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Skillman, W. D. The Western Metropolis; or St. Louis in 1846 . St. Louis: W.D. Skillman, 1846. [format: book], [genre: advertisement; catalogue; history; guidebook; ledger; report]. Permission: St. Louis Mercantile Library
SAINT LOUIS is the largest city in the Union, west of the Alleganies, with the exception of Cincinnati and New Orleans. Its rapid growth, and its steadily increasing commercial prosperity, render it perhaps the most important and interesting point in the great West.
The location is a most admirable one in every point of view. Its commercial advantages of position have already placed St. Louis in a high rank among business places, and it is now universally acknowledged that the "Mound City" must eventually become the "New York of the West." Indeed, at the present rate of increase, and the wonderful rapidity with which the place has risen within the last few years, it would be useless to attempt to calculate its future magnitude.
Saint Louis is in 38° 37' 28" North Latitude, 13° 14' 15" West Longitude from Washington, and 90° 15' 39" West Longitude from Greenwich. It is situated near the centre of the Great Valley, on the western bank of the Mississippi River, seventeen miles below the mouth of the Missouri, one hundred and eighty above the mouth of the Ohio, twelve hundred and thirty-eight above New Orleans, eight hundred and sixty below Saint Anthony's Falls, and eight hundred and fifty by the mail routes from Washington City. The ground on which the city is built lies on the river, nearly in the form of a semicircle, and was originally a bold rocky bluff, which has since mostly disappeared. From the river, the ground rises in two benches to the height of nearly eighty feet above the level of the water, at an ordinary stage. At Fourth Street, or the top of the second bench, a wide, level plain commences, which sweeps to a great, distance west, north, and south, forming an abundant space for an immense city. The natural advantages of this site are entirely unsurpassed. Unlike the "Queen City" of the Ohio, which is already tearing down the hills to make room for her teeming population, St. Louis offers an almost limitless space for improvement. Hundreds of buildings are annually going up (last year over SEVENTEEN hundred), and yet there is room. The present city limits embrace five miles on the river's bank, and from one to two miles west. A distance of more than two miles on the river, is now entirely occupied by substantial buildings, and in the western direction the ground is thickly covered as far as Tenth Street: and beyond this, even to Sixteenth Street, good and handsome dwellings are by no means rare, and this "West End" is fast becoming a pleasant and fashionable quarter for private residences.
The selection of this admirable locality was the result of a mere accident, as will appear from the following anecdote. Some of the older inhabitants of our city relate, that when Laclede and his party first set foot on what is now St. Louis, their encampment was made in consequence of there being plenty of wood at hand most of the area formerly included within the
city limits being then a dense forest. Their encampment being made, the leaders of the party set themselves about hunting a place for a new settlement. They explored for some distance down the river, and then up as high as the mouth of the Missouri. The result of their examination was, that the locality now called "North Saint Louis" was selected, and to this point the commander of the expedition intimated that it was his intention at once to remove. But to this an objection was raised by the ladies of the party! They were tired of moving about, had at length become comfortably "fixed" in their new quarters, and they wouldn't budge an inch not they. If their lords wanted to settle elsewhere, they could do so, but as for themselves, they were satisfied, and determined to remain. Laclede and his followers being men of gallantry, the ladies had it all their own way. "Tall oaks from little acorns grow," and the settlement originated by the "we will, and we won't" of a few ladies, is now St. Louis, the Metropolis of the West.
THE POPULATION in 1810, was 1,600; in 1820, 4,598; in 1830, 6,694; and in 1840, 16,469, of whom 1,531 were slaves. But by far the greatest increase of population in St. Louis has occurred within the last five years, and while the increase during the ten years last preceding 1840 was only about ten thousand, the augmentation since that time has been not less than twenty-five thousand, showing a present population of between forty and fifty thousand. Such an increase in so short a time as five years is almost unprecedented in the annals of any city, but it is universally admitted that the present number of inhabitants in St. Louis is over forty thousand, and the prevailing estimate is forty-five thousand. At such a rate, who shall set a bound to the future greatness of the "Young Giant City?" And this rapidity of growth is not the result of undue excitement, of over-wrought mercantile calculations, of chimerical speculations; on the contrary, the ship is well provided with ballast. St. Louis is the business centre of a vast extent of country, and is the grand depot for the great Missouri river country, the Upper Mississippi, the Illinois river, and indeed for the greater part of the States of Missouri and Illinois, for Iowa and Wisconsin, &c. This wide area is in a great measure dependent on St. Louis for supplies, and as the upper country becomes filled up (which is being done with vast rapidity), the growth of St. Louis must keep pace with that of the surrounding region. No site could have been chosen better adapted for the transaction of business with the different parts of the far west. Lying as it does near the confluence of two mighty rivers, gives it the command of the commerce of the countries on those streams and their tributaries, and renders it the depot for all the mineral and agricultural wealth of those productive regions. "Westward, the star of empire takes its way," and this great valley is fast becoming peopled by an industrious and permanent population, St. Louis being the general head-quarters and rendezvous for all. The river is seldom closed by ice below this point, so that St. Louis may be said to be accessible the year round by steamboats from the Ohio and the far South. An exception to this general rule occurred the last winter, when navigation was suspended for some weeks in November, December, and
January. Another advantage in the location of this city, is the elevation of its site to such an altitude as to throw it mostly out of the reach of the great freshets which occur on the Mississippi river. Much damage, however, was done to this place by the "GREAT FLOOD" of 1844, a short account of which we will here introduce. The year 1844 will long be remembered as "l' Année des Grandes Eaux," or the year of the great freshet, whose devastations and deplorable consequences almost defy calculation. This tremendous overflow has had no parallel within the memory of the oldest inhabitants of the Mississippi valley. The greatest previous rise on record was in 1785, when, in the month of April, the waters of the Mississippi rose from fifteen to twenty feet above the highest mark they had ever been known to attain at St. Louis, and at some narrow parts of the river as high as thirty feet. During that flood, the villages of St. Genevieve, Fort Chartres, Kaskaskia, St. Philippe, Cahokia, &c., were totally submerged, and the inhabitants, who had fled to the hills that overlook the rich bottom, interchanged visits by water from the rocky bluffs of the right side of the river, to the hills that border the Kaskaskia. The recent flood (that of 1844) exceeded that of 1785, by more than seven feet. At St. Louis the usual spring rise was greater than in any previous year since 1826; on the 11th June, the height had decreased about four feet; and on the next day, 12th June, the water commenced rising again at the rate of from six to ten inches in twenty-four hours, and continued in about the same ratio until the 17th, when it had reached a height of some six inches above the maximum of the spring rise. The river continued to swell until about six o'clock on the 26th June, at which time it had gained its greatest altitude, and had entirely submerged the first stories of the buildings on the Levee (and in some places filling the second story), having attained a height of thirty-eight feet, one inch, above low water mark, and seven feet, one inch, above the city grade. At this time the water commenced receding slowly, and on the fourteenth of July had just left the first floor of the stores on the Levee, and continued to fall gradually until the first of September. The city has caused a monument to be erected on a line with the curb-stone of Water street, opposite the centre of the east front of the City Hall, to commemorate this deplorable calamity. On the monument, which is a plain obelisk, sixteen feet in height, and four feet square, is the following inscription:
JUNE 27, 1844.
THE CITY DIRECTRIX:
THIRTY-EIGHT FEET ONE INCH
LOW WATER MARK.
The loss of property by this unprecedented flood was immense, and indeed some human lives were sacrificed by the rapidity with which the waters rose over the banks of the rivers. On the rivers above and below St. Louis, much live stock is known to have been destroyed, as also much household furniture, and the remaining agricultural products of the previous season. In this distressing emergency, hundreds of families fled from the submerged lands to St. Louis, where they received the kindest care from the city officers, and from private citizens. Opposite this city, the "American Bottom" was entirely covered, so that two steamboats plied regularly, for weeks, to the bluffs in Illinois, eight miles from the river, where they received the great mail from Louisville. The ultimate damage to St. Louis itself, was also great. Great quantities of goods in the warehouses on the Levee were destroyed, and much property floated off; but the injury sustained by the inhabitants of the southern part of the city, near the river, in being driven from their homes, and losing many of their household effects, was more serious. The flood acted as a damper on the business of the whole season, and it is fervently to be hoped that the great valley may never again be visited by such a calamity.
The older streets of St. Louis, or those near the river, and a part of those running at right angles with the river, were originally planned by the French, and are somewhat narrow and crowded. The principal streets for wholesale business, forwarding, &c., are Main or First street, and Front street. The Levee, or Front street, is filled on the upper side by substantially built business houses, whence the grade slopes regularly, a distance of about one hundred and fifty feet, to the river, forming a landing place inferior to none on the Western rivers. The Levee is paved in the most excellent manner, and at all seasons presents a busy scene. The stranger receives a very good impression of the immense amount of business carried on in this city, on first beholding the Levee, crowded, as it usually is, with steamboats, and covered with men, drays, and goods of every description.
The principal streets for retail trade, are Fourth and Market. Fourth street is the "Broadway" of St. Louis, and is a very pleasant promenade, being broad, straight, and containing many handsome buildings, among which are the Court-House, Planters' House, Odd-Fellows' Hall, City Hospital, several Churches, and a large number of private dwellings. Market street runs at a right angle with the river, has become quite a thoroughfare, and is a good business street.
The streets west of Fourth, and those running to the river, are mostly occupied by dwellings, workshops, &c., the principal business streets being those above named.
As a whole, the site of St. Louis is excellently adapted to the display of a well planned city, and the more modern portion of the place is laid out with regularity and symmetry. The streets are well macadamized, and many of the buildings now going up, as also a number of the older ones, display an improved taste for architecture, which promises well for the future beauty of the "Empress city."
THE ST. LOUIS CATHEDRAL is a large and splendid edifice, on Walnut street, between Second and Third. The building is one hundred and thirty-six feet long, fifty-eight feet wide, and the walls forty feet high, above which, the tower, twenty feet square, rises to the height of forty feet, surmounted by an octagon spire, covered with tin, crowned by a gilt ball five feet in diameter, above which is a gilt brass cross, ten feet high. The front of the Cathedral is of polished freestone, with a portico of four massive Doric columns. The interior is handsomely furnished, and contains several elegant paintings by celebrated masters.
THE THIRD PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, on Sixth street, near Franklin Avenue, is a great ornament to that part of the city. The building is of brick, and has a handsome spire over two hundred feet high, a well proportioned front, and a commodious basement for lecture rooms, &c. The interior walls and ceiling are splendidly painted in fresco, and it is altogether a beautiful church.
THE COURT-HOUSE will, when the improvements now in progress shall be completed, be one of the finest edifices of the kind in the country. The old building is being entirely remodelled, and, when finished, will present the form of a Greek cross, with projecting colonnades on the four sides of entrance. It is built of brick, covered by a light grey limestone found in the vicinity, which has the appearance of eastern granite. In the centre of the building is a spacious rotunda, used for public meetings, and capable of holding a great number of persons. This rotunda is surmounted by a well proportioned dome, which may be seen at a considerable distance down the river, and adds much to the beautiful appearance of the city. The estimated cost of the whole is $230,000.
THE PLANTERS' HOUSE is for many reasons an honor to St. Louis. Aside from the beauty and magnitude of the edifice, the house is kept in a style unsurpassed by any hotel in the country, and which has gained for it the reputation of being by far the best hotel in the West. The house occupies half the depth of the square from Fourth to Fifth Streets, and the front extends the whole length of the Square from Chestnut to Pine, 230 feet. The building is of brick, five stories high, contains two hundred and thirty rooms, and cost about two hundred thousand dollars.
THE CHURCH OF ST. FRANCIS XAVIER is an elegant structure, handsomely adorned with paintings, and attached to the St. Louis University.
There are a great number of other buildings in St. Louis, especially deserving of notice, but the limits prescribed to this work forbid any full description of St. Louis Architecture. Suffice it to say, that the Mound City will not fall behind any of her western sisters in the race of improvement.
If I may be permitted to speak of the city of St. Louis as of an impersonated existence, I would say that she was born French; but, put under the charge of a step-mother, her cradle was hung up in the forest, her infancy stinted by its unavoidable privations, and her maturity retarded by the terror of the Indian yell. Her youth was more calm, but still not prosperous: for the exercise of undue constraints in youth, sickens and retards the development of manhood. Abandoned subsequently by her Castilian guardians, she found herself reclaimed by her old parent, only to be once more repudiated. She had then, however, attained her majority, and had herself become a parent, whose children, born under the ægis of Liberty, opened for her a new destiny, and vowed that she should become the METROPOLIS of a great Empire.
In 1762, M. d'Abadie, then Director-General, as well as civil and military commander of Louisiana, granted to a company of merchants of New Orleans, the exclusive privilege of the Fur Trade with the Indian nations of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. This company bore the title of Pierre Ligueste Laclede, Antoine Maxan & Co. Thus commissioned, the Company lost no time in fitting out an expedition, well supplied with the necessary articles for Indian trade, and which were to aid in forming new and permanent establishments on both rivers.
Mr. Laclede, the principal projector of the Company, and withal a man of great intelligence and enterprise, was placed in charge of the expedition. Leaving New Orleans on the third of August, 1763, he arrived at St. Genevieve three months afterwards, namely, on the third of November.
At this period, the French Colony, established sixty years before in the Illinois, was in a prosperous condition. It had increased in importance since the year 1732, at which time France was beginning to realize the great idea, so long conceived, of uniting Canada to Louisiana by an extensive line of military posts, to be supported by several principal forts, the strategic positions of which were admirably selected. Fort Chartres, built on the flat now known by the name of the "American Bottom," was one of these main fortified places. But when Mr. Laclede arrived in the country, Louis XV had already signed the treaty of peace, by which was ceded to Great Britain the immense region of country comprising what are now the two Canadas, the great watery expanse of the Northern Lakes, and the rich domains of Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, and East Louisiana, to the Gulf of Mexico.
The Mississippi River thus became the natural limit between the French and British possessions, with its navigation declared free to the two nations. At this time the French establishments were principally on the east side of the river. The little village of St. Genevieve alone was on the Western side, and in this Mr. Laclede could scarcely find a house of sufficient size to store a fourth part of his cargo. On the other hand, the Director-General of Louisiana had received orders to deliver up the territory
on the left side of the river; so that the British authorities might be expected at any moment, presenting themselves to take possession of it. In the midst of these difficulties, Mr. Laclede, greatly embarrassed under the new aspect of things, found himself, however, relieved, when the commanding officer, M. Neyon de Villiers, allowed him the use of the stores at Fort Chartres until the final surrender of the place. Laclede gladly accepted the offer, and lost no time in apportioning his squad, and distributing his flotilla along the rivers, so as to render them most effective, either for defence or for trade.
