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Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe.. History of the Indian Tribes of the United States: Their Present Condition and Prospects, and a Sketch of Their Ancient Status. Volume 6. . Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo and Co, 1857. [format: book; image], [genre: government document; report]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
Persistent link to this document: http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/file.php?file=schoolcraft6.html


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Chapter III. — Emigration of the Treaty Party of the Cherokees, the Creeks of Georgia, and the Chickasaws.

DURING the year 1837, the removal of the Indian tribes, and the negotiations with them for that purpose, kept pace with the progress made during previous years. It was marked by the migration of separate colonies from the Ridgeite Cherokees, the Creeks of Georgia, and the Choctaws and Chickasaws in the south. From the northern section of the Union, emigrant parties of the Pottawattamies and Ottawas departed for the West. There were still remaining, in this region, the Wyandots of Ohio; the Menomonees, Stockbridges, Munsees, and Oneidas, of Wisconsin; the Iroquois, of New York; the Miamies, of Indiana; and the Chippewas, of Lake Superior.

By the terms of the treaty negotiated by General Scott, September 15th, 1832, immediately succeeding the close of the Sac war, the Winnebagoes ceded their lands, lying east of the Mississippi, in the State of Wisconsin, and accepted a location west of that river, on a tract designated in the treaty as "the Neutral Ground;" a fine district of country, abounding in game, and possessing a very fertile soil, situated between the territory of the Sioux and that of the Sacs and Foxes. As Wisconsin filled up with a white population, and the position of the Winnebagoes, as a hunter tribe, became more and more inconvenient, they were urged by the local authorities to remove to the Neutral Ground, which they hesitated to do, from a dread of being embroiled in the fierce and sanguinary wars constantly raging between the Sacs and Foxes and the Sioux. Strenuous exertions were made by the Government to quell these hostilities, and the removal of the Winnebagoes was finally effected during the year 1837. A treaty was concluded with the Saganaw Chippewas, of Michigan, on the 20th of December of this year, by which the tribe ceded their reservations in that State, and agreed, after a residence of five years on a tract designated, to remove to the west of the Mississippi.

In 1834, the Miamies had ceded their lands on the Wabash, for a heavy consideration, and agreed to remove west; but this treaty, which was communicated by the President to the Senate, for their approval, was not, owing to certain modifications requiring the

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concurrence of the Indians, finally confirmed by the Senate until the close of the session of 1837.

In order to protect the emigrant tribes on the south and west, treaties were concluded on the 25th of May, with the barbarous tribes of the Kiowas, Katakas, and Takawaros, of the prairies; and friendly relations were established with the Comanches, or Niunas, of Texas, a powerful and dominant tribe in that quarter.

But the most arduous field of operations for the administration of Indian affairs, was that in the south. The increasing population of the Southern States pressed rapidly on the territories ceded by the Indians, and made it more and more objectionable to have, residing in their midst, a people with whom they could not coalesce, and who were rapidly perishing under the adverse influence of their general habits and indulgences, stimulated by the receipt of large annuities. To complicate these difficulties, and add to the delay, the Seminoles and the Cherokees assumed an attitude of defiance, which appeared tantamount to a repudiation of their treaty obligations.

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Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe.. History of the Indian Tribes of the United States: Their Present Condition and Prospects, and a Sketch of Their Ancient Status. Volume 6. . Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo and Co, 1857. [format: book; image], [genre: government document; report]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
Persistent link to this document: http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/file.php?file=schoolcraft6.html
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