making Cape Hatteras, Governor White immediately proceeded to the island of Roanoke, to seek for the fifty men, but there he found nothing but the skeleton of one man. The buildings were not destroyed, but the fort was dilapidated, and the ground in its vicinity overgrown with weeds. Governor White refitted the houses, resumed the occupancy of the spot, and established his government. Mr. Howe, one of the newly-appointed council, having wandered into the woods, was shot by one of Wingina's men. Captain Stafford, with twenty men, accompanied by Manteo, who had sailed to England with Drake, and again returned, was sent to Croatan, to make inquiries as to the fate of the fifty colonists. He was told that the colony had been attacked by 300 Secotan, Aquoscojos, and Dessamopeak Indians; and that, after a skirmish, in which but one Englishman was slain, the rest had retreated to their boat, and fled to a small island near Hatteras, where they staid some time, and then departed they knew not whither.
Governor White took immediate steps to renew and maintain a good understanding with the Indians; but he found them sullen and revengeful. Determining to evince the national indignation for the loss of the fifty colonists, by attacking the Dessamopeaks, who occupied the coast opposite Roanoke, he detailed for this purpose twenty four men, under Captain Stafford, and, with Manteo for his guide, left the island at twelve o'clock at night. At day-break they landed on the main shore, beyond the town, and assaulted four Indians sitting at a fire, killing one of them. On examination, these proved to be friendly Croatans, who had come thither to gather their corn; the Dessamopeak Indians having fled, as they then ascertained, after killing Howe. This act was much regretted by Manteo.
On the 13th of August, 1587, Manteo, who had, it is believed, made three voyages to England, and acquitted himself satisfactorily as the Mentor of the colony, was baptized in the Christian faith, receiving, the title of Lord of Roanoke. Another event signalized this month; the daughter of Governor White, married to a member of the council, was, on the 18th, delivered of a female child, which received the name of Virginia.
It now became necessary to select a person to visit England and solicit supplies. The Indians being generally hostile, the colonists could not cultivate sufficient ground to sustain themselves. England was at this time convulsed with alarm, in expectation of the descent of the Spanish Armada, and it was justly feared that the interests of the distant little colony would be overlooked. White being selected, he, before leaving the coast, established a colony of 100 men on an island off Cape Hatteras. Nothing was subsequently heard of this party. Whether they perished by the Indian tomahawk, or from starvation, has never been ascertained.
On arriving in England, White found the nation in such great turmoil that nothing could be done. The company underwent a change, and an abortive attempt was made to send two barques from Biddeford, in 1588. Renewed efforts were made to succour the colony, but March, 1590, had arrived, before relief could be despatched to them. It was the 2d of August, before the ships under Governor White reached the latitudes of Croatan and Hatteras. At the latter place a smoke was observed; but, after diligent search where the governor had three years previously left a colony of 100 men, no traces of them could be found. Cannon were fired, but produced no other response than their own reverberations, and trumpets were sounded in vain. It appeared that the smoke arose from Indian fires, hastily or carelessly left. While prosecuting their search, they found the word "Croatan" written on a post, and, hence presumed that the Hatteras colony had gone to that place, where friendly Indians lived. No subsequent search developed any further trace of them; their fate had become identified with the mysteries of Indian history and of Indian crime. The attempts made to find this colony were, however, of a very puerile character. In the effort first made, under Governor White, two boats were despatched with a competent commander; but, in passing a bar on the Hatteras coast, one of the boats was half filled with water, and the other having been upset, the captain and six men were drowned. This accident exercised a depressing influence on the spirits of all concerned; but, at length, two other boats were fitted out, and sent off with nineteen men, on the same service. It was by the second expedition that the inscription before mentioned was found, together with the evidences of the hasty abandonment of the place by the colonists. Following the index of this inscription, the commander ordered the ships to weigh anchor and sail for Croatan on Cape Lookout. While proceeding thither, one of the vessels parted its cable, losing, not only the anchor attached, but also another, which had, in some manner, become entangled with it, and before they could drop a third anchor, they were in imminent peril of being driven on the strand. Discouraged by these attempts, and influenced by fallacious hopes of profit to be derived from a trip to the West Indies, whence they proposed to return in the spring and resume the search, they bore away for these western islands, an ever-attractive spot to those who coveted the wealth of the Spaniards. But the commander of the ships, after he had finished his cruise in the West Indies, would not again visit the Virginia coast, announcing his intention to return to England, which he did, despite all remonstrances. Nothing was ever heard of the colony supposed to have gone to Croatan,  and the return of Governor White to England was a virtual abandonment of Virginia; after six years fruitless toil, resigning it again to the possession of its aboriginal rulers.
Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe.. History of the Indian Tribes of the United States: Their Present Condition and Prospects, and a Sketch of Their Ancient Status. Volume 6. . Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo and Co, 1857. [format: book; image], [genre: government document; report]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
Persistent link to this document: http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/file.php?file=schoolcraft6.html