Having accomplished that preliminary arrangement, it became necessary to look out for the position of a central establishment. The left bank of the river no longer presented any fit situation, since the whole territory of Illinois had been passed over to the British Government; the village of St. Genevieve, on the right bank, being his only alternative, and this located too far from the mouth of the Missouri river. Mr. Laclede, therefore, left Fort Chartres, on a voyage of exploration to the junction of the two rivers, and was not long before he discovered that the bluff on which ST. LOUIS now stands, was the spot that would best answer the purposes of the Company.
Without giving a particular account of the geological position of St. Louis, it may here be remarked that the hill on which the city is established is composed of limestone rocks covered by a deep deposite of alluvial soil of great fertility. The limestone bluff rises to an elevation of about eighty feet above the usual recession of the waters of the Mississippi, and is crowned by an upland, or plateau, extending to the north and west, and presenting scarcely any limit to the foundation of a great city entirely secure from the invasions of the river. At the time referred to, this plateau presented the aspect of a beautiful prairie, but already giving the promise of a renewed luxuriant vegetation, in consequence of the dispersion of the larger animals of the chase, and the annual fires being kept out of the country since the arrival of the whites on the Illinois side.
The slope of the hills on the river side was covered by a growth of heavy timber, overshadowing an almost evergreen sward free from undergrowth, and which terminated gently in a point at the very margin of the river at a place corresponding to the spot where the old Market House now stands. The Mississippi was very deep, but much narrower than it is at this time, as it is stated by old inhabitants that persons could converse with each other across it without effort.
It was on this spot that the prescient mind of Mr. Laclede foresaw and predicted the future importance of the town to which he gave the name of St. Louis, and about which he discoursed, a few days afterwards, with so much enthusiasm, in the presence of the officers at Fort Chartres. But winter had now set in, and the Mississippi was about to be closed by ice. Mr. Laclede could do nothing more than cut down some trees and blaze others, to indicate the place which he had selected. He afterwards returned to the fort, where he spent the winter in making preparations for the establishment of a new colony.
Accordingly, at the breaking up of winter, he equipped a large boat, which he manned with thirty hands. Mr. Laclede was accompanied by two young Creoles of New Orleans, Auguste and Pierre Chouteau, in whom he reposed great confidence, and from whom he received much assistance. These two young men, who never afterwards quitted the country of their adoption, became in time the heads of numerous families, possessed of a name, which, to this day, after a lapse of seventy years, is still a passport that commands safety and hospitality among all the Indian nations, north and west, Auguste Chouteau, the elder of the two brothers, had accompanied Mr. Laclede in his first expedition, and was now appointed to the command of the boat, with instructions to carry out his plans. On the 15th of February, 1764, Mr. Chouteau arrived at St. Louis, with all his men, whom he immediately set to work. The present old market-place is the spot on which the first tents and log-cabins were established upon the site of this now most important city of the West.
Mr. Laclede being detained at Fort Chartres in the settlement of his private affairs, and in anticipation of the arrival of the British troops, paid a visit, early in the April following, to his band of pioneers, and finding everything in good train, contented himself with leaving such instructions as were best fitted to develope the resources of the location, and returned to Fort Chartres, with the intention of removing thence the goods belonging to the company.
A killing effect was produced on the French colony of Illinois by the treaty of peace of 1763; yet it seems to have caused still more dissatisfaction among the Indian tribes of the North, who for a long time refused to abide by it. In truth the colony died a natural death. Several of the poorer inhabitants of Fort Chartres, Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes on the Wabash, yielded to the new domination, while others preferred to follow the fortunes of Mr. de Neyon, and accompany him to New Orleans. Others, again, crossed the Mississippi, adding their strength to the nascent colony of St. Louis.
But, on the 10th of October (1764), an incident occurred which threw the colony into great alarm. The remnants of the Missouri tribe of Indians, who occupied an extensive prairie on the left bank of the river of the same name, suddenly made their appearance before St. Louis, numbering in all more than four hundred men, women and children, and counting over four hundred warriors. Although they did not present themselves in hostile array, still they became troublesome by their importunate demands for provisions, and their more vexatious pilferings. Unable to foresee what would be the result of this unexpected visit, the colonists of Illinois, who, abandoning the British dominion, had fled to join those of St. Louis, took alarm and recrossed the Mississippi. Auguste Chouteau thus found himself reduced to his original company of thirty to thirty-five men, from whom he dispatched a messenger to Mr. Laclede, who was still tarrying at Fort Chartres. Laclede arrived; and the result of his negotiation with the Indians proved that he had a great knowledge of the Indian character, and possessed much tact in managing it.
The chiefs having appeared before him, addressed him in these terms: "We are worthy of pity, for we are like the ducks and geese, seeking some clear water on which to rest themselves, and to obtain an easy existence. We know of no better place than where we are. We mean to build our wigwams about your village. We shall be your children, and you will be our father." Laclede here closed the talk, promising them a reply at a meeting to be held the next day, on which occasion he addressed them thus: "You told me yesterday that you were like the ducks and geese, who go on travelling until they can find a fine country, where they can rest themselves, and obtain an easy living. You told me that you were worthy of pity; that you were looking out for a spot to settle upon, and had not found one more suitable than this; that you would build your village round me, and that we should all live together like friends. I wish to answer you like a good father; and I must say, that if you imitate the ducks and geese, you follow guides that have no forethought; for if they had any, they would not settle on clear water, where they can be seen by the eagle, who would catch them. This would not be the case were they to select a retired spot, well shaded by trees. You Missourias, you would not be devoured by birds of prey, but by the red men, who have been so long warring against you, and have already so much reduced your numbers. They are at this moment not far from here, watching the English, to prevent them from taking possession of their grounds. If they discover that you are here, they will kill your warriors, and will make slaves of your wives and children. This is what will happen to you, if, as you say, you mean to follow the example of ducks and geese, instead of listening to the counsels of men who reflect. You, chiefs and warriors, think now, whether it is not more prudent that you leave here quickly, rather than be crushed by the superior number of your enemies, insight of your butchered old men, and your women and children torn to pieces, and their limbs scattered to the dogs and vultures. Recollect that it is a good father who speaks to you. Meditate well what he has said, and come back to-night with your answer."
Accordingly, towards evening, the whole nation, in mass, presented itself, announcing that it had determined to follow his advice; yet, as customary, asked him to take pity upon their women and children, soliciting provisions for them, and powder and shot for the warriors. Mr. Laclede acceded liberally to their prayer, and the day following the next, the unfortunate remnants of the Missouri nation ascended the river of their fathers, and returned to their village.
All anxieties being now dissipated, the colonists of Illinois, recovering from their alarm, returned to add numbers to the new colony. Lands were allotted to them, which they set about tilling, and upon which they built their cabins.
There being, so far, no indications of the arrival of the British, Mr. Laclede had deferred the translation of his establishment from Fort Chartres to St. Louis. He, in consequence, returned to the fort, as much for the sake of superintending his commercial affairs, as with the expectation of increasing the number of
inhabitants for his new colony. In this expectation he had been encouraged by circumstances that had occurred during the summer, in consequence of the treaty.
It may be proper to state here, that when Mr. Neyon de Villiers received orders to evacuate the possession of the left bank of the Mississippi, he had under his command the troops at Fort Peoria, on the Illinois river, those of Fort Marsiac (not Massac, nor Massacre), on the Ohio, and those stationed at the post of Vincennes, on the Wabash; although the last were under the more immediate command of Mr. St. Ange de Bellerive. It would seem that, at this time, there were no garrisons at Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and the Prairie du Rocher; these three villages being supposed sufficiently protected by Fort Chartres. Mr. De Neyon ordered all these posts to be evacuated, with the view of concentrating their garrisons about himself. There was, besides, a fort situated on the Kanzas river, about four hundred miles above the mouth of the Missouri; and another had been commenced on the Osage river, near the old village of the same name. These two positions were not included in the treaty, as being situated on the west side of the Mississippi; nevertheless, orders were also sent to their garrisons to come down to Fort Chartres. All things being thus disposed of, Mr. de Neyon left Mr. St. Ange de Ballerive, one captain, two lieutenants, and forty men, to guard the fort until the time of its surrender. On the 10th of July, 1764, he descended the Mississippi with his own troops, some civil officers, and a large number of the inhabitants of the village of Fort Chartres and of the Prairie du Rocher. These people had been prevailed upon to follow Mr. de Neyon by a promise to obtain for them, at New Orleans, a grant of lands in Lower Louisiana, where they would be under a more immediate French government, and at a distance from their enemies, the English, who were termed by them "the heretics," &c. This national feeling was perhaps laudable, and he, no doubt, would have been welcomed at New Orleans; but it so happened that, upon the arrival of the convoy, a sad and fatal rumor was circulated, that the rest of both Upper and Lower Louisiana, west of the Mississippi, was about to be transferred to the Spanish government. Besides, the local French Government interested itself very little about Mr. de Neyon, and those unfortunate families who had abandoned their homes and valuable lands under a delusive expectation of bettering their condition. After remaining a long time unsettled at New Orleans, their means nearly exhausted, some returned to the Opelousas and the Attakapas, whilst others reascended the Mississippi, on their return to Illinois and St. Louis. Then it was that Mr. de Neyon was censured. It was pretended that he had been actuated by motives of ambition, and the desire of giving himself importance on his arrival at New Orleans, by exhibiting in the persons of his deluded followers the deep regret which his departure had occasioned in the bosoms of the inhabitants of Illinois, in the hope of thereby rising to some elevated function.
This appears to have been the opinion of Mr. Laclede, who had always endeavored to retain these families, by the offer of
certain and immediate advantages, as a set-off against promises the fulfilment of which depended upon a thousand contingencies. On this subject he explained himself to Mr. de Neyon in no measured terms. But the influence of the latter prevailed. This did not prevent the high-minded Mr. Laclede from acting as the friend and benefactor of those whom misfortunes drove back to seek his protection. He distributed among them lands and provisions, aided them with laborers, and furnished them the means of transporting, by land and by water, whatever they had preserved, or had previously abandoned in their first removal. Thus the colony of St. Louis received the accession of all those that emigrated from the left side of the Mississippi. The village of Fort Chartres was completely deserted, there remaining only the small garrison of the fort. The inhabitants destroyed their houses, not, however, in a feeling of spite, but to avail themselves of whatever could be transported and appropriated to their new establishments.
In the meanwhile, the second year after the signature of the treaty of peace had elapsed, and the British had not yet been able to take possession of Illinois. This was owing to the opposition made by several Indian tribes, who, as alluded to above, had refused to abide by the treaty, and were waging a most cruel war against the British. These tribes had formed a confederacy, under the command of Pontiac, a bold warrior, who had already become celebrated for his prowess, and his devoted attachment to France during the whole of the war which the latter had carried on against Great Britain, in America. The confederated Indian army was composed of Hurons, Miamis, Chippeways, Uttawas, Pottawatomies, Missourias, &c., &c. The name of Pontiac was the terror of the whole region of the lakes; and, by his bands, he effectually interrupted the British intercourse with the rest of the nations that had remained friendly to that government. The taking of Fort Michilimackinac, the attempt at Detroit, and the attack upon the schooner Gladwin, on Lake Michigan, are memorable events, evincing a spirit of cunning and daring, highly characteristic of the genius of the red man.
In the winter of 1764-5, Pontiac, whilst engaged in his acts of depredation, learned that an armed British force was about to start from New Orleans, to take possession of the left bank of the Mississippi. He immediately proceeded to the neighborhood of Fort Chartres, accompanied by four hundred warriors, to oppose this occupation of the country, and finding there some Illinois Indians, who had placed themselves under the protection of the French garrison, he proposed to them to join him. But these people, disheartened by recent calamities, and, as it were, foredoomed to a final extinction, were unwilling to assume a hostile attitude towards their new rulers, from whom interest, if not generosity, would lead them to expect the same protection which they were then receiving. To this refusal Pontiac replied, with characteristic energy: "Hesitate not, or I destroy you with the same rapidity that fire destroys the grass of the prairie. Listen, and recollect that these are Pontiac's words." Having then despatched scouts upon the Mississippi
and the Ohio, he hastened with some of his warriors to Fort Chartres, where he addressed Mr. St. Ange de Bellerive in the following terms:
"Father, we have long wished to see thee, to shake hands with thee, and, whilst smoking the calumet of peace, to recall the battles in which we fought together against the misguided Indians and the English dogs. I love the French, and I have come here with my warriors to avenge their wrongs," &c., &c. Mr. St. Ange was a Canadian officer of great bravery, and too much honor to be seduced by this language. Besides, he knew too well the Indian character to lose sight of the fact that the love of plunder was probably at bottom a stronger inducement for Pontiac than his love for the French. This visit, which was terminated by an exchange of civilities, might, nevertheless, have brought difficulties upon the small garrison of Fort Chartres. But news arrived that the Indians of Lower Louisiana had attacked the British expedition, some miles below Natchez, and repulsed it. Pontiac became then less active in guarding the rivers; and, as he believed that the occupation of the country had been retarded again, he and his party were about to retire altogether. During the time, however, that the news took to arrive, the British had succeeded in getting up another expedition, on the Ohio; and Capt. Sterling, at the head of a company of Scots, arrived unexpectedly, in the summer of 1765; taking possession of the fort before the Indians had time to offer any resistance. At this news, Pontiac raved; swearing that, before he left the country, he would retake the fort and bear away Capt. Sterling's scalp. But the intervention of Mr. St. Ange and Mr. Laclede put an end to these savage threats. Pontiac returned to the north, made peace with the British, from whom he received a pension, and seemed to have buried all animosity against them. But, by his restless spirit, he soon aroused new suspicions, and we are informed by Capt. Jonathan Carver, that Pontiac having gone, in the year 1767, to hold a council in the Illinois country, an Indian who was either commissioned by one of the English governors, or instigated by the love he bore the English nation, attended him as a spy; and being convinced from the speech Pontiac made in the council, that he still retained his former prejudice against those for whom he now professed friendship, he plunged his knife into his heart as soon as he had done speaking, and laid him dead on the spot.
