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Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe.. History of the Indian Tribes of the United States: Their Present Condition and Prospects, and a Sketch of Their Ancient Status. Volume 6. . Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo and Co, 1857. [format: book; image], [genre: government document; report]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
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Chapter VI. — Organization and Political Condition of the Colonized Tribes.

THE removal of the friendly portion of the Seminoles was entrusted to General Jessup, about the middle of February, 1836. The whole number of this nation did not probably exceed 1500. The friendly portions of the tribe separated themselves from the hostile, to the number of 450, and fled for protection to the military post at Tampa Bay. On the 10th of April, 407 persons were enrolled and mustered, preparatory to embarking on the transports which were to convey them to the West. Of this number, 308 arrived at Little Rock, Arkansas, on the 5th of May.

After the commission of hostile acts by the Creeks, their removal was also entrusted to the efficient management of General Jessup. Under contracts which secured them every comfort, and the attention of careful emigrant agents, they were located at different points in the Indian colony, in bands of 2300, of 165, and of 1300, leaving behind 700 warriors to operate against the Seminoles. 651

The removal of the Creeks was commenced through the influence of the chief, Roly M'Intosh, under the provisions of the original M'Intosh treaty, concluded February 12, 1825, as modified by the treaty signed at Washington, January 24, 1826, and finally determined by the treaty entered into at Washington, March 24, 1832. During the year, the respective emigrant parties arrived in the territory, and were satisfactorily located on their lands. The agent remarks, "They have a rich country, and those that emigrated with M'Intosh have been engaged busily in making corn; they usually have a large surplus, as high some years as 30,000 bushels, besides stock of every description. As there is now a large emigration coming into the country, they will find a sale for all they have to sell." 652

The number of the Choctaws was then estimated at 18,000 in all, a large proportion

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of whom were in the territory, or in the process of removal to the fine tract of country they had acquired in it. They had, immediately on their arrival, turned their attention to labor, in which they evinced striking proficiency. They had adopted a form of government, which was administered by an elective council and presiding magistrates, and had a written code of laws. They had introduced the culture of cotton; erected cotton-gins; planted large fields of corn; raised horses, hogs, and cattle, which were pastured on the natural prairies; erected smiths' shops; and pursued various mechanical trades. They conducted their own mercantile operations, importing large stocks of goods, for which they exchanged their products. 653

In 1835, a census of the Cherokees, east of the Mississippi, placed their number at 18,000. The western Cherokees had segregated themselves from the nation under the provisions of the treaties of July 8, 1817, and February 27, 1819, after which time they had emigrated to the West in parties under their own organization, and settled on the lands which were assigned to them. At the era when the census was taken, these western Cherokees constituted, to a great extent, a separate nationality. The Government agent, in his report, 654 represents them "as gradually progressing in civilization and the cultivation of the soil; and depicts their society as containing many intelligent men. He remarks, that they raise corn, beef, pork, sheep, &c., to a considerable extent, and in travelling through their country, you are quite comfortably entertained. Many of them are engaged in trade with their own people. They have some mills erected amongst them, and, with a wide extent of country, a portion of it finely watered, they bid fair, with frugality and temperance, to become a leading tribe." 655 In this report, the Choctaws, Creeks, and Cherokees, are stated to have collectively seventeen churches within their territorial limits, viz.: ten in the Choctaw, four in the Cherokee, and three in the Creek country. 656

Regarding the other, and for the most part minor, tribes, the report gives data of which the following is a synopsis. The Seminoles, who had recently arrived, were reported to be in possession of one of the finest sections of the Indian country, and, with their advantages, could soon prosper. The Osages, an indigenous people, were still absorbed in the chase; raised no corn except what their women cultivated; hunted the buffalo, and stored the jerked meat for winter use. They are stated to have little, or no stock; all their extra means of support being derived from their annuities. The Quappas, advantageously located on the banks of the Neosho, are in possession of 160 sections in one place, surveyed and marked off, adjacent to the Cherokees and

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Osages. The Senecas, and the mixed band of Senecas and Shawnees, have 60,000 acres. The Senecas of Sandusky, 67,000 acres. These lands adjoin, are fertile and well watered. The Senecas cultivate the soil, have a mill in operation, which is of great service to them, and are improving.

Nine tribes are located north of the district just mentioned. They comprise the Shawnees, Delawares, Kickapoos, Kanzas, Weas, Piankashaws, Peorias, Kaskaskias, and Ottowas. These nine tribes have an aggregate population of 4467 souls. The Shawnees and Delawares, who are agriculturists, are industrious, temperate, and thrifty, possess a fertile country, and are supplied with schools, shops, mills and churches. They successfully cultivate the various cereals, and raise large stocks of horses, cattle, and hogs. The Kickapoos began to turn their attention to agriculture in 1835, and both men and women labor assiduously. The Kanzas, like the Osages, are indigenous, and live by the chase. The small bands of the Weas, Piankashaws, Peorias, and Ottowas, are cultivators of the soil. The manners, habits, dress, and deportment of all the agricultural tribes and bands, denote a decided advance toward civilization.

The Indian population of the above-mentioned colonized tribes, with the exception of the Creeks, was estimated, on the 1st of October, 1836, at 37,748. To this computation must be added, 16,500 for the Creeks who have emigrated, making an aggregate of over 50,000 persons now on the soil. The tribes still in the east, who are under treaty obligations to remove, are 4000 Creeks, 5400 Chickasaws, 16,000 Cherokees, and the Seminoles of Florida. The Chippewas, Ottowas, and Pottawattamies, who, by the treaty concluded at Chicago, in 1833, entered into engagements to remove, are estimated at 9400. It is estimated that the entire Indian population of the territory will, by these additions, be increased to 90,148. 657

The general result of the negotiations with the Indians, during eight years prior to January 1, 1837, was the cession of 93,401,637 acres by the tribes, for which $26,982,068 were paid, together with the grant to them of 32,381,000 acres west of the Mississippi, valued at $40,476,250, the total compensation amounting to $67,458,318. 658

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Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe.. History of the Indian Tribes of the United States: Their Present Condition and Prospects, and a Sketch of Their Ancient Status. Volume 6. . Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo and Co, 1857. [format: book; image], [genre: government document; report]. Permission: Northern Illinois University
Persistent link to this document:
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