Capt. Carver travelled through the northern region, but never was south of the Prairie du Chien; so that his information is probably incorrect. The celebrity of Pontiac, as well as the distinguished part he took in the Indian wars of the West, will justify me, therefore, for introducing here a somewhat different statement of the manner of his death, as I have it from two of the most respectable living authorities of the day Col. Pierre Chouteau, of St. Louis, and Col. Pierre Menard, of Kaskaskia. It is as follows: Pontiac's last residence was in St. Louis. One day he came to M. St. Ange and told him that he was going to pay a visit to the Kaskaskia Indians. M. Ange endeavored to dissuade him from it, reminding him of the little
friendship that existed between him and the British. Pontiac's answer was, "Captain, I am a man! I know how to fight! I have always fought openly. They will not murder me; and if any one attacks me as a brave man, I am his match." He went off; was feasted; got drunk; and retired into the wood, to sing his medicine songs. In the meanwhile, an English merchant, named Williamson, bribed a Kaskaskia Indian with a barrel of rum, and the promise of greater reward, if he could succeed in killing Pontiac. He was struck with a pakamagon (tomahawk), and his skull fractured, which caused his death. This murder, which roused the vengeance of all the Indian tribes friendly to Pontiac, brought about the successive wars and almost total extermination of the Illinois nation.
Pontiac was a remarkably well-looking man, nice in his person, and full of taste in his dress, and in the management of his exterior ornaments. His complexion is said to have approached that of the whites. His origin is still uncertain, for some have supposed him to belong to the tribe of Ottawas, others to the Miamis, &c.; but Col. P. Chouteau, Sen., who knew him well, is of opinion that he was a Nipissing.
At last, on the 17th of July, 1765, Mr. St. Ange de Bellerive surrendered the country, and passed over to St. Louis, with his troops and the civil officers. This arrival was a favorable event for the organization of the colony. St. Louis became the capital of Upper Louisiana, under the command of Mr. St. Ange, who had charge of the execution of the laws and ordinances by which the French possessions were governed.
But Louis XV., in 1763, had entered into another treaty, by which he ceded to Spain the rest of his possessions in North America. This treaty, which filled the measure of French losses and humiliations, had been kept secret for a year. The official news of it was only received at New Orleans on the 21st of April, 1764, and rumors of it soon reached Upper Louisiana. Such was the consternation with which it was received by the whole French population, that the grief it occasioned to Gov. D'Abadie became the cause of his death, and Aubri, his successor, had to announce the cession to the people. The serious troubles which, in consequence of this session, were brought on at New Orleans under the Spanish Captain General, Don Antonio d'Ulloa, and the tragic events which followed under his successor, the blood-thirsty General Oreiley, kept the administration of Upper Louisiana in the hands of the French for several years. It was not until the 11th of August, 1768, that Spanish troops could take a first possession of St. Louis. But, eleven months afterwards, in consequence of the events alluded to, the same troops had been compelled to evacuate the country. At last, quiet being restored in Lower Louisiana, the Spaniards, in 1770, returned and took definitive possession of St. Louis. Mr. de St. Ange was then an old man. He decided upon remaining in St. Louis, where he died in 1775, at the age of 76. He had long commanded the post of Vincennes, on the Wabash, before he was called to take charge of Fort Chartres; and being highly respected and beloved by the inhabitants, his death was deeply regretted.
When Mr. Laclede arrived in the country, there were no Indians on the spot where St. Louis now stands, nor in the whole region between the Mississippi and what is now the southern part of the State of Missouri. The Illinois Indians never crossed the river; so that the new colonists were never visited but by the Missouri and Osage Indians, and always as friends. The Missourias had become familiar, and had got the habit of spending their summers with the French. They came down in their canoes, bringing along with them their wigwams, and located themselves near St. Louis, their women aiding the colonists in their rural occupations, and in building their houses. The Osages visited the place three or four times a year, but not in a body. After a while, all the other northeastern nations adopted the same custom; and even the Sacs and Foxes, after the destruction of the Illinois nation, having driven away the Peorias, who were the last remnants of this nation, came in to trade away their maple sugar, their pecans, &c.
The Peorias, after having been expelled from their village on the Illinois river, took refuge at Kaskaskia. Afterwards, they fled below St. Louis, on the spot where the Arsenal is now located; and the British no longer occupying Fort Chartres, although the country still belonged to them, they again took refuge there, and, under the American Government, their hunting-grounds were in the vicinity of St. Genevieve. It was, however, on the prairies of Kaskaskia that they were finally destroyed by their enemies, and by the use of ardent spirits. The last attack upon them by the Sacs and Foxes, and other allied tribes, must have taken place between 1800 and 1804.
Had St. Louis been destined to remain a village, her history might have been despatched in a few lines. But future generations will inquire of us all that concerns the origin of the "River Queen," the destined queen of the western empire. Having so far sketched its early history, it becomes necessary to record the principal events connected with the city and its vicinity.
In 1767, a man by the name of Delor Detergette settled upon a splendid amphitheatre on the right bank of the Mississippi, six miles south of St. Louis. He was soon followed by others; but as they were not overburdened with wealth, they used to pay frequent visits to their kinsfolk of St. Louis, who, on seeing them approach, would exclaim, "Here come the empty pockets," "Voila les poches vides qui viennent." But, on some occasion, a wag remarked, "You had better call them emptiers of pockets," "les vides-poches;" a compliment which was retaliated by these upon the place of St. Louis, which was subject to frequent seasons of want, by styling it Pain-court short of bread. The village being still nameless, retained the appellation of Vide-poche until 1776, when it was changed into that of Carondelet.
In 1769, settlements were made on both shores of the lower portion of the Missouri river. Blanchette, surnamed "the hunter," built his log house on the hills called les Petites Cotes; being the first dwelling of the beautiful village that, in 1784, received the name of St. Charles.
Francois Borosier Dunegan commenced the village of Florissant; which name it still popularly retains, although more lately called by the Spaniards St. Ferdinand.
In 1778, on the 20th June, Pierre Ligueste Laclede, the founder of St. Louis, died in the village called the Poste des Arkansas, on Arkansas river. Mr. Laclede had continued to reside in St. Louis. His house, situated in what is now Main street, between Market and Walnut streets, and opposite the old market, became, after his death, the property of the late Col. A. Chouteau, who enlarged it, adorned the premises with a fine garden, and created that splendid mansion lately admired by strangers as well as by the inhabitants of the city. It was I pulled down in the month of October, 1841, and might be regretted, did it not make room for more modern buildings, better suited to the commercial extension of the place. Laclede still continued to deal in furs, which traffic obliged him to make frequent voyages to New Orleans. It was during one of these voyages, whilst ascending the Mississippi, that he became so ill as to be stopped at the Post of Arkansas, where he died at the age of 54. He had never been married, and not having had time to realize the fortune which his enterprise and intelligence could not have failed to secure to him, his property was sold after his death in liquidation of his affairs.
In 1780, on the 6th of May, as I discover by the papers of the late Col. Auguste Chouteau, entrusted to me by the family (though some writers assign the year 1778), St. Louis was attacked by a party of Indians and British, who had been ordered to take possession of the town on the west side of the Mississippi, in consequence of the part which Spain had taken in favor of the independence of the United Spates. The French, who had preserved a good understanding with all the Indian nations, very little expected this blow, and were not prepared to resist it. The garrison consisted of only fifty to sixty men, commanded by a certain Capt. Lebas (a Spaniard, and not a Frenchman, as his name might lead one to suppose). But, whatsoever his origin, he deserves nothing but public contempt. This Lebas, during the first three years that the Spaniards occupied the country, had commanded a small fort somewhere towards the mouth of the Missouri, perhaps at Belle Fontaine, and afterwards received the command of St. Louis, as a successor to Cruzat, who himself had succeeded Piernaz. The only means of defence for the place, at that time, was a stone tower erected near the village on the bank of the Mississippi, and some weak palisades. There were not more than 150 males in the place, of whom not more than seventy could be relied upon as efficient to repel an enemy numbering, according to the best authorities, 900 combatants, though, by some, their number is represented to have been from 1400 to 1500. It would have been useless to propose a capitulation, the conditions of which the Indians (as has been unfortunately too often experienced), either from ignorance or treachery, never fulfil, and the inhabitants knew too well the character of those with whom they had to deal, to expect salvation in anything but a courageous resistance. The women and children, who could not take part in the defence, took shelter in the house of Auguste Chouteau, whilst all those, both men and women, who were within the palisades, commenced so vigorous a resistance, that the enemy
was forced to retreat. But these, with characteristic ferocity, threw themselves upon those of the inhabitants who, engaged in the cultivation of their fields, had not had time to reach the palisades; and it is said that sixty were killed, and fifteen made prisoners.
It is averred that the Spanish garrison took no part in this gallant defence. Lebas and his men had betaken themselves to the stone tower; and, it is further stated, that, as the tower threatened to give way after the first fire from it, he ordered the firing to be stopped; and that he died on receiving information that the Sacs, Foxes, and Iowa Indians were massacreing the people on the plains. The year this attack took place, is called by the French l' Année du Grand Coup, the year of the great blow.
Historical accuracy demands a denial here of the assertion of some authors, who ascribe to American troops an active part in this defence. Unfortunately, there were no United States troops on the bank of the Mississippi opposite to St. Louis, as none were needed, there being nothing to guard or to defend. It is well known that General George R. Clark, with his men, then occupied the important post of Kaskaskia, which is more than fifty-six miles south-east of St. Louis; and that, consequently, this gallant officer could not have had time, even if it fell within his line of duty, to aid in an affair that concerned the Spaniards and the British, which was planned as a surprise, and lasted but a few hours.
It was probably on this occasion, or perhaps on a similar one, that took place in the summer of 1811, as tradition informs us, that, after the battle, the Indians being reproached by the French that their women had been indiscriminately murdered by them, replied: "But why did they not wear their blue kerchiefs about their heads, as they used to do formerly? we would have recognized and spared them."
After the event narrated above, the inhabitants of St. Louis, finding that their garrison were unworthy of trust, without ammunition, and without means of defence against a regularly organized attack, deputed Mr. A. Chouteau to proceed to New Orleans for assistance. Cruzat was again made commander of St. Louis; the affairs of which place he administered with mildness and public satisfaction. A wooden fort was built on the most elevated spot within the city, upon which were mounted several heavy pieces of ordnance, and still later there were added four stone turrets, from which cross-fires could be kept up. This might have answered for the protection of the city, but only against the Indians. No traces of this fortification are now to be seen; the very site of which has yielded to the improvements of the city.
It may be well to remark, in this place, that this event proves the policy that has prevailed in Canada and Louisiana, in granting lands to the colonists, whereby they were commanded not to scatter themselves, but to concentrate into villages, under the protection of the forts; thus combining for mutual labor as well as mutual defence. Hence the government ceded tracts of lands for a whole community, on condition that they should be
worked in a body. There was first a field assigned, the extent of which was proportioned to the number of families in the village. To each family was allotted a certain portion for cultivation, and all contributed to its general enclosure. Another tract was laid out for the pasturage of the stock, and a third in wood-land. These concessions were called common-lands, or simply commons. There were yet, a few years ago, such commons in the neighborhood of St. Louis, Carondelet, St. Genevieve, Kaskaskia, and near almost all the French villages in Missouri and Illinois.
1785. This year is called l' Année des Grandes Eaux, the year of the great flood. In the month of April, the waters of the Mississippi rose fifteen or twenty feet above the highest mark they had ever been known to reach at St. Louis, and at some narrow parts of the river as high as thirty feet. The whole region of country drained by the Mississippi to its mouths, presented the aspect of an immense sheet of water studded with islands. The villages of St. Genevieve, Fort Chartres, Kaskaskia, St. Philippe, Cahokia, &c., were totally submerged, and the inhabitants, who had fled to the hills that overlook the rich bottom, interchanged visits by water from the rocky bluffs of the right side of the river to the hills that border the Kaskaskia. The village of St. Genevieve was then situated on a low prairie, that has since been entirely washed away; and tradition has it, that Mr. Auguste Chouteau, on his way back from New Orleans, moored his boat and breakfasted with his men, on the roof of the most elevated house.
In 1788, the traders between St. Louis and New Orleans having been frequently attacked and plundered of their merchandize, on their return, by the band of Mississippi pirates, headed by Culbert and Magilbray, who used to lie in wait for them at the mouths of the riviere aux Liards (Cottonwood creek), the Governor of New Orleans took measures against them, and ordered the equipment of an armed convoy of ten boats, which succeeded in breaking up the haunt of the pirates, and returned in triumph to St. Louis. This year is called l'Année des Dix Bateaux, the year of the ten boats.
In 1797, several Spanish galleys, of forty oars, ascended the river to St. Louis, with troops, under the command of Col. Don Carlos Howard.
1799 to 1800. Winter of very intense cold, but no actual observations of temperature recorded. 
In 1801, the small-pox (called by the Creoles picote) made its appearance, for the first time, in the country of Illinois and Missouri. The disease was unknown in the country on the 15th of April of this year.
By referring to the dates above, it will be seen that Upper Louisiana was for nearly thirty-two years under the dominion of Spain, and that France had scarcely the time to be aware of the foundation of St. Louis. The colony was ruled by a military
government, that is to say, by the arbitrary will of commanders, uniting all authority in themselves, without any guaranty of personal rights, scarcely that of petitioning.
Spain never seems to have sought to take advantage of the resources of Upper Louisiana. It would appear that she looked upon this vast region simply as a barrier against the encroachment of neighbors upon her supposed more valuable Mexican possessions, a policy which alone explains the indifference which she manifested in the government of the country for so many years. Yet a nation becomes great by its genius, and the part which Spain has played in the history of nations does not allow the suspicion that she was ignorant of these resources. When she took possession of the entire country west of the Mississippi, she found a French population, already acclimated, civilized, and brought up in hardships endured during its prolonged wars with the British and Indians, and accustomed to sufferings and to privations. The prospects of a more tranquil and easy existence had assembled these people on the Arkansas, the Mississippi, and the Missouri rivers, where they awaited only a protecting government that would permit them in security to develope their industry, and to take advantage of the peace then enjoyed by the whole western region. All that Spain had to do was to open markets for their produce, and they would have supplied her with those provisions which she was obliged to ask of strangers for the nourishment of her Southern colonies. By encouraging the cultivation of lands, naturally of easy tillage, varied in their character, fertile, and in some respects exhaustless, the population would have increased, the arts of civilisation would have found their way among the people, who would have gradually been led to entertain a filial regard for their new parents; and thus would have arisen to the north of Mexico an empire whose enlightened strength would constitute the best of barriers. This vast empire, possessing the grandest natural limits on the earth, bounded by the Mississippi, the Missouri, and the Pacific ocean; might, by its immense preponderance have changed the course of those great events that have taken place on the new continent since that period. France could not have aimed at such a power, so long as she was in possession of Canada; but she ought to have thought of it the day when she surrendered that great colony. The mighty results obtained by the free institutions of the United States of America, demonstrate, at this day, that the loss of Canada might have been turned to advantage by France, and that by fostering the possessions which she still held on the west of the Mississippi, she would have soon been amply repaid for the sacrifices she was compelled to make in 1763, since the colony, which remained to her, had still three times the extent of her own kingdom. Such was the opinion of enlightened men in France. The celebrated statesman Turgot, more especially foresaw the advantages of such a policy, and submitted to the king a plan by which this vast region (called by him Equinoxial France) might be largely peopled in a short time. But he was treated as a visionary.
This great scheme of policy, which would have been easy
for France to pursue, acquired importance in its adoption, and was of still more natural execution by Spain. But, instead of eagerly seizing upon it, she is contented to encircle the settlers between the Mississippi, the Missouri, and the Indians; imposes upon them arbitrary government; throws obstacles in the way of a free communication with the neighboring people; establishes restrictions upon imports, prohibits foreign competition, and stops the tide of emigration, by requiring of those who present themselves, offering their industry and talents, a certificate that they belong to the Roman Catholic religion. Spain adopts also the impolicy of granting exclusive favors and privileges: makes grants of land without discrimination, often unconditionally; and when conditions are annexed, the grantee is unable to fulfil them, for want of proper encouragement, and from the uncertainty of finding a market for the products of his labor. No wonder she complains that her colony costs her more than it yields, and she would make up the deficiency by driving the population to dig out of the earth by main bodily strength, without the aid of arts, metals of which she reserves for herself the monopoly, as well as that of the salinas.
If we look over the voluminous records of laws and ordinances by which the country was then governed, it is painful to consider the fertility of the subjects to which they refer, and the littleness of the motives which have induced their passage. No settled plan ever seems to have been adopted with a view of developing the moral and natural resources of the country. As the government seemed to provide only for the exigencies of the day, so the inhabitants lived but for the day. It is true there are no evidences that the Spanish authority in Upper Louisiana was ever used with cruelty or oppression, or that it was ever vexatious; but it was, perhaps, worse, for it was enervating, and drove to apathy.
Man, however, obeys the impulses of his faculties, as matter is governed by its peculiar properties. The Creoles of Upper Louisiana were the descendants of a brave and enterprising nation. Unable to devote their energies to more noble pursuits, or to cultivate the arts of civilized life, they penetrated into the forests, in the midst of numberless tribes of Indians till then unknown, to explore the extensive regions between the Mississippi and the Rocky Mountains, and thus created the fur trade of this great portion of North America. In these hazardous, distant, and prolonged journeys, was trained a set of hardy men, from whom sprung the class of men, known by the name of voyageurs, or engages, who were for a long time, and still are, as necessary and efficient on the burning prairies of the West, as the Canadian voyageurs are for the rugged and frozen regions of the North and North-West. These two haughty and indomitable races have a peculiar character; they are half civilized and half savages; rebellious and submissive; possessed of great courage and power of physical endurance, they fear neither the inclemency of seasons, the pain of hunger, the arrows of the Indian, nor the danger of exposure to wild beasts; never despairing, and always cheerful, they are intelligent, honest, devoted, and gifted
with the warmest feelings; they speak, as it were unconsciously, the idioms of the several Indian tribes among whom they have been; they know all the rivers, all the paths and by-paths, and all the recesses of the wilderness; they are intimately acquainted with the character and wants of the Indians, and possess a good knowledge of the haunts and habits of the wild animals; in a word, they are a class of men with whom no military or scientific expedition, no trading caravan, no traveller of any description, can dispense.
It was these first explorers who, under the direction of their employers, whom they called their bourgeois (boss), opened the fur trade to the north and west of the Missouri river. Such were the certain advantages offered by this trade, because of the natural facilities of the transportation over the British trade, that, had it been well organized and fostered, it would have made a flourishing place of St. Louis, and established a formidable competition capable of destroying all the influence of the British Company. But the Spanish system was fatal to those great interests. To trade with the Indians was a privilege nominally granted as a reward for services rendered, but, in fact, generally adjudged to the highest bidders. A few merchants only amassed fortunes; whilst the colony derived from it no permanent advantage. Far from this, the natural resources of the country were more and more neglected. Such was the fertility of the soil, that it might have been made the granary of all the Spanish possessions at the south; and yet scarcely as much grain was raised as answered the wants of the surrounding country. The most active of the colonists had quitted their fields for the precarious profits of the fur trade; all the young men turned trappers, hunters, or boatmen; and the peace and contentment of a domestic life were exchanged for one of bustle and adventure. The contrast between the two shores of the Mississippi was obvious. The right shore was marked by listlessness and apathy; whilst the protecting government of Great Britain, although but recently established, had already infused prosperity into the settlements of the left. A wholesome lesson might have been learned in this contrast; but it was disdained. The colony fell into complete idleness and poverty; and the habits and manners of the inhabitants became, of course, deteriorated, leaving it far in arrear of the progress which civilisation was making around it. Towards the close of the last century, all activity and industry had vanished. "People," says a French writer, "worked only to keep themselves from dying and going barefooted, and seemed satisfied with living out a life of carelessness and ignorance, as unprofitable as it was inglorious."
Spain, however, at that time appeared to arouse herself in behalf of her Mississippi possessions. The Marquis de Carondelet was still the Governor-General at New Orleans, and Mr. Charles Dehault Delassus, Lieutenant-Governor of St. Louis. Being both enlightened men, they were aware "that the admission of foreign settlers of every creed was one of the most certain means of promoting the prosperity of their provinces;" and they might at another epoch have effected much good, but
it was then too late the times were completely altered. During the precious years lost by Spain, the nations of the two parts of the world had had their feelings roused for the love of liberty. The Americans had achieved their independence; France had commenced her revolution. If, during these years, the Spanish government, preoccupied at home, had deemed it its best policy to wait for a more propitious occasion to turn a serious look towards Louisiana, if could not fail now to perceive the error. The progress of events, in its onward march, had arrived at that stage when the next step was to change the entire destinies of this magnificent country.
On the 9th day of July, 1803, at 7 o'clock, P. M., and the precision with which this date is registered indicates the profound sensation with which the news was received the inhabitants of St. Louis learn, indirectly at first, that Spain had retroceded Louisiana to Napoleon, and that the latter had sold it to the United States.
"It most generally happens that the state of transition in a nation, from a monarchical form of government to one of almost absolute liberty, is one of prolonged struggles. Those nations that have gone through this ordeal know that it can be passed but at the expense of blood, shed in intestine commotions and foreign wars. But, in this respect, the two Louisianas have been more fortunate, for it only required a few years of schooling. It is true, the Upper Louisiana had to pay higher for her tuition; but this is in the nature of things, for the knowing will always outwit the inexperienced. The good-natured Missourians had not kept pace with the march of civilisation. Their existence had become, as it were, so isolated and simplified, that they had lost sight of the advantages of a social compact, which, whilst it imposes salutary restraints, invites emulation and stimulates ambition. There were no public schools in the colony; no regular church, as it was but rarely that the villages were visited by some venerable missionaries, whose number was very small, considering the vast extent of the country. All the purposes of life were embraced within the domestic circle, where virtue, religious faith, and strict honesty were proverbial. Notaries public, lawyers, judges, and tribunals were unknown. There was no other prison than the guard-house of the small Spanish garrison; and it is asserted that, during upwards of thirty years, there was not a solitary instance of civil delinquency, or of crime. Bargains were sealed by a grasp of the hand, and the currency of the country consisted of deer-skins. This state of things did not so much grow out of a relapse to the original condition of those by whom they were surrounded, as of innate candor and simplicity. Old Anglo-Americans who lived among them in these times, and have experienced and enjoyed their heartfelt hospitality, cherish the recollection of them with sincere respect. It is true, that those colonists who engaged themselves in the Indian trade, and were always under arms, as well as those who navigated the rivers, in the transportation of articles of barter, and were most of their time tugging at the oar or handling the cordelle these, certainly, did not exhibit the same
unexceptionable simplicity of manners; but such people were almost always absent from the villages. They were birds of passage to their own families; and though in the pursuit of their several professions they could not fail to encounter much that was exceptionable and bad, it is hardly to be presumed that they would poison with it their own firesides.
The French descendants of the present day still retain numerous anecdotes of their ancestors, that graphically describe the unsophisticated nature of the Missourians; among which I may be permitted to select one.
A genuine Missourian, it is related, was hovering for some time around the stall of a negro dealer, situated on the bank of the Mississippi, in Lower Louisiana. The dealer was a Kentucky merchant, who, observing him, asked him if he wished to purchase anything? "Yes," said the Missourian, "I should like to buy a negro." He was invited to walk in, made his choice, and inquired the price. "Five Hundred Dollars," said the dealer; "but, according to custom, you may have one year's credit upon the purchase." The Missourian, at this proposition, became very uneasy: the idea of having such a load of debt upon him for a whole year was too much. "No, no," said he, "I'd rather pay you six hundred dollars at once, and be done with it." "Very well," said the obliging Kentuckian, "anything to accommodate you."
But to return to the narrative of events. The treaty having been finally ratified on the 30th of April, 1803, Capt. Amos Stoddard took possession of the country, which the Spanish evacuated on the 3d of November, 1804. Somewhat later, W. H. Harnson, Governor and Commander-in-chief of the Indian territory and of Upper Louisiana, organized the Judiciary and civil powers; and on the 2d July, 1805, General James Wilkinson, by order of Congress, established the district of Upper Louisiana under a Territorial Government, which was called Missouri Territory. By this name it was known until 1820, when it was admitted into the Union as the State of Missouri, and its constitution sanctioned by Congress in 1821.
It is easier to imagine than to describe the astonishment and wonder of the good colonists, when, as a sequel to the sundry official acts by which they were declared republicans, and their country a member of the great American confederation founded by Washington, they witnessed the arrival of a legion of judges, lawyers, notaries, collectors of taxes, &c., &c., and, above all, a flock of vampires in the shape of land speculators. The simple-minded Creole could not at first exactly realize the sort of liberty which made it a duty, or compelled him, to leave home to go to elections, and to serve as a juryman. St. Louis, however, was the capital of the Territory, by which the feelings and opinions of the other parts of the colony had been directed; and there were among her citizens men of intelligence and capacity, whose example and influence prevailed over the natural repugnance that always arises in the adoption of a radical change in the political condition of a country. Liberty, with the popular institutions that accompany her,
were welcomed; their advantages were soon understood; and perhaps no other instance can be found of the amalgamation of a people with a great nation with so much ease and tranquillity.
What follows to be told of the history of St. Louis is a part of that of the State of which it is now the emporium. It belongs to the local historian to make known the rise and progress of her institutions, under the promoting care of Liberty; foremost among which, he cannot fail to distinguish the noble example of public spirit set by the Catholic clergy, who were the first to establish throughout the country numerous institutions for worship, charity, and public instruction. But, before quitting my narrative, I cannot refrain from alluding to the actual condition of St. Louis, and indulging in the prospect of her future greatness.
The geographical position of the city is favorable to a remarkable degree. Situated a few miles below the junction of two of the greatest rivers of the world, it is the natural central depot of all the varied products that reach it by a navigation of one thousand to two thousand miles over these two rivers and their innumerable tributaries. St. Louis is emphatically the Key of the Far West; comprehending within this term the extensive regions stretching between the Mississippi and the Pacific Ocean. All distant expeditions to the north, or to the west, must start from St. Louis; and here, also, all their fruits are gathered together, comprising the proceeds of the fur trade, as well as the mineral and agricultural productions of the whole northern basin of the Mississippi; whence they are distributed to the various markets of consumption, either by the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico, by the Ohio to the Atlantic States, or through Illinois, by the lakes and other opened channels of communication, to the seaboard and the Canadas.
It is worthy of remark and her geographical position makes it obvious that no works of internal improvement can be made by any of the neighboring States, whether to the east or north, or even by those that may hereafter be formed to the north or west, without becoming subservient to the interests of St. Louis. Hence the State of Missouri has not deemed it wise to embark hastily in such expenditures; and though, in the true spirit of the time, much reproached on this score, events at this day prove that she acted judiciously. Submitting its great and magnificent territory to the natural and unburdened course of things, without the necessity of levying direct taxes, immigrants have been flocking for several years back to this rich and beautiful country, the resources of which they develope with astonishing rapidity. In 1830, the population of the State was only 140,445; that of St. Louis, 6,500. In 1840, the census returned 382,702 as the whole number of the inhabitants of the State; and the population of St. Louis was estimated, in 1841, at 30,000 within the city limits. The amount of property taxed, according to the city register of the same year, was 8,591,675 dollars.
The first arrival of a steamboat at St. Louis, was in 1819; there are now (October, 1841), no less than sixty-seven, of from
150 to 800 tons burden, belonging to the port. The whole number engaged in the navigation of the waters of the Mississippi and its tributaries, is 310,  most of which come to St. Louis in the course of the year. It was stated above, that Mr. Laclede, in 1763, took three months to come from New Orleans to St. Genevieve with his flotilla, a distance of 1,286 miles; whereas, it is not an uncommon thing now, for the large steamboats to reach St. Louis, which is sixty miles above, in five or six days. Such facts say more than the most eloquent pen could describe.
In concluding this historical sketch, a sad reflection involuntarily arises. Is it not surprising that, during the thirty-two years that Spain had possession of Upper Louisiana, the province was never settled by native Spaniards, excepting the officers who ruled over it, and a few fur traders? The inhabitants were French, or the descendants of French from Canada or Lower Louisiana; and the Spaniards have left no remembrances of themselves, saving their land register; no institutions, no works, not a single monument of public utility. Doubtless the golden treasures buried in the mountains of Mexico and of South America were too alluring to allow emigrants to be tempted from them, and engage themselves in the labor of agriculture, in the rich valley of the Mississippi. But, taking a retrospect when Spain was the greatest of maritime powers; when, during the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, her navigators discovered new worlds, giving her an empire on which the sun never set; when the great armada struck terror in the bosom of the haughty Elizabeth, it becomes painful to think how ephemeral is the ascendency even of the bravest and most prosperous nations! how truly rapid their decline and fall!
[The following article is copied from the "St. Louis Price Current," for January, 1846; a most valuable publication for business men.]
BUSINESS OF SAINT LOUIS
FOR THE PAST YEAR,
As compared with previous years.
In accordance with our annual custom we propose to review, briefly, the Trade, Commerce, and local statistics of our city, and to lay before our readers some few remarks on each leading article of our trade. ST. LOUIS seems to continue to be a favorite point for the location of the merchant, the tradesman and others who, having left the home of their fathers, resolve to settle at some point in the "Great West," if we may judge from the great influx of inhabitants which pour into it, and fix their residence
here from year to year. The official statistics, in part reported to the City Council during the past year, warrant us in saying that the number of houses, factories, &c., which have been erected during the past year within the corporate limits, is not less than 1700, and that its population has augmented full 4,000. We estimate its present population to exceed 40,000, and augmenting with a rapidity unexampled in the annals of any city either East or West; and its trade and commerce keep pace with its influx of population, as will be shown by some few statistics which are herewith annexed.
The tonnage, as registered at the U. S. Custom House this being a port of entry amounts to 20,420 tons, against 14,720 tons in the year 1842, thus showing an increase in less than three years, of nearly 40 per cent. This tonnage is the property of citizens of the city, and we may safely say that at least as much more is employed in its trade and commerce, the property of other cities. The arrivals during the past year amount to 2,613 against 2105 the previous year, showing an increase of 508 arrivals. The annual trade of St. Louis is now estimated by those whose opinions are worthy of respect, at $50,000,000, and what it will be in half a century hence, when Oregon and the Californias will probably be annexed either by purchase or conquest, none can estimate. Nearly 47,000 bags Coffee, 11,000 hhds. Sugar, 758,000 pigs Lead, 31,000 bales Hemp, 13,000 hhds. Tobacco, 132,000 brls. Flour, and nearly a million bushels of Wheat, have been imported into St. Louis the past year, being an average increase of nearly 20 per cent. on that of the previous year.
The assumed value of real estate the past year is more than 13,000,000 of dollars, being an increase over the value in 1830, of more than twelve millions! and the current city revenues of 1845 are estimated, per official data, at $227,000 20 000 of which are received from our steamboat tonnage, and 17,000 from Water revenues. These are some data on which the reflecting mind may estimate our progress and prosperity.
During the past year the mercantile and trading interests have had no cause to complain. The merchant has found ready sale for his goods the tradesman and mechanic have been fully employed, and the laboring classes, who were not indisposed to work, have had the opportunity to lay up ample stores to serve them during the inclement season now upon us. Our city has enjoyed, during the past year, its usual health; and, while we acknowledge our dependence upon the Author of all our blessings, we should not be unmindful of the debt of gratitude we owe to Him from whom cometh every blessing.
TOBACCO. The crop of the past season was probably superior to any ever produced in Missouri, if not in the West, and the planter has been amply repaid for the extra labor and attention bestowed upon its management, as prices ruled high throughout the season. The total receipts of the year amount to 12,856 hhds. against 10,013 the previous year, showing an increase of 2,843 hhds. which would have been somewhat larger, but for the low stage of the Missouri river during the summer and fall. A corresponding increase is also apparent in the sales here, they amounting to 6,290 hhds.; but it is only fair to state, that at least
500 of this number were re-sales, reducing the actual amount to 5,790 hhds. Of the total number 3,434 hhds. were graded Passed, and the remainder refused. Another division may be important of the gross receipts from above 2,812 hhds. were in the shape of Strips, and the remainder. 10,044, Leaf 640 hhds. Strips were also manufactured here from the Leaf, which, as it requires about three hhds. Leaf to make two of Strips, reduces the gross number of hhds. of all descriptions to 11,896, or 8,444 Leaf, and 3,452 Strips. Of this amount, but some 250 to 300 hhds. remain here, the remainder having been sent forward to various parts of the world, a very large portion of the finer Manufacturing descriptions having gone to the Ohio, Kentucky, and even Western Virginia manufactories, which speaks volumes in favor of Missouri Tobacco. The average prices of the year have been, for Inferior 1 ½ to 2; Common 2 ¼ to 3; Fair 3 ¼ to 4; Fine 4 ¼ to 5, and Choice Manufacturing 7 ½ to 8 cents per lb., many parcels ranging as high as 12 to 15 cents. In regard to the coming crop, nothing very definite is yet known, except that it will be a short one. All the information of which we are possessed, however, leads to the belief that it will be far inferior, particularly in color, to that of the past year, the Leaf generally curing up dark and unsightly. Other objections are also urged, but lest we have been erroneously informed, we prefer awaiting receipts, and let it show for itself. The first Tobacco inspection was organized here in 1841, and the receipts and inspections since that time have been as follows, viz:
HEMP. The crop of this important staple for 1845 was, on the whole, small compared with former years. The quality, however, has been good, and in the manner in which it is now put up for the Eastern and Foreign markets, there is a great and growing improvement. The Government of our country is, or ought to be, deeply interested in this important staple of the West, and we marvel that more encouragement has not been given to it than is yet perceptible. It is true a good deal of correspondence has passed between citizens interested in the raising of this article, and the officials of Government, but we have yet to learn that a fostering hand has as yet been extended, calculated to work any practicable good. The home article is now fast taking the place of the foreign for the manufacture of cordage, &c., in the East and we can see no good reason why all the inspections and purchases for the government should not be made West as well as East. The quantity received here the past year has fallen off more than one half that of the previous, and even falls below that of 1843. The number of bales received for these years is as follows, viz:
We learn that the quantity to be received this year will probably fall short of that of 1844, but that the quality will be much better. The shipments of Hemp, the past year, have not been profitable in the aggregate the farmer having been better paid for his labor, in producing, than the merchant, in purchasing for export. The demand that was anticipated early in the spring, for England, at good prices, has not been realized, and most of the Hemp exported to that country, has not realized any profit. Complaints from the other side of the Atlantic continue to be heard, that the article is not well cleaned, and too little care taken to have it suitably prepared for the English market. These defects must be remedied by the producer, if he expects to enjoy the advantages of European markets; and we doubt not it will be attended to hereafter.
LEAD. The production of this article continues rapidly on the increase. The shipments from the Galena mines alone, the past year, amount to 778,461 pigs, of which 757,906 pigs have been received here, the remainder being detained on its way by the ice, against, 621,900 during the previous year, showing an increase of 156,560 pigs. The increase from the Lower Mines, we have every reason to believe, has been on an equal ratio; the total product being estimated by those most familiar with the trade, at over 10,000,000 lbs., or about 150,000 pigs; yet the actual demand has steadily kept pace with this large increase of production, and now, at the close of the year, the entire stock here amounts to but 31,500 pigs, nearly the whole of which has long since passed into second hands, and already on board to be sent forward by the first opening of navigation. Prices, too, have ruled much higher than during the previous year, when it opened at $2,90 to 2,95, and closed at $3,00, the highest point reached, and that but for a short time, being $3,60 to 3,62 ½ per hundred. During the past year, it opened at $3,15 to 3,20, and closed at 4,00 to 4,12 ½ per hundred. In the latter part of May the market became depressed, and rate receded to $2,95 to 298, but soon after recovered, and with occasional slight checks, continued to maintain an upward tendency, until it reached present rates, say $4,00 to 4,12 ½ per hundred, with but a few pigs on sale. The total receipts from the Galena mines for the past five years, were as follows, viz:
FLOUR. The quantity of Flour received here the past year exceeds that of the previous, 40,000 brls., being an increase of more than one-third. The milling business, however, throughout the year, has not been profitable, and what the millers have made in the shape of profits, within the past three months, will hardly make up the aggregate losses of the nine previous months. Wheat has been relatively too high to make the grinding of Flour profitable. Our City Mills have largely increased in number during the past two years, and the quantity of Wheat now
demanded for their use is more than double what it was two years ago. The character of "St. Louis City Mills"Flour is now high throughout the Union, and some brands rank far above the best Genesee in the Boston market. This is as it should be, as our Flour is intrinsically better than a large majority of the Flour manufactured in the Union. Indeed, we have heard that a test of one brand, the "Missouri," has been made in one of the Eastern markets, between it and the best Genesee, and that the former was found to make more bread by 25 lbs. per brl. than the latter. The total receipts of Country Flour for the past year amount to 132,196 brls. against 96,203 for the previous year. The exports of both Country and City Mills show a corresponding increase, and for the past two months have paid large profits to miners and others. The consumption of St. Louis is estimated at 3,000 brls. per month; that of New York is upwards of 60,000 per month. During the past year the ordinance requiring all Flour sold in this city to be first inspected has been repealed, and it is now optional with the seller whether to have his Flour inspected or not. Most of our City Mills, however, is sold by the brand, as to quality. The receipts of Country Flour, for the past three years, as will be seen, were as follows, viz:
WHEAT. Although navigation closed this year earlier than last, yet it will be seen that the quantity of Wheat received here exceeds, up to the same period, that of last year nearly 200,000 bushels. The trade in this staple is rapidly increasing, and the demand through the year, and especially since the new crop made its appearance, has been very active. Less wheat has gone to the Ohio river this year than last, but the consumption of our own mills has fully doubled that of the previous year. The crops of 1845 in this section embracing the States of Illinois and Missouri, and the territories of Iowa and Wisconsin have been remarkably good, better both in quantity and quality than any crop since 1842. The quantity produced the past year in this section is, however, greatly over estimated by some of the Eastern papers setting that of Illinois alone at eight millions of bushels for export! when the truth is, the State does not produce this quantity. The quantity of wheat received here this season, up to the 1st inst., is 986,096 bushels, and at the same period last year 808,738 bushels. We predict a great demand for this staple on the opening of navigation in the spring, but at lower rates than have been paid for some time past. This demand will be principally from the Ohio river, as it is now a well ascertained fact that tile crop of that State (Ohio) is very little over what it was in 1844. The markets of Europe will not begin to feel the want of Wheat and Flour till April or May, and by that period the actual deficiency of breadstuffs in all the Continental markets will have developed itself. The quantity of Wheat here is estimated by some at 200,000 bushels! Our own opinion, founded upon considerable inquiry, is that there are not over 70 or 80,000 bushels in
the market, including all in the millers' hands, and we question whether true statistics can make it over 50,000 bushels. The comparative receipts for the past three years were as follows, viz:
PORK AND BEEF PACKING. Stimulated by the general success of the past year, this branch of trade is progressing with renewed activity the present season. This is comparatively a new branch of business in St. Louis, and the day is not far distant when it will assume great importance in the trade of our city. The season opened late, and operations have been much retarded by bad roads and the impassable state of the rivers, checking the free arrival of the raw material, yet some 12 or 14,000 Hogs, and 23 to 2500 Beef cattle, have been packed, and, from engagements already made, it is estimated that the entire business of the season will amount to near 25,000 Hogs, and 6,000 head of Beef. When we take into consideration the great increase in the weight of the Hogs and Beef, this year, this is a very heavy increase on the business of the previous year. Corn being abundant, the meat is also much superior, and fully equal to the best Ohio. The increase at Alton and the points above, will probably be on equal ratio with that here. The prices paid thus far by our Packers, have been $3,25 to 4, as the range, but at present, owing to the temporary scarcity of money, $3,00 to 3,75 appear to be the buying rates, though holders do not meet these terms very readily. For Beef, $2,25 to 3,00 has been the ruling price since the opening of the season, but at present these figures are scarcely sustained for Cattle, deliverable immediately, though engagements for choice lots, deliverable in the latter part of January and February, are making at the highest figure. That already packed is remarkably fine, and is designed chiefly for the British market. The market for the manufactured articles can hardly be said to be opened, the transactions, as yet, having been unimportant, but so far as we can learn the views of Packers, they are holding Pork $10,50 to 11,00 for Mess, and $9,00 to 9,50 for Prime; and Beef $11,00 per tierce. The receipts of these two articles from above, for the past three years, were as follows, viz:
It is estimated that the product of the present season, throughout this region of country, will be at feast one-third greater than that of the past.
LARD. We have reason to believe that the past year has been a profitable one to all engaged in this article of trade, the entire product having been long since disposed of at steady and full rates. The product for the present season will probably, though
not necessarily, be in proportion to that of Pork, but this will depend upon the relative prospects of the two articles as the season advances. In all events, however, whatever the quantity may be, the quality will be fine. As yet, we have heard of but few transactions in City, rendered, though several are reported above, at rates ranging from 6 ¾ to 6 ⅞ cents, about equal to 7 cents here, which seems to be the general asking rate, and could probably be readily obtained but for temporary pecuniary pressure to which we have already alluded. Our import table shows the following receipts from above for the past three years, viz:
BACON. It is too early in the season to determine anything in regard to this article, but it is presumed it will not be overlooked by Packers, particularly as it did well last year, and that a proportionate quantity will be manufactured the present season. Whatever proportion may be made, however, will enter a clear market, as the old stock is now almost entirely exhausted. Receipts for the past three years were as follows, viz:
This does not include very considerable receipts in bulk, barrels, and irregular packages.
WOOL. As we predicted in our last annual report, this article begins to take its place as one of our important staples. The total receipts of the past year amount to 1,899 bales, against 1,377 during the previous year, and down to that period the receipts were too unimportant to attract attention. The increase hereafter promises to be very rapid, until the article shall form one of our most important staples. The demand for the article has continued steady throughout the year, but owing to the want of a more perfect classification, quotations have been of but little use in determining the actual price of the various descriptions; but the range of the market has been from 16 to 30 cents 18 to 26 governing in most transactions. Time and experience will overcome this difficulty, and during the coming year we will pay more particular attention to the market for this important article.
COFFEE. Receipts during the past year amount to 46,802 sacks, against 42,476 during the previous year showing an increase of 4,326 sacks. By careful inquiry among principal dealers we find the present stock amounts to but 513 sacks; but the small parcels in second hands will probably swell this amount to some 750 or 800 sacks which deducted from total receipts, shows the actual consumption of the year to be rising 46,000 sacks, and indeed it may be stated at 2 to 3,000 more, the difference between the stocks at the close of the previous and past year. This amount may be safely estimated as the actual consumption, as owing to the obstructions to navigation during the greater part of the fall, and total suspension for the past six weeks, the stocks in the country were never lighter indeed the whole interior may be considered as almost entirely bare of the article. Until recently rates, both
here and elsewhere, have had rather a declining tendency for some years past the lowest point touched here being 6 ½ to 6 ¾ cents from fair to prime Rio. About the first of August, however, the market took a turn, and prices assumed an upward tendency, gradually improving, unaided by fictitious causes, until the close of navigation, when the current rates were 8 to 8 ¼ cents. The closing of navigation, together with light stocks, gave a rather unnatural impulse to the market, and it is now firmly held at 9 ¾ to 10 cents, and even higher. On the opening of navigation these rates will probably give way slightly, yet a careful survey of the condition of other markets warrants the belief that rates will rule higher for the coming, than during the past year. By reference to our table, it will be seen that the receipts for the past three years were as follows, viz:
SUGAR. Receipts during the past year amount to 10,237 hhds., against 10,738 for the previous year, showing a falling off of 501 hhds. This may be accounted for in the suspension of navigation for the past six weeks the receipts during this period the previous year being 1895 hhds. Add a similar amount to the receipts of the past year (and it is fair to presume that it would have been received) and we have 12,132 hhds., or an increase of 1,394 hhds. over the previous year. The difference in the amount of stocks at the close of the two years respectively, should also be considered in determining the actual consumption. At the close of 1844, the stock amounted to at least 1700 hhds., whereas at this date it does not exceed 100 hhds., if so much. On the opening of the year prices ranged at 4 ½ to 5 ½ cents, with a stock of 1,700 hhds., and an acknowledged heavy crop; but the market steadily declined until about the 1st of March when rates had reached as low as 3 ¼ to 4 cents. At this time a decidedly speculative feeling sprang up, and rates rapidly advanced, until they touched as high as 7 ¼ to 7 ½ cents, but subsequently declined to 5 ¼ to 6 ¼ cents, and continued so with slight variations, until the 1st of September, when rates again advanced to 7 to 7 ½, which figures were maintained until the 1st of November, when the new crop began to come forward freely, and soon after, prices again receded to 5 ½ to 6 ¼ cents, at which rate it continued until the close of navigation, and the limited parcels now on the market are held at 6 ½ to 7 cents. In the early part of the year the prospects for a fall crop were flattering, but owing to early frosts, the cane much injured, and it is now ascertained that the yield will fall short of that of the previous year, both in quantity and quality. The total receipts for the past three years were as follows, viz:
MOLASSES. The total receipts amount to 11,876 brls., against 12,068 during the previous year. On the opening of the spring trade rates ruled at 24 to 26 cents, and, with the usual fluctuation occasioned by short or heavy supply, &c., now at the close of the year, 28 to 30 cents is a fair quotation, with a stock not exceeding 250 to 300 brls.
SALT. Receipts of the past year amount to 123,185 sacks Foreign, and 21,684 brls. Kanawha, against 153,038 sacks 14,277 brls. during the previous year. During the whole of 1844, and the fore part of the past year, the market continued overstocked with all descriptions boats bringing heavy supplies on their own account, and forcing it upon the market at rates which not unfrequently entailed loss upon themselves, as well as others engaged in the trade. The consequence has been a partial neglect of the article for the past few months, and the supply has since conformed more closely to actual demand, and rates have been more steady and remunerating. Since the close of navigation, however, the very limited stocks of all descriptions, but particularly of Liverpool, are held at very high rates, but of course form no criterion under other circumstances.
WHISKY. The trade in this article is steadily undergoing an entire change. Until within a few days past, the market was wholly supplied from the Ohio river. Now distilleries are springing up in all directions presenting, every year, a more formidable competition with those of the Ohio, and the day is not far distant when we shall be heavy exporters instead of importers of this article. Already do our distilleries furnish nearly one half of the supply, and increasing rapidly. The total receipts of the past year, not including that supplied per wagons, amount to 29,445 brls., against 24,147 the previous year, and 18,605 in 1843. The average price, during the year, has been about 22 ½ cents, and the limited stock now on hand, is held at 26 a 27 cents.
As a concluding remark, all minor articles of Produce have met a ready market throughout the year, and, generally, at much higher rates than during the previous, and now at the close, the prospect is fair for the continuance of the same state of things. We would also remark, that our table of imports does not embrace the large amount of Produce of all kinds received here per wagons, which forms no inconsiderable item in our trade, and would swell the aggregate very materially. St. Louis Price Current.
The City Hospital, corner of Fourth and Spruce Streets, is under the charge of the Sisters of Charity, and is the only Hospital in the city. The city pays about ten thousand dollars per annum for the support of this institution, and the United States about two thousand, with the privilege of sending a number of patients.
The Convent of the Sacred Heart, is in the southern part of the city, and to it is attached a flourishing Female Seminary.
The State Tobacco Warehouse, corner of Washington Avenue and Sixth Street, is a brick building, three stories in height, one hundred and fifty by one hundred and thirty feet, and cost, together with the ground, twenty-five thousand dollars. The second story of this large building is much used for fairs, tea-parties, &c., being capable of holding from two to three thousand persons.
The Planters' Tobacco Warehouses, corners of Second Street 1 Washington Avenue, are the private property of J. B. Brant, and cost twenty thousand dollars. One is two stories high, and one hundred and seven by one hundred and thirty-seven feet; the other, three stories nigh, and ninety-six by one hundred and eleven feet.
Chouteau's Pond is a beautiful sheet of water in the Southwestern part of the city, in nearly the form of a crescent, about two miles long, and averaging a quarter of a mile in width. A substantial bridge has lately been built across the pond, which will tend greatly to facilitate the growth of this portion of St. Louis.
The United States Arsenal is situated three miles below the city, near the river's bank. Three miles below this is the old French village of Carondelet; and four miles farther down are the Jefferson Barracks, the head-quarters of the Western Army, in a most beautiful location, on the bank of the river.
Within twenty-five miles of St. Louis, are the villages of Florissant, Manchester, and St. Charles, in Missouri; and, in Illinois, Brooklyn, Illinois Town, Belleville, Cahokia, and Alton. The staples of this region are tobacco, hemp, and grain; lead, flour, beef, pork, hides, furs, peltries, &c., and, before long, iron may be added to the list, as the ore of the Merrimac and the Iron Mountain cannot be surpassed. There is also a heavy business done here in furs. The American Fur Company, at St. Louis, employ a capital of more than half a million of dollars, and furnish occupation to several hundred persons.
The "Big Mounds" in the upper part of the city, are objects of some curiosity, and of ancient date. On the lower mound the city has constructed a reservoir, into which water is raised from the river by steam-power, and conveyed thence, by iron pipes, through the city. On the upper mound, Messrs. Field & Vandeventer have erected a Pavillion, as a public resort for pleasure. This mound is on Broadway, near the river, a mile and a half from the Court-house. It is of oblong shape and about fifty feet high. The Pavillion is a wooden building, eighty feet long and two stories high, from the top of which may be enjoyed a magnificent view up and down the river, and over a large portion of the city and suburbs.
The Manufactories of St. Louis are by no means undeserving of notice; and although we expect to record, in the next volume of the "Metropolis," a great improvement in this regard, we will here barely mention a part of the present manufacturing establishments in the city.
Flour, cotton yarn, red lead, white lead, lard oil, linseed oil, castor oil, &c., are manufactured in this city, and the operations of sugar refining, brick making, sawing, planing, boat building, tanning,
stone cutting, iron casting, &c., are carried on to a considerable extent. The handiwork of the St. Louis mechanics generally is worthy of all praise, and has obtained for them a good name abroad.
A Cotton Factory, owned by Messrs. A Meier & Co., is in successful operation, in the rear of their house, on Main Street.
The Sugar Refinery of Mr. William A. Belcher, in the north part of the city, now in progress of erection, will, when completed, be one of the greatest ornaments St. Louis can boast. It is 120 feet long by 80 feet deep, and six stories high. In the rear is another building, of "a few" stories, 40 feet by 90. The estimated cost of the whole is sixty thousand dollars.
CITY MILLS. The number, of flour-mills in the city is fifteen, all but one of which are carried on by steam power. The water-mill belongs to Mr. Chouteau, and is propelled by water from Chouteau's Pond. Here follow the names of the mills, and their proprietors, together with the number of run of stones in each, and their diameters:
These mills grind about 34,200 bushels per week.
SAW-MILLS. There are thirteen saw-mills in operation in St. Louis, propelling eighteen saws. The following are the names of the proprietors of these mills: Messrs. West & Vandeventer, Dixon & Mitchell, Gordon & Brotherton, Charles R. Anderson, F. Schulenburg, Josiah Brown, Clark & Childs, Shorb, Mrs. McKee, Childs & Austin, Gregory Byrne, Brotherton & Gordon, and Wilson & Allen. The first of the above runs three, the next three, two saws each, and the last nine, one saw each.
St. Louis may well boast of her excellent provisions for the education of youth. There are four public free schools, provided with an ample fund, and well conducted, offering every means for the attainment of a good common education, and that at a trifling expense.
There are also a variety of well sustained private schools, male and female, among which the ST. LOUIS ENGLISH AND CLASSICAL HIGH SCHOOL (for boys) will rank with any similar institution. East or West, being conducted in the most admirable manner, by experienced and accomplished teachers, provided with an excellent apparatus and library, and supplied with every facility for attaining a finished English Classical and polite education. The ST. LOUIS FEMALE SEMINARY, conducted by Miss Shaw and competent assistants, may be mentioned as an admirable institution for young ladies, as also the ST. LOUIS PRACTICAL SCHOOL, with male and female departments, conducted by Mr. Spencer Smith and lady.
The MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF ST. LOUIS UNIVERSITY was founded in 1836; in 1845 it had eight Professors, fifty students, and fourteen graduates. Lectures commence on the first Monday in November.
THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT OF KEMPER COLLEGE was founded in 1841; in 1845, it had nine Professors, seventy-five students, and nineteen graduates. Lectures commence in the last week in October.
This institution was incorporated, some years since, by an act of the Legislature. The present number of members is about one hundred and fifty. The library contains about three thousand volumes. The Lyceum Hall is a spacious room, corner of Third and Pine Streets.
LOCATION. The Post-Office is situated on the north side of Chestnut street, between Third and Fourth.
Regulations prescribed by the Postmaster General, to exhibit and enforce the provisions of the Act of Congress, of March 3, 1845, entitled, "An act to reduce the rates of postage, to limit the use and correct the abuse of the franking privilege, and for the prevention of frauds on the revenues of the Post-Office Department," hereto annexed, and which (by joint
resolution, also of March 3) goes into full effect and operation on the 1st July, 1845.
521. On and after July 1, 1845, on a letter not exceeding HALF AN OUNCE in weight, sent any distance not exceeding three hundred miles, FIVE CENTS.
523. When sent any distance over THREE HUNDRED MILES, TEN CENTS.
523. For every additional weight of half an ounce, or any fractional excess of less than half an ounce, there shall be charged an additional postage of FIVE OR TEN CENTS, according to the distance. A balance is furnished to each office, for the purpose of enabling postmasters to ascertain the weight of letters and packets.
524. On letters dropped in the post-office for delivery in the same place, TWO CENTS each.
525. On letters advertised as remaining on hand there shall be charged, when delivered out, besides the regular postage, the cost of advertising, which will be on each letter TWO CENTS; or FOUR CENTS, if advertised in two papers.
526. What is subject to letter postage is defined to be letters in manuscript, or paper of any kind conveyed in the mail, by or upon which information shall be asked for or communicated in writing, or by marks or signs.
527. On all CIRCULARS, HANDBILLS, or ADVERTISEMENTS, which are printed or lithographed on QUARTO post or SINGLE cap paper not larger than single cap, and which are folded and directed, but left unsealed, TWO CENTS on each sheet, for any distance. WHEN SEALED these are to be RATED AS LETTERS.
528. "Quarto post" is the size usually called letter paper, say about ten by eight inches to the page; "Single cap" is the size commonly called writing paper, say thirteen by eight inches to the page.
529. Where the circular is on a sheet larger than single cap, is to be rated as a pamphlet. As the postage on these articles is chargeable on EACH COPY, postmasters will carefully examine all packets, and rate the postage accordingly.
530. On all pamphlets, magazines, periodicals, and every kind and description of printed or other matter (except newspapers, and except, also, circulars, handbills, and advertisements, as aforesaid), which shall be unconnected with any manuscript communication whatever, TWO AND A HALF CENTS for EVERY COPY of no greater weight than ONE OUNCE, for any distance. For every ADDITIONAL OUNCE, ONE CENT; any fractional excess exceeding HALF AN OUNCE, to be charged as an OUNCE; but any excess less than an ounce is not to be regarded.
531. A pamphlet is a small unbound printed book. A magazine is a pamphlet published periodically, in numbers containing articles on science, literature, politics, news, &c., &c.
532. Newspapers go free for any distance NOT EXCEEDING THIRTY MILES from the place where printed, when sent by the editors or publishers thereof, if they do not exceed nineteen hundred superficial inches in extent. For any distance beyond THIRTY MILES, within the State where published, one cent postage. For any distance exceeding one hundred miles out of the State where published, one and a half cent postage.
533. When a newspaper exceeds nineteen hundred superficial inches, it is to be rated with pamphlet postage.
534. A newspaper is defined to be any printed publication issued in numbers, and published at stated intervals of not more than a month, conveying intelligence of passing events. It generally consists of a sheet, but may be composed of two sheets, of paper. In such case it is chargeable with only single newspaper postage; provided the two sheets, in the aggregate, do not exceed nineteen hundred square inches. If it exceed that superficial extent, it is to be rated as a pamphlet.
535. An extra newspaper, or a supplement to a newspaper, when they are such bona fide, will be rated separately, with newspaper postage. When they are styled extra or supplementary newspapers, but are in fact mere advertisements or circulars, they will be charged as such, with TWO CENTS EACH SHEET, if not more than single cap or quarto post; if on a sheet larger, then they will be charged as PAMPHLETS.
536. When the article to be mailed is a circular, pamphlet, or newspaper, it should be so enveloped or folded that it can be distinctly seen at the office to be such, and also that it contain no writing, marks, or signs, to serve the purpose of written communications. If not done up so as to be open at the end, it is to be charged as a letter, by weight.
[Regulations Nos. 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, and 151, in chapter 22; and 159, 160, 161, and 162, in chapter 23; also, 164, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176 177, and 188, in chapter 24, are hereby rescinded; and regulations Nos. 153 and 154, in chapter 23, are modified.
537. A letter mailed on or before the 30th June, 1845, is to be charged with the rates prescribed by the act of 1825, and postage is to be received and collected thereon agreeably to the rates charged, although the letter be not delivered till the 1st July, or after.
538. All letters and packets to and from (when the same are duly franked) the following persons, to wit:
The President of the United States;
The Ex-Presidents of the United States;
The Widows of the former Presidents, Madison and Harrison.
539. The Vice President of the United States, the members of Congress, the Delegates from Territories, the Secretary of the Senate, and Clerk of the House of Representatives, may transmit, free of postage, any documents printed by order of either House of Congress. This is without restriction as to the session; but the privilege expires with the official term.
They may send and receive, free of postage, any letter, newspaper, or packet, not exceeding two ounces in weight, during the session of Congress, and for a period of thirty days before the commencement, and thirty days after the termination, of each session.
540. The Vice President and the members of Congress and Delegates of Territories may frank written letters from themselves during the whole year, as now authorized by act of March 2, 1833, viz.: from sixty days before the commencement of the session of Congress to the meeting of the next Congress.
541. The Vice President and members of Congress and Delegates of Territories may receive letters, not exceeding two ounces in weight, free of postage, during the recess of Congress. This does not include the interval between the termination of one Congress and the commencement of the next.
542. The two last regulations do not include the Secretary of the Senate or Clerk of the House of Representatives. But these officers have the right to send written letters from themselves free of postage during their official terms.
543. The Governors of States may send, free of postage, all laws and reports, whether bound or unbound, and all records and documents of their respective States, which may be directed by the Legislature of the several States to be transmitted to the Executive of other States, the Governor writing his name thereon, with the designation of his office and the kind of books or documents enclosed; the package to be addressed to the Governor of the State to which it is to be sent.
544. The three Assistant Postmasters General are authorized to send, free of postage, any letters, packages, or other matters, relating exclusively to their official duties or the business of the Post-Office Department, to be duly franked by them as on "official business."
545. Deputy postmasters throughout the United States are also authorized to send all letters and packages which it may be their duty, or they may have occasion, to transmit to any person or place, which shall relate exclusively to the business of their respective offices, or to the business of the Post-Office Department. But, in every such case, the postmaster shall endorse thereon, over his own signature, the words "post-office business."
546. Exchange newspapers, between publishers of newspapers, may be sent free.
547. Editors or publishers may send their newspapers free of postage to any distance not exceeding thirty miles from the place where printed, provided the paper does not exceed nineteen hundred superficial inches in extent.
548. No heads of departments, or bureaus, nor other officers of the General Government, nor adjutant or brigadier generals of States or Territories, nor any other persons whatsoever, except those above stated, are entitled, under the act of March 3, 1845, to the franking privilege.
[All regulations under chapter 43, except No. 288, and all regulations under chapters 44 and 45, also regulations
Nos. 303, 304, 307, and 308, in chapter 46, and the regulations under chapter 47, are hereby rescinded.]
549. The authority heretofore given to postmasters to send money free of postage to publishers of newspapers in payment of subscriptions being withdrawn, the following regulation is substituted:
Money may be left with a postmaster, in no instance exceeding ten dollars, for the purpose of being paid to distant publishers, if said publishers shall so desire, for any newspaper or pamphlet, deliverable from his office. The postmaster may retain one per cent. and give receipt for the balance. He is immediately to report the payment, with the names of the parties, to the postmaster through whom said amount is to be paid to the publisher, and to charge himself upon his "general account with the United States" with the amount received, deducting the one per cent. under the head of "moneys received for subscriptions:" stating the name of the payor, the name of the payee, office where payable, amount, and time when received, and shall make a full and faithful return to the General Post-Office of all such cases at the end of each quarter. When presented, the postmaster at the office where payable, is to pay the amount in said receipt, deducting one per cent., which receipt, after being endorsed by the publisher, he will forward as his voucher of payment. He will enter said amount to his credit on his "general account with the United States," under the head of "moneys paid for subscriptions," giving the particulars above stated, and render to the General Post-Office a full and faithful account of the same at the end of each month.
The "general account with the United States" is that which postmasters are directed to keep, on their own books, in the regulations Nos. 387, 388, &c., chapter 54.
550. TEN DOLLARS penalty against any one convicted of franking any letter or letters other than those written by himself or his order, on the business of his office.
551. THREE HUNDRED DOLLARS penalty for every false endorsement made by an Assistant Postmaster General, on a franked letter or package, that it is on "official business."
552. Three hundred dollars penalty for like false endorsement that a letter or package is on "post-office business," when made by a postmaster.
553. One half of these penalties go to the prosecutor, and the other half to the use of the United States, and are to be paid over to, and accounted for by the Postmaster General. They may be sued for before the circuit and district courts of the United States, or of the District of Columbia, or of the Territories, and before the magistrates and courts of the States and Territories having competent jurisdiction by the laws of such States and Territories.
[Part of regulation No. 317, in chapter 49, is hereby rescinded.]
554. Each officer of the Government, who under previous laws had the franking privilege, now abolished by the act of 3d March, 1845, is to keep an account of all postage charged to and payable by him upon letters, packages, or other matter received through the mail, touching the duties of his office.
555. On being verified by said officer, said account is to be paid quarter-yearly out of the contingent fund of the Department, or bureau, to which he belongs. This embraces the Secretaries of the State, Treasury, War, and Navy Departments; the Postmaster General and the Attorney General; the Comptrollers and Auditors of the Treasury; the Commissioners of the Land Office, of Pensions, of Indian Affairs, and of Patents; the Solicitor and Register of the Treasury; Treasurer of the United States; the Commanding General, Adjutant General, Inspector General, Quartermaster General, Paymaster General, Commissary General, and Surgeon General; Head of the Topographical Corps, Chief Engineer, Col. of Ordnance, and Chiefs of the several bureaus in the Navy Department.
556. The three Assistant Postmasters General are to have remitted to them, by the postmaster of Washington, D. C., all postage charged upon letters, packages, or other matter received by them touching the business of the Department, or their particular branch of it.
557. The postmasters are authorized to charge the Department with all postage which they may have paid or had charged to them for letters, packages or other matter received by them on the business of their offices, or of the Post-Office Department, upon a verification, on oath, of their accounts for the same, and the transmission to the Department of the charged letters, as vouchers. For this duty, a proper blank is furnished, and the amount should be entered as item No. 22, in the lower division of the Account Current.
558. The postage on "drop letters," and also moneys received for the advertising of letters, should be entered in the respective columns in the account of "Mails Received," and also in the "Account Current," Nos. 7 and 8.
559. A blank form is furnished, in which postmasters will enter free mail matter franked and received, under the respective heads of "Senate of the United States and its Secretary," "House of Representatives and its Clerk," "Assistant Postmasters General and Postmasters," "President and Vice President of the United States," "Ex-Presidents of the United States, widows of Presidents Madison and Harrison, and certain books and documents franked by Governors of States." In this account the postage with which free letters and packets would have been chargeable, should be entered, carefully footed, and returned quarterly, with the other accounts of the office.
All franked letters, packets, and documents sent from an office must be marked free, and stamped or post-marked with the name of the office and State, to enable offices receiving such free matter, to comply with the foregoing.
560. Each post-office is to exhibit, quarterly, an account of
"mails sent," the whole number of letters of every description, subject to postage sent from said offices, and also the number of free letters sent, as at present.
561. The Postmaster General is authorized to increase the rate of commissions of postmasters, when they amount to less than twenty-five dollars per annum, to not exceeding fifty per cent. commission on letter postage.
562. No pocket which shall weigh more than three pounds: bound books, of any size, are not included in the term "mailable matter," except books sent by Governors of States as aforesaid.
563. Letters uncalled for, are to be advertised in the paper of the town, where the office advertising may be situated, having the largest circulation, provided it can be done at a cost not exceeding two cents on each letter.
Letters are not to be advertised in more than one paper, unless specially directed by the Postmaster General.
564. To be let to the lowest bidder who tenders sufficient guaranties for faithful performance, without other reference to the mode of transportation than is necessary to provide for the due celerity, certainty, and security of such transportation.
[Part of regulation 32 is changed and modified by the foregoing.]
565. The under bidder is not to be required to lake the old contractor's stock.
566. Railroad routes, including those on which the service is partly on railroad and partly in steamboats, are to be arranged in three classes, according to the size of the mails, the speed with which they are conveyed, and the importance of the service.
567. The rates of compensation are not to exceed On first class, the rate of compensation now allowed by law; second class, $100 per mile, per annum; third class, $50 per mile, per annum.
568. If half the service is performed in the night, the rate of compensation may be increased 25 per cent.
569. And if the Postmaster General shall find it necessary to send more than two mails daily, he may pay such additions compensation as he may think just and reasonable, having reference to the service performed, and the foregoing maximum rates of allowance.
570. If he cannot conclude contracts for conveying the mails on the railroads, at the above maximum rates, or at such portions of those rates as he shall deem a fair and reasonable compensation, he may separate the letter mail from the residue, and contract for its conveyance by horse express, or otherwise, at the greatest speed that can reasonably be obtained; and contract for the conveyance of the residue of the mail in wagons, or otherwise, at a slower rate of speed.
571. He may divide the mails on other routes, so as to give
greater despatch to the letter mails, when the whole amount of it has become so great as to retard its progress, or endanger its security, or cause a considerable augmentation in the cost of transportation.
572. He may make contracts with a railroad company for conveying the mail, either with or without advertising for proposals.
573. He may also, with or without an advertisement for proposals, make contracts for conveying the letter mails by express or otherwise, and also the residue of the mails by wagons or otherwise, at less speed, in default of concluding a contract for railroad conveyance.
574. The Postmaster General is authorized to contract for conveyance of the mail in the steamboats on the Western or other waters of the United States for any length of time, or number of trips less than the time for which contracts are usually made, without previous advertisement, whenever, in his opinion, the public interest and convenience will be promoted thereby.
575. In such case the price is not to be greater than the average rate paid under the last preceding or then existing contracts on such routes.
576. The establishment of private expresses for the conveyance of any letters, packets, or packages of letters, or other matter transmittable in the United States mail (newspapers, pamphlets, magazines, and periodicals excepted), from one city, town, or other place, to any other city, town, or place in the United States, between and from and to which the United States mail is regularly transported under authority of the Post Office Department, is prohibited.
577. So is the causing to be conveyed, or the providing for the conveyance or transportation, by regular trips, or at stated periods or intervals, as aforesaid, any letters or other matter transmittable by mail as aforesaid, newspapers, pamphlets, magazines, and periodicals only excepted.
578. Every person offending against this provision, or aiding or assisting therein, or acting as such private express, SHALL FORFEIT AND PAY $150 for each time any letter or letters, packet or packages, or other matter properly transmittable by mail (except newspapers, &c.), shall, or may be by him, her, or them, or through his, her, or their means, or instrumentality, in whole or in part be conveyed.
579. A like fine of ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY DOLLARS is to be imposed on the owner or owners of any stage-coach, railroad car, steamboat, or other vehicle or vessel, which shall, WITH THE KNOWLEDGE OF ANY OF THE OWNERS, in whole or in part, or which shall, with the knowledge or connivance of the driver, conductor, captain, or other person having charge of such stagecoach, &c., convey or transport any person or persons acting or employed as a private express for the conveyance of letters, packets, or packages of letters, or other mailable matter, and actually in possession of such mailable matter.
580. This is not to prohibit the conveyance of letters, packets or packages, or other matter, BY PRIVATE HANDS, no compensation being tendered or received therefore in any way, or BY SPECIAL MESSENGER employed only for the single particular occasion.
581. Stage-coaches, railroad cars, steamboats, packet-boats, and all other vehicles or vessels performing regular trips at stated periods, on a post route between two or more cities, towns, or places, from one to the other, of which the United States mail is regularly conveyed under the authority of the Post Office Department, are prohibited from transporting or conveying, otherwise than in the mail, any letters, packets or packages of letters, or other mailable matter whatsoever, except such as may have relation to some part of the cargo of such steamboat, packet-boat, or other vessel, or to some article at the same time conveyed by such stage, railroad car, or other vehicle, and excepting also newspapers, pamphlets, magazines, and periodicals.
582. The owners, managers, servants, or crew of all stage-coaches, railroad cars, steamboats, packet-boats, and all other vehicles or vessels, are also prohibited from conveying as aforesaid.
583. For each offence the owners of the stage-coach, railroad car, steamboat, or packet-boat, or other vehicle or vessel, shall forfeit and pay $100; and the driver, captain, conductor, or person having charge of such coach, &c., not being at the time the owner thereof, in whole or in part, shall forfeit and pay fifty dollars.
584. The person who transmits by private express, or any other means prohibited by the act of 3d March, 1845, any letter or letters, packets or packages, or other mailable matter, excepting newspapers, pamphlets, magazines, or periodicals; or who shall place or cause to be deposited at any appointed place, for the purpose of being transported by such unlawful means, any matter or thing properly transmittable by mail (newspapers, &c., excepted), or who shall deliver them for transmission to any agent or agents of such unlawful expresses, shall forfeit and pay for each offence, fifty dollars.
585. Steamboats can carry letters under the fifth and sixth sections of the act of 1825; provided the letters are delivered over to the Postmaster of the place, or the authorized agent of the Department, such letters excepted as relate to the cargo. If the letters are not delivered as aforesaid, the owners and persons having charge of the boat shall be liable to the penalty specified in the foregoing section, No. 583.
586. The Postmaster, or other Agent of the Department, to whom letters brought by steamboat are delivered, shall charge and collect upon them the same rates of postage as would have been charged had they been transmitted by mail.
587. Postmasters are specially enjoined promptly to report to the Department all violations of the law by those carrying expresses by those setting them up by those sending letters or packages by them by those leaving letters, &c., at any appointed place to be forwarded out of the mail by those delivering them to any agent of an express and by those in any other way aiding or assisting in such unlawful transmission.
588. They will also report all cases coming to their knowledge, where railroads or steamboats, or mail conveyances of any description, convey letters, &c., out of the mail, or transport any persons carrying letters, &c., out of the mail, to the end that suits may be brought against the owners, directors, officers, captains, conductors, or hands, according to their knowledge of such illegal practices, or their connivance or agency therein.
589. The report of the postmaster will consist of a statement of the offence, giving time and place, the name of the offender, and the names of the witnesses.
590. The prosecutions will be instituted in the district courts of the United States.
591. But any citizen is authorized to prosecute for the penalties in a qui tam suit, and in that case will be entitled to one-half of the amount received in each instance. See instruction 553.
592. The office of SPECIAL AGENTS for particular districts being discontinued from the first day of July, 1845, special injunction is hereby given to all deputy postmasters appointed by the President, being those whose commissions exceed a thousand dollars per annum, and more particularly the postmasters at Distribution offices and State capitals, to take charge of all letters arising within their respective districts of country, relative to losses of money in the mail, the proper arrangement of mail service, and the faithful performance of it by contractors.
593. They will keep the Department fully advised, by reports promptly made, of whatever occurs under these heads, requiring its cognizance and action.
594. A loss of a money letter should be reported, not only to the Department at Washington, but also to the nearest distrbuting postmaster, or postmaster of the State capital, who should at once communicate with the Department on the subject, as the best mode of tracing the loss and detecting the depredators.
595. Under this head, particular attention is called to chapter 35 of the Post-Office Regulations, published in 1843.
596. The standing regulations issued in 1843 still remain in full force, except where inconsistent with the provisions of the act of 1845 and these instructions. And to them and the regulations here prescribed, the careful attention and energetic cooperation of all is earnestly invoked, to the end that the law may be fully understood and enforced, and the public accommodation and interests, committed to this Department, may be faithfully subserved and promoted.
C. JOHNSON, Postmaster General. Post Office Department, April 21,1845.
The following statement, furnished the Missouri Reporter by Mr. L. A. HEDGES, Surveyor of the Port of St. Louis, will show the number of Steamboats built at St. Louis, of Boats built elsewhere for St. Louis, and of Boats purchased and brought into the St. Louis Trade in 1845.
St. Louis Reveille Keemle & Field, 22 Olive st.
Anzeiger des Westens William Weber, 42 Pine st.
Herald of Religious Liberty D. Keith, 90 Market st.
Catholic Cabinet Wm. Mullin, near Walnut.
Abbreviations. E, eastwardly; n, northwardly; s, southwardly; w, westwardly; nw, north-west.
Almond-st., from Front w to Fifth, between Spruce and Poplar
Anna-st., from Front w to Carondelet-av., bt Sidney and Louisa
Arsenal-st., from Carondelet-av. w to Second Carondelet-av., between Bent and Southern boundary.
Ashley-st., from Front w to First, bt Biddle and O'Fallon
Austin st., from Twelfth w to Fifteenth, between Randolph and Gratiot
Barry-st., from Kosciusko w to Decatur, between Miller, Park-av., and Marion
Barton-st., from Front w to Carondelet-av., between Duchouquette and Victor
Bates-st., from Front w to Broadway, between Smith, Columbia and O'Fallon
Bent-st., from Columbus w to western limits, between Lynch and Arsenal
Benton-st., from North First w to western limits, between Warren and North Market
Biddle-st., from First w to western limits, between O'Fallon and Carr
Boone-st., from Chouteau-av., s to Hickory, between Provenchere and Stoddard-av.
Broadway, from Green n to northern limits, between Collins and Second on the east, and Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth on the west
Buel-st, from Park-av., s to southern limits, between Decatur and Menard
Calhoun-st., from Fulton westwardly to Linn, between Emmett on the north, and Lesperance and Gravois on the south
Carr-st., from First to western limits, bt Biddle and Wash
Carroll-st., from Kosciusko w to Linn, bt Marion and Soulard
Carondelet-av., from Second sw to Park-av, and from Park-av. southwardly to southern limits, between Jackson on the east, and Seventh and Fulton on the west
Cedar-st., from Second w to Fourth, bt Plum and Mulberry
Centre-st., from Market s to Clark-av., between Thirteenth and Fourteenth
Cerre-st., from Fifth w to Twelfth, between Poplar and Gratiot
Chambers-st., from First w to Fifteenth, between Madison and Webster
Cherry-st., from First w to Broadway, bt Wash and Morgan
Chestnut-st., from First w to Eleventh, bt Market and Pine
Chouteau-av., from Fifth w to city limits, between Gratiot and Poplar on the north, and Hickory on the south
Clark-av., from Seventh w to western limits, between Walnut and Market on the north, and Spruce on the south
Clay-st., from Warren n to Spring, bt First and Second
Closey-st., from Park-av. s to Gravois, bt Hamtramck and Linn
Collins-st., from Cherry n to Florida, between Second and Broadway
Columbia-st., from First w to Broadway, bt Florida and Bates
Columbus-st., from Park-av. s to southern limits, between DeKalb and Jackson
Commercial-st., from Vine n to Washington-av., between Front and First
Congress-st., from Picotte s to Lami, between Jackson and Carondelet-avenue
Convent-st., from Second w to Fifth, bt Hazel and Rutger
Davis-st., from Broadway w to western limits, between Florida and O'Fallon
Decatur-st., from Park-avenue southwardly to Arsenal, between Fulton and Buel
DeKalb-st., from Soulard southwardly to southern limits, bt Kosciusko and Columbus
DeWard-st., from Lafayette-avenue s to Gravois, between Linn and western limits
Dillon-st., from Chouteau-avenue s to Park-avenue, between Saint Ange-avenue and Grattan
Dock-st., from Front w to western limits, between Harrison and northern limits
Duchouquette-st., from Front w to Carondelet-avenue, between Trudeau and Boston
Easton-st., from Barton southwardly to southern limits, between Jackson and Carondelet-avenue
East Brooklyn-st., from Front w to Broadway, between East Mound and Labeaume
East Mound-st., from Front w to Broadway, bt East Brooklyn and Howard
Eighth-st, from Chouteau n to West Brooklyn, between Seventh and Ninth
Eighteenth-st., from Washington-avenue northwardly, west of Seventeenth
Elm-st., from Front w to Seventh, between Walnut and Myrtle
Eleventh-st., from Chouteau-avenue northwardly to nw limits of city
Emmett-st., from Kosciusko w to Linn, between Lafayette on the north, and Lesperance and Calhoun on the south
Fifth-st., from Rutger n to Biddle, bt Fourth and Sixth
Fifteenth-st., from Chouteau-avenue n to western limits, between Fourteenth and Sixteenth
First-st., from Plum n to northern limits, between Front and Second
Florida-st., from Front w to Seventh, between Mullanphy and Columbia
Fourth-st., from Convent n to Franklin-avenue, between Third and Fifth
Fourteenth-st., from Chouteau-avenue n to nw limits, between Thirteenth and Fifteenth
Franklin-av., from Broadway w to western limits, between Morgan and Wash
Front-st., from northern to southern boundary, along the Mississippi river
Fulton-st., from Park-avenue southwardly to Bent, next west of Seventh
Gay-st., from Twelfth w to Fifteenth, between Franklin-avenue and Morgan
Gravois-st., from Rosatti w to western limits, and north of Lesperance
Gratiot-st., from Fourth westward to Tayon-avenue, between Cerre and Chouteau-avenue
Grattan-st., from Chouteau-avenue s to Park-avenue, between Dillon and western limits
Green st., from Front w to Eleventh, between Washington-avenue and Morgan
Hamtramck-av., from Park-avenue s to Lesperance, between Rosatti and Closey
Harrison-st., from Front w to city limits, bt Dock and Palm
Hazel-st., from First w to Fifth, between Lombard and Convent
Hempstead-st., from Broadway w to Ninth, between Labeaume and West Brooklyn
Hickory-st., from Fifth w to city limits, between Chouteau-avenue and Rutger
Howard-st., from Front w to city limits, between Mullanphy and Mound
Jackson-st., from south line of Park-avenue s to Saugrain, between Columbus and Carondelet
Jefferson-st., from Front w to western limits, between Madison and Monroe
Kosciusko-st., from Millers to Victor, bt Front and DeKalb
Labadie-st., from Fifth w to Seventh, between Chouteau-avenue and Hickory
Labeaume, from Front w to Tenth, bt Webster and Brooklyn
Lafayette-av., from Kosciusko w to Linn, between Soulard and Emmett
Lafayette-st., from Linn w to city limits, between Park-avenue and Gravois
Lami-st., from Columbus w to western limits, between Victor and Trudeau
Lane-st., from Front w to Carondelet-avenue, between Louisa and Bent
Lavcille-st, from Chouteau-avenue to Hickory, between Stoddart and Morton
Lesperance-st., from Front w to western limits, between Emmett and Picotte
Lewis-st., from Biddle n to Florida, between Front and First
Linn-st., from Park-av. s to Trudeau, between Closey and DeWard
Locust-st., from Front w to western limits, between Olive and Saint Charles
Lombard-st., from Front w to Fifth, bt Mulberry and Hazel
Louisa-st., from Carondelet-av. e to Front, between Anna and Lami
Lucas-st., from Eleventh w to city limits, between Market and Olive
Lynch-st., from Carondelet-avenue w to city limits, between Sidney and Bent
Madison-st., from Front w to Sixteenth, between Jefferson and Chambers
Marion-st., from Kosciwsko w to Rosatti, between Barry and Carroll
Market-st., from Front w to western limits, between Chestnut and Lucas, Walnut and Clark
Mason-st., from Front w to First, between Smith and Florida
McGirk-st., from Menard w to Rosatti, bt Lynch and Sidney
Menard-st., from Park-avenue s to southern limits, between Buel and Rosatti
Miller-st., from Carondelet-avenue e to Kosciusko, between Park-avenue and Barry
Monroe-st., from First w to western limits, between Jefferson and North Market
Montgomery-st., from Front w to western limits, between Warren and Spring
Morgan-st., from Front w to western limits, between Franklin-avenue and Green
Morrison-av., from Provenchere w to Morton, between Hickory and Rutger
Morton-st., from Chouteau-avenue s to Park-avenue, between Stoddard and Saint Ange
Mulberry-st., from First w to Fourth, bt Cedar and Lombard
Mullanphy-st., from Front w to western limits, between Florida and Howard
Myrtle-st., from Front w to Seventh, between Elm and Spruce
Ninth, from Chouteau-avenue n to nw limits, between Eighth and Eleventh
North Market-st., from First w to western limits, between Monroe and Benton
North Trudeau-st., from Columbus e to DeKalb, between South Trudeau and Duchouquette
O'Fallon-st., from Front w to city limits, bt Davis and Biddle
Olive-st., from Front w to western limits, bt Locust and Pine
Orange-st. from Twelfth w to Fourteenth, between Washington-avenue and Morgan
Palm-st., from Front w to western limits, between Harrison and Wright
Papin-st., from Fifth w to Seventh, bt Gratiot and Chouteau avenue
Park-av., from Carondelet-avenue w to city limits, between Rutger and Barry
Paul-st., from Chouteau-avenue s to Hickory, between Seventh and Provenchere
Picotte-st., from Carondelet-avenue e to Front, between Lesperance and Trudeau
Pine-st., from Front w to Eleventh, between Chestnut and Olive
Plum st., from First w to Fourth, between Cedar and Poplar
Poplar-st., from Front w to Fourth, between Almond and Plum
Provenchere-st., from Chouteau-avenue s to Park-avenue, between Seventh and Stoddard
Randolph-st., from Twelfth w to Fourteenth, between Poplar and Austin
Rosatti-st., from Park-avenue s to Bent, between Menard and Hamtramck
Rutger-st., from Carondelet-avenue w to Saint Ange, between Hickory and Park-avenue
Russell-st., from Lesperance to Sidney, between Rosatti and western limits
Saugrain-st., from Carondelet-avenue e to Jackson, between Bent and southern limits
Second-st., from Carondelet n to northern limits, between First and Third and Broadway
Second Carondelet-av., along the western boundary from Chouteau-av. s to se corner of city limits
Seventh-st., from Park-av n to Howard, bt Sixth and Eighth
Seventeenth-st., from Poplar n to Washington-av., between Sixteenth and western limits
Sidney-st., from Front w to western limits, between Victor and Anna and Lynch
Sixth-st., from Rutger n to Davis, between Fifth and Seventh
Sixteenth-st., from Chouteau-av. n to Howard, between Fifteenth and Seventeenth
Smith-st., from Front w to First, between Bates and Mason
South Trudeau-st., from Columbus s to DeKalb, between North Trudeau and Duchoquette
Spring-st., from Front w to western limits, between Wright and Montgomery
Spruce-st., from Front w to Seventeenth, bt Myrtle and Poplar
Saint Ange-st., from Chouteau-av., s to Linn between Morton and Dillon
Saint Charles-st., from Third w to western limits, between Locust and Washington-av
Stoddard-av., from Chouteau av., s to Park-av., between Boone and Laveille
Tenth-st., from Chouteau-av. n to nw limits, between Ninth and Eleventh
Thirteenth-st., from Poplar n to north-west limits, between Twelfth and Fourteenth
Trudeau-st., west of Carondelet-av., from Carondelet-av. w to western limits, between Lesperance and Lami
Twelfth-st., from Chouteau-av., n to north-west limits, between Eleventh and Thirteenth
Tayon-av., from Chouteau-av. n to Poplar, between Sixteenth and western limits
Victor-st., from Front w to western limits, between Sidney and Lami
Vine-st. from Front w to Fourth, between Locust and Washington avenue
Walnut st., from Front w to Twelfth, between Market and Elm
Warren-st., from Front w to western limits, between Benton and Montgomery
Wash-st., from Front w to western limits, between Carr and Franklin-av.
Washington-av., from Front w to city limits, between Vine and Saint Charles on the south, and Green and Orange on the north
Webster-st., from Front w to Fourteenth, between Columbus and Labeaume
West Brooklyn-st., from Broadway w to Twelfth, north of West Mound
West Mound-st., from Broadway w to Thirteenth, between West Brooklyn and Howard
Wright-st., from Front w to western limits, between Palm and Spring
Skillman, W. D. The Western Metropolis; or St. Louis in 1846 . St. Louis: W.D. Skillman, 1846. [format: book], [genre: advertisement; catalogue; history; guidebook; ledger; report]. Permission: St. Louis Mercantile Library
Persistent link to this document: http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/file.php?file=skillman.html